You are on page 1of 117

Workbook for Introduction to Computer-aided Design

by DeeAnna Weed, Ph.D. weedd@nicc.edu

Northeast Iowa Community College Hwy. 150 S, PO Box 400 Calmar, Iowa 52132 January 2005

DeeAnna Weed

Introduction to CAD

Contents
Getting Started.................................................................................................................................1 Basic Concepts.................................................................................................................................3 Selecting Entities.............................................................................................................................4 Zoom and Pan..................................................................................................................................5 Demo or Student Versions of AutoCad...........................................................................................6 Recommended Reference Texts......................................................................................................6 Coloring book Picture......................................................................................................................7 Font Sampler....................................................................................................................................9 Plotting...........................................................................................................................................11 Geometric Terms...........................................................................................................................12 Coordinate Systems.......................................................................................................................13 Doodles..........................................................................................................................................14 Family Tree....................................................................................................................................19 Trimming.......................................................................................................................................23 Object Snap....................................................................................................................................25 Construction Geometry..................................................................................................................28 Dimensioning.................................................................................................................................29 Yoke...............................................................................................................................................31 Doohickey......................................................................................................................................34 Finishing Schedule, Extra Credit...................................................................................................37 Adjustment Plate, Extra Credit......................................................................................................39 Scaling a Regular Drawing............................................................................................................41 Line type Scale...............................................................................................................................43 Mini Airplane Part.........................................................................................................................44 Dimension Style.............................................................................................................................48 Dimensioned Mini Airplane Part...................................................................................................50 Drawing Template.........................................................................................................................52 Scaling a Layout Drawing.............................................................................................................56 Orthographic and Isometric Projections........................................................................................59 Machine Part..................................................................................................................................61 Geneva Cam...................................................................................................................................67 Blocks............................................................................................................................................71
DeeAnna Weed Introduction to CAD

External References (Xrefs)...........................................................................................................75 Craftsman-style Floor Plan............................................................................................................77 A Comfortable and Convenient House for the Suburbs or the Country.......................................................................................................81 Questions about Blocks & External References............................................................................83 Drilled Bar.....................................................................................................................................84 Highway Signs...............................................................................................................................86 Candle Box, Extra Credit...............................................................................................................87 Flyer, Extra Credit.........................................................................................................................89 Hatching.........................................................................................................................................90 Section views.................................................................................................................................92 Machine Part Cross Section...........................................................................................................94 Bearing...........................................................................................................................................96 Collar and Base Plate.....................................................................................................................99 Shaft Support Assembly..............................................................................................................101 House Exterior.............................................................................................................................103 Isometric Gadgets........................................................................................................................104 Machine Bolt, Extra Credit..........................................................................................................106 Three Dimensional Surfaces........................................................................................................107 Final Portfolio..............................................................................................................................113

DeeAnna Weed

Introduction to CAD

Getting Started
Tips for success with AutoCad Draw accurately do not draw by eye. Give yourself enough time to complete assignments so you arent tempted to cut corners. Accurately estimate any dimensions not given in a lab assignment. Use a ruler if possible to make a reasonably accurate estimate. If you cant use a ruler, use your best judgment. Always, always draw objects full size in AutoCad! Only plotting is done to scale in AutoCad. Draw all objects in MODEL SPACE. Never draw objects in a LAYOUT. A layout sheet is only used to create a pretty picture for plotting. You will use layout sheets later in this class. Default settings What is a default? It is the choice or setting that AutoCad assumes will be used, unless you specifically tell it otherwise. It is wise to change some of the default settings before you first start to use AutoCad, so your work will be easier in the long run. Program defaults Choose TOOLS: OPTIONS... Change the time between automatic saves. Click on the tab at the top of the TOOLS: OPTIONS screen that says OPEN AND SAVE. Find FILE SAFETY PRECAUTIONS. Make sure there is a checkmark in the AUTOMATIC SAVE box. Change the MINTUES BETWEEN SAVES number from the default of 120 minutes to something between 10 and 20 minutes Note: This setting should be the number of minutes of work you can afford to lose without going crazy if your computer shuts down or the program locks up. Youll trade speed for safety, so dont go too small I advise against a setting of less than 5 minutes. Change the way AutoCad starts up. Click on SYSTEM. Look for the General Options section. Choose Show startup dialog box. Choose the correct plotter. Click on the PLOTTING tab in the TOOLS: OPTIONS window. Find DEFAULT PLOT SETTINGS FOR NEW DRAWINGS. Make sure the button next to USE AS DEFAULT OUTPUT DEVICE is darkened. Select the name of the printer or plotter that you want as the default printer in the adjacent window. In the T&I computer lab, it will be the HP LASERJET 4000 PCI printer. Find DEFAULT PLOT STYLE BEHAVIOR FOR NEW DRAWINGS. Make sure the button next to USE COLOR DEPENDENT PLOT STYLES is darkened. Set the DEFAULT PLOT STYLE TABLE to MONOCHROME.CTB. OPTIONAL: Change the colors of elements in the AutoCad display. Click on the DISPLAY tab in the TOOLS: OPTIONS window.
DeeAnna Weed 1 Introduction to CAD

Click on COLORS... in the WINDOW ELEMENTS section. Change the MODEL TAB BACKGROUND to a color you like. Feel free to change the colors for other elements of the AutoCad display, if you like. To reset the colors back to their default values, click on DEFAULT ALL. To reset the currently selected element back to its default colors, click DEFAULT ONE ELEMENT. Click OK to save your changes to the TOOLS: OPTIONS settings. Turn off ACTIVE ASSISTANCE. Find the SYSTEM TRAY. It is the group of small icons at the lower right corner of your display. Find the ACTIVE ASSISTANCE icon in the System Tray it looks like a yellow question mark (?) with a red cursor symbol next to it. Right click on this icon. Choose SETTINGS. Click to remove the check mark next to Show on start. Click OK to save this change. Right click the ACTIVE ASSISTANCE icon once more. Choose EXIT.Toolbar defaults Click on VIEW: TOOLBARS... A list of toolbars will appear. For now, make sure there are Xs in the boxes next to these toolbars: DRAW PROPERTIES STANDARD As you become more familiar with AutoCad, you can change which toolbars are displayed to suit the way you work. But for now, please leave these toolbars displayed. Experiment with docking and undocking toolbars by dragging the toolbars around on the screen. Note that you can accidentally hide one toolbar underneath another check for this if a toolbar mysteriously disappears. Experiment with turning toolbars off by clicking on the close window box located at the upper right corner of undocked toolbars. Also experiment with docking and undocking the COMMAND LINE toolbar at the bottom of the AutoCad screen. Note that this toolbar cannot be turned off and on. Experiment further by right clicking on the double bars at one end of any docked toolbar or on the colored top bar of any undocked toolbar. What can you do with the shortcut menu that appears? Drawing defaults Until you know more about these features, make sure the SNAP, GRID, ORTHO, POLAR, OSNAP, OTRACK, and LWT buttons at the bottom of the AutoCad screen are popped out (meaning these features are turned off). Make sure the MODEL button is turned on (popped in). Note the tabs at the bottom left of the AutoCad drawing you should see MODEL, LAYOUT 1 and possibly LAYOUT 2. You can click on a tab to make that view of your drawing active. For now, make sure you are ALWAYS working with the MODEL tab active. Do NOT work in the LAYOUT views at this time.
DeeAnna Weed 2 Introduction to CAD

MODIFY OBJECT SNAP

LAYERS ZOOM

Basic Concepts
Cursor The symbol on the computer display that moves when you move the mouse. The cursor changes depending on what it is pointing to. Sometimes it looks like an arrow, which means you can choose something on a menu or click on a button. When you are working with text, the cursor sometimes looks like an I beam. This means you can click to put an insertion point in text so you can type. Sometimes the cursor looks like a crosshairs, which means you can select existing entities or draw new objects. Left mouse button Click this button to select an entity or start a command. When in doubt, the instruction to click the mouse button means to press this button. Right mouse button Click this button (right-click) to get a short-cut menu. The menu youll see depends on what command is active or what the cursor is pointing to. For example, click on a text block to select it, then right-click to edit the text block. Or point the cursor to the SNAP, POLAR or OSNAP button at the bottom of the AutoCad screen, then right-click to change the settings. Command line The white area at the bottom of the AutoCad screen. Read the command line to figure out what to do next when youre not sure how to do a command. Escape key Upper left hand corner of the keyboard. Press ESCAPE one or more times to get out of a command or deselect entities. Enter key Right hand side of the keyboard. There are two ENTER keys on an extended keyboard. Press once to end a command OR to end one part of a command and go to the next part. Press ENTER again to restart the last command. Grips The blue boxes that appear on an entity when you click on it. Move or resize an entity by clicking on a grip so it turns red, then move the mouse. Click the mouse button again to stop.

DeeAnna Weed

Introduction to CAD

Selecting Entities
Selection window An imaginary window that is used to select entities or to create a text block. Create a selection window by locating the cursor at one corner of the imaginary window. Click the left mouse button, then drag the mouse so the cursor moves away from that corner. When the cursor is at the diagonal corner of the imaginary window, click again to finish the window. If you start a selection window by mistake, press the ESCAPE key. Selecting entities Single entity: Click once on an entity. If properly selected, it should appear dotted and its grips should be visible. Enclosing window: This kind of selection window selects all entities inside the window. Make an enclosing window by moving the cursor to the left of the entities you want to select. Click the left mouse button once, then drag the mouse to the right to create an imaginary box around the entities. Click the left mouse button a second time to complete the selection. Crossing window: Selects all entities that are inside the selection window and those that are cut by the window. Make a selection window as described for the enclosing window except drag the mouse from right to left. A crossing window is required for the MODIFY: STRETCH command. Remember: Enclose from left to right and Cut from right to left. Deselecting entities All entities: Press the ESCAPE key two or more times. Single entity: Hold the SHIFT key and click on an individual entity.

DeeAnna Weed

Introduction to CAD

Zoom and Pan


To draw accurately, you must be able to clearly see what you are doing. ZOOM commands change the magnification of the display, so objects appear farther away from you or closer to you. It is important to remember that ZOOM does not really change the true size of the geometry. PAN changes your view of objects without changing the magnification. Here are some of the more commonly used ZOOM and PAN commands: Make geometry appear bigger Click the ZOOM IN button on the ZOOM toolbar to double the magnification.

Click the ZOOM WINDOW button on the ZOOM toolbar and create a selection window around the geometry you want to magnify. Rotate the mouse wheel forward Make geometry appear smaller Click the ZOOM OUT button on the ZOOM toolbar to halve the magnification.

Click the ZOOM EXTENTS button on the ZOOM toolbar to show all of the geometry you have drawn zoomed as large as possible and centered on the screen. Rotate the mouse wheel back ZOOM realtime Click the ZOOM REALTIME button on the STANDARD toolbar. Move your cursor into the drawing area. Click and hold the left mouse key. Push the mouse away from you to zoom in. Pull the mouse toward you to zoom out. Shortcut: With no objects selected, right click and choose ZOOM. Pan (move) your view Click the PAN REALTIME button on the STANDARD toolbar. Move your cursor into the drawing area. Click and hold the left mouse key. Drag the mouse as needed to move the image. Shortcut: With no objects selected, right click and choose PAN. Click and drag one of the two slider bars to pan the image quickly (see the top note in the picture at right). Click on or click and hold any of the four small triangles in the lower right-hand corner (see the bottom note).

DeeAnna Weed

Introduction to CAD

Demo or Student Versions of AutoCad


Student purchase You can purchase a student version of AutoCad or AutoCad LT at a variety of places, including the websites listed below. Be sure you know you meet the requirements of being a student before you buy a student version of AutoCad. If you plan to do two dimensional drawing only, buy AutoCad LT. It only has the 2D drawing commands included. If you also want to do three dimensional drawing, you need to buy the regular full featured AutoCad program. Students who plan to take Advanced CAD or CAD Animation classes at NICC will need the regular AutoCad program. Student versions of AutoCad have all the features of the regular professional versions, but they put a border that says AutoDesk Educational Product around all printouts you make. Look for the manufacturer AutoDesk when searching these websites for AutoCad software: http://www.cadcampus.com/ http://www.journeyed.com/ http://www.studica.com/ Free demonstration disk A no-cost alternative is to order a free demonstration disk of the latest version of AutoCad. You can order it online at http://usa.autodesk.com/ When you see the AutoDesk homepage, click on Products, click on AutoCad, click on Demonstration, then click on 30-Day Trial CD. Fill out the form to order the CD. Note: Unlike some demo software, you will not be able to uninstall, then reinstall the AutoCad demo program to get another 30 days of use. Note: You will need to save files you create with the demonstration program as AutoCad 2002 files. If you do not, you will not be able to open these files at NICC, because the current version the school is using is 2002. AutoCad 2002 cannot open files saved as a newer version of the program.

Recommended Reference Texts


If you plan to use CAD in the future, you may want to purchase a good reference book. Here are my recommendations: AutoCAD and its applications: Basics by T. M. Shumaker and D. A. Madsen. AutoCad 2002 version is ISBN 1-56637-900-8. You can buy it new for about $50. AutoCAD 2002: Tutor for Engineering Graphics by A. J. Kalameja. AutoCad 2002 hardcover version is ISBN 0-76683-848-X for about $70. AutoCad 2004 paperback version is ISBN 1-40185-082-0 for about $55. Find an online retailer with a competitive price at Bookfinder.com http://bookfinder.com/

DeeAnna Weed

Introduction to CAD

Coloring book Picture


Read: Assignment: Workbook pages 1 through 6. Use basic drawing commands, absolute coordinate entry 10 pts.

Task: Get started. First, log on to the network and start AutoCad. Open a new drawing using Start from Scratch. Make sure all buttons at the bottom of the AutoCad display are off except for MODEL, which should be on. (In other words, the SNAP, GRID, POLAR, ORTHO, OSNAP, and LWT buttons look like they are popped out.) Make sure the MODEL tab at the bottom of the AutoCad display is selected do not work with a LAYOUT tab selected. Task: Accurately draw a box in which to put your picture. Do not draw this box by eye. Follow these steps: Choose DRAW: LINE from the menu at the top of the AutoCad screen. (Alternative method: Click on the LINE button on the DRAW toolbar at the side of your screen.) Look at the bottom of the screen where it says COMMAND. Type in the following information. Watch the information that you type appear on the command line. When you press the ENTER key, watch the geometry appear on your drawing. 0,0 <press ENTER> 0,8 <press ENTER> 10.5,8 <press ENTER> 10.5,0 <press ENTER> C <press ENTER> Note: The 4 pairs of numbers are rectangular coordinates that define the corners of the box youre making. The letter C tells AutoCad to close the box.

DeeAnna Weed

Introduction to CAD

Task: Draw a simple picture within your box. Make it look like the example above, as best you can. Try to be neat, but dont worry if your drawing isnt perfect. Use these commands: Draw: Line Draw: Spline Draw: Circle Draw: Ellipse Draw: Rectangle Draw: Polygon OPTIONAL: Modify: Trim Hint: To end the SPLINE command, press the ENTER key three times. Task: Use DRAW: TEXT: MULTILINE TEXT to create a title block at the upper right-hand corner of your drawing. Type the information shown in the sketch on the previous page, except substitute your real name in place of Your name and todays date in place of Date handed in. Important: In all assignments, you should always include a title block in the upper right-hand corner. Your name, the lab title, the scale, and the date in EXACTLY this format must be on every drawing you hand in, or points will be taken off. Task: Save your drawing. Choose FILE: SAVE. At the top of the window that appears, there should be a box that shows the current location in the computer system to which files will be saved. Click on the downward pointing triangle to the right of this box to see a list of other locations. Locate the place to which you want to save your file by scrolling up and down this list. Look for these storage locations: a floppy drive named 3 1/2 Floppy (A:), a portable flash hard drive, a compact disk (CD), or your student username (this is the space on the school network that you may use). Click on the correct storage location to select it. Click in the box after FILE NAME:. Type a name that clearly describes the file. Hint: A filename may be up to 255 characters long. You cannot use the forward slash (/), backslash (\), greater than sign (>), less than sign (<), asterisk (*), question mark (?), quotation mark ("), pipe symbol (|), colon (:), or semicolon (;). Click SAVE to save your file under this filename and to your chosen storage location. To save your file to another storage location or to save it using a different filename, choose FILE: SAVE AS and repeat the process. CAUTION: You should always save your computer files to at least two places. I guarantee you will eventually lose or damage a disk during the semester. Task: Print (plot) your drawing. To do this, first choose FILE: PLOT. See the file tabs at the top of the screen that appears? One is labeled Plot device and the other Plot settings or Layout settings. Click on the Plot device tab. Make the following changes: PLOTTER CONFIGURATION: select the printer you need to use PLOT STYLE TABLE: MONOCHROME.CTB so the plot is in black and white, not shades of gray. Reply YES to Assign this plot style table to all layouts? Click on the Plot settings tab. Make the following changes to the settings, as needed: DRAWING ORIENTATION: LANDSCAPE PLOT AREA: EXTENTS PLOT SCALE: SCALED TO FIT so all geometry is printed as large as possible. PLOT OFFSET: CENTER THE PLOT Task: Hand in a plot of your finished AutoCad drawing.

DeeAnna Weed

Introduction to CAD

Font Sampler
Read: Assignment: Workbook pages 1 through 6. Use multiline text, text editing commands 10 pts.

Task: Log on to the network and start AutoCad. Open a new drawing using Start from Scratch. Make sure all buttons at the bottom of the AutoCad display are off (in other words, the buttons look like they are popped out) except for MODEL, which should be on at all times! Hint: Keep in mind that you can always click these buttons on and off at any time even in the middle of a command. Make sure the MODEL tab at the bottom of the AutoCad display is selected do not work with a LAYOUT tab selected. Task: Create a text block. To do this, choose DRAW: TEXT: MULTILINE TEXT or click on the button in the DRAW toolbar that has the letter A on it. Move the cursor across the drawing area and click your mouse twice to create an imaginary rectangle almost as big as the whole drawing area shown on your computer screen. This is the area of your drawing in which you will be typing. After you draw the imaginary rectangle, a new screen will appear. This is the Multiline Text Editor screen. Look on the Text Formatting toolbar above the Editor window for the Font window (it is the one that probably shows Txt in it). Click the downward pointing arrow to the right of this window to see a list of fonts you can choose. Change the font from Txt to Arial. The window immediately to the right of the Font window is the Font Height window. It probably shows 0.2000, which means any text you type will be 0.2 inches high. Use your cursor to select the number, and type in the number 0.375. This will change the font height to 0.375 inches. Task: Type in the text block: Move your mouse so the cursor is somewhere in the big empty box in the lower part of the Text Editor screen. Click the mouse. You should see a blinking | shaped cursor appear in the upper left-hand corner of this box. Type the complete alphabet in lower case (small letters), the numbers 0 9, and the special symbols for diameter, degree, and plus/minus. (Hint: Put your cursor in the typing area and right click for a shortcut menu.) If your cursor moves by itself to a new line, ignore what the cursor is doing just keep typing. Highlight all of the text you just typed. COPY this text by clicking the right-hand mouse button to display a short-cut menu, selecting COPY, then clicking the left-hand mouse button to complete the command. Click at the end of the line of text. Press ENTER to start a new line. Right-click to display the short-cut menu, then left-click on PASTE. Press ENTER again to start a new line. PASTE again. Repeat the ENTER and PASTE steps until you have a total of SEVEN lines. Highlight the second line of text and change it to BankGothic LtBT font. Repeat this for lines 3 through 7, using CityBlueprint, Stylus BT, Swis 721 BdOul BT, Vineta BT, and Wingdings. If one of these fonts is not available on your computer, substitute a font of your choice. Each line of text must be a different font. When you get done, click OK on the Text Formatting toolbar. The Editor screen will close. Your drawing will appear with the text you typed. This is the first text block in your drawing.
DeeAnna Weed 9 Introduction to CAD

Task: Resize the text block: Move the mouse so the tip of your cursor is lying directly on one of the characters in your text block. Click the mouse. Four blue squares (called grips) should appear at each corner of the imaginary rectangle you drew at the beginning of this lab. The letters in the text block should also change so they look like they are drawn with dashed lines, not solid lines. This means you have selected the text block. Did nothing happen? Try again, being more careful to put the cursor directly on a character before you click, not between characters. Move your cursor so the tip of it is inside the lower right grip. Click your mouse so the grip turns solid red. This means you have selected that grip. Did nothing happen? Try again, being more careful to put the cursor directly in the blue box. The grip must turn color before you can click your mouse to select the grip. Move your mouse an inch or two down and to the right to change the location of the grip. This will make the text block wider. Click your mouse to end this action. Check: Did anything happen to the appearance of your text? Need more drawing space to move the cursor? Find the Zoom Out button on the Zoom toolbar. It looks like a magnifying glass with a minus sign () in it. Click that button once, then repeat the previous paragraph. Want to make your drawing look bigger again? You could use the Zoom In button [it looks like a magnifying glass with a plus sign (+) in it], but this might make parts of your drawing not visible. Dont believe me? Try it, if you like. You wont hurt anything. When youre done experimenting, click the Zoom Extents toolbar button. This button looks like a magnifying glass with crossed arrows in it. It is at the bottom of the ZOOM toolbar. Clicking this button will make all of your drawing appear as large as possible. Click the same grip to make it red. Move the grip up and to the left several inches. This will make the text block narrower from side to side. Click again to end the action. Check: Did anything happen to your text? When youre done experimenting, resize the text block as needed so there is only one line of text for each font there should be a total of only seven lines in your text block. Task: Make a second text block above and to the right of your font sampler block. It should be about half the height and width of the first text block. Use Zoom Out if you need more drawing space to make this text block. Change Txt to any other font you didnt use in the sampler. Make the font height 0.25 inches. In this second text block, type your name, press ENTER, type the lab title (Font Sampler) , press ENTER, type the scale (Scale: None) , press ENTER, and type the date. Click OK. Select this text block by clicking on one of the letters in the block. Resize the text block by dragging the grips, so there are only four lines of text in the block. Task: Finish up the lab: Save and print (plot) your drawing exactly as you did in the Coloring book Picture lab. Hand in a plot of your finished AutoCad drawing.

