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MAY 2012

Solid State High Power Amplier This new line of high power S-band and L-band solid state power ampliers (SSPAs) feature 1.3kW peakpower and utilize state-of-the-art GaN HEMTs for the most compact and efcient design. This SSPA is designed to produce a very reliable air-cooled amplier for mobile and ground installation requirements, including Air Trafc Control (ATC) radar systems. The amplier is designed to be rack mounted with combining structures to provide output powers from 7 to 25kW (or higher). WWW.MPDIGEST.COM 2 CPI BEVERLY MICROWAVE DIVISION

coaxial Limiter Model ZFLM-252-1WL+ is a broadband (100 to 2500 MHz) coaxial limiter ideal for applications that include stabilizing generator outputs, reducing amplitude variations, and protecting low noise ampliers and other devices from ESD or input power damage. It features very low insertion loss (0.7 dB typ.), very low output power (0 dBm typ. at 30 dBm input), and operating temperature range from -40 to +85C. The device is low cost and RoHS compliant. WWW.MPDIGEST.COM 1 MINI-CIRCUITS

in this issue
in my opinion: small is Bigger, Better and more innovative? by Bob pinato, iccs, LLc. Feature Articles contributed by Frost & sullivan Aeroflex mini-circuits skyworks solutions, inc. wireless telecom group Agilent technologies itt interconnect solutions AwR AVX corporation dB control 3 8 14 28 32 46 52 56 64 86 104

Receptacles A wide range of panel mount RF, microwave and millimeter-wave receptacles is produced by the company for todays demanding requirements. These include 1.85mm, 2.4mm, 2.92mm, 3.5mm, SMA and SSMA interface which extend frequency ranges up to 67 GHz. The 7mm, N type and TNC interfaces provide higher power handling capabilities through 18 GHz. Available with twoand four-hole anges in standard and custom sizes, these precision-engineered connectors are constructed of passivated stainless steel or beryllium copper bodies and gold plated beryllium center contacts to ensure repeatability and performance. WWW.MPDIGEST.COM 3 SGMC MICROWAVE

Volume 58, issue 5

DC to 20 GHz







NFfrom 0.5 dB, IP3 to + 48 dBm, Gain 8 to 31 dB, Pout to + 30 dBm

Think of all you stand to gain. With more than 124 catalog models, Mini-Circuits offers one of the industrys broadest selection of low-cost MMIC amplifiers. Our ultra-broadband InGaP HBT and PHEMT amplifiers offer low noise figure, high IP3, and a wide selection of gain to enable optimization in your commercial, industrial or military application. Our tight process control guarantees consistent performance across multiple production runs, so you can have confidence in every unit. In fact, cascading our amplifiers often results in less than 1dB total gain variation at any given frequency. These MMIC amplifiers can even meet your most critical size and power consumption requirements with supply voltages as low as 2.8 V, and current consumption down to 20 mA, and packages as small as SOT-363. Visit our website to select the amplifier that meets your specific needs. Each model includes pricing, full electrical, mechanical, and environmental specifications, and a full set of characterization data including S-Parameters. So why RoHS compliant wait, place your order today and have units in your hands as early as tomorrow.
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MAY 2012 PAGE 3

Its That Time of Year Again

and quiet vacations, free from phones, email, computers, and all the other things that we need to put together MPDs biggest issue of the year! The May issue is a double whammy: our annual Defense Electronics edition, as well as our IMS2012 show issue. And this year marks the second time that the MTT/IMS show has been held in a foreign countryof course, the fact that its Canada, our friendly neighbor to the north, makes it easier in terms of foreign travel, but when it comes to extra paperwork and everything else needed to put on a show outside the U.S., thats another thing entirely. But I digress At any rate, were certain youll enjoy this issue of MPD, and we look forward to seeing many of you at IMS2012 in Montreal. bientt!

editorial statement of purpose

microwave product digest serves RF and microwave design engineers, research and development engineers, applications engineers and engineering managers. these professionals, working in facilities that serve both the commercial and government markets, are involved with the design, development, application, and use of systems and subsystems, devices, and techniques involving frequencies from RF to light.

