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Biquaternion
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In abstract algebra, the biquaternions are the numbers where w, x, y, and z are complex numbers and the elements of {1, i, j, k} multiply as in the quaternion group. As there are three types of complex number, so there are three types of biquaternion: ■ (Ordinary) biquaternions when the coefficients are (ordinary) complex numbers ■ split-biquaternions when w, x, y, and z are split-complex numbers ■ Study biquaternions or dual quaternions when w, x, y, and z are dual numbers. The following article is about the ordinary biquaternions named by William Rowan Hamilton in 1844 (see Proceedings of Royal Irish Academy 1844 & 1850 page 388). Some of the more prominent proponents of these biquaternions include Alexander Macfarlane, Arthur W. Conway, Ludwik Silberstein, and Cornelius Lanczos. As developed below, the unit quasi-sphere of the biquaternions provides a presentation of the Lorentz group, which is the foundation of special relativity. The algebra of biquaternions can be considered as a tensor product C⊗H (taken over the reals) where C is the field of complex numbers and H is the algebra of (real) quaternions. In other words, the biquaternions are just the complexification of the (real) quaternions. Viewed as a complex algebra, the biquaternions are isomorphic to the algebra of 2×2 complex matrices M2(C). In terms of Clifford algebra they can be classified as Cℓ2(C) = Cℓ03(C). This is also isomorphic to the Pauli algebra Cℓ3,0(R), and the even part of the space-time algebra Cℓ01,3(R).

Contents
■ 1 Definition ■ 2 Place in ring theory ■ 2.1 Linear representation ■ 2.2 Subalgebras ■ 3 Algebraic properties ■ 3.1 Relation to Lorentz Transformations ■ 4 Associated terminology ■ 5 See also ■ 6 Notes ■ 7 References

Definition
Let {1, i, j, k} be the basis for the (real) quaternions, and let u, v, w, x be complex numbers, then q=u1+vi+wj+xk is a biquaternion.[1] To distinguish square roots of minus one in the biquaternions, Hamilton[2][3] and Arthur W. Conway used the convention of representing the square root of minus one in the scalar field C by h since there is an i in the quaternion group. Then hi = ih, hj = jh, and hk = kh since h is a scalar. Hamilton's primary exposition on biquaternions came in 1853 in his Lectures on Quaternions, now available in the Historical Mathematical Monographs of Cornell University. The two editions of Elements of Quaternions (1866 & 1899) reduced the biquaternion coverage in favor of the real quaternions. He introduced the terms bivector, biconjugate, bitensor, and biversor. Considered with the operations of component-wise addition, and multiplication according to the quaternion group, this collection forms a 4-dimensional algebra over the complex numbers. The algebra of biquaternions is associative, but not commutative. A biquaternion is either a unit or a zero divisor.

Place in ring theory
Linear representation
Note the matrix product = where each of these three arrays has a square equal to the negative of the identity matrix. When this matrix product is interpreted as i j = k, then one obtains a subgroup of the matrix group that is isomorphic to the quaternion group. Consequently represents biquaternion q = = u 1 + v i + w j + x k. Given any 2 × 2 complex matrix, there are complex values u, v, w, and x to put it in this form so that the matrix ring is isomorphic[4] to the biquaternion ring.

Subalgebras
Considering the biquaternion algebra over the scalar field of real numbers R, the set {1, h, i, hi, j, hj, k, hk } forms a basis so the algebra has eight real dimensions. Note the squares of the elements hi, hj, and hk are all plus one, for example,

Then the subalgebra given by is ring isomorphic to the plane of split-complex numbers, which has an algebraic structure built upon the unit hyperbola. The elements hj and hk also determine such subalgebras. Furthermore, is a subalgebra isomorphic to the tessarines.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biquaternion