DeeAnna Weed

10

Introduction to CAD

Plotting
Before you plot (print) any drawing, you must make choices that affect how your plot will look. You already chose a default plotter and plot style table when you set up the program defaults. You may have to adjust other settings each time you make a new drawing. These settings are in the FILE: PAGE SETUP... or FILE: PLOT... windows. You can use either selection to do about the same things. If you just want to change and save your settings without plotting your drawing, pick FILE: PAGE SETUP. Pick FILE: PLOT... if you also want to plot. Plot device Click on the tab that says PLOT DEVICE. Check that the correct printer shows in PLOTTER CONFIGURATION. In the T&I 111 and the Max Clark 104 computer labs, it will be the HP LASERJET 4000 PCI printer. Check that MONOCHROME.CTB is the PLOT STYLE TABLE. Plot settings Click on the PLOT SETTINGS tab. Paper size should be LETTER 8 1/2 x 11 for all projects in this class. The DRAWING ORIENTATION will usually be LANDSCAPE, although you can certainly choose PORTRAIT as needed. In PLOT OFFSET, always choose CENTER THE PLOT to put the geometry in the middle of the page. The PLOT AREA should almost always be EXTENTS. This means plot all the geometry Ive drawn. You may later find WINDOW useful for large or complicated drawings. This means plot only the geometry I choose using a window selection. For larger drawings in which you have created multiple views of a model, the VIEW selection may be helpful. The least useful options, in my experience, include DISPLAY. This choice means plot exactly what is now shown on my computer display and LIMITS which means plot only what lies within the drawing limits Ive defined. The PLOT SCALE will vary, depending on your project. See the next sections in this handout for more specifics on how to choose a plot scale. SCALE TO FIT makes the drawing as large as possible on the paper. Do not use scale to fit or scale to paper for drawings that must be plotted accurately to scale. When choosing an accurate scale, remember that a scale of 1 inch = 1 drawing unit means that one inch on the paper is equal to 1 inch on the real object. Drawings of very small objects will have a plot scale in which the first number is larger than the second number. This will cause the object to be plotted larger than it is in real life. Large drawings will have a scale in which the second number is bigger than the first, so objects will be plotted smaller than they are in real life. For now, you will plot your drawings using Scaled to Fit or a scale I tell you to use, but later you will learn how to choose an accurate plot scale for each of your drawings.

DeeAnna Weed

11

Introduction to CAD

Geometric Terms
Point: A 1-dimensional geometric entity that must be specifically drawn. See Draw: Point and Format: Point Style Note: An end point, mid point, or center point as defined below is not a Point entity.

Endpoint: The end of a line. Midpoint: The middle of a line. Center: The center of an arc or circle. Intersection: The place at which two geometric entities cross.

Radius: The distance from the center of a circle or arc to the outside edge of the circle or arc. Radius = 1/2 x Diameter The letter "R" stands for "radius" Diameter: The distance from one edge of a circle or arc through the center to the other side. Diameter = 2 x Radius The greek letter "phi" stands for "diameter"

R1.5183

3.0366

Northeast Iowa Community College


Hwy 150 S, PO Box 400, Calmar, Iowa 52132

Drawn by: D.A. Weed Checked by: D.A. Weed Scale: No scale

Geometric Terms used in AutoCad


Date completed: 9/6/00 Date revised: 1/13/02 Page: 1 of 2

Regular polygon: A geometric figure with 3 or more sides whose sides are all of equal length and whose internal angles are all equal.

A polygon is either drawn inside an imaginary circle (inscribed) or drawn outside a circle (circumscribed) of a given radius. Inscribed Perpendicular: A line that is at a right angle (90) to another line. Parallel: Two lines lying in the same plane that are exactly the same distance apart. Parallel lines will never cross.
90 0.5000

Circumscribed

Concentric: Two arcs or circles lying in the same plane that have a common center point. Tangent line: A line perpendicular to the radius of an arc or circle and touching the arc or circle. Point of tangency: The place where a tangent line touches an arc or circle.

Northeast Iowa Community College


Hwy 150 S, PO Box 400, Calmar, Iowa 52132

Drawn by: D.A. Weed Checked by: D.A. Weed Scale: No scale

Geometric Terms used in AutoCad


Date completed: 9/6/00 Date revised: 1/13/02 Page: 2 of 2

DeeAnna Weed

12

Introduction to CAD

Coordinate Systems
Absolute and Relative coordinates Absolute coordinates tell how far a point is from coordinate location (0,0). To enter an absolute coordinate, you type the X (East-West) dimension, a comma, then the Y (North-South) dimension. Example: 18.2,56.8 Relative coordinates tell how far a point is from the previous point, wherever that happens to be. To enter a relative coordinate, type the @ symbol, the X dimension, a comma, then the Y dimension. Example: @18.2,56.8
8.0 3.0 5.0

2.5

5.5

The center of this circle is 5 inches east and 2.5 inches north of the other circle center. The absolute coordinates of this centerpoint are 8,5.5. With respect to the big circle's center, the relative coordinates of this location are @5,2.5. The center of this circle is 3 inches east and 3 inches north of 0,0. In absolute coordinates, this would be 3,3.

3.0

This corner is at absolute coordinate location 0,0

Rectangular and Polar coordinates Rectangular coordinates locate a point by giving an X (East-West) dimension and a Y (NorthSouth) dimension. These coordinates are what most people use most often Polar coordinates locate a point by specifying a distance and an angle. To enter a polar coordinate in AutoCad, you type the distance, a "less than" symbol <, then an angle in degrees. For example, let's call East the 0 direction. (This is the AutoCad default, by the way). To go 5 units to the northeast (equivalent to a 45 angle), you would type 5<45. You don't need to type the degree symbol (). When you use POLAR tracking, the display you see on your AutoCad screen is in polar coordinates. When you use POLAR or ORTHO tracking and you type a value for length, you are typing a polar distance. The coordinate display at the lower left corner of your AutoCad screen usually gives rectangular coordinates. The third number in this display is the Z (height) dimension. You can change the coordinate display in the lower left corner of the AutoCad screen from rectangular to polar coordinates, if you like. Putting them together Whenever you want to locate a particular point on an AutoCad drawing you must combine polar or rectangular coordinates AND absolute or relative coordinates. Here are some examples: Absolute Relative Rectangular 2,6 @3.8,6.1 Polar 3.1<273 @8.5<48

DeeAnna Weed

13

Introduction to CAD

Doodles
Read: Assignment: Workbook pages 11 through 13. Use basic drawing commands, snap & grid, object snap, 10 pts. polar tracking, ortho tracking, direct dimension entry, the coordinate display, absolute coordinate entry Log on to the network and start AutoCad. Open a new drawing using Start from Scratch. Make sure all buttons at the bottom of the AutoCad display are off (in other words, the buttons look like they are popped out) except for MODEL, which should be on at all times! Hint: Keep in mind that you can always click these buttons on and off at any time even in the middle of a command. Make sure the MODEL tab at the bottom of the AutoCad display is selected do not work with a LAYOUT tab selected. Look at Sketch 1 in this handout to see the doodles you will be drawing in this lab. Accurately draw a rectangle 10.5 wide by 8 tall You will use SNAP, GRID and the coordinate display. Heres how to do it: Click on the SNAP and GRID buttons at the bottom of the AutoCad display to turn these functions on. What do you see now? Which button causes this change? Start LINE by clicking on the LINE toolbar button or by choosing DRAW: LINE. Enter the coordinate 0, 0 for the first endpoint. This will be the lower left corner of the rectangle. Do not enter another coordinate right now. Just move the cursor around. How does it act? Click on GRID to turn it off. Now move the cursor. How does it act now? Click on GRID to turn it back on. Click on SNAP to turn it off. Move the cursor around. How does the cursor act with SNAP off? Make sure both SNAP and GRID are on before you go to the next activity. Look now at the lower left corner of the AutoCad display. See the coordinates and how they change as you move the cursor? Use this coordinate display to finish the rectangle. Move the cursor to the right (east). Make the coordinates equal to 10.5000, 0.0000, 0.0000. When they do, click to end the first side of the rectangle. Move the cursor up (north) to 10.5000, 8.0000, 0.0000. Click to end the second side. Move the cursor left (west) to 0.0000, 8.0000, 0.0000. Click to end the third side. Type the letter C to close (finish) the rectangle. Accurately draw a second rectangle using ORTHO and Direct Distance Entry This rectangle will be 0.5 inches smaller all around than the first. This means this second rectangle will be 9.5 inches wide by 7.0 inches tall. Heres how to do it: Click on the ORTHO button at the bottom of the AutoCad display to turn this function on. ORTHO, SNAP and GRID (and MODEL) should all be on at this time. Start LINE. Use SNAP and GRID to accurately locate the first endpoint of the second rectangle. It should be 0.5 inches to the right and 0.5 inches up from the lower left corner of the first rectangle. This is the first visible GRID point in the lower left corner. Click on the SNAP and GRID buttons to turn these functions off. Move the cursor around the screen. How does the cursor act with ORTHO on?
DeeAnna Weed 14 Introduction to CAD

Move the cursor to the right (east) a little bit just enough to tell AutoCad which direction you want to go. Distance is not important. Type the number 9.5 and press the ENTER key. Move the cursor up (north) a little bit. Type the number 7 and press ENTER. Move the cursor left (west) a little bit, type 9.5, and press ENTER. Type the letter C to close the rectangle. Click on ORTHO to turn it off. Draw a circle using DRAW: CIRCLE: CENTER, RADIUS. Make the center at coordinate location 3, 3. Locate this center point by typing these coordinates directly or by using SNAP and GRID. Make the radius 2 inches. You figure out how to do this! Draw a square 2 inches on a side. Its lower left corner should be at coordinate location 7.5, 5. Use SNAP and GRID or use ORTHO to draw this square. You figure out how to do this! Check Sketch 1 to see if your drawing is beginning to look like mine. If your rectangles, circle or square are in the wrong places, erase them and try again. Learn how to set up SNAP and GRID, POLAR, and OBJECT SNAP Point the cursor at any one of these buttons at the bottom of the AutoCad display. Right-click to get the shortcut menu. Click on SETTINGS. Alternative: Choose TOOLS: DRAFTING SETTINGS. Study the DRAFTING SETTINGS window that appears. Note there are three tabs at the top of this window: SNAP AND GRID, POLAR TRACKING, and OBJECT SNAP. Click on the SNAP AND GRID tab. You dont have to do anything to these settings, but know how to change them for future use. You can change the X and Y spacing for SNAP and GRID to meet your needs. Leave ANGLE and X and Y BASE all set to zero. Leave SNAP TYPE & STYLE set to GRID SNAP and RECTANGULAR SNAP. Note: You will use ISOMETRIC SNAP later in the semester. Click on the POLAR TRACKING tab. Find the section called POLAR ANGLE SETTINGS. Change the value in the INCREMENT ANGLE box from 90 degrees to 45 degrees. In the future, if you want an angle that is different than those in the INCREMENT ANGLE list, put a check mark in the box next to ADDITIONAL ANGLES, click on NEW and type the angle in the box below. Leave the POLAR ANGLE MEASUREMENT set to ABSOLUTE. Leave the OBJECT SNAP TRACKING SETTINGS set to TRACK ORTHOGONALLY ONLY. Click on the OBJECT SNAP tab. You should know what all object snap settings will do. Put checks in the boxes next to ENDPOINT, MIDPOINT, CENTER, QUADRANT, TANGENT, and INTERSECTION. Click OK to save your changes and close the DRAFTING SETTINGS window.

DeeAnna Weed

15

Introduction to CAD

Draw a diamond 2 inches on a side using POLAR and Direct Distance Entry Click on the POLAR button at the bottom of the AutoCad display to turn this function on. Start LINE. Enter the coordinate 8.5, 4.5 for the first endpoint of the diamond. Hint: You can use SNAP and the coordinate display to locate this point, but be sure to turn SNAP off before you continue with the next step! Move the cursor around the screen. How does the cursor act with POLAR on? Move the cursor until the polar angle is 45 (northeast). Type the number 2 and press the ENTER key. Move the cursor to polar angle 135 (northwest) , type 2, and press ENTER. Move the cursor to polar angle 225 (southwest), type 2, and press ENTER. Type the letter C to close the diamond. Click on POLAR to turn this function off. Draw circles and lines using OSNAP Click on the OSNAP button at the bottom of the AutoCad display to turn this function on. Make sure all other buttons are off, except for the MODEL button. Start LINE and experiment with OSNAP. Hint: Osnap will work only when a command (such as LINE) is in progress. Move the cursor slowly around the circle. Move the cursor around the square and diamond. Move it over the rectangles. What symbols appear? Make an Osnap symbol appear and wait a bit without moving the cursor. A message box will appear. Can you figure out which Osnap setting matches with each symbol you see? Can you make the Tangent Osnap symbol appear? Draw more circles and lines using OSNAP The LINE command should still be active. Draw a line from the Center of the large circle to the northeast corner of the square (the Endpoint Osnap symbol will appear when you move the cursor to the corner). Hint: Its smart to wait until an Osnap symbol appears before you click to make a selection. If you work too fast, AutoCad may not select what you expect it to. Press ENTER to end the LINE command. Start LINE again. Draw a second line from the Center of the large circle to the southeast corner of the square. Press ENTER to end the LINE command. Start LINE. Draw a line from the lower right corner of the inner rectangle to the lower (south) Quadrant of the circle. End LINE. Start LINE. Draw a line from the same corner to the right (east) quadrant of the circle. End LINE. Start LINE. Draw a line from the Midpoint of one side of the diamond to the Midpoint of the opposite side. End LINE. Start LINE. Draw a similar diagonal line between the Midpoints of the other two sides of the diamond. End LINE. Choose DRAW: CIRCLE: CENTER, RADIUS. Draw a 0.5 inch radius circle with its center at the upper (north) Quadrant of the circle. Choose DRAW: CIRCLE: CENTER, RADIUS. Draw eight circles, each having a 0.1 inch radius. The center of each should where the square and diamond Intersect.
DeeAnna Weed 16 Introduction to CAD

Hint: Once you have done the first circle, press the ENTER key to quickly restart the CIRCLE: CENTER, RADIUS command to draw the remaining circles. Draw more lines using the Tangent Osnap setting Start LINE. Move the cursor over one of the circles. Can you make the Tangent symbol appear? If your experience is like mine, the Tangent Osnap pick will not appear, even though it is turned on. Press the TAB key when you see any Osnap symbol for the circle. The symbol should change to the next Osnap pick for the circle. Press TAB as many times as needed until you see the Tangent symbol. What does the Tangent symbol look like? Hints for using OSNAP and SNAP in the future: Do not have SNAP and OSNAP turned on at the same time. Turn on only the Osnap settings that you really need. Use the TAB key to rotate through the Osnap picks. Draw a line from the upper left corner of the inner rectangle to a Tangent point on the left side of the large circle. What does the Tangent Osnap setting do to help you draw? Draw more lines using Tangent Osnap Draw a line from a Tangent point on the northeast quarter of the 0.5 inch circle to the same upper left corner. Note: You may see the message box saying Deferred Tangent when you draw this line. Thats okay. AutoCad is just telling you that it doesnt quite know where the correct tangent point is at that moment. Pick the second endpoint and AutoCad will then figure out where the line should go. Your drawing at this point should look similar to Sketch 1.

Sketch 1

DeeAnna Weed

17

Introduction to CAD

Use OSNAP and grips to change existing geometry. Heres how to do this: Click on the line that goes from the center of the large circle to the northeast corner of the square. The blue grips should appear. Click on the upper right grip to make it turn red. Use Osnap to move the endpoint of this line to the northwest corner of the square. Click on the line that goes from the center of the large circle to the southeast corner of the square, so the grips appear. Use Osnap to move the upper-right endpoint of this line to the southwest corner of the square. Finish your drawing Put your name, the lab title (Doodles), the scale (None), and the date in a text block in the middle right of the drawing. Use DRAW: MULTILINE TEXT to do this. Make the font in this text block ARIAL. Your finished drawing should now look like Sketch 2.

Name: Your name Lab: Doodles Scale: None Date: Today's date

Sketch 2
Save, print and hand in your drawing Use a floppy disk, a writeable CD, a ZIP disk, or your storage space on the NICC network. See the Coloring book Picture lab for more information if you are not sure how to do this. CAUTION: You should always save your computer files to at least two places. I guarantee you will eventually lose or damage a disk during the semester. Print (plot) your drawing exactly as you did in the Coloring book Picture lab. Hand in a plot of your finished AutoCad drawing.

DeeAnna Weed

18

Introduction to CAD

Family Tree
Read: Assignment: Workbook pages 11 through 13. Use basic drawing commands, multiline text, multiline text editor, layers, snap and grid, leader 10 pts.

Sketch your family tree by hand on a sheet of notebook paper. You will hand this in later! First, put boxes at the top of your drawing for your grandparents and boxes in the middle for your parents. Near the bottom of your drawing, draw boxes for yourself, your brothers and sisters, and all spouses. If you have half-siblings, step-parents or -grandparents, or adopted members of your family, you can add them to your family tree. Optional: Add a fourth row of boxes for the children in your immediate family. Connect the boxes with straight lines and arrows as needed to show family relationships. Put the correct name in each box.
Name: DeeAnna Weed Lab: Family Tree Scale: None Date: 01/14/01

Bernard Edward Weed

Goldie Gladys McNees

Teddy Pepples

Viola Disbroe

Joseph Bernard Weed

Virginia Joyce Pepples

Charles Ray Kelly

DeeAnna Jo Weed

Joseph Charles Weed

Cindy Schultz

Randall Jay Weed

Lori Peterson

Log on to the network and start AutoCad. Open a new drawing using Start from Scratch. Open the Layer Manager (go to FORMAT: LAYERS...). Alternative: Click on the Layers toolbar button on the Object Properties toolbar. This button looks like a stack of white paper. Create 3 new layers: one named TEXT, one named BOXES and a third named LINES. For the BOXES layer, set the line thickness to 1.0 mm and the color to red. For the LINES layer, change the line thickness to 0.4 mm and the color to blue. Leave the line thickness and color for the TEXT layer set to the default values. (You wont be drawing lines on this layer, so you dont need to worry about the line thickness.) Click OK at the bottom of the Layer Manager window. CAUTION: Do not click the CLOSE WINDOW box at the upper right of the window if you do, youll lose all the changes youve made.

DeeAnna Weed

19

Introduction to CAD

Note: You will not see the different thicknesses of the lines on your display at this time. The different line thicknesses only show when you do a plot preview or a plot of the drawing. You can change the line thicknesses later if you dont like them. Change the default text style by going to FORMAT: TEXT STYLE. Change the FONT NAME to romand.shx, Arial, or another simple font (dont get too fancy here!) Click APPLY then CLOSE to save the changes. All text you make from now on will be displayed in the font you chose. Change the default arrow style. by going to FORMAT: DIMENSION STYLE. Click on MODIFY, then click on the LINES AND ARROWS tab at the top of the screen. Change ARROWHEAD: LEADER to the type of arrowhead you would like to use (closed filled is fine). Change the ARROW SIZE to 0.25 inches long. Click OK, then click CLOSE. All arrows you draw from now on will now have arrowheads that are 0.25 inch long and the style you selected. Turn on GRID and SNAP in TOOLS: DRAFTING SETTINGS. Alternative: Point your cursor at the SNAP or GRID button at the bottom of the AutoCad screen. Click the right-hand mouse button with your middle finger. Point the cursor at SETTINGS and click the left-hand (regular) mouse button. The DRAFTING SETTINGS screen should appear. Set SNAP X and Y SPACING to 0.25 inch and GRID X and Y SPACING to 0.5 inch. Note: You can turn GRID or SNAP on and off quickly and easily. Just click the GRID or SNAP buttons at the bottom of the AutoCad display. Find the window near the top of the AutoCad display that has a light bulb, sun, and other symbols in it. This window is the Layer Selection window. Click on the down triangle to the right of this window. Select the TEXT layer. Click once. The TEXT layer is now active, which means that everything you now draw will be on the TEXT layer. You will need to repeat this basic procedure every time you want to draw on a new layer. Start the actual family tree by making a text block and typing the longest name in it. Select DRAW: TEXT: MULTILINE TEXT. Next, use your cursor to draw an imaginary box on the screen. The box will not be visible after you draw it, but your text will be located inside it. The MULTILINE TEXT EDITOR window should appear next. Type the longest name in your family tree. When youre done typing, right click to see a shortcut menu and look for JUSTIFICATION. Change the text alignment from TOP LEFT to TOP CENTER. Click OK.

