● The archaeology of the area round the Titicaca lake is a geographic space which limited by the semi-subterranean littletemple of Chiripa (which cultural expansion was almost as far as Puerto Acosta from in Bolivia from the one side and the cultural space of Pukara, wich is sufficiently extended according to estimaione which is in Moho was based on groups. different human

Everything indicates that in that geographic space, social groups were independently developed from its formative to its

assimilation by their neighbors, and in this Province as the results of our works show, we have put in evidence an architecture that represents the central cultural axis of that particular process, where as the establishment of the formative horizon.

● En la arqueología circunlacustre del lago Titicaca, el espacio geográfico que va desde el templete semisubterráneo de Chiripa (cuyo límite de expansión cultural fue casi hasta Puerto Acosta, en Bolivia) y el espacio cultural Pukará, es lo suficientemente extenso como para presuponer que en Moho se asentó un grupo humano diferenciado.

Todo indica que en ese espacio geográfico, grupos sociales se desarrollaron de manera autónoma desde su formativo hasta su asimilación por parte de sus vecinos, y que en esta Provincia como resultado de nuestros trabajos, hemos puesto en evidencia una arquitectura que representaría el eje central de ese proceso cultural propio, en tanto que asentamiento de horizonte formativo.

● Dans l'archéologie qu'entoure le lac Titicaca, l'espace géographique que va dès le temple demi-enterré de Chiripa (où la limite d'expansion culturelel fut presqu'à Puerto Acosta en Bolivie) et l'espace culturel Pukara, est suffisamment étendu pour présupposer qu'à Moho s'est établi un groupe humain differencié.

Tout indique que dans ledit espace géographique, des groupes sociales se sont developpés de manière autonome dès son formatif jusqu'à son asimilation de part de ses voisins, et que dans cette Province comme resultat de notre recherche, nous avons mis en évidence l'axe central de ce procès culturel propre en tant que site de l'horizon formatif.

The location of the Moho Province as it lays in the Department of Puno and is adjacent to the Bolivia border is the cause of its great staying away in the works of

archaeological research.

The Moho Province which lays to the west of Lake Titicaca is under Peruan jurisdiction an the southern its part is under Bolivia and the northern in Huancané with wich it had been forming a part until it was declaired a category of Province of Puno's Department according to Law 25360 from December 12, 1991.

Within its bborders there are Moho District with the capital Villa Moho, Conima with the capital of Conima Town, Tilali with the capital of Tilali Town and Huayrapata.

These borders have been planned in the designated maps of the Geographic Peru Institut in 1961 in scale 1:100.000 31-x Huancané, 31-y Moho and 32-y Island of Soto.

Kideer and Tshopik visited it in 1945. as a result Kidder (Kidder 1955) gains sucess concerning eventual existence of a formative horizon in the sector in the East of the lake on having said "It is hard to believe that someone of the known ones and more formed cultures of the Titicaca Hoya, could be considered, definitively, by the most ancient in the area, it not seems to be possible that entire populations represent some remains, neglecting the possible relations of those with those or other districts (...) Respect of the predecessors inhabitants of the Titicaca Hoya, seems to the more primitive to be reasonable to suppose that they were peoples dedicated to the agriculture in times previous fo the days of Fluke, Pukara and Primitive Culture Tiwanaku (...) We, mybe, we see in the eastern part for the origin of the style Tiwanaku, since Ryden has suggested".

The program of Neira Avendaño and Amat Olazábal appers later in 1965, where it was made a shallow description of 13 archaeological sites, trying to excavate some, but without trying either to search their cultural sequence or giving theoretical grounds so this work was interrupted .

It was the only reserch concerning Province

In 2004 a permission granted by Resolution of the National Institute of Culture of Peru was issued out we initiate an axploration of the Province, with its financing by "Centre de Recherche et Diffusion Archéologique" institution with offices based in France this project was rapaid by archaeologyst sof different Universities of LatinAmerica and directed by the author of these lines.