09/01/2013

Consider the subspace of vector biquaternions . In the context of quantum mechanics and spinor algebra. A forms the Lie algebra of G. the free encyclopedia Página 2 de 3 A third subalgebra called coquaternions is generated by hj and hk. iff is defined over the complex numbers. and the collection of them is O(3) But this subgroup of G is not a normal subgroup. First note that (hj)(hk) = (−1)i. Then the sum of the squares of the complex conjugates of these components is also one. so no quotient group can be formed. When viewed in the matrix representation.C) representation.C) in M(2. Now Associated terminology As the biquaternions have been a fixture of linear algebra since the beginnings of mathematical physics.org/wiki/Biquaternion 09/01/2013 .Biquaternion . hj. The transformation group has two parts. Any hyperbolic versor exp(ahr) corresponds to a velocity in direction r of speed c tanh a where c is the velocity of light.Wikipedia. for example even a magma. Then the exponential map takes the real vectors to and the h-vectors to When equipped with the commutator. The linear subspace with basis {1. M cannot form an algebra if it is not Definition: Let biquaternion g satisfy g g * = 1. then T(q) is also in M. Algebraic properties The biquaternions have two conjugations: ■ the quaternion conjugation ■ the complex conjugation of quaternion coefficients where Note that Clearly. Indeed. G is a topological group. . and The first part is characterized by .5ahr) since then so that Naturally the hyperboloid http://en. The subspace M corresponds to Minkowski space. Then the Lorentz transformation associated with g is given by Proposition: If q is in M. is easily verified. For every square root r of minus one in H. Otherwise an inverse to be defined as follows: ■ . To view it is necessary to show some subalgebra structure in the biquaternions. Further. Thus this study of a six-dimensional space serves to introduce the general concepts of Lie theory. then proof: . so the hyperbola turns because Hence these algebraic operators on the hyperbola are called hyperbolic versors. This allows when . and hk (or their negatives). The inertial frame of reference of this velocity can be made the resting frame by applying the Lorentz boost T given by g = exp(0. i. G is called the special linear group SL(2. hk} thus is closed under multiplication. proof: Proposition: proof: Note first that g g * = 1 means that the sum of the squares of its four complex components is one. the biquaternions hi. Many of the concepts of special relativity are illustrated through the biquaternion structures laid out. Then (hr)2 = +1 and the plane of biquaternions given by is a commutative subalgebra isomorphic to the plane of split-complex numbers.C). there is an array of concepts that are illustrated or represented by biquaternion algebra. Let r represent an element of the sphere of square roots of minus one in the real quaternion subalgebra H. has a unit hyperbola given by Just as the unit circle turns by multiplication through one of its elements. and that the square of this element is −1. viewed in the M(2.wikipedia. are called Pauli matrices. Proposition: If q is in M. Just as the ordinary complex plane has a unit circle. it has analytic structure making it a six-parameter Lie group. and forms the coquaternion algebra. then the Lorentz transformation corresponding to g is given by since Such a transformation is a rotation by quaternion multiplication. These elements generate the dihedral group of the square. hj. Therefore. with the four coordinates giving the time and space locations of events in a resting frame of reference. if then q is a zero divisor. and Relation to Lorentz Transformations Consider now the linear subspace [5] M is not a subalgebra since it is not closed under products. there is a one-parameter group in the biquaternions given by The space of biquaternions has a natural topology through the Euclidean metric on 8-space. Moreover. With respect to this topology. The unit circle in C and unit hyperbola in Dr are examples of oneparameter groups.