Karen Hoppe Editor, MPD

editor Karen Hoppe contributing editor Barry manz senior production editor erin Almaleh copy editor sue goldenberg circulation manager claire Ferrante director of marketing Rosalind markhouse publishing coordinator eileen Rocco website coordinator chris montero publisher doug markhouse

es, the time when our editorial and production staff dream of long, peaceful

Small is Bigger, Better and More Innovative?

ere we are four years into the worldwide economic crisis, which to date has yielded one of the worst financial downturns the western world has seen since the 1930s, and still there is debate whether or not we are facing a long anticipated election year upturn. Military budgets are being scrutinized carefully for the proper balance between the costs for national security, secure jobs in key congressional districts, pet pork programs and the cost of the war efforts. Worldwide, the cost of security in troubled economic times is being reviewed, with the investments of emerging economic powerhouses increasing and those of the great economies flattening and even decreasing in response to the economic pressures at home. Albeit, a small, short-lived upturn in the USA was welcomed by the current government. With stock markets reflecting record returns, and corporate coffers flowing with hordes of underinvested profits, proof in some eyes that the downturn and the uncertainty it brings are still not resolved. Even though the corporations are bringing in record profits, mostly due to the downsizing and razor sharp cuts made to overhead budgets, budget shortfalls in state and federal government bureaucracies are a keen reminder that while the corporations and stock markets appear to be stabilizing, the government is still in major disarray. Inefficiency has always been an earmark of our capitalistic democratic form of government; it was a kind of source of pride that the government could not make quick, major moves without the consensus of the people. However, the track record in times of crisis was just the opposite and the people and government would come together to effect change quickly, concisely and effectively when needed. All the while generating confidence in the system and stability for the vision and economy moving forward.


Harvey Kaylie, mini-circuits Jerry d. Neal, RFmd Robert pinato, iccs

editorial council

mark Kiiss, miteQ Joe diesso, AR RF/microwave instrumentation Robert Badami, Herley-cti Jim price, Lorch microwave Arthur Nixon, insulated wire
octAgoN commUNicAtioNs, iNc. president douglas markhouse secretary/treasurer Rosalind markhouse controller eileen Rocco
This publication is issued without charge, upon written request, to qualified persons. Periodical Postage paid at Yonkers, NY and additional mailing offices.

publishers council

POSTMASTER: Send address changes to Microwave Product Digest, P.O. Box 1024, Englewood Cliffs, NJ 07632-9971. Pub. Agree. # 40112540 Return Undeliverable Canadian addresses to: IMEX P.O. Box 4332 Station Road Toronto, ON M5W3J4 Microwave Product Digest (USPS 007889) (ISSN 1061754X) is published 12 times a year by Octagon Communications, Inc., 167 South Broadway, Hastingson-Hudson, NY 10706.

This unfortunately has not been the case this time around. For some reason, a gridlock occurred at the highest levels, making efficient effective policies not only difficult to decide upon and Bob Pinato, initiate, but also creatOwner, ICCS, LLC. ing uncertainty in the capability of government at a time when the people needed the vision and stability the most. In our type of system, faith and stability for the vision of the future is the key central element driving our economy and our form of government. Setting the proper sustained tone so that everyone corporations, stock markets, educators, bankers, foreign investors, customers and our own populace of consumers can identify with and plan with the environment provided. Some countries have more organized 5 year or 10 year plans. In the USA we have vision led by the people and the markets, stabilized by government non-interference, but at the same time government leadership in the form of future regulatory and incentive environments set by spending and tax planning. The year of 2012 brings with it some very heavy baggage. Baggage in the form of not only how our economy is doing and providing for our own people, but also how our own people think about their roles in the formation of policy and direction for the future of our country. The baggage is also laden with the role of our country as an inspiration to the rest of the world. This inspiration has been and is one of the reasons why the rest of the world, in their own ways, has sought to emulate the patterns of the USA in many fields such as education, innovation, economIn My Opinion, Cont on pg 66

PAGE 4 MAY 2012


bnc scientific

Lock-In Amplifier (LIA) The fastest commercial LIA ever commercially produced, the UHFLI (UltraHigh Frequency Lock-in Amplifier) from Zurich Instruments performs measurements as high as 600 MHz three times faster than any other current LIAs. 4