DeeAnna Weed

20

Introduction to CAD

Click on the text block youve just created. Small blue boxes appear at each corner of the rectangle. These are called grips. Make the text block smaller by dragging on the grips. What happens? Use the Layer Selection window to make the BOXES layer active. Turn SNAP and GRID on by clicking on the SNAP and GRID buttons at the bottom of the AutoCad display. Dots should appear in the AutoCad drawing window. Draw a rectangle around the name using DRAW: RECTANGLE. A red rectangle should appear when youre done. If the box is NOT red, you are not drawing on the BOXES layer or the BOXES layer is not set to RED. You need to fix this! If the rectangle is not quite the right size, click on it until you see small blue grips appear. Resize the box by dragging on the grips. Turn SNAP off and use MODIFY: MOVE to move the text block by eye until it appears centered inside the box. Turn SNAP back on. Caution: Dont move the box with SNAP off move the text block instead. If you move the box with SNAP off, you will have trouble later when you draw the arrows, because the moved box will not line up with the SNAP spots. Note: This is one of the FEW times that its OK to do something by eye. When youre happy with the way this first name and its box looks, use MODIFY: COPY to make enough copies of the box and text block to create the rough design of your family tree. Locate your boxes at least 1 inch apart, or you will have trouble later with the arrows. Be sure to use SNAP to accurately and quickly locate each of these copies dont move them by eye. Use MODIFY: MOVE if needed to rearrange the geometry to make an attractive design. Dont worry that all the text blocks show the same name right now. Youll fix that soon. Look at the copied boxes and text blocks. Figure out if all of these entities are on the currently active layer that is, on the BOXES layer. (Hint: Are they all the BOXES color?) What happens when you copy things that are created on different layers? Click on a text block that you need to change. Then choose MODIFY: OBJECT: TEXT: EDIT to open the MULTILINE TEXT EDITOR. Alternative: Click on the text block you want to change. Click the right-hand mouse button. Point the cursor at MTEXT EDIT and click the left-hand (regular) mouse button to open the MULTILINE TEXT EDITOR. Change the name as needed. Click OK. Repeat this process to change the names in the rest of the text blocks. Make the LINES layer active, and make sure SNAP is on. Choose DIMENSION: LEADER. Now change the default settings for LEADER to make it easier for you to use this command to quickly draw plain arrows. Look at the COMMAND LINE at the bottom of the AutoCad display. It should say Specify first leader point, or [Settings] <Settings>:

DeeAnna Weed

21

Introduction to CAD

Note: The first part of this message tells you what the default choice is (what AutoCad assumes youll probably want to do). The second part of the message gives you other options; in this case, the only option you can choose is settings. Type the letter of the option you want to choose. In this case, type the letter s for SETTINGS. The LEADER SETTINGS window should appear. Click the ANNOTATION tab at the top of the window. Look for the section called ANNOTATION TYPE. AutoCad assumes that leaders (arrows) should have an annotation (text message) next to the arrow, but in this lab you dont want to do this. So click the radio button circle next to NONE. A black dot should appear in the circle. Click OK. Now accurately connect the boxes with arrows (AutoCad calls them Leaders) using DIMENSION: LEADER and SNAP. All of your arrows should be BLUE. If they are not, you are not drawing on the LINES layer or the LINES layer is not set to BLUE. You need to fix this! If an arrow isnt in quite the right place or quite the right length, click on the arrow until the blue grips appear. Click and drag on the grips as needed to resize the arrow. Hint 1: The first place you click will be where the arrowhead will be located. Hint 2: Press ENTER as many times as necessary to end an arrow. Hint 3: If there is no command currently active, you can press ENTER to repeat the last command. Try this to restart the LEADER command to draw a new arrow. Hint 4: If your leader line is shorter than the arrowhead is long, AutoCad will not display the arrowhead. You must make the leader longer to fix this problem. If needed, use MODIFY: MOVE to spread your boxes apart to make room for the longer leaders. Put your name, the lab title (Family Tree), the scale (No scale), and the date in a text block at the upper right-hand corner. Use DRAW: MULTILINE TEXT to do this. Your finished AutoCad drawing should be neat and well organized. Boxes should be spaced neatly across the page. Names should be easy to read. Arrowheads should be nicely sized large enough to be easy to see, but not so big they look awkward. If necessary, change the text size or arrowhead size. Save your drawing. Plot the drawing using the following settings: extents, landscape, centered on page, scaled to fit, monochrome plot style. Hand in a plot of your AutoCad drawing and your hand-drawn sketch.

DeeAnna Weed

22

Introduction to CAD

Trimming
TRIM is an important but confusing feature in AutoCad. You will become good at using the command after a little practice. To get started, think about what you do when you use a ruler and Exacto knife to accurately cut a piece of paper into two parts: 1. Put a ruler on the paper next to a line along which you want to cut. 2. Draw the knife along the boundary line. 3. Throw the part of the paper away that you no longer want to use. The TRIM command works about the same way. Start the TRIM command by choosing MODIFY: TRIM or by clicking on the TRIM tool button in the MODIFY toolbar. Look at the Command line. It should say:
Select cutting edges . . . Select objects:

Explanation: Choose objects that will be the rulers you will use to control your cuts. AutoCad calls these objects cutting edges when using the Trim command. Click on the pieces of geometry that you want to use for your cutting edges. Note: Cutting edges can be lines, arcs, circles or other geometry. You can also choose more than one cutting edge at a time, if you need to. When you are done picking cutting edges, press ENTER to go to the next step.

I have picked these lines to be my straightedges:

DeeAnna Weed

23

Introduction to CAD

Look at the Command line. It should now say:


Select object to trim or shift-select to extend [Project/Edge/Undo]:

Explanation: You need to choose the objects you want to cut. Click on an object you want to trim. Keep in mind that the object must have a cutting edge overlapping it in order for you to be able to trim the object. Be sure to click on the part of the object that you want to throw away, not the part that you want to keep. Dont click right where objects intersect AutoCad might misunderstand and trim an object you dont want trimmed. Hint: If you make a mistake, you can fix it without stopping the TRIM command. If you want to undo the last trim operation, type the letter U and press ENTER. Click until you have trimmed all the objects you need to trim using the existing cutting edges. When you are done trimming objects, press ENTER to end the command.

I clicked here on the line to remove the middle I clicked here on the circle to remove the eastern part

Extend The EXTEND command is closely related to the TRIM command. Trim shortens an object to a specific boundary. Extend lengthens an object to a specific boundary. Try it! Start the EXTEND command by choosing MODIFY: EXTEND or by clicking on the EXTEND tool button in the MODIFY toolbar. You can also use the Extend command while in a Trim operation Hold down the SHIFT key and select one or more objects to extend.

DeeAnna Weed

24

Introduction to CAD

Object Snap
Object snap (OSNAP) is a powerful tool to help you draw accurately. There are two ways to turn on OSNAP settings. You have already learned one way, which is to turn on OSNAP settings in the DRAFTING SETTINGS window. OSNAP settings turned on this way are called running snaps. The other way is to temporarily turn on an OSNAP setting using the OSNAP toolbar. This is called a single-point snap. Running snaps Choose TOOLS: DRAFTING SETTINGS. Alternative: Right-click on the OSNAP button at the bottom of the computer screen, then choose SETTINGS from the list that appears. Click to put a check mark in the boxes next to OSNAP settings you want to turn on. Click to remove check marks for any OSNAP settings you want to turn off. Click OK. To use these running snaps, turn on the OSNAP button at the bottom of the computer screen turned on, then start a command to draw, copy, or move geometry. As you work, you will see various icons appear whenever you point the cursor at geometry in your drawing that has the kinds of snap points you have turned on. For instance, a center snap will appear only for geometry that has centers: circles, arcs, and ellipses. An intersection snap will appear only where objects cross over each other. Sometimes more than one running snap is active for a particular piece of geometry. To see all active OSNAP settings for that geometry, press the TAB key when an OSNAP icon is visible. For example, suppose you have the CENTER, QUADRANT and TANGENT running snaps on. You will probably only see the CENTER snap appear when you point the cursor at a circle. To see the TANGENT and QUADRANT snaps for the circle, press the TAB key several times. Single-point snaps You must first have the OBJECT SNAP toolbar displayed to use single-point snaps. Choose VIEW: TOOLBARS. Click to put an X in the box next to OBJECT SNAP. Or point the cursor at the gray bars at the end of any visible toolbar. Right click. Click on the OBJECT SNAP toolbar in the list that appears. To use a single-point snap, turn on the OSNAP button at the bottom of the computer screen turned on, then start a command to draw, copy, or move geometry. Click on a button on the OSNAP toolbar. The icon for that OSNAP setting will appear whenever you point the cursor at geometry that has that kind of snap point. If you change your mind, just click another toolbar button to use that OSNAP setting instead. Note: None of the running snaps will work as long as any single-point snap is active. After you choose a point using the single-point snap setting, that snap will no longer work. You must either click another button on the OSNAP toolbar or use a running snap.

DeeAnna Weed

25

Introduction to CAD

Object snap settings Here are the OSNAP buttons you can choose on the OSNAP toolbar. The list describes each button starting with the top (or left-hand) button on the toolbar. Temporary Track Point (TTP): Creates a temporary snap point that is offset vertically or horizontally from a reference point. To use TTP, choose a point using a running OSNAP setting. Click. Move the cursor to show AutoCad which vertical or horizontal direction you want to go away from the selected point. Type a distance. Press ENTER. The actual endpoint of the geometry you want to draw will start at this new location. TTP is only found on the OSNAP toolbar. It is not available in DRAFTING SETTINGS. Snap From: Creates a temporary snap point that is offset any direction from a reference point. To use Snap From, choose a point using a running OSNAP setting. Click. Type in a relative coordinate (@X,Y). Press ENTER. The actual endpoint of the geometry you want to draw will start at this new location. Snap From is only found on the OSNAP toolbar. It is not available in DRAFTING SETTINGS. Endpoint: Snaps to the closest endpoint of an arc or a line. Midpoint: Snaps to the midpoint (middle) of an arc or a line. Intersection: Snaps to the intersection of objects, such as arcs, circles, ellipses, elliptical arcs, lines, multilines, polylines, rays, splines, or construction lines (xlines). Apparent Intersect: Snaps to an apparent intersection: the place where objects, such as arcs, circles, ellipses, elliptical arcs, lines, multilines, polylines, rays, splines, or construction lines (xlines), would intersect if they were lengthened. Extension: Snaps to the imaginary extension of an arc or line. To use Extension, pause over the endpoint of a line or arc until small plus sign (+) appears. Move the cursor away from the endpoint to show AutoCad which direction you want to go away from the end point you selected. Type in a distance to tell AutoCad how far the extension should go. Press Enter. Your new geometry will start at that point. Center: Snaps to the center of an arc, circle, or ellipse. Quadrant: Snaps to a quadrant point of an arc or a circle. The quadrant points of a circle are the 0, 90, 180, 270 points. Tangent: Snaps to the tangent of an arc or a circle. Perpendicular: Creates a line or arc that is perpendicular to an existing arc, circle, ellipse, elliptical arc, line, multiline, polyline, ray, solid, spline, or construction line. The line or arc will start at a point you choose and end at the existing geometry. To use Perpendicular, choose a point at which the new line or arc will start. Choose the existing geometry that the new geometry will be perpendicular to. Parallel: Creates a line starting at a specific point that is parallel to an existing line. To use Parallel, choose a point at which the new line will start. Move the cursor to the existing line. Wait until a small parallel line symbol appears. Move the cursor parallel to the existing line to show AutoCad which direction the new line should run. Type in a distance to tell AutoCad how long the new line should be. Press Enter.

DeeAnna Weed

26

Introduction to CAD

Object snap settings continued Insert: Snaps to the insertion point of text, a block, a shape, or an attribute. Node: Snaps to a point object drawn with any command in the DRAW: POINT menu. Nearest: Snaps to the nearest point of an arc, a circle, a line, or a point. None: Turns off Object Snap mode so none of the running snap settings will work. This is the same as turning off the OSNAP button at the bottom of the computer screen, selecting geometry, then turning the OSNAP button back on. Object Snap Settings: Sets running object snap modes. This is the same as choosing TOOLS: DRAFTING SETTINGS.

DeeAnna Weed

27

Introduction to CAD

Construction Geometry
Sometimes you must draw more geometry than just the geometry required to describe the objects you want to create. This secondary geometry is called construction geometry. You will need to draw construction geometry in many of the lab exercises you will do from now on. The sketches at right show an object that would be difficult to draw without using construction geometry. A 1 diameter drilled hole is located on a circular plate 7 in diameter. The center of the hole is 2.5 inches from the center of the plate. It is placed 60 counter-clockwise from the centerline of a slot cut into the edge of the plate. The first sketch shows the object with its drilled hole and slot but it is impossible to tell from this sketch exactly where the drilled hole is located. We need more information, so lets add construction geometry based on the information given above. The second sketch shows the center of the part, the 2.5 radius circle and the 60 line. This geometry is imaginary you would not really see it on the real object, so it is drawn using a center line type, not a continuous line type. The construction geometry line width is also thin so it does not visually compete with the object geometry. The last sketch shows the finished object, its construction geometry, and all dimensions needed to completely describe the object. The construction geometry was not deleted after the drilled hole is drawn. Instead, it was left visible and was fully dimensioned to help fully describe how the object is created. Not all construction geometry used to draw an object needs to appear on the finished drawing, however. Show only show the construction geometry that is needed to adequately and completely dimension an object. Construction geometry serves two purposes: To accurately construct an object To fully describe an object on a finished drawing Some construction geometry is needed only in the drawing process and should not be visible in the finished drawing. Other construction geometry serves both purposes and should be left visible and dimensioned in the final drawing.

DeeAnna Weed

28

Introduction to CAD

Dimensioning
Definitions Dimension text: Value of the dimension. The letter R in front of a dimension means radius. The symbol in front of a dimension means diameter. The values 2.36, 5.50, 3.00, 2.00, and 1.00 in the drawings below are examples of dimension text. Dimension arrow: Arrow that extends from the dimension text to an extension line. The arrows on either side of the 2.36 dimension in the sketches below are dimension arrows. Extension line: Line that extends from an object to a dimension arrow. Leader: Arrow that extends from a circle, ellipse or arc to its dimension text. In the drawings below, the arrow from the large circle to 2.00 is a leader. Linear dimension: Straight-line measurement of the vertical (north-south) or horizontal (eastwest) distance between any two points. The 5.50 dimension below is a linear dimension. Aligned dimension: Straight-line measurement of the distance between any two points. The 2.36 dimension below is an aligned dimension. Diameter dimension: Distance from one side of a circle to the other side through the center. Diameter dimensions have the symbol in front. Radius dimension: Distance from the center of a circle or arc to its edge. Radius dimensions have the letter R in front. Angular dimension: The angle between the endpoints of an arc, the angle of a segment of a circle, or the angle between two lines. Usually an angular dimension is followed by the symbol for degrees (). Dimension commands Select all dimension commands from the DIMENSION menu at the top of your AutoCad display. If you prefer, you can use the DIMENSION toolbar instead. Rules of thumb Do not crowd dimensions too closely together so they become hard to read. Make dimension text large enough to read easily, but small enough so the object you are dimensioning is not crowded or overwhelmed. See Dimension Style on page 48 to learn how to resize dimension text and the other features of your dimensions. Do not put a dimension on top of other geometry or other entities. See the examples below:

Bad:

Better:

DeeAnna Weed

29

Introduction to CAD

Rules of thumb, continued Do not cross dimensions:

Bad:

Better:

If possible, place dimensions outside the object:

Bad:

Better:

If you must place some dimensions inside the object, keep them to a minimum:

Bad:

Better:

Use OSNAP to align dimension text for neatness:

Bad:
DeeAnna Weed

Better:
30 Introduction to CAD

Yoke
Read: Assignment: Workbook pages 23 through 30. Use basic drawing commands, layers, object snap, break, accurate plot scaling 10 pts.

Log on to the network and start AutoCad. Open a new drawing using Start from Scratch. Open the Layer Manager (go to FORMAT: LAYERS...). Alternative: Click on the Layers toolbar button on the Object Properties toolbar. This button looks like a stack of white paper. Create 3 new layers: one named TEXT, one named CENTER and a third named OBJECT. For the OBJECT layer, set the line thickness to 0.6 mm and the color to red. Leave the line type set to CONTINUOUS, which is a solid line. For the CENTER layer, change the line type to CENTER2 and the color to blue. Leave the line thickness set to DEFAULT. Leave the line thickness, line type, and color for the TEXT layer set to the default values. (You wont be drawing lines on this layer, so you dont need to worry about the line thickness or line type.) Click OK at the bottom of the Layer Manager window. CAUTION: Do not click the CLOSE WINDOW box at the upper right of the window if you do, youll lose all the changes youve made. Note: You will not see the different thicknesses of the lines on your display at this time. The different line thicknesses only show in a plot preview or a plot of the drawing. Change the default text style by going to FORMAT: TEXT STYLE. Change the FONT NAME to romand.shx, Arial, or another simple font (dont get too fancy here!) Click APPLY then CLOSE to save the changes. All text you make from now on will be displayed in the font you chose. Find the window near the top of the AutoCad display that has a light bulb, sun, and other symbols in it. This window is the Layer Selection window. Click on the down triangle to the right of this window. Use your mouse to select the CENTER layer. Click once. The CENTER layer is now active, which means that everything you now draw will be on the CENTER layer. You will need to repeat this basic procedure every time you want to draw on a new layer. Draw the construction geometry as shown in Sketch 1. Note: Construction geometry isnt really a part of the object but you often have to draw construction geometry first before you can accurately draw object geometry. The two lines and the 2.240 inch radius arc are construction geometry. Use SNAP, POLAR, or ORTHO to draw two lines that cross as shown in the sketch in this handout. Make each line about 3.7 inches long. Use TOOLS: DRAFTING SETTINGS: OBJECT SNAP to set OSNAP to INTERSECTION. Turn OSNAP on. Make sure SNAP is off.

DeeAnna Weed

31

Introduction to CAD

Sketch 1. Next, draw the arc. Do this in two steps. Draw an accurate, complete circle using CIRCLE: CENTER, RADIUS. Use OSNAP to select the intersection of the two lines to be the circles center. Use MODIFY: BREAK to change the circle into an arc similar to the one shown in the drawing below. Be sure to turn off OSNAP before using BREAK. You may have to try the BREAK command several times before you get the hang of using it correctly. Hint: You can easily fix any problems made by using BREAK. Choose EDIT: UNDO or click the UNDO button (looks like a curving arrow pointing to the left) on the Standard toolbar. Do this as many times as needed. Check out the REDO command as well.

Sketch 2.

DeeAnna Weed

32

Introduction to CAD

Make the OBJECT layer active: Click on the down triangle to the right of the Layer Selection window. Use your mouse to select the OBJECT layer. Click once. The OBJECT layer is now active, which means that everything you now draw will be on the OBJECT layer. Drawing the Yoke on the OBJECT layer. Use OSNAP and DRAW: CIRCLE: CENTER, DIAMETER and DRAW: CIRCLE: TAN, TAN, RADIUS to draw a total of nine (yes, 9!) circles. Finish the Yoke by using MODIFY: TRIM to change three of the circles into arcs. All dimensions you will need to draw the Yoke are shown in Sketch 2. Make the TEXT layer active: Click on the down triangle to the right of the Layer Selection window. Use your mouse to select the TEXT layer. Click once. Use DIMENSION: DIAMETER and DIMENSION: RADIUS to create all dimensions shown in Sketch 3. These dimensions should all be on the TEXT layer. Only the construction geometry shown below should be in your finished drawing. If you have other construction geometry, put it on a separate layer and freeze or turn off that layer. Put your name, the lab title (Yoke), the scale (1 inch = 1 inch), and the date in a text block at the upper right-hand corner. Your finished drawing should look similar to Sketch 3. Save your drawing. Plot the drawing using the following settings: extents, landscape, centered on page, 1:1 scale, monochrome plot style. Hand in a copy of your finished drawing.

Sketch 3.

DeeAnna Weed

33

Introduction to CAD

Doohickey
Read: Assignment: Workbook pages 23 through 30. Use basic drawing commands, layers, dimensioning, object snap, break, accurate plot scaling 10 pts.

Log on to the network and start AutoCad. Open a new drawing using Start from Scratch. Create three new layers: OBJECT, CONSTR, and TEXT. For the OBJECT layer, set the line thickness to 0.6 mm and the color to red. Leave the line type set to DEFAULT, which is a continuous (solid) line. For the CONSTR layer, change the line type to CENTER2 and the color to blue. Leave the line thickness set to DEFAULT. Dont change the line thickness, line type and color for the TEXT layer. (You wont be drawing lines on this layer, so you dont need to worry about the line thickness or line type.) Click OK. Draw the object shown in Sketch 1 using the techniques discussed in Chapter 3 of the text. Your construction geometry should be on the CONSTR layer. Your object geometry should be on the OBJECT layer. All text and dimensions should be on the TEXT layer.

Sketch 1.

DeeAnna Weed

34

Introduction to CAD

First, draw the construction geometry on the CONSTR layer, then draw the small circles on the OBJECT layer at the intersections of the construction geometry (Sketch 2).

Sketch 2 Draw tangent circles and a tangent line to define the outer boundary of the object (Sketch 3). Yes, I agree: the radius of the biggest circle is not explicitly given on the drawing. There is enough information provided for you to figure it out!

Sketch 3
DeeAnna Weed 35 Introduction to CAD

TRIM the circles into arcs. Use MODIFY: OFFSET to make a copy of the arcs and line inside the outer boundary (Sketch 4). Create the fillets between the R1.25 circles and the offset arcs. Fillet between the inner line on the lefthand side of the part and the R1.25 circles. Trim the three R1.25 circles as needed to finish the object.

Sketch 4 Create dimensions on the TEXT layer as shown on Sketch 1. Do not create the note Fillet (6 total in this object). The note at the lower left of the sketch is a MULTILINE TEXT block. Each 0.75 dimension is perpendicular (90) to the pair of arcs or pair of lines the dimension relates to. You will need to create accurate construction geometry to help you create these dimensions. Do not create these dimensions by eye. Note 1: A radius line is any line drawn from the center of an arc long enough so it touches or crosses over the arc. A radius line is, by defninition, perpendicular to the arc. Note 2: If you create a line segment that is parallel to a line by using COPY or OFFSET, the line segment is parallel to the line. If you rotate that line segment by exactly 90, the rotated line segment is perpendicular to the line. Only the construction geometry shown on Sketch 1 should be in your finished drawing. If you have other construction geometry, create a new layer, put the extra construction geometry on the new layer, then freeze or turn off the layer so the geometry on that layer is not visible. Put your name, the lab title (Doohickey), the scale (1 inch = 2 inch), and the date in a text block at the upper right-hand corner. Save your drawing. Plot the drawing using the following settings: extents, landscape, centered on page, 1:2 scale, monochrome plot style. Hand in a copy of your finished drawing.

DeeAnna Weed

36

Introduction to CAD

Finishing Schedule, Extra Credit


Read: Assignment: Workbook pages 23 through 30. Use basic drawing commands, snap and grid, multiline text, move, donut. Optional: array, multiple copy, stretch Extra credit 10 pts.