org/10. R. P. 3.1088/0143-0807/5/1/007 (http://dx. Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras 20 (2): 401–410. 5. Bibcode 1984EJPh. (1994). "Fundamental representations and algebraic properties of biquaternions or complexified quaternions".1102S (http://adsabs.5. Philosophy Magazine. (1911).cornell.com/books?id=fIRAAAAAIAAJ) University of Dublin Press. page 289 ^ Leonard Dickson (1914) Linear Algebras. ■ Girard.. ■ Kilmister.. the biquaternion representation of the Lorentz group was superseded. Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras: 1–30. L. the free encyclopedia Página 3 de 3 which represents the range of velocities for sub-luminal motion.. ■ Sangwine. except he uses ~ to signify quaternion conjugation and * for complex conjugation References ■ Proceedings of the Royal Irish academy November 1844 (NA) and 1850 page 388 from google books [1] (http://books. C.org/wiki/Biquaternion 09/01/2013 ... M. Series 6 23: 790–809..org/w/index. 304–312. ■ Silberstein. Lorentz transformations.wikipedia. See also ■ ■ ■ ■ Conic octonions (isomorphism) MacFarlane's use Quotient ring Hypercomplex number Notes 1.5. ■ Hamilton (1866) Elements of Quaternions (http://books. Vladislav (2003).1007/s00006-010 -0263-3 (http://dx. 2. 179. son of the deceased author. Applied Quaternionic Analysis. Alfsmann.. a non-profit organization. arXiv:1001. 4. Cambridge University Press. Cornelius (1949). ^ Hamilton (1853) page 639 ^ Hamilton (1853) page 730 ^ Hamilton (1899) Elements of Quaternions. (1901) volume II.0240 (http://arxiv. Green & Co. Thus we see the biquaternion group G provides a group representation for the Lorentz group. Arthur W. Eddington's search for a fundamental theory. Ludwik (1912). particularly in the hands of Wolfgang Pauli and Élie Cartan. The new methods were founded on basis vectors in the set which is called the "complex light cone".edu/math/) . §13 "Equivalence of the complex quaternion and matric algebras". ■ Kravchenko. Ludwik (1914). Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation. pp. J.. doi:10. University of Toronto Press. The Variational Principles of Mechanics. 180. "Quaternionic form of relativity". ■ William Rowan Hamilton (1853) Lectures on Quaternions. The Theory of Relativity.1088%2F0143-0807%2F5%2F1% 2F007) . including idempotents and nilpotents". ■ Silberstein. See Terms of Use for details. After the introduction of spinor theory. ISBN 0-521-37165-1.google. Inc. The following algebra compares to Lanczos. doi:10. Stephen J.. (1972).edu/abs/1984EJPh. "Determination of the biquaternion divisors of zero.25G) . Series A 21.edu/abs/2008arXiv0812.16 page 305. additional terms may apply.Wikipedia.doi. ■ Hamilton (1899) Elements of Quaternions volume I. Le Bihan. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 29A: 1–9.Biquaternion . pp. In special relativity. This historical mathematical text is available on-line courtesy of Cornell University (http://historical. the hyperbolic angle parameter of a hyperbolic versor is called rapidity. Daniel (2010). Edited by Charles Jasper Joly.doi. 2nd edition. (1984). ■ Lanczos. "On the application of quaternions to some recent developments in electrical theory".. "The quaternion group and modern physics". 122. published by Longmans. W. ■ Sangwine. Bibcode 2008arXiv0812. Nicolas (2010). European Journal of Physics 5: 25–32. http://en. Heldermann Verlag ISBN 3-88538-228-8.1007%2Fs00006-010-0263-3) .org/abs/0812.org/abs/1001.1102) . Europhysics Letters 74 (4): 569. is of physical interest.. Todd A. ■ Synge... and the Conway-Dirac-Eddington matrices".library.25G (http://adsabs. ■ Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Retrieved from "http://en.0240) . (Gauge transformation and electromagnetism with biquaternions).1102S) .harvard. ■ Tanişli.org/10. There has been considerable work associating this "velocity space" with the hyperboloid model of hyperbolic geometry. Communications of the Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies. Ell.harvard. Article 669..php?title=Biquaternion&oldid=520240750" Categories: Quaternions Ring theory Special relativity Navigation menu ■ This page was last modified on 28 October 2012 at 09:40.. Stephen J. arXiv:0812.com/books? id=ggoFAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA388&dq=proceedings+of+royal+irish+academy+1844+Hamilton&hl=en&ei=WysiTPLwMcKRnwepmoDBDw&sa=X&oi=book_res ■ Conway. page 13 ^ Lanczos (1949) Equation 94.wikipedia. "Quaternions.google. Edited by William Edwin Hamilton. 121.1102 (http://arxiv.

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