Our study was carried out in the geographical area laying between the archaeological sites of Chiripa in Bolivia to the Southwest of the Lake Titicaca and Pukara's ceremonial center to the Northeast of the same lake and being already a Peruan territory.

This geographical space that goes from moderate semi-underground of Chiripa wich is limited by the cultural expansion stretched almost up to Puerto Acosta in the border with Peru in Bolivia, and the cultural space Pukara, it is the sufficiently extensive thing as to presuppose that settled a human differentiated group in Moho.

Such an oportunity had been the student's contribution of the Major University of San Marcos who taken part in this campain, the Peru National Institute of Culture which facilitated vehicles to us, the Moho Municipality which plced a geologist engineer at our disposial, of free housing and desinterested collaboration of the habitants of Moho Village.

In above mentioned Province we established thirteen archaeological sites and a particular ceramics that raises quite many difficulties of interpretation for the archaeologist. Thanks to the works of Maximo Neira Avendaño native of Moho to a holder of archaeology in the University of San Marcos to Hernan Amat Olazábal (Amat Olazábal 1960), these sites, Quequerana, Inca Pacharia, Ulunku, Pukara-Kollo, IglesiaKarka, Junipe, Cerro Calvario, Cerro Pucara, Huancarani, Paru-Paru, Sanjapata, Huancauyupata, Chaskani, constitute the base of a historical and cultural patrimony of high imortance, that worth to be studied protected and conservared.

It is presumed that other sites have to be discovered in the future since everything indicates that in the Province, social groups developped in an autonomous way from their formation stage up t to their assimilation on part of their neighbors, and that was proved by our works, we have put in evidence the architecture that represents the backbones of this cultural proper process on the way to accesion formative horizon.


That we adopted as definition of the archelogy which considers the study of the transformation of the people through their existence, and where the work of the archaeologist consists of looking for explanations to the processes of develpment and change of the human groups in their historical path.

At this rate, we enter the field of the Social Archaeology wich foundation was announced by Vere Gordon Childe in he University of London at the beginning of the 20th century, and then bannered by the Latin-American archeology by such tearchers as Luis Guillermo Lumbreras of Peru, Matos, Lorenzo and others, and later was turned into a scientific school which was proclaimed Declaration of Teotihuacan's Meeting in 1975.

For us, archeology not so much represents a communication with the investigated society of the past rather than with the present one, because we the

archeologists are immersed in a reality concerning which we must not be foreingners and in which we in last instance are social actors who produce and distribute in

symmetrical form of knowledge that appears as fruit of the clash between the world of the ideas and the reality.

The archaeology is a social science, tha is the reason why these activities suppose an alternative different from the traditional archaeology. To social archaeology that isupposes that the theory is taken to the practice and that an archaeologist digs out the items not so alien to the reality but the socialy significant items included into social communication which is a fruit of the clash between the world of the ideas or theory and the material remains of the prehistoric reality.

The man of the "Altiplano" (the High Lands) is an Arawak. He forms a part of this great ethnic group that appeared approximately 25.000 years ago in the north of Venezuela to the south of Brazil. During the millenius, one ot his branches crossed the Amazonian jungle and having left the Beni he accedes Titicaca approximately 14.000 years ago. We, archaeologists, have come to such conclusion beacause we found his remains in Ayaviri, in Lampa, in Nicasio, in Juliaca, in Wankarani, etc.

Oiginally they existed as groups of hunters-collectors, who in certain stage of their historical path had learned to dominate the nature. However they are not yet isolated groups dependent on the luck of the hunt or of the fishing or of the occasional food ( fruit or a root etc.,) but they learned to produce food by their own.

How was this process of changing one step of economy to another one was going ? My colleaguegs archeologists and I call such kind of process "formative" it is something that we are studying. Here it worth to be mentioned that the first human permanent settlement along the edges of Titicaca Lake are approximately of 2.500 BC (Ponce Sanjines 1981).