Log on to the network and start AutoCad. Open a new drawing using Start from Scratch. Make sure the MODEL tab at the bottom of the AutoCad display is selected do not work with a LAYOUT tab selected. Turn on GRID. Leave SNAP off for now. Create the text in four and only four! text blocks Theres a reason why I suggest that you do the text first you will end up doing a lot more work if you draw the lines first. Trust me Ive done it both ways! Use Arial, Country Blueprint, Garamond, or Times New Roman font. The font shown here is Country Blueprint. Type the vertical column of text (Entry, etc.) in one text block. Press the ENTER key after each room name. Type the horizontal column of text (Vinyl, etc.) in another. Press the ENTER key after each word. Experiment to find out how you rotate the text. Type the title in a third text block. Type the headings under the title in the fourth text block. Press the space bar on your keyboard to put about 6 spaces between each heading. Dont worry about the exact number of spaces right now. Format the vertical column (Entry) Click on the text block to select it. Right click to display a shortcut menu. Choose MTEXT EDIT. When the text editor appears, use the cursor to select the entire column of text. Change the size of the text bigger or smaller or change the line spacing from Single to 1.5 or Double. Your goal is to make each line of text fit within the 0.5 inch grid that is displayed on your screen. You will have to experiment to see what works best. Format the horizontal column (Vinyl) Make the text size and other formatting for the horizontal column (Vinyl, etc.) exactly the same as for the vertical column. Move the text blocks around to form the basic shape of the table Use MODIFY: MOVE to adjust the location of the vertical and horizontal text blocks. Your goal
DeeAnna Weed 37 Introduction to CAD

is to locate each word in the space between lines of GRID dots. When you move these text blocks, SNAP should be off and GRID should be on. Alternative to using MODIFY:MOVE: Click on a text block. Right-click to display a short-cut menu. Click on MOVE. Locate the column headings in the space between GRID dots immediately above the words in the horizontal text block. Locate the title in the space above the column headings. Create the table Turn SNAP on now. Draw the lines of the table. If needed, accurately lengthen or shorten lines using the grips and SNAP. Use SNAP and the grips to move lines as needed. Optional: Try MODIFY: ARRAY to draw some of the lines in the table. Optional: If you need to make a group of lines longer or shorter, you can use MODIFY: STRETCH to resize all the lines at one time. Click on the text block of column headings to select it. Right click to display a shortcut menu. Choose MTEXT EDIT. Add spaces as needed between words in this text block so each word is centered in its box. Make the dots Use DRAW: DONUT and SNAP to make the dots. To make it easy to put the donuts in the middle of each box, set the SNAP X SPACING and SNAP Y SPACING to half the length of the box sides. (Example: If each box is 0.5 inch tall and 0.5 inch wide, change both SNAP SPACING values to 0.25 inch.) To make dots, set the interior diameter of the donut to 0 (zero). You choose the outer diameter of the dots. Finish the drawing Your finished table should be attractive, easy to read, and accurately drawn. I will take points off if words are not centered from side to side and top to bottom in their boxes or if the lines of the table are not drawn accurately. Put your name, the lab title (Finishing Schedule), the scale (None), and the date in a text block at the upper right-hand corner of your drawing. Save your drawing. Plot the drawing using the following settings: extents, landscape, centered on page, scaled to fit, monochrome plot style. Hand in a plot of your finished AutoCad drawing.

DeeAnna Weed

38

Introduction to CAD

Adjustment Plate, Extra Credit


Read: Assignment: Workbook pages 23 through 30. Use basic drawing commands, layers, dimensioning, object snap, accurate plot scaling Extra credit 10 pts.

Log on to the network and start AutoCad. Open a new drawing using Start from Scratch. Create 3 new layers: one named TEXT, one named CONSTR and a third named OBJECT. For the OBJECT layer, set the line thickness to 0.6 mm and the color to red. Leave the line type set to CONTINUOUS, which is a solid line. For the CONSTR layer, change the line type to CENTER2 and the color to blue. Leave the line thickness set to DEFAULT. Leave the line thickness, line type, and color for the TEXT layer set to the default values. (You wont be drawing lines on this layer, so you dont need to worry about the line thickness or line type.) Draw the object shown below using the techniques discussed in Chapter 3 of the textbook. Your construction geometry should be on the CONSTR layer and your object geometry should be on the OBJECT layer. Hint 1: There are NO straight lines in this drawing. Where one curve stops, another starts. Hint 2: The word typical means there is at least one other place in this drawing where this dimension is used, but the dimension has not been shown. Typical is often abbreviated to TYP on a drawing. Hint 3: The common center point of the R3.25, R4.75, and R6.00 dimensions is not at the end of a curve. It is 3 inches directly above the 1.5 diameter circle.

Create all dimensions as shown on the drawing above. The dimensions should be on the TEXT layer. Make these exceptions:
DeeAnna Weed 39 Introduction to CAD

Do not add the word typical. Do not show the extra line from the R3.25, R4.75, and R6.00 dimensions to their common center point. Do not show the X at the center point of the R3.25, R4.75, and R6.00 dimensions. Only the construction geometry shown in the drawing above should be in your finished drawing. If you have other construction geometry, put it on a separate layer and freeze or turn off that layer. Put your name, the lab title (Adjustment Plate), the scale (1 inch = 2 inch), and the date in a text block at the upper right-hand corner. Save your drawing. Plot the drawing using the following settings: extents, landscape, centered on page, 1:2 scale, monochrome plot style. Hand in a copy of your finished drawing.

DeeAnna Weed

40

Introduction to CAD

Scaling a Regular Drawing


Scaling is the process of resizing measurements so the drawing of an object will fit on a sheet of paper. People who draft (draw) by hand must usually scale a real-life object well before they put pencil to paper. For instance, a house 50 feet long may be drawn only 5 inches long. In AutoCad, the paper you draw on is infinitely huge, so always draw objects full size. Dont worry about scale until you get ready to plot (print) a drawing. The scale you chose for plotting will depend on the size of paper used for plotting and the kind of plot that should be made. Scaled-to-fit drawings If you want to make a quick plot of a drawing or if you have a drawing whose size on the page is not important, use SCALED TO FIT for your plot scale. This selection tells AutoCad to calculate the scale that will plot the objects youve drawn as large as possible on the page. Finished engineering and technical drawings are seldom plotted using scaled to fit. Accurately scaled drawings Many drawings are plotted using a specific standard scale, however. Examples of standard scales are 1 inch = 10 inches or 1 inch = 5 feet. If a drawing is scaled using a standard scale, the scale should be given somewhere on the finished drawing. A person can then measure a drawing with a ruler and quickly translate the ruler measurements into accurate real world dimensions. The DeeAnna approved scales you should use for plotting drawings in this class are listed below. If you see Architectural only after a scale, use it ONLY when your dimensions are in Architectural units of feet and inches. The other scales are for use with all other unit formats. DeeAnna approved plot scales
Scales used for very small objects: 1 = 0.01 1 = 0.1 1 = 0.125 1 = 0.25 1 = 0.5 1=1 1=2 1=3 1=4 1=8 1 = 10 1 = 12 1 = 20 1 = 24 1 = 30 1 = 40 1 = 48 1 = 50 1 = 60 1 = 72 1 = 80 1 = 96 1 = 100 1 = 120 1 = 200 1 = 240 (100 = 1) (10 = 1) (8 = 1) (4 = 1) (2 = 1)

Scale for objects drawn full size:

(1 = 1, architectural units only) (1 = 2, architectural units only) (1 = 4, architectural units only) (1 = 6, architectural units only) (1 = 8, architectural units only) (1 = 10, architectural units only) (1 = 20, architectural units only)

Scales used for very large objects:

DeeAnna Weed

41

Introduction to CAD

What do these scales mean? Here are some examples to help you understand: An object just a little smaller than the page its plotted on usually will be drawn full scale. The drawing shows the object full size. Example: Scale: 1 = 1 means 1 inch on the drawing is equal to 1 inch on the real object. If the object is larger than the page its drawn on, the drawing of the object must be smaller than the real-life object. Example: Scale: 1 = 10 means 1 drawing inch is equal to 10 real inches. If the object is much smaller than the page its drawn on, the drawing of the object may be larger than the real-life object. Example: Scale: 1 = 0.25 means 1 drawing inch is equal to 0.25 real inches. Note: A scale of 4 = 1 means the same thing as a scale of 1 = 0.25, but traditionally the first number is usually a 1. Some objects, such as house plans, are drawn and dimensioned using architectural units. For these drawings the drawing scale should be stated in mixed units of feet and inches rather than in inches and inches as in the previous examples. For example, Scale: 1 = 48 was the scale factor chosen when setting up a plot of an architectural drawing. On the drawing, however, this scale was stated as Scale: 1 = 4 rather than 1 = 48. Both ways of stating the scale mean the same thing, but the mixed way is easier for architects, home owners, and trades people to understand, since they measure rooms and buildings in feet and inches, not just inches. AutoCad does not understand mixed units, so you must always enter the scale using the same units for the first and second numbers when scaling drawings. Finding a standard scale Obviously, there are many standard scales to choose from. The best choice for a particular drawing is the scale that allows your drawing to be plotted as large as possible on the page, yet still be accurate. Since this scale is likely to be close to the scaled to fit value calculated by AutoCad, you can use this quick method to find the best standard scale for your drawing: When you are ready to plot your finished drawing, choose FILE: PAGE SETUP or FILE: PLOT... and select the PLOT SETTINGS tab. Choose the correct plot area. This should be EXTENTS if you want to plot all the objects you have drawn. If you want to plot only part of the objects you have drawn, you should choose WINDOW and select the region you want to be plotted. Choose SCALED TO FIT for the PLOT SCALE. Check the numbers showing in the CUSTOM windows. This is the scale that AutoCad will use for a scaled-to-fit plot. The first number is typically a 1, and the second number will (usually) be a decimal number, such as 0.147 or 50.436. Round the second number up to the next larger value that corresponds to a scale in the list of DeeAnna approved plot scales on page 41. Type that number in the second box. Make all other changes needed to the PLOT SETTINGS and PLOT DEVICE tabs. Click OK or PLOT.

DeeAnna Weed

42

Introduction to CAD

Line type Scale


You can change the size of the dashes and dots in a line type such as HIDDEN or CENTER, so the line type is scaled appropriately for your drawing. A lines type with dashes and dots that are too coarse or too fine can be distracting or can even appear as a solid line. There is no formal rule for scaling linotypes. You must use your own judgment and the preferences of your employer. To change the line type scale, choose FORMAT: LINETYPE. Click on SHOW DETAILS. In the section that appears at the bottom of the screen, you should see: Global Scale Factor: The scale factor that is applied to all line types. If you make this number bigger, your line types will become coarser. If you make the number smaller, the line types will become finer. This change will apply to all line types used in your drawing. Rule of thumb: Try at first a global scale that corresponds to the scale of your drawing. For instance, if your drawing is scaled 1 inch = 60 inches, try 60 for the line type scale. If your drawing is scaled 2 inches = 1 inch (or 1 inch = 0.5 inch), type 0.5 for the line type scale. Current Object Scale: Sets line type scale for all future work you do in your drawing. If you change only the current object scale, the scale for geometry that has already been created will not change. The scale for all new geometry will change. It will be equal to the global scale multiplied by the current object scale. Example: The Global Scale is 10. You change the Current Object Scale from 1 to 2. All future objects will be drawn using an overall line type scale of 10 times 2 = 20. Rule of thumb: Leave the Current Object Scale set to 1 unless you have a Very Good Reason to change it! Use Paper Space Units for Scaling: If the box is checked, the line types of objects created in paper space and in model space are scaled identically. If the box is not checked, you can set one line type scale factor for objects in paper space and another line type scale factor for objects in model space. The default is for this feature to be on (have a checkmark in the box). Rule of thumb: Remove the checkmark for most drawings. That way, you can set the Global Scale Factor once when you first begin working in Model Space and will not have to worry about the line type scale later when you create a finished layout drawing. Put a check in this box only when working with a layout drawing that has multiple viewports with different scale factors and all line types must be drawn to exactly the same scale in the finished layout. The best approach for most drawings Uncheck USE PAPER SPACE UNITS FOR SCALING. Leave the CURRENT OBJECT SCALE set to 1. Change the GLOBAL SCALE FACTOR so it is similar to the scale of your drawing. Use a big scale factor for large objects; small scale factor for little objects.

DeeAnna Weed

43

Introduction to CAD

Mini Airplane Part


Read: Assignment: Workbook pages 23 through 30 and pages 39 through 43. Use basic drawing commands, fillet, mirror, offset, copy 10 pts. scaled line types, layers, object snap, accurate plot scaling

Log on to the network and start AutoCad. Open a new drawing using Start from Scratch. Open the Layer Manager (go to FORMAT: LAYERS...). Alternative: Click on the Layers toolbar button on the Object Properties toolbar. This button looks like a stack of white paper. Create 3 new layers: OBJECT, CONSTR, and TEXT. For the OBJECT layer, set the line thickness to 0.6 mm and the color to red. Leave the line type set to DEFAULT, which is a continuous (solid) line. For the CONSTR layer, change the line type to CENTER2 and the color to blue. Leave the line thickness set to DEFAULT. Dont change the line thickness, line type or color for the TEXT layer. Click OK at the bottom of the Layer Manager window. Note: You will not see the different thicknesses of the lines on your display at this time. The different line thicknesses only show in a plot preview or a plot of the drawing. Change the default text style by going to FORMAT: TEXT STYLE. Change the FONT NAME to romand.shx, Arial, or another simple font (dont get too fancy here!) Click APPLY then CLOSE to save the changes. All text from now on will be displayed in the font you chose.

Sketch 1. Make the CONSTR layer active, then accurately draw the construction geometry shown in Sketch 1. See Sketch 2 for the dimensions youll need to draw this construction geometry. Use DRAW: LINE to draw one vertical line and one horizontal line that cross. These lines define the center of the Airplane Part. Make each line about 2 inches long. Use SNAP or ORTHO to help you do this. When youre done, turn SNAP and ORTHO off. Use MODIFY: OFFSET to draw the two vertical lines on either side of the first vertical line. Alternative: Click on the OFFSET button in the MODIFY toolbar. Use DRAW: CIRCLE: DIAMETER to draw the two large circles. Use OSNAP to accurately located their centers at the intersection of the first two lines you drew. Use DRAW: LINE to draw the 45 line as shown. Use OSNAP and either Relative Coordinates or POLAR to draw accurately.

DeeAnna Weed

44

Introduction to CAD

Sketch 2. Hint: Use ZOOM: EXTENTS as needed to make the part as large as possible and centered on your display. Use ZOOM: WINDOW to view a small area of the part. Rotate the mouse wheel forward to zoom in. Rotate the mouse wheel back to zoom out. Hint: Sometimes when you zoom in on a very small area of an object, circles and arcs may appear as if they are polygons than true curves. To get rid of these jaggies, choose VIEW: REGEN. This command forces AutoCad to accurately redraw the image on your screen. At this point in your drawing, the CENTER2 line type will probably not look right the line segments will be too big. Change the line type scale as described on page 43. Try a scale from 0.2 to 0.5 feel free to experiment to find the scale that looks best to you. Make the OBJECT layer active. Draw the Airplane Part itself using dimensions given in Sketch 2. Be sure to use OSNAP to draw accurately. The Intersection and Tangent Object Snap settings will be especially helpful. Hint : The word typical means there is at least one other place in this drawing where a dimension is used. Typical is often abbreviated to TYP on a drawing. Hint: The term 8 places means there is a total of 8 locations where a particular object is drawn, but only one of these objects has been dimensioned. Place is often shortened to PL on a drawing.

DeeAnna Weed

45

Introduction to CAD

See Sketch 3 for how to draw two of the ears. Use MODIFY: MIRROR to draw the remaining two ears. Use MODIFY: FILLET to make the eight 0.05-inch-radius curves between each of the four ears and the large outer circle of the part. Do this after everything else is drawn. You will have to change the default settings for FILLET to make it work correctly. Draw just one pair of the small circles at the intersection of the 0.75 diameter construction circle and the 45 construction line. Use MODIFY: MIRROR to draw the remaining 3 pairs of small circles. The lines that extend down from the 0.3-inch-diameter circle to the 1-inch-diameter circle are not vertical lines. They are 0.30 inches apart at the top and 0.34 inches apart where the lines intersect with the outer, circular edge of the part. Hint: Before you draw these lines, use MODIFY: OFFSET to draw two vertical construction lines (not shown in Sketch 1) to define where the lower ends of these two tapered lines intersect with the larger circle. Caution: A common mistake in this lab is to enter a DIAMETER value when AutoCad wants a RADIUS value. In this part, there are many circles for which diameter values are given. Be sure to use DRAW: CIRCLE: CENTER AND DIAMETER for such circles.

Step 1.

Step 2.

Step 3.

Step 4.

Sketch 3. Method of drawing two of the diagonal ears Follow the procedure in Scaling a Regular Drawing that starts on page 41 to choose the correct DeeAnna approved plot scale for this drawing. Do NOT plot this drawing using scale to fit or scale to paper. Put your name, the lab title (Mini Airplane Part), the scale youve chosen (1 inch = ??? inch), and the date in a text block at the upper right-hand corner. If the text in the title block seems too big, make the text size smaller so it is more in proportion with the size of the Part. Your finished drawing should look similar to Sketch 4. Be sure the title block is located close to the Part, otherwise some of your drawing may be cut off when you plot this file.

DeeAnna Weed

46

Introduction to CAD

Plot 1. Save your drawing. Plot it using landscape orientation, extents, monochrome style table, your chosen scale, and centered on page. Plot 2. Turn the CONSTR layer off so no construction geometry will show in your finished drawing. Click on the down triangle to the right of the Layer Selection window. A list of all layers should appear. Move your cursor to the light bulb for the CONSTR layer. Click on the light bulb so it changes from on to off. Click somewhere on your drawing to close the Layer Selection window. Now plot the drawing with the CONSTR layer turned off. Hand in both plots of your finished AutoCad drawing. Keep the AutoCad file of this assignment. You will use this drawing in the next assignment.

Sketch 4.

DeeAnna Weed

47

Introduction to CAD

Dimension Style
Changing the dimension style is not nearly as easy as making the dimensions themselves. There are over 70 (yes seventy!) variables that determine how dimensions look. Factors controlled by these variables include: Arrowhead size, shape, and style Font size, type, and orientation Size of the gaps between dimension entities How far extension lines are drawn past dimension arrows What is the default dimension style? The default text is 0.18 inches high. The default arrowheads are closed triangles 0.18 inches long. All other features are in scale with these values. The default font is txt. Sometimes this default dimension style works just fine. But when it doesnt, what is the least painful way to fix the problems? Here are my suggestions: The text style doesnt have the right look A font or typeface is the specific shape of letters and numbers as created by a typographer. Arial, Times New Roman, City Blueprint, etc. are all fonts that look very different. The height of a font is measured in inches in AutoCad. In most other instances, font height is measured in points, where one point is 1/72 of an inch. A text style is the font you have chosen, any modifiers that change the basic look of the font such as italic, bold, oblique, etc., and the text height (0.20, 6, 12 pt, 26 pt., etc.) To change the text style, select FORMAT: TEXT STYLE. Change the Font Name from txt to Arial or whatever font you want to use instead. You can also change the font character formatting, such as italic, bold, or regular, and add special effects. I recommend leaving the text height set to 0.000. It may seem as if changing this number is the way to go, but this usually causes more problems than it solves. Instead, change the text height later in the individual text blocks you create. Changing the text style will change the look for all dimensions, existing and new. Any changes to font or orientation will change all text blocks too, existing and new. If you change the text height, width factor, and oblique angle, however, only new text blocks will show these particular changes. Existing text blocks will not change. Multiple text styles for different purposes. If you would like to have, say, one text style for dimensions and another for regular text blocks, you should create one or more new text styles. Then, when you want to create text blocks using a particular style, go to FORMAT: TEXT STYLE, click the down triangle next to the style name, choose the style you want to use from the list, then click APPLY. When you want to create dimensions using a different text style, go to FORMAT: DIMENSION STYLE. Click on the TEXT STYLE tab. Select the correct text style for your dimensions from the list box. Click OK, then click CLOSE.

DeeAnna Weed

48

Introduction to CAD

The dimension text is too big or too small If you want to change the size of the numbers and text in your dimensions, chances are the arrowheads are probably too small or too large as well. If that is the case, what you really want to do is make everything in the dimensions look bigger or smaller, not just the size of the font. Select FORMAT: DIMENSION STYLE. Click on MODIFY, then click on the FIT tab. Look for a section called Scale for Dimension Features. Type a number in the box next to Use overall scale of:. The default scale value is 1. If you want the dimensions to look bigger, type a bigger number in this box. If you want the dimensions to look smaller, type a smaller number in the box. Rule of thumb #1: Try a dimension scale that corresponds to the scale of your drawing. For instance, if your drawing is scaled 1 inch = 60 inches, try 60 for the dimension scale. If your drawing is scaled 2 inches = 1 inch (or 1 inch = 0.5 inch), type 0.5 for the dimension scale. Rule of thumb #2: Choose a dimension scale that makes the text in your dimensions about the same height as the smallest letters in your title block. Other things are not quite the way you want them Remember those seventy variables I mentioned earlier? You can find a way to change almost every one of them in the FORMAT: DIMENSION STYLE screens. Youll have to look carefully and experiment a bit to find exactly what you want. Be careful as you change things, though. You cannot just Undo the changes you make if you dont like the results, but forget what youve done. In some cases, it can also be extremely difficult for me to figure out what youve done. Take notes if you need to! Or create a new dimension style rather than change the standard style. Do this by selecting FORMAT: DIMENSION STYLE. Click on NEW, then give your new style a name. Some things you may need to fine tune include: Arrowhead style and overall size Length of the gap (offset from origin) between geometry and extension lines How AutoCad places dimension arrows and dimension values if there is not enough room for one or both of these features inside the extension lines Precision (number of digits after the decimal point) for linear and angular dimensions Text style used for dimensions Type of unit format (decimal, architectural, etc.) for linear and angular dimensions Presence and format of alternate units (The primary dimension is the one youre used to seeing. An alternate unit is the same dimension expressed in another measurement system. The alternate dimension is shown below the primary dimension.) If you would like to have one style for some dimensions and another for other dimensions, you should create one or more new dimension styles. When you want to create dimensions using a particular dimension style, go to FORMAT: DIMENSION STYLE, click on the style you want to use, click SET CURRENT, and click CLOSE. Ask me or check AutoCad Help for more information on this topic.
DeeAnna Weed 49 Introduction to CAD

Dimensioned Mini Airplane Part


Read: Assignment: Workbook pages 29-30 and pages 48-49. Use dimensions, dimension style, text style copy and paste 10 pts.

Log on to the network and start AutoCad. Open the file for the Mini Airplane Part. Go to FORMAT: DIMENSION STYLE. Click on MODIFY. Click on PRIMARY UNITS. Set LINEAR DIMENSIONS: PRECISION to 0.00. You dont have to change the precision of angular dimensions. Click on FIT. Change the OVERALL SCALE in SCALE FOR DIMENSION FEATURES to the same scale value that you originally used when plotting the Mini Airplane Part. For example, if the plot scale was 1 inch = 0.5 inches, then type the number 0.5 in the box for the OVERALL SCALE. In MODEL SPACE, create dimensions similar to those shown in Sketch 1. The dimensions should be on the TEXT layer. Follow the guidelines given in the reading assignment. Hint: If you dont like where AutoCad puts the dimension text, experiment with moving the text. Click on the dimension to select it. Right click for the shortcut menu. Choose DIM TEXT POSTION and choose one of the options from the list. I suggest you try Move with leader for starters. Move the dimension text to a spot you like better. Change only the four small radius dimensions (R0.055, 0.045, 0.054, and 0.132) in the upper left part of the drawing so they have a precision of three digits after the decimal. Click on a dimension to select it. Right click and choose PRECISION: 0.000. Modify dimensions as needed by adding 8 places, 4 places, 2 places, or Typical after the automatic dimension. Refer to Sketch 1 for the dimensions that need to be modified. Click on a dimension to select it. Choose MODIFY: OBJECT: TEXT: EDIT. Click after the <> symbols to insert the cursor at the end of the dimension. Do not change or erase the <> symbols! Press the ENTER key to start a new line, then type the words you want to add. Click OK. Note: In many engineering drawings, the word place is abbreviated as PL and the word typical is shortened to TYP. You may use these abbreviations if you prefer. Save your drawing. Plot the drawing using the following settings: extents, landscape, centered on page, your chosen plot scale, monochrome plot style. Hand in the plot of your finished AutoCad drawing.