Coaxial Power Splitter/Combiner The ZC9PD-172+ is a coaxial power splitter/combiner that is usable from 1100 to 1700 MHz. Features include low insertion loss (0.6 dB typ.), high isolation (18 dB typ.), and excellent output VSWR (1.2:1 typ.). Operating temperature range is -55 to +100C. 5

rlc electronics

WG-Series This waveguide filter was designed to cover a narrow frequency band in order to facilitate point-to-point routing of data over the network. Units maintain low loss and high rejection. This unit covers narrow frequency bands above both 18 and 26.5 GHz. 6


k&l microwave

Three-Section Narrowband Cavity Filter From the new CS series, this 3-section narrowband cavity filter has a center frequency of 1521.5 MHz with an equiripple bandwidth of 2.6 MHz minimum, yielding an insertion loss of 3.0 dB maximum. VSWR is less than 1.5:1 over the passband. 7

Multiple bands, multiple radios, one antenna:

Anatech Electronics makes it easier

Band combiners and dividers from Anatech Electronics are based on our high-performance cavity filters so youre assured of low loss, high isolation, low PIM, and high powerhandling ability: Combine or divide 2 to 6 wireless bands Eliminate the need to use multiple antennas Combine or multiplex GSM, PCS, WiMAX, LTE and other wireless bands outputs One input to multiple-band outputs and vice versa Combine multiple bands with 1 input and 1 output Please call us or send us an email with the frequencies youre trying to combine or split. well do the rest!
S-1 HM Glass Fibers When a leader in composite reinforced aluminum conductors for high voltage transmission lines wanted to produce a high-heat, low-sag alternative to conventional transmission cables, it chose S-1 HM glass fibers for the highstrength composite core of its new composite reinforced aluminum conductor. The innovative design is a cost-effective solution for improving transmission capacity, lowering line losses, limiting sag, and reducing the need for more transmission line infrastructure. 8


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Class AB Amplifier PM30-512-350 is a 350W, 30 to 512 MHz Class AB amplifier with 17 dB gain. It is 50% efficient, offers enable/ disable, and is in a small outline: 4.1 x 6.4 x 1.8". Latest generation LDOMOS power transistors are used for highest MTBF. 9


Aviation Earth Station Instrumentation L, S, C, X, and Ku Bands

Microwave Radio Mobile Satellite Radar Telemetry


2-way through 16-way in N, SMA, BNC, TNC and 7/16 DIN connector styles from 0.4 to 18.0 GHz.

Most available in 1 dB increments from 0 - 40dB. Power ratings from 2 to 150 Watts.

Power ratings from 1 to 500 watts and frequency ranges up to 18 GHz.


Average power handling from 50W to 1kW. Standard coupling values of 3, 6, 10, 20, 30 and 40 dB.

Available in N, BNC, TNC, SMA & 7/16 DIN con gurations . Power ratings to

Let MECA create an integrated assembly with any of our standard RF/Microwave products on 19 panels, shelves or enclosures.

Covering bands from 0.5 2.5 GHz and 0.7 to 2.7 GHz in 7/16 DIN, SMA, N, BNC & TNC con gurations with RF power ratings to 300 watts (3 kW peak).


In both N & SMA-Female connectors with average power ratings from 2 to 250 watts. Popular frequency bands between 0.7 - 18.0 GHz.

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PAGE 6 MAY 2012



ISM Band Transmit/Receive Module The RF6556 front end module is intended for use in 915 MHz AMR solutions. The unit addresses the need for aggressive size reduction for a typical 915 MHz AMR front end design and greatly reduces the number of components outside, minimizing cost and footprint. 10


ISM Band Cavity Filter A 902 to 928 MHz cavity filter offering high performance for ISM base station applications has just been released. This filter provides low insertion loss of <1.5 dB and 45 dB rejection in the cellular band of 824 to 894 MHz and GSM band of 936 to 960 MHz. 11


