EIM Class Notes – Environment Management

Module 2: Energy Management

Module Requirement: Energy Management: Fundamentals – Fossil Fuels Use, Energy Production and Trade, Energy Balance.

Fossil Fuels The twentieth century has been called the “hydrocarbon century” due to the abundance of fossil fuels, and their contribution to human development. Fossil fuels were formed over millions of years by the decomposing remains of plants and animals under immense heat and pressure. This process resulted in energy laden fuels – coal, petroleum, and natural gas, which together have generated most of the energy consumed globally for over a century, paving the way for continued advancement and new inventions. Coal, oil and gas are called "fossil fuels" because they have been formed from the organic remains of prehistoric plants and animals. Fossil fuels provided around 66% of the world's electrical power, and 95% of the world's total energy demands (including heating, transport, electricity generation and other uses). How it works: Coal is crushed to a fine dust and burnt. Oil and gas can be burnt directly. Remember:

The steam that has passed through the power station's turbines has to be cooled, to condense it back into water before it can be pumped round again. This is what happens in the huge "cooling towers" seen at power stations. Some power stations are built on the coast, so they can use sea water to cool the steam instead. However, this warms the sea and can affect the environment, although the fish seem to like it. Coal provides around 28% of our energy, and oil provides 40%. Mind you, this figure is bound to have changed since this page was written, so check the figures if you want to quote them.

Prepared by: Souvik Banerjee

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However.3 percent).EIM Class Notes – Environment Management Module 2: Energy Management Burning coal produces sulphur dioxide. and carbon. as it can flow along pipes. it uses a lot of limestone. Some experts believe that the world has already reached its peak for oil extraction and production. These near-term concerns about oil supply have led to increasing focus on. more than 3/4 of total world energy consumption was through the use of fossil fuels. Natural gas provides around 20% of the world's consumption of energy. fossil fuels have been used extensively since the Industrial Revolution. Petroleum led with over 43. But although oil wells are easy to tap when they're almost full. It is during this combustion process that a variety of emissions and particulates. alternative sources of petroleum. are released into the atmosphere.4 percent of the world's total energy consumption. followed by natural gas (15. To release their stored energy.6 percent) and coal (8. Economy and Fossil Fuels Fossil fuels are currently the most economically available source of power for both personal and commercial uses. utilizing nearly 25 percent of the world's resources. there is still a lot of oil in the ground. and exploration of. fossil fuels must be burned. an acidic gas that contributes to the formation of acid rain. and as well as being burnt in power stations. North America is the largest consumer of fossil fuels. They can combine with water Prepared by: Souvik Banerjee Page 2 of 8 . however Canada has large reserves of 'tar sands' . Petroleum fuels our cars and thirst for plastics. Long thought to be inexhaustible. many believe that the world is using fossil fuels at an unsustainable rate. It is easy to transport along pipes. such as bituminous sands and oil shale. which makes it economic for them to produce a great deal of energy this way. This also makes it cheaper to transport. This method uses limestone. such as in tar sands and oil shale. is used by many people to heat their homes. and gas power stations produce comparatively little pollution. and that it is only a matter of time before natural gas and coal follow suit. Mass transportation is also largely propelled by fossil fuels. Other fossil fuels are being investigated. it's much more difficult to get the oil up later on when there's less oil down there. However. which can be harmful to the environment. As far as we know. nitrogen. while natural gas and coal heat and electrify our homes. In 2005. The difficulty is that they need expensive processing before we can use them. including ash. Crude oil (called "petroleum") is easier to get out of the ground than coal. Primary releases are sulfur. This can be largely avoided using "flue gas desulphurisation" to clean up the gases before they are released into the atmosphere. That's one reason why we're increasingly looking at these other fossil fuels. and produces gypsum for the building industry as a by-product.