DeeAnna Weed

50

Introduction to CAD

Sketch 1.

DeeAnna Weed

51

Introduction to CAD

Drawing Template
Read: Assignment: Use layouts, model space, paper space, viewports 10 pts. Log on to the network and start AutoCad. Open a new drawing using Start from Scratch. Open the LAYER MANAGER (FORMAT: LAYER) and create the following layers:
Layer Center ConstrNoPlot Cutting plane Dimensions Hatching Hidden Object Text Title block Viewport Color Red Light Gray Black/White Magenta (bright pink) Yellow Cyan (turquoise blue) Blue Black/White Green Black/White Line type Center Continuous Phantom Continuous Continuous Hidden Continuous Continuous Continuous Continuous Line weight Default Default 0.80 mm Default Default 0.40 mm 0.60 mm Default 1.0 mm Default

For the CONSTRNOPLOT and VIEWPORT layers only, set the Plot/NoPlot icon in the LAYER MANAGER to NO PLOT. Change the default text font by going to FORMAT: TEXT STYLE. Change the FONT NAME to romand.shx, Arial, or another simple font. Do not use the Txt font for your default text font. (I chose Arial.) Click APPLY then CLOSE. The default font for text blocks and dimensions is now the font you just chose. Click on the tab at the bottom of the AutoCad screen that says LAYOUT 1. AutoCad 2004 and earlier versions: The PAGE SETUP screen will appear. Choose the correct plotter and set the PLOT STYLE TABLE to MONOCHROME. Click OK. All AutoCad versions: A white sheet of paper will appear. This is your layout sheet. The dashed rectangle on the layout sheet is the printable area for the plotter you selected. You cannot select or change this rectangle, nor will it ever be printed. All objects must fit inside this rectangle if you want them to be plotted. If you use this template on a computer system that has a different plotter, you may need to change the template geometry if part of it lies outside the printable area. The solid rectangle on the layout sheet is a VIEWPORT. Click on the viewport to select it. Put the viewport on the VIEWPORT layer. Turn the VIEWPORT layer off. Do not delete the viewport or use it as part of your template geometry!!!

DeeAnna Weed

52

Introduction to CAD

Sketch 1. Make the TITLE BLOCK layer the active drawing layer. Draw the template geometry on the TITLE BLOCK layer using the dimensions given in Sketch 1. The lower left corner of the template should be at coordinates 0,0. Create the template text similar to the examples in Sketches 2 and 3 below. Put this text on the TITLE BLOCK layer. You should have only three text blocks in your template. The first is for the school name and address, the second for the drawn by, checked by and scale text, and the third for the drawing name, dates, and page text. Each text block should be centered vertically in its box. The school name and address text should also be centered horizontally in its box.

Sketch 2.

Sketch 3.

DeeAnna Weed

53

Introduction to CAD

Your finished drawing template should look similar to Sketch 4, except your viewport will not be visible. Choose FILE: PAGE SETUP. AutoCad 2004 and earlier versions: Click on the LAYOUT SETTINGS tab (formerly the PLOT SETTINGS tab). AutoCad 2005: Click on the round button with a triangle in it at the lower right corner of the page setup screen to show all of the layout settings. All AutoCad versions: Change the settings to landscape orientation, extents, 1:1 scale, centered on page. Do not use scale to fit or scale to paper. Save the template as a template (DWT) file, not a drawing (DWG) file. Do this by choosing FILE: SAVE AS... In the Save Drawing As screen, choose to save the file on your personal storage disk. WARNING: AutoCad will try to save it in its template folder on the school network. Do not save your template there. You may lose your file. If you do, you will need to redraw your template and save it to the correct place. Next, type the name of your template in the box after File name:. In the Save as type: box, choose AutoCad Drawing Template File (*.dwt). Click SAVE. A Template Description screen will now appear. In the Description box , type NICC drawing template, A size paper. Leave the units of Measurement set to English. Plot the template. Hand in the plot of your finished template. You must use the template in all future assignments after you make any corrections and changes I request.

Sketch 4. To use this template for future assignments, choose FILE: NEW and choose Use a Template.
DeeAnna Weed 54 Introduction to CAD

If the template appears in the list under Recent templates, click on it. If it does not appear in that list, click BROWSE. Find your template on your personal storage disk and click on its name to select it. Click OPEN. A copy of the template file will open for your use. Note that AutoCad gives the copy an extension of DWG (a drawing file), not DWT (a template file).

DeeAnna Weed

55

Introduction to CAD

Scaling a Layout Drawing


Scaling a layout drawing is different than scaling a regular drawing like the ones you have done up till now. Follow these steps to create a properly-scaled layout drawing: Draw your objects as usual with the MODEL tab active. Click on a LAYOUT tab to make that Layout active. Create a finished drawing as instructed in your lab handout. Choose FILE: PAGE SETUP. Choose LAYOUT SETTINGS (formerly PLOT SETTINGS.) Choose EXTENTS and CENTERED ON PAGE. Set the PLOT SCALE to 1 inch = 1 drawing unit. Click OK. Click on the MODEL/PAPER button at the bottom of the screen until MODEL appears. If you want all of your model-space objects to appear in the viewport of this layout, choose ZOOM EXTENTS . If you want only part of the objects to show the layout, use VIEW: PAN: REAL TIME and VIEW: ZOOM: REALTIME as needed to center the desired objects in the viewport and make them as large as possible. For drawings that do not need to be plotted using a standard scale, youre done. Type No Scale in an appropriate place on your drawing, then save and plot your drawing. For drawings that do need to be plotted to a standard scale, you must now accurately scale the MODEL SPACE objects in the viewport window. Remember: The best choice for a particular drawing is the scale that allows your drawing to be plotted as large as possible on the page, yet still be accurate. There are two ways to do this the VIEWPORT SCALE method and the ZOOM XP method. Both are described below. You can choose the method you like best, although most people prefer the ZOOM XP method. ZOOM XP method Go to the LAYOUT view you would like to scale. Click on the MODEL/PAPER button at the bottom of the screen until MODEL appears. Click EXTENTS button on the ZOOM toolbar. Type the letter Z to start the zoom command or choose VIEW: ZOOM: SCALE. Choose a standard scale from the list of DeeAnna approved plot scales on page 58. On the Command Line, type that scale followed by the letters XP. Press ENTER. If it is more convenient or more accurate, type the scale as a division problem. Example 1: Your standard scale is 1 = 20. Type either 1/20xp or 0.05xp. Press ENTER. Example 2: Your standard scale is 4 = 1. Type 4xp. Press ENTER. (You could type 4 / 1xp and get the same result.) Example 3: Your standard scale is 1 = 3. Do not type the number 0.3333xp because this is not accurate enough. Type 1/3xp instead. Press ENTER. If the MODEL SPACE geometry is still too large to fit properly in the viewport, use ZOOM XP to change the scale to the next larger standard scale from the table in this handout. If it is too small, change the scale to the next smaller standard scale. Remember the standard scale you used in the ZOOM XP command. Type the correct scale in the appropriate place in your title block, then save and plot your layout drawing. For the examples given previously, you would type 1 = 20 1 = 0.25 1 = 3 VIEWPORT SCALE method Go to the LAYOUT view you would like to scale.
DeeAnna Weed 56 Introduction to CAD

Click on the MODEL/PAPER button at the bottom of the screen until MODEL appears. Click EXTENTS button on the ZOOM toolbar. Click on the MODEL/PAPER button at the bottom of the AutoCad screen until the word PAPER appears. Choose FORMAT: LAYER. Unhide or unfreeze the viewport layer. Click OK. Click once on the viewport to select it. Choose MODIFY: PROPERTIES. Alternative: Click on the viewport to select it. Right-click to display the shortcut menu. Choose PROPERTIES. A second window will appear with the viewport properties listed. The word VIEWPORT should be at the top of the window. Scroll toward the bottom of the list. Look for STANDARD SCALE. Choose a standard scale from the list of DeeAnna approved plot scales on page 58. If you can find the correct standard scale in the drop-down list in the STANDARD SCALE box, you can choose that scale from the list. The 1 = 0.25 and 1 = 20 scales are both standard scales listed in the STANDARD SCALE drop-down list. If you cannot find the correct scale in the STANDARD SCALE list, erase the numbers in the CUSTOM SCALE box. Type your desired standard scale in this box, and press ENTER. If it is more convenient or more accurate, type the scale as a division problem. Example 1: Type either 1/20 or 0.05 in the CUSTOM SCALE box, and press ENTER. Example 2: Type either 4/1 or 0.25 in the CUSTOM SCALE box, and press ENTER. Example 3: You want the scale to be exactly 1 = 3. You could type the number 0.3333 in the CUSTOM SCALE box, but this is not accurate. You should instead type 1/3 and press ENTER. This will enter a value of exactly one-third as your scale. If the MODEL SPACE geometry is still too large to fit properly in the viewport, change the viewport scale to the next larger standard scale from the table. If it is too small, change the viewport scale to the next smaller standard scale. Remember the second number in the STANDARD SCALE box or the second number you typed for the CUSTOM SCALE this is the second number you should type in your title block as the scale for this layout. Click the close box at the upper right-hand corner of the PROPERTIES window to close it. For the examples given previously, you would type in the title block: 1 = 20 1 = 0.25 1 = 3 Save and plot your layout drawing.

DeeAnna Weed

57

Introduction to CAD

DeeAnna approved plot scales


Scales used for very small objects: 1 = 0.01 1 = 0.1 1 = 0.125 1 = 0.25 1 = 0.5 1=1 1=2 1=3 1=4 1=8 1 = 10 1 = 12 1 = 20 1 = 24 1 = 30 1 = 40 1 = 48 1 = 50 1 = 60 1 = 72 1 = 80 1 = 96 1 = 100 1 = 120 1 = 200 1 = 240 (100 = 1) (10 = 1) (8 = 1) (4 = 1) (2 = 1)

Scale for objects drawn full size:

(1 = 1, architectural units only) (1 = 2, architectural units only) (1 = 4, architectural units only) (1 = 6, architectural units only) (1 = 8, architectural units only) (1 = 10, architectural units only) (1 = 20, architectural units only)

Scales used for very large objects:

DeeAnna Weed

58

Introduction to CAD

Orthographic and Isometric Projections

DeeAnna Weed

59

Introduction to CAD

Ortho & Iso Proj contd

DeeAnna Weed

60

Introduction to CAD

Machine Part
Read: Assignment: Workbook pages 56 through 60. Use basic drawing commands, object snap, accurate plot scaling, multiview drawing techniques 10 pts.

Log on to the network and start AutoCad. Use FILE: NEW to open a copy of your personal drawing template. Do NOT open a new drawing using Start from Scratch. Do NOT use FILE: OPEN to open your drawing template file.

60

Front of the machine part

Sketch 1. Make the CONSTR layer active. Using dimensions given in Sketch 1, draw the construction geometry for the Top View. You will need to decide what construction geometry is needed to accurately draw this part. See Sketch 2 for some ideas. Remember: Construction geometry drawn on the CONSTR layer will be plotted on your finished drawing. Construction geometry on the CONSTRNOPLOT will not be plotted. Make the OBJECT layer active. Accurately draw the TOP orthographic view of the Machine Part. Note: You must draw the TOP view first, the SIDE view next, and the FRONT view last. You cannot draw the front view accurately until both top and side views are done.
DeeAnna Weed 61 Introduction to CAD

Sketch 2. Now draw the SIDE view a few inches to the right. This view of the machine part will look as if the part is lying on its side. First, make the CONSTRNOPLOT layer active. Use POLAR or ORTHO along with OSNAP to draw horizontal construction lines from the top view. These lines will help you accurately draw the side view. Next, draw a vertical line at the far right of the temporary lines to define the bottom surface of the Machine Part. Create another line 1.00 inch to the left to define the upper surface of the oblong base (Sketch 3.)

Sketch 3. In the side view, the slanted faces make an angle of 60 from the top surface of the base (Sketch 4.) Use OSNAP and POLAR to draw two 60 lines to represent these faces. The center cylinder starts at the intersection of the 60 lines and the pair of horizontal lines just inside the outer lines. This cylinder will look like a rectangle in the side view. Use the HIDDEN layer to draw dashed lines that show how the three holes pass through the part (Sketch 5.) Draw a short centerline on the CONSTR layer along the center axis of the holes.

Sketch 4.

DeeAnna Weed

62

Introduction to CAD

To draw the Front View, you must draw temporary construction lines from both the top view and the side view. In hand drafting, the miter line technique was used to accomplish this. In AutoCad, there is an easier way (Sketch 5.) First, use MODIFY: COPY to make a copy of the side view. Place the copy several inches directly above the original right view. Transfer the geometry of this copy to the CONSTRNOPLOT layer. Next, use MODIFY: ROTATE to rotate the right Side View 90 clockwise, so it is standing upright. Use POLAR or ORTHO and OSNAP to create vertical and horizontal construction lines on the CONSTRNOPLOT layer. Some of these lines will extend vertically from the Top View. Other lines will extend horizontally to the left from the upper copy of the Right View. Make all the lines you need to accurately draw the Front View. Draw the top view on the OBJECT layer using the construction lines to guide you. Hint: The side faces on the front view slant inward at an angle that is not 60. Create center lines and hidden lines as needed to complete the drawing. Be sure to use your CONSTR and HIDDEN layers appropriately. When you are done and the CONSTRNOPLOT layer is turned off, the drawing should look like Sketch 6, except you wont yet have any dimensions on the drawing.

Sketch 5.

DeeAnna Weed

63

Introduction to CAD

Sketch 6. Make the TEXT layer active. Use FORMAT: DIMENSION STLE to set the Precision for Primary Units to 0.00. Dimension all views of the Machine Part using Sketch 1 as a guide. Hint 1: Put radius and diameter dimensions for arcs and circles on the view in which the arc or circle is visible. (In other words, these dimensions need to go on the top view.) Hint 2: Do not create the exact same dimension in one view that you already have in another. Do not duplicate dimensions. Hint 3: If you dont like where AutoCad puts the dimension text, click on the dimension to select it. Right click. Choose DIM TEXT POSTION. Choose an option from the list. I suggest you try Move with leader. Move the dimension text to a spot you like better. Create four additional dimensions on the TEXT layer, as shown in Sketch 6: In the SIDE view, dimension one of the 60 slanted faces with respect to horizontal (see Sketch 2). Use DIMENSION: ANGULAR. In the FRONT view, use DIMENSION: ANGULAR to dimension one of the other slanted side faces with respect to horizontal. In the SIDE view, dimension the length of one of the slanted faces using DIMENSION: ALIGNED. Be sure to use OSNAP and ZOOM to dimension accurately. Do likewise to one of the slanted faces in the FRONT view. Change all four of these new dimensions to 0.000000 precision. Only these dimensions should have six digits after the decimal. Click on one dimension to select it. Right click and choose PRECISION: 0.000000. Repeat for the other 3 dimensions. You will probably have to move the text of these dimensions after you change the precision, so the text does not overlap the geometry.
DeeAnna Weed 64 Introduction to CAD

Click on the LAYOUT 1 tab. Click on the button at the bottom right of the AutoCad screen until it says MODEL, not PAPER. Use ZOOM EXTENTS to make all of the Machine Part geometry show in the templates viewport. Follow the procedure in Scaling a Layout Drawing on page 56 to choose the correct DeeAnna approved viewport scale for this layout drawing. Do NOT plot this drawing scale to fit or scale to paper. Hints: Youll probably use a scale of 1/2. Center the part in your layout, if necessary, using PAN: REALTIME. Stay in LAYOUT 1. Click on the button at the bottom right of the AutoCad screen until it says PAPER, not MODEL. Change the text in your template to show the correct scale, drawing name, and date. The drawing name should be Geneva Cam. Make sure the button at the bottom right of the AutoCad screen still says PAPER, not MODEL. Create one text block that says Top View and place it near the correct view. Make sure the text size for this title is the same size as the largest text in the title block. Use EDIT: COPY WITH BASE POINT (or the copy button on the MODIFY toolbar) to place a copy of this text block near each of the other two views. Edit each text block so it accurately describes its view (see Sketch 7.) Check the appearance of your dimension text as it appears in your LAYOUT drawing. Is it about the same size as the smallest text in your title block? If not, go to FORMAT: DIMENSION STYLE. Click on MODIFY, then click on FIT. Change the OVERALL SCALE in SCALE FOR DIMENSION FEATURES as needed, so the dimension text is about the same size in your layout drawing as the small text in your title block. See Dimension Style on page 48 for more information. Hint: Start with the same scale that you used for the viewport (probably 1/2 or 0.5.) Check the appearance again of the dimension text in your layout drawing. Increase or decrease the OVERALL SCALE for dimensions until the dimension text is about the same size as the small text in your title block. Save your drawing. Plot the drawing using the following settings: extents, landscape, centered on page, 1:1 scale, monochrome plot style. Hand in a copy of your finished drawing. Keep the AutoCad file of this assignment.

DeeAnna Weed

65

Introduction to CAD

Sketch 7.

DeeAnna Weed

66

Introduction to CAD

Geneva Cam
Read: Assignment: Workbook pages 56 through 60. Use array, offset, scaled line types, layers, object snap, polar, model and paper space, and a drawing template. Accurately scale geometry in a layout drawing 10 pts.

Log on to the network and start AutoCad. Use FILE: NEW to open a copy of your personal drawing template. Do NOT open a new drawing using Start from Scratch. Do NOT use FILE: OPEN to open your drawing template file. Make sure the MODEL tab is selected, not a LAYOUT tab.

Sketch 1. On the CENTER and CONSTRNOPLOT layers, create all necessary construction geometry. On the OBJECT layer, draw one finger of the Cam. Sketch 1 shows the construction geometry I used to create the finger. My way is not the only way, however! Remember: Construction geometry drawn on the CONSTR layer will be plotted on your finished drawing. Construction geometry on the CONSTRNOPLOT will not be plotted. MODIFY: OFFSET and MODIFY: MIRROR may be useful. Hint: It is very easy to draw the 0.50 slot incorrectly if you use OSNAP and LINE. The sides of the slot are tangent to the 0.50 circle. The easiest way to draw the slot correctly is to use OFFSET. Check your work the slot should be exactly 0.500000 wide. If it is not (see Not correct), you will need to redraw the sides accurately.
DeeAnna Weed 67 Introduction to CAD

Sketch 2. Draw the rest of the Cam on the OBJECT layer using POLAR: ARRAY as follows: Choose MODIFY: ARRAY. At the top of the screen, choose POLAR ARRAY. Click the button next to SELECT OBJECTS. Select the lines and arcs of the finger. Press ENTER. Click the button in the CENTER POINT section. Use OSNAP to accurately pick the center of the construction geometry. In METHOD AND VALUES, make sure TOTAL NUMBER OF ITEMS AND ANGLE TO FILL is selected. Decide the total number of fingers you need and enter that number for TOTAL NUMBER OF ITEMS. Make sure the ANGLE TO FILL is 360 degrees. Make sure there is a check in the box near ROTATE ITEMS AS COPIED. Press ENTER. The rest of the fingers should appear. If your Cam does not look like the Cam in Sketches 3 and 4, UNDO the POLAR ARRAY, correct the problems, then try POLAR ARRAY again. Finish the front view by drawing the center circles and keyway. See the detail drawing in the upper left corner of Sketch 4 to learn how the keyway is constructed.

Sketch 3.

DeeAnna Weed

68

Introduction to CAD

Draw the side view of the Cam as shown in Sketch 3. Draw horizontal lines on the CONSTRNOPLOT layer extending to the right of the front view. Use these lines to help you draw the side view. There are many sharp corners on the fingers of the Cam. Each sharp corner will show in the side view as a line. Change the SETTINGS for FILLET from Trim to No Trim, so this command will not do any trimming when you make the 0.20 fillets. Later, TRIM the geometry in the side view as needed after the fillets are done. Use the HIDDEN layer to draw dashed hidden lines in the side view to show that the keyway and center hole run completely through the Geneva Cam. Create all dimensions on your finished drawing as shown in Sketch 4, except DO NOT CREATE the small detail view in the upper lefthand corner of Sketch 4. The default precision for dimensions should be 0.00. Use DIMENSION: ALIGNED to dimension one of the 0.50 inch slots on the right- or left-hand side of the part. Do not dimension the top or bottom slot. Set the precision of only the 0.50 slot to 0.000000. Use DIMENSION: LEADER to create a note with the text 0.36 x 0.20 keyway and an arrow that points from the note to the keyway. This part of your drawing will look different than what you see in Sketch 4. Show only the construction geometry in your finished drawing that is needed to clarify the dimensions. Put construction geometry that needs to be seen on the finished drawing on the CONSTR layer. Put all other construction geometry on the CONSTRNOPLOT layer so it will not be plotted. Use MODIFY: TRIM or MODIFY: BREAK to trim the 8.00 and 9.00 circles into arcs. Click on the LAYOUT 1 tab. Click on the button at the bottom right of the AutoCad screen until it says MODEL, not PAPER. Use ZOOM EXTENTS to make all of the Geneva Cam geometry show in the templates viewport. Follow the procedure in Scaling a Layout Drawing on page 56 to choose the correct DeeAnna approved viewport scale for this layout drawing. Do not plot this drawing using scale to fit or scale to paper. Hint: Youll probably use a scale of 1 = 2. Center the part in your layout drawing, if necessary, using VIEW: PAN: REALTIME. Stay in LAYOUT 1. Click on the button at the bottom right of the AutoCad screen until it says PAPER, not MODEL. Change the text in your template to show the correct scale, drawing name, and date. The drawing name should be Geneva Cam.