Coaxial Power Splitter/Combiner Model ZF3RSC-542+ is a coaxial power splitter/combiner that is very wideband (DC to 5400 MHz), featuring low flatness (0.38 dB typ.), an operating temperature range of -40 to +85C, and a rugged shielded case. Applications include laboratory and test set-ups. 12


richardson rfpd

New Converters Immediate availability and full design support capabilities are offered for a pair of new converters from Analog Devices, Inc., the AD5760, a true 16-bit voltage output DAC, and the AD9642 (pictured), a 14-bit ADC with sampling speeds of 170, 210 or 250 MSPS. 13

agilent technologies

Wideband MIMO PXI Vector Signal Analyzer Specifically designed for flexibility and growth, the wideband MIMO PXI vector signal analyzer delivers the industrys highest-bandwidth signal analysis. It enables R&D and test engineers to validate their MIMO 802.11ac designs with accuracy, speed, bandwidth and scalability in a small form factor. 14

k&l microwave WWW.MPDIGEST.COM 203

Three-Section Narrowband Cavity Filter From the new CS series, this 3-section narrowband cavity filter has a center frequency of 1817.5 MHz with an equiripple bandwidth of 17.4 MHz minimum, yielding an insertion loss of 1.5 dB maximum. Group delay variation is <2ns maximum over 1812.5 to 1822.5 MHz. 15

Step Up Performance with Herley-CTI Synthesizers

Frequency Rrange 100MHz to 6 GHz Multi octave Bandwidth Step sizes from 1 Hz <1 ms switching speed Low spurious 3 wire serial frequency control Low profile package 0.5 inches high Lock alarm Locks to 10 MHz external reference

Series BDS indirect synthesizers for broadband ATE and cellular test instrumentation
Herley-CTI BDS Broadband Syntheiszers offer broad frequency coverage, extremely small step size, low spurious and ultra low phase noiseUtilizing cutting edge technology the BDS design combines Direct Digital and Analog Indirect synthesis techniques to achieve excellent performance and exceptionally high reliability. The synthesizers lock to an external reference of 10 MHz and are simply programmed with several bits using a 3-wire enable/ clock/data protocol. The BDS features very low phase noise, typically -90 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz offset at 6 GHz. In addition, extremely small steps sizes of <1 Hz can be provided. The performance of the BDS sets a new standard for this class of synthesizers. The broad frequency coverage, low phase noise, small size and very fine frequency resolution makes the BDS the perfect synthesizer for cellular test instrumentation and automated test applications. In addition, Herley-CTI can customize the BDS to specific applications. So why not step up your performance and call Herley-CTI today.

Optional Features:
Low band frequency extension down to 0.01 GHz Extended operating temperature range Reference Monitor RoHS Compliance Internal Reference


Herley-CTI, 9 Whippany Rd, Whippany, NJ 07981 Telephone: 973-884-2580 FAX: 973-887-6245

PAGE 8 MAY 2012


Overview of Defense Electronics Market Trends

by Jessy Cavazos, Industry Director, Frost & Sullivan

ith defense spending on the downward slope, the focus of those catering to the needs of the aerospace and defense (A&D) industry is shifting to areas less likely to be impacted by budget cuts, one of which is the unmanned vehicles, including unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), as they are seen as a way to deliver the same or better capability at a lower cost than previous platforms requiring manpower. The growth of the data requirements in that space augurs well for test and measurement companies who are currently leveraged heavily for radio frequency (RF) and microwave testing of systems. While there is a lot of focus on UAVs, they are certainly not the whole story in the defense market for test and measurement vendors. Electronic warfare (EW) is probably growth area Number 1, with research indicating investments in this area growing despite reduced defense budgets. There is continued work on EW to jam signals, specifically improvised electronic devices (IEDs), and be able to not only identify them but also disable them electronically. Having said this, the biggest area of spending for defense electronics still remains radar. The use of electronically steered array (ESA) technology in advanced radars is stirring up activity in this area. This article provides an overview of the trends in each of those markets. UAV Market Trends Frost & Sullivan research on the Department of Defense (DoD) unmanned aerial systems (UAS) market expects continuing combat operations and irregular warfare (IW) to drive UAS requirements despite troop withdrawal from Iraq. In fact, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance requirements could increase as security will no longer be provided on the

Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) Market: Illustrations of Various UASs (United States), 2012