fairly cheaply. However. There are also environmental risks associated with extracting. This means covering a large area of countryside next to the power station with piles of coal. Strip mining destroys large areas of the landscape. Mining coal can be difficult and dangerous. It also produces sulphur dioxide. Burning any fossil fuel produces carbon dioxide. In order to cope with changing demands for power. a greenhouse gas that scientists believe is key factor in global climate change. Disadvantages of use of fossil fuels • Basically.EIM Class Notes – Environment Management Module 2: Energy Management vapor in the air to form acidic compounds that create acid rain. transporting. We can reduce this before releasing the waste gases into the atmosphere. • • A fossil-fuelled power station can be built almost anywhere. which means trainloads of coal almost constantly. it is impossible to eliminate them completely. a gas that contributes to acid rain. Burning coal produces more carbon dioxide than burning oil or gas. in addition to an increasing conservation measures. so long as you can get large quantities of fuel to it. Natural gas extraction is somewhat safer. While there are regulations in place that attempts to minimize the risks. Mining for coal and drilling for oil are especially hazardous because the digging of massive mines and wells can change the surrounding landscapes and bring massive amounts of salt water to the surface which can damage nearby ecosystems without proper treatment and sequestration. Transporting oil and gas to the power stations is easy. warming the Earth. Coal-fired power stations need huge amounts of fuel. the station needs reserves. but can also be hazardous. Gas-fired power stations are very efficient. and utilizing fossil fuels. and burning fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide. the main drawback of fossil fuels is pollution. regulation is not sufficient. • • • Prepared by: Souvik Banerjee Page 3 of 8 . there must be continued research in developing new technologies for both fossil fuel and renewable energy. Advantages of use of fossil fuels • Very large amounts of electricity can be generated in one place using coal. which contributes to the "greenhouse effect".

Climate change concerns coupled with high oil prices. Ethanol fuel is also widely available in the USA. and is widely used in European countries and the United States. with a worldwide installed capacity of 121.EIM Class Notes – Environment Management Module 2: Energy Management Renewable energy is energy generated from natural resources—such as sunlight. with 13% coming from traditional biomass. Brazil has one of the largest renewable energy programs in the world. about 18% of global final energy consumption came from renewables. sometimes in rural and remote areas. renewable technologies are also suited to small off-grid applications. peak oil and increasing government support are driving increasing renewable energy legislation. While most renewable energy projects and production is large-scale. incentives and commercialization. New government spending. In 2006.000 small (20–100 watt) solar power systems sold per year. and policies should help the industry weather the 2009 economic crisis better than many other sectors. regulation. The annual manufacturing output of the photovoltaics industry reached 6. and ethanol now provides 18 percent of the country's automotive fuel. where energy is often crucial in human development. wind. such as wood-burning. rain. yet the renewable energy market continues to grow.900 MW in 2008. and the largest of these is the 354 MW SEGS power plant in the Mojave Desert. The world's largest geothermal power installation is The Geysers in California. Prepared by: Souvik Banerjee Page 4 of 8 . and photovoltaic (PV) power stations are popular in Germany and Spain. Solar thermal power stations operate in the USA and Spain.000 megawatts (MW) in 2008. tides. Wind power is growing at the rate of 30 percent annually. Some renewable energy technologies are criticised for being intermittent or unsightly. providing 3% of global energy consumption and 15% of global electricity generation. involving production of ethanol fuel from sugar cane. with a rated capacity of 750 MW. and geothermal heat—which are renewable (naturally replenished). Kenya has the world's highest household solar ownership rate with roughly 30. Hydroelectricity was the next largest renewable source.

and an oxidant. is converted into electrical energy nuclear energy: energy released from the nucleus of an atom creating an nuclear reaction LED: light emitting diodes: a semiconductor device that emits light using a variety of inorganic materials • • • • • Criticism / Constraints of use of Renewable Energy Cost Reliability Access Prepared by: Souvik Banerjee Page 5 of 8 .EIM Class Notes – Environment Management Module 2: Energy Management Some Types of Renewable Energy • • solar energy: harnessing the energy produced by sunlight wind power: using the kinetic energy of the wind or wind turbines to extract the wind's energy hydropower: energy obtained from flowing water geothermal energy: electricity generated by utilizing naturally occurring geological heat sources hydrogen fuel cells: electrochemical cell in which the energy of a reaction between fuel. such as liquid oxygen. such as liquid hydrogen.