DeeAnna Weed

69

Introduction to CAD

Check the appearance of your dimension text as it appears in your LAYOUT drawing. Is it about the same size as the smallest text in your title block? If not, go to FORMAT: DIMENSION STYLE. Click on MODIFY, then click on FIT. Change the OVERALL SCALE in SCALE FOR DIMENSION FEATURES as needed, so the dimension text is about the same size in your layout drawing as the small text in your title block. Hint: Start with the same scale that you used for the viewport (probably 1/2 or 0.5.) Check the appearance again of the dimension text in your layout drawing. Increase or decrease the OVERALL SCALE for dimensions until the dimension text is about the same size as the small text in your title block. Save your drawing. Plot the layout drawing using the following settings: extents, landscape, centered on page, 1:1 scale, monochrome plot style. Hand in a copy of your finished drawing.

Sketch 4.

DeeAnna Weed

70

Introduction to CAD

Blocks
Blocks and external references are similar types of objects. They consist of entities that are grouped, which means they function as if they are one object. You can use a block or an external reference many times in many different drawings, to save you time. Blocks are probably used more often than external references by most people, but external references have several important advantages over blocks in some circumstances. The next article covers external references. Making a new block using objects in the current drawing This method creates a block that only exists in the current drawing. This is the most common way to create a block. First, create the geometry that you want to convert into a block. Choose DRAW: BLOCK: MAKE. Type a descriptive name in the NAME box at the top of the BLOCK DEFINITION screen. In the OBJECTS section, click the SELECT OBJECTS button, and pick the geometry for the block. Press ENTER when you are done selecting objects. Click on RETAIN if you want the original geometry you selected to not be changed. Click CONVERT TO BLOCK if you want the original geometry to be converted into a block. Click DELETE if you want the original geometry to be erased. In the BASE POINT section, click on the PICK POINT button. Use OSNAP to choose a base point that will help you insert the block accurately into your drawing. Caution: If you do not pick a base point, AutoCad will choose 0,0,0 as the base point. This is usually a very bad choice! Hint: If you let AutoCad choose the base point or you change your mind about where the base point should be, you can easily fix this problem. See Changing a block. In PREVIEW ICON, choose CREATE ICON FROM BLOCK GEOMETRY if it is not already selected. Below the PREVIEW ICON section, do not change INSERT UNITS. Type an optional description of the block in the DESCRIPTION box. Click OK. You can also create blocks using geometry in other drawings. See Copy & paste a block from one drawing file into another and Use WBLOCK to create a file for use as a block in other drawing files. Inserting copies of a block into a drawing Just because you create a block does not mean it is visible in the drawing. You have to place the block in your drawing to see it. You can use a block in a drawing as many times as you need. Choose INSERT: BLOCK. Click the downward pointing triangle next to the NAME box and choose the block you want to insert. In the INSERTION POINT section, click to put a check, if needed, in the SPECIFY ON SCREEN check box.

DeeAnna Weed

71

Introduction to CAD

In the SCALE section, you can leave the scale at full size (X:1.000, Y: 1.000, and Z: 1.000), or you can type in other X, Y, and Z values to change the scale. If you put a checkmark in the SPECIFY ON SCREEN check box, you will set the scale when you place the block in the drawing either by typing a scale value or by using your cursor to indicate the scale. In the ROTATION section, you can type a rotation angle in the ANGLE box. Or you can click to put a check in the SPECIFY ON SCREEN check box. If you check this box, you will set the rotation angle when you place the block in the drawing either by typing an angle or by using OSNAP or POLAR to indicate the rotation. Changing a block If you need to modify the base point or change the objects in an existing block, click on the block in your drawing to select it. Choose MODIFY: EXPLODE or click the firecracker button on the MODIFY toolbar. This will explode the block into its individual objects. Modify the objects in the exploded block, as needed. If you only need to change the base point of the block, you will not need to change the geometry, but you will still need to explode the block. If you want to completely replace the objects in a block with completely new objects, you do not need to explode the block. Just draw the new objects somewhere in your drawing. Choose DRAW: BLOCK: MAKE. Click the downward pointing triangle next to the NAME box at the top of the BLOCK DEFINITION screen, and choose the block you want to modify. Select the objects you want to be included in the block and create the base point, exactly as if you are creating a new block. Click OK. Click YES to redefine the existing block. All existing blocks in your drawing with this name will automatically change to show the new block definition. If you do not want your existing blocks to change, you will need to create a new block, not update an existing block. Copy & paste a block from one drawing file into another Blocks only exist in the drawing file where they were created. They cannot be used in another drawing file unless you specifically import the blocks into that file. One way to do this is the copy and paste method. Open the file that contains the block and the file in which the block should be imported. In the first file, use EDIT: COPY to make a copy the block. Use EDIT: PASTE to paste the copy into the second file. Unless you want to use the copied block, you may now delete it. The block will still remain defined in the second file. After the block is pasted into the second drawing, it acts just like any other block. See Inserting copies of a block into a drawing to insert the block.
DeeAnna Weed 72 Introduction to CAD

Use WBLOCK to create a file for use as a block in other drawing files The other way to use a block in more than one drawing is with the WBLOCK method. First, create the geometry that you want to convert into a block. Type wblock and press ENTER. This command stands for write block. You will not be able to find write block in the menu system or on any toolbar. Choose the objects that should be in the write block in the SOURCE section. Click BLOCK if you want to create the Write Block from a regular block in your drawing. The base point of the write block will be the same as the base point of the regular block. Click on Entire drawing if you want all the objects in your drawing to be in the Write Block. The base point of this write block will be 0,0,0. Click on Objects if you want to select specific objects. If you click Objects, use the Base point and Objects sections just like you would for a regular block. In the DESTINATION section, type a descriptive name in the FILE NAME box, and choose an appropriate folder in which to store the write block file. Click OK. The objects you choose will be saved as a separate drawing file. See Import a drawing file to insert this file as a block into another drawing. If the original Write Block file is changed, the blocks created from that file in other drawings will not change. You must change the block in each drawing, if you want those blocks to also be updated. Import a drawing file to use as a block You can import any drawing file to use as a block in another drawing file. This includes files you create with the WBLOCK method. Choose INSERT: BLOCK. Click BROWSE and find the drawing file you want to insert into your current drawing. Set the insertion point, scale, and rotation as needed. The base point of this new block will be at 0,0,0 in the drawing file from which your block is created, unless the file was made with the WBLOCK command. You can change this base point later, if needed. See Changing a block. After a file is imported into another drawing file as a block, it acts just like any other block. See Inserting copies of a block into a drawing to insert the block. If the original drawing file that you used to create a block is changed, the block definitions created from that file in other drawings will not be affected. You must change the block in each drawing, if you want those blocks to also be updated. You can use this idea to create a library of objects to use as blocks in many drawings. Each object will be in a separate drawing file. Remember that the base point for a block created from a drawing file is located at the 0,0,0 origin. If you make sure an appropriate spot on each object is accurately located at the origin, then you will not have to change the base point when you insert the object as a block.
DeeAnna Weed 73 Introduction to CAD

Deleting a block You can only delete a block that is not used anywhere in the drawing file. If you have inserted a block, you must delete all copies of the block before you can delete it. Choose FILE: DRAWING UTILITIES: PURGE. Make sure View items you can purge is selected. The list of Items not used in drawing shows the types of entities you are allowed to purge (delete), such as unused blocks, dimension styles, layers, and line types. Look for a small + sign to the left of the Block entity type. If you see it, click on it. A list of unused blocks will appear. If you do not see the + sign, there are no blocks that can be deleted. Click on the name of the block you want to purge to select it. You can use the SHIFT key or CTRL (control) key to select more than one block. Click PURGE. Click YES to confirm that you want to delete the block(s).

DeeAnna Weed

74

Introduction to CAD

External References (Xrefs)


Another way to include one drawing in another is to insert a reference drawing in a master drawing as an external reference, rather than as a block. Although an external reference looks and acts much like a block, there is an important difference an external reference in a master drawing is just a visual link to the reference drawing. The geometry of an external reference does not really exist in the master drawing, although it certainly looks like it does. The geometry of a block, on the other hand, is included in the drawing file in which the block is used. The block only exists in that drawing file. Since an external reference is just a visual link to another drawing, you cannot change the external reference by working in the master drawing. You must to open the reference drawing and change that instead. Any time a reference drawing is changed, the external reference in a master drawing to that reference drawing will also change. Why use an external reference, rather than a block? One advantage is smaller file size. An external reference only increases the file size of a large, complicated drawing by just a small amount, even if the reference drawing file is also very large. A large block, however, will increase the file size of a drawing by quite a bit. Another advantage is that external references can allow many people to easily work on different parts of a large, complicated drawing without problems. Blocks are not as flexible. For example, suppose we want to create a complicated drawing that includes the floor plan of a building, the topography of the land it sits on, and the landscaping around the building. A land surveyor could create a topographic drawing of the land around a building. An architect could create another drawing of the building floor plan. A landscape designer could create a third drawing showing the plantings around the building. Their threee separate drawings could be combined into one master drawing by inserting the three drawings as external references in a fourth drawing file. Whenever one person would change his or her drawing, the external reference to that file in the master drawing would update to show those changes. Inserting an external reference in a master drawing To insert a new drawing as an external reference, choose INSERT: EXTERNAL REFERENCE. Click BROWSE and locate the file. In the REFERENCE TYPE section, choose ATTACHMENT. Set up the INSERTION POINT, SCALE, and ROTATION sections as for a block. Click OK. Updating an external reference in a master drawing If you change a reference drawing, those changes will always be displayed in the external references in a master drawing when you open that drawing file. So one way to update the external references of a master drawing is to close it, then reopen it.

DeeAnna Weed

75

Introduction to CAD

You can also force the master drawing to update itself by using this method: First, make sure all changes to reference drawings are saved, because updates can only show saved changes. Next, go to the master drawing and choose INSERT: XREF MANAGER. Click on the name of the reference drawing that you want to update. You can use the SHIFT or CTRL keys to select more than one external reference. Click on RELOAD. Click OK.

DeeAnna Weed

76

Introduction to CAD

Craftsman-style Floor Plan


Read: Assignment: CAUTION: Workbook pages 71 through 75. Use model and paper space, multiple layouts, blocks. 30 pts. You will have about TWO WEEKS to complete this lab. It will take a LOT more time to complete than you think, so ...

Keep It Simple, Student!


Log on to the network and start AutoCad. Open a copy of your personal drawing template. Do NOT open a new drawing using Start from Scratch. Change the Drawing Units to ARCHITECTURAL Choose FORMAT: UNITS and change the setting to ARCHITECTURAL. Until now your drawings have used the default units of DECIMAL, so you had to enter all lengths in decimal inches (example: 243.125 which is equal to 20 3 1/8). Now, you can type either 243.125 or 203-1/8. When using feet and inches measurements, type the apostrophe () for feet, but do not type the double quote () for inches. Put a dash between whole and fractional inches. Change the Dimension Units to ARCHITECTURAL Choose FORMAT: DIMENSION STYLE. Click on the PRIMARY UNITS tab. Change the Unit Format to ARCHITECTURAL. Change the Precision to 0 0 1/2. Now any dimensions you make will be in feet and inches to the nearest 1/2 inch. Accurately draw the doors and window similar to those in the sketch below You do not need to draw the dimensions, text, or leader just the basic objects. You will have to make two versions of the 36 door, one with a 7 1/2 deep frame for exterior walls and another with a 4 1/2 deep frame for interior walls. The window should have a 7 1/2 frame. The 24 door should have a 4 1/2 frame.

3'

2'

36" door

24" window
2'

24" door
Frame should be 3" by 7 1/2" for a door or window in an exterior wall. Frame for door in an interior wall is 3" by 4 1/2".

DeeAnna Weed

77

Introduction to CAD

Make each door and window into a BLOCK You will have at least 4 blocks when you are done you can make other blocks if you like. Study the article reprinted on page 81 titled A Comfortable and Convenient House for the Suburbs or the Country The article is reprinted from the 1907 issue of The Craftsman, a noted architectural magazine of the Arts and Crafts movement in the U.S. during the early 1900s. It was published by Gustav Stickley, a prominent designer and architect of the time. The Arts and Crafts ideals of simple craftsman-like elegance were a reaction to the ornate, fussy, cluttered Victorian era that lasted in the U.S. from about 1865 to 1895. Design your house Spend a little time planning, using The Craftsman article and Guidelines for Design (below) as guides. How should each floor plan be oriented in your drawing in portrait orientation as shown in the article or landscape? What changes do you want to make to the existing floor plan? Do you want to move, add or subtract walls, doors, and windows? The room sizes in the article are approximate, so you will need to adjust these dimensions as needed. You will need to use a ruler to estimate any dimensions not given. Update the design to suit the new owner of this house. The kitchen and bath(s) are the top priorities, since todays homeowners usually want a modern kitchen and more than one bathroom. You may change the design of other rooms, if you have the time and inclination. Show all necessary fixtures in the kitchen and bath, including refrigerator, stove, sinks, toilet, shower, or tub. If necessary, label fixtures so it is clear what they are. Guidelines for design Windows Outside walls Inside walls All regular doors Closet doors Kitchen counters Bathroom counters Dishwashers Stoves Refrigerator Make them ALL 24 wide Use multiple windows side-by-side where you want more glass 7 1/2 thick 4 1/2 thick 36 wide 24 wide 24 deep (front to back) 18 to 24 deep 24 wide (side to side) 30 to 36 wide 40 wide minimum

Draw the first- and second-story floor plans of this house Use SNAP and GRID, POLAR, OSNAP, OFFSET, and POLYLINE in this drawing to make your work go faster and be more accurate. Use LAYERS appropriately. CAUTION: Draw the plan FULL SIZE! If the house is 52 feet long by 28 feet wide, use these actual full-size dimensions when drawing the floor plans.
DeeAnna Weed 78 Introduction to CAD

Insert door and window blocks As you draw the first and second floor plans, you will need to add doors and windows. To do this, choose INSERT: BLOCK and select the block you want from the NAME list. For INSERTION POINT, click to put a check in the box next to SPECIFY ON-SCREEN. In the SCALE section, leave SPECIFY ON-SCREEN turned off (no check in the box). Leave the X, Y, and Z scale factors set to 1. For ROTATION, you can either type a number in the box or click to put a check in the box next to SPECIFY ON-SCREEN. Your choice will depend on how the block should look when it is inserted into your drawing. Leave the EXPLODE check box blank (no check). Click OK and place the block where you want it. If you dont get exactly the right location or rotation of a block, either delete the block and insert it again or use MOVE and ROTATE as needed. Dimension the floor plans These are the minimum required dimensions for this project: Width of one outside door and of one inside door. (2 dimensions total) Thickness of an outside wall and of an inside wall. (2 dim. total) Overall outside width and length of both floors of the building. (4 dim. total) Overall inside width and length of the kitchen, living room, and one bedroom. (6 dim. total) These dimensions can be a part of the room name. For example: Kitchen, 12 x 14. Create a layout drawing for the first floor Click on the LAYOUT 1 tab. Click on the MODEL/PAPER button until MODEL is displayed. Choose VIEW: ZOOM: EXTENTS to show all of your geometry in the viewport. Use VIEW: PAN: REAL TIME to roughly center the plan of the first floor in the viewport. Do this when the MODEL/PAPER button says MODEL. Follow the procedure in Scaling a Layout Drawing on page 56 to choose the correct DeeAnna approved viewport scale for this layout drawing. Do NOT plot this drawing using scale to fit or scale to paper. If necessary, use VIEW: PAN: REAL TIME after adjusting the scale so the floor plan is attractively centered in the viewport. Do this when the MODEL/PAPER button says MODEL. If necessary, click on the viewport to select it and resize the viewport using its grips, so unwanted parts of the model space drawing do not show in the layout. Do this when the MODEL/PAPER button says PAPER. When you are done, only the first floor of the house should show in the viewport. Click on the MODEL/PAPER button until PAPER is displayed. Update the scale, date, etc. The drawing name for this layout should be Craftsman Floor Plan: First Floor. Make sure this layout is numbered Page 1 of 2.

DeeAnna Weed

79

Introduction to CAD

Copy your first floor layout to make the second floor layout Right click on the LAYOUT 1 tab to show the short-cut menu. Choose MOVE OR COPY.... In the MOVE OR COPY window that appears next, click on the box at the lower left that says CREATE A COPY. Click OK to make a copy of the layout. This new layout will be named Layout 1 (2). If you would like to rename the layout drawing, right click on the LAYOUT 1 (2) tab to show the short-cut menu. Choose RENAME. Type in a new name for the layout, then click OK. Do likewise to rename LAYOUT 1. Check the plotting options for the new layout using FILE: PAGE SETUP. The settings should be the same as for LAYOUT 1 (landscape orientation, extents, monochrome style table, 1:1 scale, centered on page). Finish the second floor layout Click on the MODEL/PAPER button until MODEL is displayed. Use PAN to roughly center the plan of the second floor in the viewport of this layout. CAUTION: DO NOT CHANGE THE VIEWPORT SCALE! The first floor and the second floor layouts should have the same viewport scale. You will change the viewport scale if you use any ZOOM command when the MODEL/PAPER button shows MODEL. Click on the MODEL/PAPER button until PAPER is displayed. If necessary, click on the viewport to select it and resize the viewport using its grips, so all of the second floor shows in the layout. When you are done, only the second floor of the house should show in the viewport. Update the title block as needed. The drawing name for this layout should be Craftsman Floor Plan: Second Floor. Make sure this layout is numbered Page 2 of 2. Finish the project Compare the size of the dimension text to the smallest text in your title block. If necessary, change the OVERALL SCALE value in FORMAT: DIMENSION STYLE so the text size for the dimensions is the same as smallest text in your title block. Save your drawing file. Plot each layout using landscape orientation, extents, monochrome style table, 1:1 scale, centered on page. Hand in both plots. Keep the AutoCad file of this assignment. You may use this drawing file again.

DeeAnna Weed

80

Introduction to CAD

A Comfortable and Convenient House for the Suburbs or the Country

View of the front, giving a good idea of the effect of brick and cement walls with tiled roof. Published in The Craftsman, May, 1907

elieving as we do that the happiest and healthiest life is that in the country, we take especial pleasure in designing houses that are definitely meant to be surrounded by large grounds that slope off into the fields, meadows and orchards all around. Such a house has always the effect of taking all the room it needs, and this will be found important when we come to analyze the elements that go toward making the restful charm of a home. The sense of privacy and freedom from intrusion that is conveyed by English homes with their ample gardens and buildings placed well back from the street is a quality which we badly need in our American home life as a relief from the rush and crowding outside. Although the form of this house is straight and square, its rather low, broad proportions and the contrasting materials used in its construction take away all sense of severity. The walls of the lower story and the chimneys are of hard-burned red brick and the upper walls are of Portland cement plaster with half- timber construction. The foundation, steps and porch parapets are of split stone laid up in dark cement and the roof is tiled.

Of course, this is only a suggestion for materials, as the house would be equally well adapted to almost any form of construction, from stone to shingles. The coloring also may be made rich and warm or cool and subdued, as demanded by the surroundings. One feature that is especially in accordance with Craftsman ideas is the way in which the half-timbers on the upper story are used. While we like half-timber construction, it is an article of faith with us that it should be made entirely "probable"; that is, that the timbers should be so placed that they might easily belong to the real construction of the house. In a building that is entirely designed by ourselves we adhere very strictly to this rule, varying it only when the taste of the owner requires a more elaborate use of timbers, such as is shown in the house illustrated on page 28. Another feature of typical Craftsman construction is well illustrated in the windows used in this house. It will be noted that they are doublehung in places where they are exposed to the weather and that casements are used when it is possible to hood them or to place them where they will be sheltered by the roof of the porch. The arrangement of the interior of this house is
81 Introduction to CAD

DeeAnna Weed

simplicity itself, as the living room and dining room, which have- merely the suggestion of a dividing partition, occupy the whole of one side. The arrangement of kitchen, hall and staircase on the other side of the house is equally practical and convenient, as it utilizes every inch of space and provides many conveniences to lighten the work of the housekeeper. The entrance door opens into a small vestibule that serves to shut off draughts from the hall, especially as the entrance from the vestibule to the hall is at right angles to the front door instead of being directly opposite, making the danger from draughts so small that this opening might easily be

curtained and a second door dispensed with. The broad landing of the staircase is opposite this opening from the vestibule and in the angle where the stair runs up a large hall seat is built. The vestibule jutting into the living room leaves a deep recess at the front, in which is built a long window seat just below the triple group of casements that appears at the front of the house. The fireplace is in the center of the room just opposite the hall, and another fire- place in the dining room adds to the comfort and cheer. In a recess in the dining room somewhat similar to that at the front of the living room the sideboard is built in so that the front of it is flush with the wall and three casement windows are set just above it. The china cup- boards built in on the opposite side are shown in two ways in the plan and illustration. In one the cupboard is built straight with the wall and in the other across the corner. Either- way would be effective and the choice depends simply upon personal preference and convenience.

DeeAnna Weed

82

Introduction to CAD

Name:

Date:

Questions about Blocks & External References


Assignment: Learn about blocks and external references (xrefs). If you want to use a computer file of this worksheet, you can find this Word document on the class website at http://webc.nicc.edu/~weedd Instructions: Briefly answer the following questions. Use your own words do not copy out of the book or out of AutoCad Help. Copied information will get a zero score. 1. What are 2 advantages of inserting a block compared with just copying and pasting geometry? (2 points) When might it make more sense to just copy and paste geometry, rather than create and use a block? What are at least 2 similarities between an external reference and a block? (2 points) What are at least 2 differences between an external reference and a block? (2 points) Give two examples when you should use an external reference rather than a block. (2 points) Give one example when you should use a block rather than an external reference. 10 pts.

2.

3. 4. 5.

6.