We know well Pukara and Tiwanaku and something less spread is Fluke. Also there are many others. For example, in the 11 kilometres wide valley between the mountain countries Chambi-Choco in the northern part and Chilla in the southern part (in Bolivian sector) other 80 human settled settlements appeared simultaneously in Tiwanaku (Albarracin Jordan 1995).

They were simply hamlets of housings with rectangular floor, occasionally with round rooms adapted to carry out the function of kitchen with rough stone foundations

and walls covered by straw roofs "totora" of double pronounced slope. The houses had a place that used the space below the ground level so that is calledl "semi-underground" especially brightly presented in Tiwanaku settelment.

At the same way is the man had passed to settled way having stopped searching his subsistence as it was found out in Titicaca in different places along the shore line of the lake and also in Moho Province.


It was "Callejon de Huaylas" where the remains of the oldes Peruan man were detected wich using its temperate valleys because they were not affected directly by the Quaternary age, the men occupied the area about 15.000 years ago.

Relatively not far from the Altiplano, in Ayacucho's valley there are more than 20 pre-ceramic deposit called "Phase Ayacucho", in Pikimachay's cave that might go back to 13.000 year BC, and today there is a discussion on "Phase Pacaicasa" which is

possibly of 23.000 before our age.

The Altiplano was cleaned of the ices approximately 10.000 years ago that was the consequence of climate rapid warming and increase of the herbal coverege which caused the increase of fauna.

It is like that other grottes and rocky coats, have been occuped at some moment by human groups that so far had not been acquainted the benefits of the agriculture and ceramics production and being deoendent on hunting and gathering.

Stanish (Stanish charles, Ancient Tioticaca, 2003) is coincidental on having determined "the first peoples entered the Titicaca region by at least 8.000 AC. After thousand of years of hunting, garthering, and foraging economies and mobile lifeways, people began to settle in permanent villages near the lake ahora arround 2.000 AC’.

A long pre-ceramic occupation during six milleniums being almost unknown and the same one has its origin in Ayacucho's region, as the author of these lines supposes, proceeds for the way of the Beni.

Close to Moho, we have stated the existence of one of the grottes, natural cavity where its dimensions and morphology allow to raise as valid, the hypothese of an eventual occupation.

Located in the same hill which is opposite hilleside of the Villa of Moho, this one has natural access, a terrace at the entry, 3 m width, 40 m length and 5 m height



The first publication on Moho community were published in the Mujumarka portal, we agree that the existing distance between the cultural space of Chiripa and Pukara, it is sufficiently extensive as to match a level level of hypothese the contingency existance of the settlements found out in Province.

This is coincidental wich the opinions already mentioned by Kidder.

Junipe's site (2,5 km from Moho, at the bottom of the hill Umanata), was visited by Amat Olazábal and for Neira Avendaño who report the existence of two stelas and two monoliths that for the 40's were protected by the teachers of the Huayayas's Group School. There were even photos published oon one of the monoliths and of one of the stelas.

During the visit to the Huaraya's Group School, we think that both stelas were stolen some time ago during a few hollidays. Both monoliths were left and one was used for banking.

We simply did some sugesstions to the Director of the School, and it was done, guaranted its security in the Direction and waiting of the intervention of its legal owner which clear to be Peruan State registrated as INC.

The Peruvian legislation at the moment of our works was not contemplating the protection of the archeological national patrimony while the object was not expresely included in the corresponding record.

This way of a legal useless device: a record put in a book of the official records of the school, the pieces were remaining incorporated into the inventory of foods

belonging to the educational institution, that is to say indirectly as the property of the Peruan State, until this one decided other destination.

Photographies and a trace were made. The big monolith, without moving from its place, was put up in vertical way and supported against the wall to avoid its deterioration. Other one was kept in the office of the Director. also the information on its value and signifacance was given to teachers and pupils for the needs of its protection.