EIM Class Notes – Environment Management Module 2: Energy Management Energy Balance Energy takes many forms. Inefficient use of raw materials and energy in production processes are reflected as wastes. These balances are also useful for monitoring the improvements made in an ongoing project. etc. the obviously minor ones can perhaps be left out completely though this always raises the possibility of error. and in storage. since they make it possible to identify and quantify previously unknown losses and emissions. The energy consumed in food production includes direct energy which is fuel and electricity used on the farm. and indirect energy which is used to actually build the machines. kinetic energy. or on dry solids or some key component. selling. Prepared by: Souvik Banerjee Page 6 of 8 . to produce the electricity and the oil and so on. and energy balances can be determined for animal or human feeding. chemical energy. Energy balances can be calculated on the basis of external energy used per kilogram of product. Raw materials and energy in any manufacturing activity are not only major cost components but also major sources of environmental pollution. the joule. to make the packaging.. can be a useful description of important cost and quality aspects of process situation. the important ones emerge and other minor ones can be lumped together or even ignored without introducing substantial errors. it is wise to put them all down. With experience. or raw material processed. under some circumstances certain aspects predominate. In many heat balances in which other forms of energy are insignificant. the frictional losses appear as heat but the details of the heating need not be considered. potential energy but because of interconversions it is not always easy to isolate separate constituents of energy balances. as in the flow of fluids in pipes. How to Carryout Material and Energy (M&E) Balance? Material and Energy balances are important. while evaluating cost benefits. When unfamiliar with the relative magnitudes of the various forms of energy entering into a particular processing situation. Food itself is a major energy source. food energy input can be balanced against outputs in heat and mechanical energy and chemical synthesis. We are seldom concerned with internal energies. such as heat. in some chemical situations mechanical energy is insignificant and in some mechanical energy situations. However. However. Therefore practical applications of energy balances tend to focus on particular dominant aspects and so a heat balance. In the SI system there is only one energy unit. for example. and in transport and in factories. Then after some preliminary calculations. kilocalories are still used by some nutritionists and British thermal units (Btu) in some heatbalance work.

it is better to first draft the overall material and energy balance. For each stream. where applicable. Kcal/hr. is the smallest possible. simple discrete sub-systems. 1. choose. enthalpy. time factor or production linkages. Always choose recycle streams (material and energy) within the envelope. material and energy balances are required to be made for each section/department/cost centres. Volts etc. which would in turn help identify and quantify energy and material avoidable losses. It is important to include start-up and cleaning operation consumptions (of material and energy resources (M&E). Equipment-wise M&E balances: M&E balances. Overall M&E balance: This involves the input and output streams for complete plant. the number of streams entering and leaving. averaging over long periods may be necessary. Energy and Mass Balance Calculation Procedure: The Energy and Mass balance is a calculation procedure that basically checks if directly or indirectly measured energy and mass flows are in agreement with the energy and mass conservation principles. 3. While splitting up the total system. temperature. Consider a full batch as the reference in case of batch operations. flow and energy measurements have to be accurate especially in case of short time span references.). Highlight losses and emissions (M&E) at part load operations if prevalent.EIM Class Notes – Environment Management Module 2: Energy Management Guidelines for M&E Balance For a complex production stream. Amps. for key equipment would help assess performance of equipment. This would help to prioritize focus areas for efficiency improvement. The material and energy (M&E) balances along the above guidelines. Section wise M&E balances: In the sequence of process flow. KW. 2. indicate energy quality (pressure. Choose the material and energy balance envelope such that. The measurement units may include. In case of shutdown losses. Calculate the gas volumes at standard conditions. are required to be developed at the various levels. precision of analytical data. While preparing M&E balances. Prepared by: Souvik Banerjee Page 7 of 8 . The process flow diagram could be useful here.

Cp is the specific heat in kCal/kg. V1 and V2 are the velocity in m/s .C. Q = thermal energy flow rate produced by electricity (kCals/hr) iii) Continuity Equation A1XV1 = A2V2 v1 v2 Where. • Select an appropriate test period depending on the type of process and product. ∆T is the difference in temperature in k. • Calculate the energy and mass flow. • Carry out the measurements. m is the mass in kg. Example/ Formula i) Energy Supplied by Combustion: Q = Fuel consumed x Gross Calorific value ii) Energy Supplied by Electricity: Q = kWh x 860 kCals Where. • Define a boundary that encloses the entire system or sub-system to be analysed. iv) Heat addition/rejection of a fluid = mCp∆T where. ‘v1’ and ‘v2’ the specific volume in m3/kg and ‘A’ is the cross sectional area of the pipe in m2. In order to use it correctly. • The energy release or use in endothermic and exothermic processes should be taken into consideration in the energy balance. If the balances are outside acceptable limits. then repeat the measurements.EIM Class Notes – Environment Management Module 2: Energy Management This balance is of the utmost importance and is an indispensable tool for a clear understanding of the energy and mass situation achieved in practice. all non-relevant flows being within the boundary. b) Measurements at the boundary must be possible in an easy and accurate manner. Entering and leaving mass and energy flows must be measured at the boundary. • Verify an energy and mass balance. • The boundary must be chosen in such a way that: a) All relevant flows must cross it. the following procedure should be used: • Clearly identify the problem to be studied. Prepared by: Souvik Banerjee Page 8 of 8 .

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