DeeAnna Weed

83

Introduction to CAD

Drilled Bar
Assignment: Use basic drawing commands, polygon, rectangular & polar array 10 pts. Log on to the network and start AutoCad. Open a copy of your personal drawing template. Do NOT open a new drawing using Start from Scratch. Click on the MODEL tab at the bottom of your computer screen. Choose FORMAT: DIMENSION STYLE. Click on the PRIMARY UNITS tab. Change the Precision to 0.00. Accurately draw the part as shown in the sketch below. All dimensions are in inches. Use OSNAP, ORTHO or POLAR, LINE, OFFSET, and FILLET to draw the outside of the part. You will probably need to set POLAR to track at 45 degrees to correctly draw the 90-degree notch. Draw two master circles (DRAW: CIRCLE: CENTER, RADIUS). The radius of each circle is 0.10 inch. One circle should be located at coordinates (0.69, 1.50) from the (0,0) origin shown at the lower left-hand corner of the part (see the sketch below). The others center should be at coordinates (5.75, 1.50). Draw a master triangle (DRAW: POLYGON) with its center at coordinates (3.22, 0.25). The triangle is inscribed in a circle that has a radius of 0.15 inch. Use MODIFY: ARRAY to draw a total of 36 circles in two rectangular arrays and a total of 7 triangles in a polar array. Read AutoCad Help and the book for more information about using ARRAY. Do not include any construction geometry in your finished drawing.
Circle center: (0.69, 1.50) All circles: R0.10 0.30 offset from each other

90

Circle center: (5.75, 1.50)

0.46

1.84 R0.34, 2 places 0.69 0.69

Coordinate location: (0,0)

0.69 3.22 6.44

Bottom triangle: Center point: (3.22, 0.25) Inscribed in R0.15 circle Array of triangles: Center point: (3.22, 0.7)

0.69

DeeAnna Weed

84

Introduction to CAD

Add the following dimensions to your finished drawing of this part: ONE of the 0.34-inch-radius fillets using DIMENSION: RADIUS. Overall angle of the 90-degree notch using DIMENSION: ANGULAR. This dimension should look exactly like that shown in the sketch. The 6.44-inch overall length using DIMENSION: LINEAR. The length of ONE of the sides of the 90-degree notch using DIMENSION: ALIGNED. The dimension must be parallel to the side being dimensioned. Note: This dimension is not shown in the sketch. Modify an automatic dimension by adding the words 2 places to the R0.34 fillet dimension as follows: Click on the dimension to select it. Choose MODIFY: OBJECT: TEXT: EDIT from the menu at the top of your screen. Note: The shortcut menu that you get when you right-click will not work in this case you have to choose from the menu. You see two symbols that look like a less than symbol followed by a greater than symbol <> in the Multiline Text Editor window. Do not change or erase these symbols! These symbols represent a dimension that AutoCad has created automatically. Click after the <> symbols to insert the cursor at the end of the dimension. Type a comma, a space, then these words: 2 places Click OK to exit from the text editor. The dimension should now look like this: R0.34, 2 places Do not show any other dimensions on your finished drawing. When your model is finished, click on the LAYOUT 1 tab. Follow the procedure in Scaling a Layout Drawing on page 56 to choose the correct DeeAnna approved viewport scale for this layout drawing. Do NOT plot this drawing using scale to fit or scale to paper. In PAPER SPACE, update the scale, date, etc. The drawing title should be Drilled Bar. Save your drawing. Plot it using landscape orientation, extents, monochrome style table, 1:1 scale, centered on page. Hand in this plot.

DeeAnna Weed

85

Introduction to CAD

Highway Signs
Assignment: Use basic drawing commands, polyline and polyarc, fillet, offset, copy, rotate 10 pts. Log on to the network and start AutoCad. Open a copy of your personal drawing template. Do NOT open a new drawing using Start from Scratch. Click on the MODEL tab at the bottom of your computer screen. Draw the highway signs shown. First, create a polyline square 30 inches on a side (DRAW: POLYLINE). Make the WIDTH of the polyline 0.1 inches. Fillet each corner with a 2 inch radius fillet (MODIFY: FILLET). Offset a copy of the filleted square 1 inch inside the first square (MODIFY: OFFSET). Modify the WIDTH of this new polyline to 0.5 inches using MODIFY: OBJECT: POLYLINE. Make a copy of this square sign. Rotate the copy 45 degrees to make a diamond sign (MODIFY: ROTATE). Accurately align the square and diamond signs vertically as shown. Draw a curvy polyline arrow in the diamond sign, similar to that shown. The entire arrow should be one polyline entity. The arrowhead is a straight polyline segment. The tip of the arrowhead has zero width. The base of the arrowhead is 8 inches wide. The shaft of the arrow is a polyARC that is 5 inches wide. Put the speed limit text inside the square sign.

R2" 4 Places

Speed Limit 25

2'-6"

2'-6" Draw the wooden stake using an 0.3 inch wide polyline. The long axis of the stake should be centered on the vertical centerline of the signs. Make the bottom end of the stake "jagged" to suggest that the stake is longer than shown. Trim the polyline as shown so it looks like it's behind the signs.
Do not include any construction geometry in your drawing. Dimension ONLY the outside height and width of the Speed Limit sign. Do not show any other dimensions in your finished drawing. Follow the procedure in Scaling a Layout Drawing on page 56 to choose the correct DeeAnna approved viewport scale for this layout drawing. Do NOT plot this drawing using scale to fit or scale to paper. In PAPER SPACE, update the scale, date, etc. The title should be Highway Signs. Save your drawing. Plot it using landscape orientation, extents, monochrome style table, 1:1 scale, centered on page. Hand in this plot.

DeeAnna Weed

86

Introduction to CAD

Candle Box, Extra Credit


Assignment: Use basic drawing commands, file copying, accurate plot scaling, orthogonal drawing techniques Extra Credit: 10 pts.

Log on to the network and start AutoCad. Open a copy of your personal drawing template. Do NOT open a new drawing using Start from Scratch. Study the Candle Box sketches shown below. All pieces of wood are 1/2 inch thick. The back board is 18 inches tall and 8 inches wide. Use a ruler to estimate any dimensions not given.

8 in.

2 in.

8 in.

8 in.

Draw the front view. One way to start this is to draw a horizontal reference LINE from (0,0) to (8,0) and a vertical line from (0,0) to (0,18). These are the left and bottom sides of the front and back boards. Note that the bottom board of the box will be below this horizontal reference line. Use MODIFY: OFFSET to draw the rest of the straight lines that define the front view of the box. Make the curved top of the box by drawing an 8 inch diameter CIRCLE with its center 14 inches above the horizontal reference line. Use SPLINE or ARC to draw one side of the heart cutout and one half of the curved front. Use MODIFY: MIRROR to draw the other half of these details. Use MODIFY: CHAMFER to draw the angled edge on the bottom board of the box. Make the side cutouts using ELLIPSE, CIRCLE, or ARC. Add your own decorative cutout to the Box front, such as a daisy, heart, or diamond. Using Multiview drawing techniques, draw the top and right-side views of the Candle Box.

DeeAnna Weed

87

Introduction to CAD

Create the basic dimensions that a person would need to construct this box out of wood. You dont have to dimension absolutely everything, however the creative details can be left to the woodworkers imagination. Size the geometry to an accurate scale. For help with this process, see the section Scaling a Layout Drawing on page 56. Center the part in your layout, if necessary, using PAN. Label each view of the Candle Box (for example: Top View, Side View, Front View). When you are done drawing and labeling the Candle Box, click on the LAYOUT 1 tab. Click on the button at the bottom right of the AutoCad screen until it says MODEL, not PAPER. Use ZOOM EXTENTS to make the Candle Box show in the templates viewport. Follow the procedure in Scaling a Layout Drawing on page 56 to choose the correct DeeAnna approved viewport scale for this layout drawing. Do NOT plot this drawing using scale to fit or scale to paper. In PAPER SPACE, update the scale, date, etc. The drawing name should be Candle Box. Adjust the overall layout of your drawing as needed to make a neat, professional, consistent, and easy-to-read drawing. Save your drawing. Plot the finished layout using landscape orientation, extents, monochrome style table, 1:1 scale, centered on page. Hand in a plot of your final layout.

DeeAnna Weed

88

Introduction to CAD

Flyer, Extra Credit


Assignment: Use basic drawing commands, multiline text, image frame, raster images, display order, clip, move, copy, image adjust Extra credit: 10 pts.

Log on to the network and start AutoCad. Open a new drawing using Start from Scratch. Accurately draw a rectangle 8 inches wide by 10.5 inches tall to be the outer border of your flyer. Design a simple one-page flyer such as a party invitation, newspaper ad for a grocery store, garage sale flyer, or other project. Read the rest of this handout for the basic things you must have on your flyer. Find two or more images and put them in your flyer using INSERT: RASTER IMAGE. CAUTION: You must save your image files and your flyer drawing in the same storage location. If you dont do this, your images may mysteriously disappear from your flyer. Look for images at Barrys Clip Art Server at http://www.barrysclipart.com/ Image file types that AutoCad can import are bitmap (*.bmp), GIF (*.gif), PICT (*.pct), and TIFF (*.tif). Note that JPEG (*.jpg) files may not work with NICCs AutoCad. Add text to your flyer by using the MULTILINE text editor. Use two or more text heights (try heights of 0.20 and 0.10) and two or more fonts (examples: Country Blueprint and Arial). Draw some simple geometry on your flyer using LINE, CIRCLE, etc. While you work, try to figure out the answers to the questions on the following page. If its not obvious who the flyer belongs to, put your name in a small text block wherever it will best fit on the flyer. You do not need to include the lab title, date, and scale for this lab. Save your drawing. Plot the drawing using the following settings: extents, portrait orientation,, centered on page, scaled to fit, grayscale plot style. Hand in a copy of your finished flyer.

DeeAnna Weed

89

Introduction to CAD

Hatching
Hatching is a way to add texture and pattern to a drawing. Sometimes hatching is used in an informal, artistic way to make a drawing look more interesting. More often, hatching is used in a precise way to indicate the material from which an object is made or to show how an object is constructed. A section view (see the next section) uses hatching in this sense. Use DRAW: HATCH to put patterns in selected areas of an existing object. If you are doing a lot of hatching, you may want to create a new layer and put the hatching on that layer. Then you can freeze or turn off that layer to make it easier to work with the regular geometry of the object. Pick Points There are two ways to choose regions to hatch. I recommend that you try Pick Points first it is usually the quickest and easiest. Click the Pick Points button at the right of the Hatching window. Click once somewhere inside each of the areas you want to hatch in your object. AutoCad will examine the boundaries around the location of the point you picked and hatch inside those boundaries. Press ENTER when you are done selecting areas. Click PREVIEW to view the results without actually creating any hatching. Press ENTER to return to the Hatching window. If you want to change the proposed hatching, click CANCEL, then restart hatching. If you want to accept the proposed hatching, click OK.

DeeAnna Weed

90

Introduction to CAD

Select Objects If Pick Points does not give you the correct results, try Select Objects. You may also need to change the Island Detection Style in the Advanced tab (see below). Click Select Objects button at the right of the hatching window. Click on specific closed objects to select them. Press ENTER when you are done selecting objects, then preview, cancel, or accept the proposed hatching. Quick Hatching Use the Quick tab at the top of the hatching window to choose the pattern, angle, and scale of the hatching. The button with 3 small dots to the right of the Pattern box lets you view a variety of hatch patterns. Click on the pattern you want to use. Use only the ANSI and Other Predefined patterns. Do not use ISO patterns; they are meant for use with large-scale metric drawings. The Swatch box shows you how the pattern should look when the Angle is set to zero. Change the Angle to a value other than zero if you want a different effect. Change the Scale as needed to make the pattern large or small enough for your purposes. You can type in a scale value if it is not shown in the drop-down list. If the scale is too fine, AutoCad may completely fill the hatched area with solid color or it may tell you Hatch spacing too dense, or dash size too small and not do any hatching. Make the scale number bigger. If the scale is too large, you may not see any hatching because the pattern is so large. Make the scale number smaller. Advanced Hatching Use the Advanced tab at the top of the hatching window mainly to change the Island Detection Style. The detection style affects how AutoCad treats closed geometric objects (such as a circle, polygon, or closed rectangle) that lie within other closed geometric objects.

DeeAnna Weed

91

Introduction to CAD

Section views
A section view shows what an object would look inside as if you had cut the object apart with a saw and were looking at one of the cut surfaces. A section view is sometimes used to show internal parts of an object that could not be easily shown by simply using hidden lines on a regular top, side, front or other external view of the object. The hatching on a section view tells the person looking at the drawing that the hatched surfaces are imaginary they are not truly present in the real object. The specific pattern of the hatching is often, but not always, used to identify the material of construction (steel, cast iron, concrete, earth, etc.). The steps to correctly draw a section view are: Draw a cutting plane line on an existing view of the part This line shows the path of the imaginary saw used to cut the object. Note that the cutting plane line can be at any angle. In some applications, the cutting plane line is actually an arc or a series of connected line segments. Use 0.6 mm line weight and phantom line type. You should have a cutting plane lines layer in your personal drawing template that is set up with this line weight and line type. Do not stop the cutting plane line inside the part or just at the outer edges of the part. A cutting plane line should always extend beyond the outer boundary to minimize any confusion. I drew the cutting plane line in the example below by using OSNAP to connect the centers of the two small circles with a line. I then lengthened the line so it extended roughly 0.5 inches beyond the outer edges of the part. Draw a short arrow at each end of the cutting plane line Each arrow should be at a right angle to the cutting plane line. The arrowhead points to the side of the object will be shown in the section view. In the example, the arrows are about 1.25 long. The easiest way to draw these arrows is to use DIMENSION: LEADER. Put the arrows on the cutting plane lines layer so they also will have 0.6 mm line thickness and phantom line type. If the arrowheads need to be wider so they show properly with this thick line type, go to FORMAT: DIMENSION STYLE: MODIFY: FIT and change the overall scale for dimension features to a larger number. In the example, I used an overall scale of 4. If the arrowheads magically disappear after you increase the overall scale, the length of the arrow is too short for AutoCad to show the arrowhead. When you make the arrow long enough, the arrowheads will magically reappear. Label each arrow on the cutting plane line Each arrow should be labeled with a single capital letter. For example, you might put the letter A by each arrow, if you want the section view to be called Section A-A. Or you could put an A by one arrow and a B by the other for a section view called Section A-B. Create a section view of your object A section view should show the internal surfaces of the part. The arrows at each end of the cutting plane line point to the surfaces you should see. You can often copy geometry from an existing regular view to help make the section view.

DeeAnna Weed

92

Introduction to CAD

Hidden geometry in a regular view is drawn on the hidden layer with a dashed line type. In the section view, you may need to move or draw this geometry on the regular object layer with a continuous line type if the geometry would be visible in the section view. In the example, Section A-B shows two through holes. They are drawn with a continuous line, because you would really see the edges of the holes if you had really sawed the object apart along the cutting plane line. In a regular side view, however, these through-holes would be drawn with a dashed (hidden) line, because you would not normally see these holes from the side. Hatch the faces of the object cut by the imaginary saw Use a hatch pattern that is correct for the material from which your object is made. Hatch only those surfaces that would have saw marks on them. Do not hatch any surfaces that would already exist before the object was sawed apart. Label the section view The labels on the arrows of the cutting plane line determine the correct name of the section view. The section view name would be Section A-A if you labeled both arrows on the cutting plane line with the letter A The section view name would be Section A-B if you labeled one arrow A and the other B

DeeAnna Weed

93

Introduction to CAD

Machine Part Cross Section


Read: Assignment: Workbook pages 90 through 93 Use cutting plane lines, hatching, line types 10 pts.

Log on to the network and start AutoCad. Open a copy of your personal drawing template. Do NOT open a new drawing using Start from Scratch. Open your original Machine Part drawing. Select all of the geometry in this file, and copy it using EDIT: COPY. Go to the copy of your template by clicking on WINDOW, then clicking on the file name of the template copy. Click on the MODEL tab at the bottom of the AutoCad screen. Past the Machine Part geometry into MODEL space using EDIT: PASTE. The exact location is not important. Choose the CUTTING PLANE layer as your current drawing layer. Draw a cutting plane line on the TOP view of the part. The cutting plane line should pass through the centers of the large center hole and the two smaller holes. Use DIMENSION: LEADER to construct the arrows at each end of this line. You choose the direction of sight, which is the direction in which the arrows point. Draw the section view of the part as defined by the cutting plane and the direction of sight. This view should show what you would see if you used an imaginary saw to cut the part into two pieces along the cutting plane line, then looked at the cut surface of the part. There will be a total of four views in MODEL SPACE when you are done. Use DRAW: HATCH... to hatch all surfaces cut by the saw Use the ANSI 32 pattern for steel. You choose the angle and scale of the hatch. Be sure to put the hatching on the HATCHING layer. Do not hatch surfaces not cut by the saw. Leave them plain. Do not dimension the section view. Do not show any construction geometry. Click on the LAYOUT 1 tab. Click on the button at the bottom right of the AutoCad screen until it says MODEL, not PAPER. Use ZOOM EXTENTS to make all four views of the Machine Part show in the templates viewport. Follow the procedure in Scaling a Layout Drawing on page 56 to choose the correct DeeAnna approved viewport scale for this layout drawing. Do NOT plot this drawing using scale to fit or scale to paper. If necessary, click on the MODEL tab and MOVE the four views of the Machine Part so the finished drawing is neat, professional, consistent, and easy-to-read. OPTIONAL: Rather than move the actual geometry, you may use multiple viewports (VIEW: VIEWPORTS) to design this layout. First, turn on your viewport layer. Click on the existing viewport, then delete it. Create 1, 2, 3, or 4 new viewports on this layer using VIEW: VIEWPORTS, as necessary. Scale all viewports to the same scale. Resize and move each viewport as necessary. Turn the viewport layer off before plotting.

DeeAnna Weed

94

Introduction to CAD

In LAYOUT 1, change the button at the bottom right of the AutoCad screen to PAPER, not MODEL. Change the text in your template to show the correct scale, drawing name, and dates. The drawing name should be Machine Part. Make sure the button at the bottom right of the AutoCad screen still says PAPER, not MODEL. Use EDIT: COPY WITH BASE POINT and EDIT: PASTE to place a copy of the text block that says Top View near the new section view. Change the text in this new text block to an appropriate title for the section view (see Section views on page 92.) Label each arrow on the cutting plane line with the letters to match the section view title. Make sure the view titles and arrow labels are the same size as the largest text in your title block (see Machine Part on page 61.) If they are not, use MTEXT EDIT to change the size of the view titles. Make sure the dimension text is about the same size as the smallest text in your title block. If it is not, choose FORMAT: DIMENSION STYLE: MODIFY: FIT and change the overall scale for dimension features until the dimension text is the right size. Save your drawing. Plot the layout of the Machine Part using landscape orientation, extents, monochrome style table, 1:1 scale, centered on page. Hand in a plot of your this layout.

DeeAnna Weed

95

Introduction to CAD

Bearing
Read: Assignment: Workbook pages 90 through 93 Use cutting plane line, hatching, section view 10 pts.

Log on to the network and start AutoCad. Choose Use a Template and select the Ansi_a_named_plot_styles.dwt template. Click OK. The layout will look like Sketch 1.

Sketch 1. Click on the title block to select it. See how all the geometry is selected with just one click? That means it is a block. Choose MODIFY: EXPLODE to break the block into its individual parts. Modify the title block so it looks similar to Sketch 2. Caution: The BOLD line that surrounds the center of the template is the viewport. You can change its shape, but do not delete it!

Sketch 2.
DeeAnna Weed 96 Introduction to CAD

1 = ?

Sketch 3. Create new Multiline Text blocks to add the extra information shown in Sketch 3 to the title block. Recreate the same layers in this ANSI template as you have in your personal drawing template. Heres an easy way to do this: Use FILE: NEW to open a copy of your personal drawing template. Draw a small object such as a circle or line on each of the layers you want to add to the ANSI template. If you have 11 layers, for example, you should have 11 objects, one on each layer. Alternative: Open a file that happens to have objects on all of these layers. Choose EDIT: SELECT ALL, then choose EDIT: COPY to make a copy of all of these small objects. Close the copy of your personal template without saving the changes you will not need this drawing any more. Go to the ANSI drawing and choose EDIT: PASTE to put the copied objects in MODEL space in that drawing. Check the Layer Manager all the layers you created in your personal drawing template should now be in the ANSI drawing. Select and delete the objects. The layers will not go away when you do this. Click on the MODEL tab to switch from the LAYOUT view to MODEL space. Draw and dimension both views of the Bearing as shown in Sketch 4. Be sure to put the objects, cutting plane line, cutting-plane labels, view titles, and dimensions on appropriate layers. When you are done creating the Bearing drawing, click on the LAYOUT 1 tab. Click on the button at the bottom right of the AutoCad screen until it says MODEL, not PAPER. Use ZOOM EXTENTS to make the Bearing show in the templates viewport. Follow the procedure in Scaling a Layout Drawing on page 56 to choose the correct DeeAnna approved viewport scale for this layout drawing. Do NOT plot this drawing scale to fit or scale to paper. Center the part in your layout, if necessary, using PAN. Click on the button at the bottom right of the AutoCad screen until it says PAPER, not MODEL. Update the title block as needed. Add appropriate titles to each view. Make sure the section view has an appropriate title (see Section views on page 92.) Label each arrow on the cutting plane line with letters that match the section view title. Make sure the view titles and arrow labels are the same size as the largest text in your title block (see Machine Part on page 61.) If they are not, use MTEXT EDIT to change the size of the view titles.

DeeAnna Weed

97

Introduction to CAD

Make sure the dimension text is about the same size as the smallest text in your title block. If it is not, choose FORMAT: DIMENSION STYLE: MODIFY: FIT and change the overall scale for dimension features until the dimension text is the right size. Adjust the overall layout of your drawing as needed to make a neat, professional, consistent, and easy-to-read drawing. Save your drawing. Plot the finished layout using landscape orientation, extents, monochrome style table, 1:1 scale, centered on page. Hand in a plot of your final layout. Keep this drawing file. You will use it again.

Sketch 4.

DeeAnna Weed

98

Introduction to CAD

Collar and Base Plate


Read: Assignment: Part 1: Collar Log on to the network and start AutoCad. Open a copy of your personal drawing template. Draw and hatch only the SECTION VIEW of the Collar shown in Sketch 1. Do not dimension the geometry. Save this file as Collar. Put your name, the lab title (Collar), the scale (1 inch = 1 inch), and the date in a text block at the upper right-hand corner. Plot the drawing like you did before you started to use your personal drawing template. Use the following plot settings: extents, landscape, centered on page, 1:1 scale, monochrome plot style. Do not hand in this plot yet. Go on to Part 2: Base Plate. Workbook pages 90 through 93 Use hatching, create a section view, and draw accurately 20 pts.

Sketch 1.