The curiosity of the professional archeologist inspirates the question of its rigor, it brings over the issue of its provenance. The Director or the Schoool accompanied us as far as a kilometre from the school to an old man settlement that did not not show any evidence. A stone structure of a few metres height of conical shape truncated however 20 m in diameter and six in height, might seen as a platform of the formative horizon.

Analyzing the site. The current laying where the stelas were found and the monolith concerning the recent construction (or the year 1940 or 1950). The soil test for electrical resistance shows a resistance of 1450 except in a band of 50 centimeters . We think that it shows the

width 200 m in lenght where the mesurement indicated 650

presence of a buried wall that surely it was kept to a ceremonial enclousure.

Analyzing the stone structure demostrates am existance of "huaqueada" a lot of time ago, in conical shape, its diameter and height, and also a ceramics surface that indicates a formative horizon.

Analyzing the monoliths. One of them has appeared as only a trunk, arms, body and head are truncs. It is a figure of a man or a child. another monolith of 2 m height, is sedimentary sandstone and it matches a woman and represents a woman’s breast. It is a Mama-Ocllo (woman’s breast).

Analhyzing the stela. The stelas as we said above, they were stolen some years ago during a few school hollidays. But there are photos of one of them supposedly taken by Neira, where we can observe two flames opposite to forehead (the dualism), between them there is a circle symbol onphalos (the center of the Universe) and the body of the animals is guard a representation of the time that is circulating permanently ( such a concept still exists in aymara’s consciousness).

Among notable Chiripa

filiation, that belong undoubtedly to the formative since it more probably goes

horizon there was no influence that could get to Chiripa before.

Definitely we are at presence at a site of formative horizon the first one is located in the he Province of Moho



Querana is about a couple of kilometres of the ancient farm and today populated the territory of Ninantaya located near the border with Bolivia. Describing this territory a local archaeologist native Moho Amat Olazábal specifies indentifies as late Sillustani. peculiar ceramics that he

Composed by two groups of buildings called accordingly Siulaya and Pariani, one of then shows constructive planning. The near by grounds are of occupied by Inka. At the top ot the hill innumerable "chullpas" are observed.

Dealing with Amat's theory. They found the site with ceramic that it assimilates later, orange Sillustani on cream, but supposed to be missed. the phottos were not published so today it

The ceramic of surface found by us in the site, never can assimilate to late Sillustani. But in the same zone of influence, it can be an orance on cream, and this orange on cream is the ceramics of Mollo.

Mollo, was disvocered in 1945 by Ponce Sanjinés in the Amazonian slope of the mesothermals valleys and with the center of influence in Iskanwaya (Bolivia) submitted to Tiwanaku at the begining of its expansion about 1150 there being found Kolata pots in Pampa Koani. It was absorbed by Inka about 1460.

it is not necessary to extend to Mollo, it rather to send the work on Tiwanaku's fall in 1187 and Iskanwaya published in 2003 in "Circolo Amerindiano" of the Universilty of Perugia-Italy.

It is necessary to indicate, and this is more important, that Escalante Moscoso the remount to Chiripa, Dick Edgard Ibarra Grasso identifies Puno, and that two

enclaves Mollo were located, one in Churazon (Arequipa) and another one in Humanuaca's Gully (Argentina) called Alfarcito.

We must define wether Amat4s items are the product of exchange a relation, a temporary occupaton or directly an enclave Mollo.

In this matter it is necessary to indicate the shortage of Mollo pieces, but two jars are in the Museum of Tiwanaku's Site, one in the National Museum Tiwanaku, a piece in the Hotel Sorata (Sorata, Bolivia). This piece was withdrawn by Alvaro Fernholz or the Bolivian Dinar in September 2003 after an internet publication on our work on

Iskanwaya, and there is other one in the Wolkerkunde Museum of Berlin.