RQ-4 Global Hawk Source: Northrop Grumman

ER/MP MQ-1 Gray Eagle Source: General Atomics

RQ-7 Shadow Source: Military Factory

ScanEagle Source: Boeing

RQ-11 RAVEN Source: AeroVironment


ground, says Michael Blades, Senior Industry Analyst for the Aerospace & Defense Business Unit at Frost & Sullivan. Moreover, U.S. forces will need to continue improving intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) capabilities via advanced technologies and sophisticated information operations for which UASs will be critical. While the data requirements between the UAVs and their operators have gone exponential compared to the past, this is likely to further increase in the future. Despite technical challenges and an increased focus on cost reduction, there is still a significant push for high performance that translates into a need for higher frequencies, wider bandwidth, signal simulation and analysis, and the ability to measure signals with very high precision and low noise floors. Another key factor expected to drive the growth of the UAS market is the increasing use of commercial off the shelf (COTS) technology to reduce costs. UAS manufacturers, espe-

cially those manufacturing tactical-size platforms and smaller, are advertising the capabilities of their platforms to incorporate COTS sensors and subsystems to reduce cost. The DoD is also looking to increase the use of PC technology in ground control stations for cost and configurability reasons. The push for COTS technology has also impacted the test and measurement market, with the DoD purchasing COTS test solutions. While it enabled them to reduce the upfront acquisition cost, it is costing them more in the long run in some cases. Going forward, the DoD is expected to revert back to its old ways, specifying what they want depending on what they are doing. There will be a mix of test solutions used in A&D moving forward, some COTS and some custom. The trend towards the use of COTS technology is not new and has been a continuing trend in the military, with the emphasis varying depending upon priorities. With the current budget environment increasing the focus on cost, the emphasis

on using COTS technology is expected to be strong over the next few years. With the most recent wartime activities on the ground and small, informally organized combatants, the focus of the industry has shifted towards unmanned vehicles as they are seen as a way to deliver the same or better capability at a lower cost than previous platforms requiring manpower. However, efforts are also being made towards the greater autonomy of those devices. This is expected to contribute to the growth of the UAS market in the future and concerns both high-altitude long-endurance (HALE) and medium-altitude long-endurance (MALE) UAVs as well as tactical size and smaller ones. The operation and monitoring of large UASs still require significant manpower currently, while manufacturers of smaller UASs hope to reduce the need for highly experienced UAS operators. Boeings A160 Hummingbird is testament to this trend towards the greater autonomy of UAVs. Frost, Cont on pg 40



ESM Cable is a designer, manufacturer and supplier of RF Microwave Interconnects for use in Instrumentation, Aerospace, Industrial, Telecom, Semi-conductor, Test and Measurement and other industries.
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PAGE 12 MAY 2012


crystek corporation

New VCO The CVCO55CC-2800-3075 VCO operates from 2800 to 3075 MHz with a control voltage range of 1.0~15V. This VCO features a typical phase noise of -104 dBc/Hz @ 10 KHz offset and has excellent linearity. Output power is typically +2 dBm. 22

emc technology

Higher Frequency Coaxial Attenuator The 42W series of high performance, precision SMA coaxial fixed attenuators is offered in commercial or high rel versions. It is offered in values from 0 to 20 dB in half dB and 20 to 30 in one dB increments and up to a maximum frequency range of 18.0 GHz. 23

broadwave technologies

Three-Way Wilkinson Power Divider This Wilkinson style microstrip power divider is designed for high isolation. Typical isolation is 25 dB and insertion loss above theoretical split is 0.5 dB nominal. Low insertion loss power dividers designs enhance receive sensitivity and preserve transmitted power. 24

molex incorporated

MobliquA Antenna Technologies The MobliquA antenna technology incorporates proprietary bandwidth-enhancing technologies, which have been used successfully in the companys standard and custom antenna designs. It is designed to improve impedance bandwidth in any application with a wireless interface antenna. 25

cml microcircuits

IF/RF Quadrature Demodulator IC The CMX970 is a low power, IF/RF quadrature demodulator IC with an operating range of 20 to 250 MHz. It was designed to meet the challenging requirements of wireless data and analog/ digital PMR/LMR radio systems. It can also be used in direct conversion applications in the VHF spectrum. 26

The choice is clear for all your RF needs.

Custom solutions and standard products from a single source.
With decades of experience in the interconnect industry, we know whats important to engineers. Thats why Molex manufactures the worlds broadest line of radio frequency connectors, cable assemblies and custom products. Our RF solutions can be optimized to minimize signal loss over a wide range of frequencies in a broad spectrum of sizes and styles of connectors. Plus, our serviceoriented team can turn around drawings in 48 hours and deliver custom products in less than eight weeks so you can get your products to market faster. For the industrys largest array of product options backed by reliable service, turn to Molex your clear choice for RF interconnect products and solutions.