DeeAnna Weed

99

Introduction to CAD

Part 2: Base Plate Log on to the network and start AutoCad. Open a copy of your personal drawing template. Draw only a SECTION VIEW of the Base Plate shown in Sketch 2. The section view is not shown in the sketch, but its cutting plane line is shown in the Top View. Do not dimension the geometry. Save this file as Base Plate. Put your name, the lab title (Collar), the scale (1 inch = 1 inch), and the date in a text block at the upper right-hand corner. Plot the drawing like you did before you started to use your personal drawing template. Use the following plot settings: extents, landscape, centered on page, 1:1 scale, monochrome plot style. Hand in both of these finished drawings.

Sketch 2.

DeeAnna Weed

100

Introduction to CAD

Shaft Support Assembly


Read: Assignment: Workbook pages 90 through 93 Create and use blocks. Make an assembly diagram. 20 pts.

Log on to the network and start AutoCad. Locate and save a copy of the Cap Screw drawing. Choose FILE: OPEN. At the top of the screen, find Look in: and click the downward pointing triangle to the right of the Look in box. Choose the L: drive on the NICC network. Open the WEEDD folder on the L: drive. Open the INTROCAD folder inside the WEED folder. Find the Cap-screw.dwg file in this folder. Save this drawing to your personal storage space. Open your copy of the Cap Screw. Define ONLY the cap screw object geometry as a block. Do not include any center lines, dimensions or notes in the block. See Blocks on page 71 if you need help. Save the file. Open all of the other files you need for this project: Use FILE: OPEN to open these drawings: Bearing, Base Plate, and Collar. Use FILE: NEW to open a copy of your personal drawing template. This will be the fifth drawing you will have open at one time. Choose WINDOW: TILE HORIZONTALLY to display all five drawings on your computer screen in small windows.

Sketch 1.

DeeAnna Weed

101

Introduction to CAD

Use the first four drawings to create the Shaft Support Assembly drawing in your template file. See Sketch 1 for how the finished Assembly should look. Click on WINDOW and choose one of the four drawing files you opened first. Select only the geometry in the file that you will need to create the Assembly drawing. Do not select any dimensions or text just the object, hatching, and centerlines. Use EDIT: COPY to make a copy of the object. Click on WINDOW and choose the file that has your drawing template. Use EDIT: PASTE to put the copy of the object in that file. Repeat until all the objects for the Shaft Support Assembly are placed in the drawing template file. Put all geometry on the correct layers. To be able to move the geometry of the Cap Screw to the correct layers, be sure to EXPLODE the Cap Screw block first. Use EDIT: COPY WITH BASE POINT or click on the COPY button on the MODIFY toolbar to make a second copy of the Cap Screw. Use OSNAP to accurately place all objects to form the Shaft Support Assembly. Use EDIT: TRIM to trim any geometry as needed. In particular, you will need to trim the Base Plate and the Bearing where they lie behind the Cap Screws. The hatch patterns for any two objects that touch should be different. If this is not the case in your drawing, you must change one of the hatch patterns. Click on the hatch object to select it. Delete this hatch object. Use DRAW: HATCH to re-hatch the object with a suitable hatch pattern. Use DIMENSION: LEADER to add an arrow pointing to each part and a label with the correct name for the part: Bearing, Base Plate, Collar, or Cap Screw (2 places). When you are done, you will have four leaders and labels you will only label one of the Cap Screws. When you are done creating the Shaft Support Assembly drawing, click on the LAYOUT 1 tab. Click on the button at the bottom right of the AutoCad screen until it says MODEL, not PAPER. Use ZOOM EXTENTS to make the entire Assembly geometry show in the templates viewport. Follow the procedure in Scaling a Layout Drawing on page 56 to choose the correct DeeAnna approved viewport scale for this layout drawing. Do NOT plot this drawing using scale to fit or scale to paper. Center the drawing in your layout, if necessary, using PAN. Click on the button at the bottom right of the AutoCad screen until it says PAPER, not MODEL. Update the scale, date, etc. in the title block. The drawing name for this layout should be Shaft Support Assembly. Adjust the overall layout of your drawing as needed to make a neat, professional, consistent, and easy-to-read drawing. Save your drawing. Plot the finished layout using landscape orientation, extents, monochrome style table, 1:1 scale, centered on page. Hand in a plot of your final layout.

DeeAnna Weed

102

Introduction to CAD

House Exterior
Read: Assignment: Workbook pages 90 through 93 Use hatching, hatch selection methods, hatch scaling 10 pts.

Log on to the network and start AutoCad. Save a copy of my House front & side drawing file to your personal work disk. You can find this file on the L:\ drive in the Weedd folder. Open this file in AutoCad. Open a copy of your personal drawing template. Do NOT open a new drawing using Start from Scratch. COPY and PASTE my drawing into MODEL SPACE of your drawing template. Add hatching to the original geometry to suggest the different materials of construction. Choose DRAW: HATCH to start this command. Put all hatching on the HATCHING layer. Do not use the 0 layer on which the house geometry is drawn. Adjust the angle and scale of the hatching patterns as needed. If you see the message Hatch spacing too dense, or dash size too small then make the scale of your hatch pattern a bigger number. If you see Unable to hatch the boundary then decrease the hatch scale. You will also have to adjust the island detection method when you hatch the sides of the house. Click on the ADVANCED tab to change the island detection settings. Some suggestions for hatching the house: Stucco, clapboard, or brick siding Brick or fieldstone chimneys Concrete front steps Shake or shingle roof Limestone chimney cap

Adjust the line weights of the original house drawing if needed to make sure the hatch textures dont overwhelm the drawing of the house itself. Do this by changing the layer characteristics in the LAYER MANAGER (FORMAT: LAYER). When you are done hatching the house, click on the LAYOUT 1 tab. Click on the MODEL/PAPER button until MODEL appears. Use ZOOM EXTENTS to zoom the house geometry as large as possible within your drawing template. You dont need to accurately scale the geometry for this project. Click on the MODEL/PAPER button until PAPER appears. Update the template title block. In the Scale box, type Scale: No scale. The title should be House Exterior. Put your name on the Drawn by: line. Delete all text blocks in MODEL SPACE. This information should be in your title block instead. Save your drawing. Plot the layout using landscape orientation, extents, monochrome style table, 1:1 scale, centered on page. Hand in a plot of your final layout.

DeeAnna Weed

103

Introduction to CAD

Isometric Gadgets
Assignment: Use isometric SNAP and GRID, text style, dimension style Do NOT open a new drawing using Start from Scratch. Turn on SNAP, GRID, and ORTHO. Turn off OSNAP. Go to TOOLS: DRAFTING SETTINGS. Click on the SNAP AND GRID tab at the top of the DRAFTING SETTINGS window. In the section SNAP TYPE & STYLE, click on the button next to ISOMETRIC SNAP. Change the SNAP Y SPACING to 0.125. Change the GRID Y SPACING to 0.25. Dont change ANGLE, X BASE, and Y BASE (should all be zeros). Click OK. Press the F5 key at the top of the keyboard at least 3 times. Note how the cursor shape changes each time you press F5. 10 pts. Log on to the network and start AutoCad. Open a copy of your personal drawing template.

Left Isoplane

Top Isoplane

Right Isoplane

Dont count GRID dots when drawing! Use ORTHO and the correct cursor shape instead to draw lines quickly and accurately. To try this, start a LINE command. Click on your drawing once to create one endpoint of a line. Then just move your mouse in the direction you want to go, type a distance, and press the ENTER key. This is called Direct Distance Entry.
1.50" 2.00"

1.50" 1.00" R0.5" 3 Holes

1.00"

1.50"

1.25" 0.625" 0.625" 0.50" 1.75" 0.25"

R0.25" 2 Holes

2.00"

0.75" 0.25"

Sketch 1.

DeeAnna Weed

104

Introduction to CAD

Draw the Isometric Gadgets dimensioned in Sketch 1. The gadgets should look like Sketch 2. Draw the rectangle using DRAW: LINE and ORTHO, SNAP, and GRID. The rectangle is 1 inch wide by 1 inch tall by 2 inches long. Draw the cube using DRAW: LINE and ORTHO, SNAP, and GRID. The cube is 1 1/2 inches wide, 1 1/2 inches tall, and 1 1/2 inches long. The circles are centered on each face of the cube. To find the center of a face, draw diagonal lines across the face. The intersection of the lines is the center of the face. (Alternative: Draw just one diagonal line. Use OSNAP to find its midpoint this is also the center of the face.) For each ellipse on the cube, choose DRAW: ELLIPSE: AXIS, END. Then. . . Type the letter I for ISOCIRCLE. Choose the center GRID dot on one face of the cube to be the ellipse center. Type 0.5 inch for the radius. Press ENTER. Repeat for the other 2 ellipses. Draw the isometric gadget using DRAW: LINE and DRAW: ELLIPSE: AXIS, END and ORTHO, SNAP, and GRID. Dimension one vertical line of each gadget. Use ARIAL font (change in FORMAT: TEXT STYLE) and use 0 0.00 precision, engineering unit format (change in FORMAT: DIMENSION STYLE). Click on the LAYOUT 1 tab. Click on the MODEL/PAPER button until MODEL appears. Use ZOOM EXTENTS to zoom the gadgets as large as possible within your drawing template. Adjust the dimension text size as necessary in FORMAT: DIMENSION STYLE this text is about the same as the smallest text size in your drawing template. Click on the MODEL/PAPER button until PAPER appears. Update the drawing template information. In the Scale box, type No scale. The title should be Isometric Gadgets. Your finished drawing should look similar to Sketch 2. Save your drawing. If you do not want to do the optional extra-credit Machine Bolt lab (see page 106), plot the layout using landscape orientation, extents, monochrome style table, 1:1 scale, centered on page, and hand in a plot of your final layout. If you do want to do the Machine Bolt lab, do not plot at this time. Instead, draw the Bolt next to the other three Isometric Gadgets, then hand in a plot showing all four gadgets.

Sketch 2

DeeAnna Weed

105

Introduction to CAD

Machine Bolt, Extra Credit


Assignment: Use isometric SNAP and GRID and blocks Extra Credit: 5 pts. If you need to, log on to the network and start AutoCad and open the Isometric Gadgets file. In MODEL space, draw a machine bolt near the other gadgets you have already drawn. Your finished drawing should look like the sketch below. Estimate all dimensions. HINT: The threads of the bolt are isocircles, not regular circles, arcs, or ellipses. Draw one isocircle whose longest dimension is the same as the width of the bolt. Trim the isocircle so only the front part of the thread is shown. Use MODIFY: COPY or MODIFY: ARRAY to create multiple copies of the thread spaced a constant distance apart. Create the head of the bolt by drawing an iso-hexagon. To make an iso-hexagon, you need to squish the vertical axis of the hexagon, while leaving the horizontal axis alone. You cannot do this with MODIFY: SCALE. The only AutoCad feature that allows you to scale the X axis differently than the Y axis is INSERT: BLOCK. Heres the way to do it: Draw a regular hexagon with DRAW: POLYGON. Turn the hexagon into a block with DRAW: BLOCK: MAKE. Delete the hexagon. Choose INSERT: BLOCK. Change the SCALE information to the following values: X: 1.00 Y: 0.58 Z: 1.00 Dont change the ROTATION angle from its default value of zero. Insert the squished hexagon where ever it needs to be in your drawing. COPY and MOVE the squished hexagon as needed to make the top and bottom parts of the bolt head. EXPLODE the hexagons as needed to erase parts you dont want. Save your drawing. Plot the layout using landscape orientation, extents, monochrome style table, 1:1 scale, centered on page. Hand in a plot of your final layout.

Sketch 1

DeeAnna Weed

106

Introduction to CAD

Three Dimensional Surfaces


Assignment: Use basic 3D drawing commands, snap and grid, polar, ortho, 3D views, layout with multiple viewports 10 pts. Log on to the network and start AutoCad. Open a copy of your personal drawing template. Do NOT open a new drawing using Start from Scratch. Your final layout will look similar to the drawing at the end of this lab handout. All dimensions and coordinates given below are in units of inches. Draw all objects in MODEL SPACE. Click on the MODEL tab before you start to draw. Draw accurately. Use SNAP, ORTHO, POLAR, or relative and absolute coordinates. Turn on the SURFACES and VIEW toolbars. Do not turn on the SOLIDS toolbar! Draw 3D shapes with 2D commands: Tray and Cylinder 2D objects become three dimensional (3D) when THICKNESS is set to a value other than zero. Tray: All other 3D shapes will fit inside a rectangular tray made of a rectangular polyline. In the VIEW toolbar, click on the button for the Top View (or select VIEW: 3D VIEWS: TOP). Set the height of the polyline: Choose FORMAT: THICKNESS. Change the thickness (the Z or height dimension) to 1. Start a POLYLINE: Set the polyline WIDTH to 0.1 inch. Locate the first corner of the rectangle at (0, 0). The other corners should be at (5, 0), (5, 3), and (0, 3). Cylinder: Click on the Top View toolbar button (or select VIEW: 3D VIEWS: TOP). Set the height: Choose FORMAT: THICKNESS. Change the thickness (height) value from 1 to 6. Use the CIRCLE: CENTER, DIAMETER command. The center should be at (0.9, 2.2) and the diameter should be 1. Explore the many ways to view a 3D drawing In the VIEW toolbar, click on the button for the SW Isometric View (or select VIEW: 3D VIEWS: SW ISOMETRIC). Click on the other buttons in the VIEW toolbar. Click on 3D Orbit in the STANDARD toolbar (or select VIEW: 3D ORBIT). Draw 3D surfaces: Box, Pyramid and Dome Box: Draw a box in front of the cylinder: Click on the Top View toolbar button (or select VIEW: 3D VIEWS: TOP).Click on the Box button on the SURFACES toolbar. Locate the first corner of the rectangle at (0.8, 0.4), length of 1, width of 0.6, and height of 3. Enter 0 for the rotation angle.

DeeAnna Weed

107

Introduction to CAD

Pyramid: Draw a pyramid to the right of the box. It will have a rectangular base, and its apex (tip) will be directly above the center of the base. Click on the Top View toolbar button (or select VIEW: 3D VIEWS: TOP). Click on the Pyramid button on the SURFACES toolbar. Type in (2.2, 0.4) for the First corner point for base of pyramid. Enter length of 2 and width of 0.6 to define the other corners of the base. Yes, the command does not ask for length and width. Ill leave it up to you to figure out what to do! Enter the apex coordinates of (3.2, 0.7, 4) when prompted for Apex point of pyramid. Dome: Cap the top of the cylinder with a dome. Click on the Top View toolbar button (or select VIEW: 3D VIEWS: TOP). Until now, the base of all the objects you have drawn has been at zero elevation. The base of the dome, however, must be located 6 above zero elevation so it will cover the top of the cylinder which is 6 tall. Type ELEV on the command line. Type 6 for the New default elevation. Type 0, if necessary, for the New default thickness. Click on the Dome button on the SURFACES toolbar. The prompt Specify center point of dome will appear on the command line. Click on the OSNAP button at the bottom of your drawing to turn it on. The SETTINGS window will open. Click on CENTER, then click OK. Select the cylinder center using OSNAP. (Note: The cylinder will look like a circle in the TOP view). Type the letter D so you can Specify diameter of dome, then type 1 for the diameter. Press the ENTER key to accept 16 as the Number of longitudinal segments for surface of dome and press ENTER to accept 8 as the Number of latitudinal segments for the dome. Draw 3D lines: Flagpole and flag The flagpole and flag are 3D lines. Click on the Right View toolbar button (or select VIEW: 3D VIEWS: RIGHT). The pyramids tip must be pointing up (north). Make sure OSNAP and POLAR are on. Set OSNAP to ENDPOINT and INTERSECTION. Set POLAR to 45 increments. Start the LINE command. Use OSNAP to select the tip of the pyramid. Use POLAR to draw the first line. It should be 2.5 long at an angle of 90 (north). Using the last endpoint of the first line as a start point, draw a second line 1.25 long at a 225 angle (southwest). Using the last endpoint of the second line as a start point, draw a third line at a 0 angle (east). End this line where it intersects with the flagpole.

DeeAnna Weed

108

Introduction to CAD

Draw more 3D surfaces: Torus (donut) and Sphere Torus 1: Click on the Top View toolbar button (or select VIEW: 3D VIEWS: TOP). Click on the Torus button on the SURFACES toolbar. The prompt Specify center point of torus will appear on the command line. Specify (3.5, 2.2, 4) as the Center point of torus. Type a D, then type 1.25 for the Diameter of torus. Note: This is the large outside diameter of the donut. Type 0.25 for the Radius of tube. (This is the diameter of the donut dough.) Press ENTER to accept 16 as the Number of segments around tube circumference. Press ENTER again to accept 16 as the Number of segments around torus circumference. Sphere: Click on the Top View toolbar button (or select VIEW: 3D VIEWS: TOP). Click on the Sphere button on the SURFACES toolbar. The prompt Specify center point of sphere will appear on the command line. Specify (3.5, 2.2, 2.5) as the Center point of sphere. Type a D, then type 1.5 for the Diameter of sphere. Press the ENTER key to accept 16 as the Number of longitudinal segments for surface of sphere and press ENTER to accept 16 as the Number of latitudinal segments for the sphere. Torus 2: Click on the Left View toolbar button (or select VIEW: 3D VIEWS: LEFT). The cylinder must be in the left foreground. Click the Torus button. Specify (-2,4,-2) as the Center point of torus. Type a D, then type 0.9 for the Diameter of torus. Type 0.1 for the Radius of tube. Press ENTER to accept 16 as the Number of segments around tube circumference. Press ENTER again to accept 16 as the Number of segments around torus circumference. Create a drawing layout with 4 viewports Your layout will have four small viewports. Each viewport will show a different image of the objects you have drawn Get started by clicking on LAYOUT 1. Your personal drawing template should appear. Make sure SNAP, POLAR, and ORTHO are all turned off. Leave OSNAP on and set to INTERSECTION. Make sure the MODEL/PAPER button at the bottom of the screen says PAPER. Update the template information. The drawing title should be Three Dimensional Surfaces. The scale should be: None. Delete the existing viewport: First, unhide the viewport layer, if you have the viewport hidden. Click on the viewport boundary so the blue grips appear. Delete the viewport. Your view of the 3D objects you drew in MODEL SPACE will disappear. Only the title block and outer border should be visible. Select VIEW: VIEWPORTS: 4 VIEWPORTS. Specify two diagonal corners of an imaginary box: Use OSNAP to choose the corners of the geometry that defines the large window in your drawing template. Four viewports should appear, all showing the same view of your 3D objects. All four viewports
DeeAnna Weed 109 Introduction to CAD

will be located within the imaginary box you picked. If you dont like the arrangement or size of the viewports after they are created, delete all four viewports, then try again. Dont hide the viewports for this assignment. Create a different image in each viewport Get started by clicking on the MODEL/PAPER button until it says PAPER. Create a different image in each viewport as follows: Select the upper left viewport. Click on the Front view button in the VIEW toolbar. HINT: Cant select just the viewport? The reason is that the viewports overlap each other and the outer lines of your drawing template. Turn off or freeze the layer that has the title block geometry. Click on the outer edges of the viewport. Use MODIFY: PROPERTIES to scale this viewport to 0.5. Select the lower left viewport. Click on the Top view button in the VIEW toolbar. Scale this viewport to 0.5. Select the upper right viewport. Click on the Right view button in the VIEW toolbar. Scale this viewport to 0.5. Select the lower right viewport. Click on the 3D Orbit button in the STANDARD toolbar (or choose VIEW: 3D ORBIT). Rotate the geometry as needed until you find an attractive orientation. As you orbit the geometry, use ZOOM EXTENTS button as needed to resize the geometry so it fits in the viewport. All objects should be clearly shown in this view when youre done. Shading objects on your computer display Choose VIEW: SHADE: GOURAUD SHADED. What happens to this view? Choose FILE: PLOT and make a print of the layout. Does VIEW: SHADE: GOURAUD SHADED do the same thing to the plotted output of your layout that it does to the computer display? Make hidden lines disappear on your computer display Select the lower left viewport. Choose VIEW: HIDE. What happens? Do the same thing to the upper right viewport. Choose FILE: PLOT and either do a plot preview or make a print of the layout. Does VIEW: HIDE do the same thing to the plotted output of your layout that it does to the computer display? Make hidden lines disappear on plotted output Prevent hidden lines from being plotted only for the upper left and lower right viewports. In LAYOUT 1, click on the MODEL/PAPER button until it says PAPER. Click on the border of the upper left viewport so its blue grips appear. Open the PROPERTIES window for the viewport by doing one of the following: Right click so the quick menu appears. Choose PROPERTIES. Or ... Select MODIFY: PROPERTIES. Or ... Select TOOLS: PROPERTIES Scroll down to the bottom of the PROPERTIES window. Change SHADE PLOT from AS
DeeAnna Weed 110 Introduction to CAD

DISPLAYED to HIDDEN. Press the ESCAPE key several times to de-select the viewport. Click on the lower-right viewport, except change SHADE PLOT to RENDERED. Note: VIEW: HIDE affects only what you see on your computer display. If you do not want hidden lines to be plotted, you must change SHADE PLOT instead. Label the right, top, and front views. In LAYOUT 1, click on the MODEL/PAPER button until it says PAPER. In the upper left viewport, create a multiline text block in the upper corner. Type the words Front View to label this viewport. Make sure the text is the same size and the same font as the largest text in the title block of your drawing template. Put a copy of this text block in the lower left and the upper right viewports. Edit each of these copied text blocks. The label should say Top View in the lower left viewport and Right View in the upper right viewport. Do not label the lower right view. Finish the drawing Plot your finished layout using landscape orientation, extents, none style table, 1:1 scale, centered on page. On the plot, the Front View and 3D Orbited views should look a little different than the Top and Right Views. Why? Hand in a plot of your final layout.

DeeAnna Weed

111

Introduction to CAD

DeeAnna Weed

112

Introduction to CAD

Final Portfolio
Due: Done in class during your scheduled final exam period Points:10

Pick two drawings you completed this semester. Bring both drawings to your scheduled final exam period. Briefly, but clearly explain to the class why you made your choices. The first drawing should be the drawing that you feel taught you the most about AutoCad. The second drawing should be the drawing you like the most, or enjoyed doing the most.

Briefly, but clearly describe your answers to these questions: What was the biggest challenge for you in this class? How did you handle it? What was the biggest mistake you feel you made in this class? How did you recover from it? What concept taught in this class was the most confusing for you to understand? What could I, the instructor, have done to better explain this concept?

DeeAnna Weed

113

Introduction to CAD