From Ignacio Bernal, we know waht the archaeology is at the service of the tourism. "In the specific field of the archaeology .... the knowledge of the pre-Hispanic past was untied almost completely from the curent Latin-american reality, to converting it, of new account, into objet of mere curiosity to the service of the tourist companies" (Towards The Social Archaeology, Teotihuacan's Meeting 1975)

This author who is not going to modify this concept. But it is necessary to understand that the diffusion of the knowledge must be to the measure of different publics, from whom they could not have acceded to the instruments of analysis and

integration, to those that not having relation with the archaeology, they are capable of establishing it.

Merkemarka represents the urban principal nucleus of a Dominion, wich to few hundreds of meters of the Moho village, forms a part inalienably of his cultural history and which nowadays is plundered and destroyed. There is imposed the task of incorporating it into the present history.

To put in value is precisely the oposite of the monumental reconstruction: it is fundamentally to preserve the context.


Spreads in the top of the hill near Moho, to an altitude that the letter of the IGN indicates to 4.450 meters on the sea level. Following the contours o the hill, it has approximately 2 kilometers of lenght for 150 meters of widht. Strengthened, of the tomb of his occupants there does not stay one that has not been "huaqueada". Neira describes the site, but it has not raised his topographic plane in spite of having tried to excavate his remains. It finishes off in two "chullpas" to follow then a path that surely leads to a observation position, it denotes constructive planning with two differented well sectors.

There, every August 6 the

Moho people in the occasion of the fireworks in

Copacabana, rises to realiwing his offering of "alacitas", for which they are served precisely the stones that compose his patrimony.

Tshopik (Some notes on the Archaeology of the Department of Puno, Peru, 1948) already described the site ‘Merquemarca is located on a very high ridge running northeast-southwest on the western side of the valley is which is located the town of Moho. The top is crowned with extensive walls of two types: 1) rough stone walls, supplementing the natural outerops and also others dividing the ridge top into a series of plazas, 2) habitation walls, 2 meters wide by 2,50 meters high, of a series of small rooms about 2 meters by 1,50 meters and 1 meter high. The later are of rough stone with slabcovered roof. These series of rooms parallel one another on the two sides of the ridge. In the plazas between are successions of large rough stone cireles, varying from 2 to 5 meters in diameter with an average diamter of 4 meters. Small slab cist graves also occur. On the eastern and western slopes of the ridge are remains of chullpas of the same types as those at Paro Paro. The small sherd collection is similar to those from Quenellata and Paro Paro’.

The offer is to incorporate the site into the actual history of Moho, facilitaging the access, cleaning it of undergrowths and brave straw that they contribute to his destruction, topography and photography it then to support the sectors on the verge of the precipice and paneling with simple text and comprehensibles for all.

In this aspect, the Major of Moho has promised to facilitate a writing, municipal employers for these tasks, and his putting in value will allow not only a patrimonial appraisement, but the visit of the turist who anually spend for Puno in his visit to Cusco and who ignore the potential of Moho.

No other action is possible in a site, where already Neira stated does alredy almost 40 years the total absence of ceramic reamins ant that today is in condition of destruction.

Only it is necessary to protect the little that stays to meters of Moho and incorporate it into his cultural present history like what it must not be destroyed of his past.

In this short article we present the theoretical frame that applies to studying Moho Province ( Titicaca Lake region) The frame covers the period which includes the time of the first population and then runs towards the stage of “formative’; within our brief observation we mentioned a ceremonial center, the steles and raised a question concerning protecting of historical patrimony value mentioning two monuments. And ended eventually by touching the theme of “later horizon”, vanguard Mollo proclaiming Inka triumph.


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* Ernest-Emile Lopez-Sanson de Longval is a Member of the "Société dès Américanistes" at the "Musée de l'Homme" (Paris - France), Director at the "Centre de Recherche et Diffusion Archéologique (Paris - France), and a Member of the Society for American Achaeology (Washington DC). -