Wireless Connectivity Solution A new wireless connectivity solution that links up to three handheld digital multimeters to smartphones, tablets and PCs has been introduced. By enabling remote viewing and control from distances of up to 10 meters, this solution enhances convenience and safety for engineers and technicians when troubleshooting live machinery or working in hazardous conditions. The core of the connectivity solution is the U1177A, a compact Bluetooth wireless adapter that plugs into any of the companys 11 handheld DMMs. 27

agilent technologies


Instrumentation / General Purpose TWT Medium Power Broadband Amplifiers

EW and Radar TWT

Teledyne Microwave Solutions new line of medium-power broadband amplifiers covers 20 MHz to 2600 MHZ and uses Gallium Nitride (GaN) technology. Amplifiers include an internal sequencer, assuring application of the proper gate voltage applied to the FET prior to voltage applied to the drain. Higher gain versions include pre-amps, providing excellent noise figure and IP performance. The small package footprint is designed for high performance applications and operates from -40 to +85C.

CW and Pulse TWTs for general laboratory amplifier use spanning the 1 to 40 GHz frequency range with average output power to 750 W.

Shadow gridded helix TWTs for broadband EW and radar applications from L through Ku Bands at peak power levels to 12 kW and average Power levels to >700 W.

Ultra Broadband Amplifiers



ACP20015 covers frequencies from 2.0 to 20.0 GHz with 10 dB of gain and 16.0 dBm typical output power. Third order intercept is +26 dBm and operates on 5 Vdc at 76 mA typical current. Military or spacelevel manufacturing/screening available.



Teledynes ACP20015 Ultra-Broadband Amplifier 2.0 - 20.0 GHz, 10 dB gain, 16.0 dBm typical output power. 3rd order intercept +26 dBm. -55 to +85C, fully-hermetic. Operates on 5 VDC at 76 mA. Military or space-level manufacturing/ screening is an available option. EAR-99.

Broadband Amplifiers

Teledynes A3CP6025 Broadband Amplifier 0.01 to 6.0 GHz. Gain is 24 dB typical, output power is +25 dBm, 3rd order intercept +34 dBm. Reverse isolation -50dB. Operates on 15 VDC, 300 mA.

High power, broadband, helix Traveling Wave Tubes for ECM, Radar, Communication & Instrumentation in airborne, shipboard, ground mobile and laboratory environments.

Traveling Wave Tubes

Ultra low phase noise YIG Oscillators covering multi-octave bands up to 18GHz. Surface Mount or connectorized packages for commercial and military applications.

TO-8 YIG Oscillators

YIG oscillators from Teledyne Microwave Solutions use the principle of magnetic resonance, generating a clean low phase noise microwave signal of -128 dBc at 100 KHz offset. Our YIGs offer up to 16 GHz; 3 to 8 and 8 to 16 GHZ, low power consumption, permanent magnet, and use in commercial applications in surface mount or PCB.

Ku-Band SSPA Exceptionally small size 15W P1 Ku-Band Solid State Power Amplifier for Satcom & CDL frequency bands. Product includes Forward power detect, Thermal Monitor, VSWR monitor and high speed blanking. Unit also incorporates a low output power mode.



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High Gain / High Output Power Broadband Amplifiers

A3CP6025 covers 0.01 to 6.0 GHz. Gain is 24 dB typical, output power is +25 dBm, and 3rd order intercept is +34 dBm. Reverse isolation is very high at 50 dB and operates on 15 Vdc, 300 mA.

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PAGE 14 MAY 2012


Laboratory Design Validation Testing (DVT) of Electronic Counter Measure (ECM) Systems Using Stimulus-Response Techniques
by Mike McKinley, PhD, Aeroflex he best way to understand any Electronic Counter Measure (ECM) systems behavior is to stimulate it with a known radar signal and to observe the systems response. The ability to stimulate an ECM system with a known signal and view, analyze, and compare the stimulus and response signals side-by-side gives designers the opportunity to visualize, understand, and verify how their device operates. The Aeroflex AWARES (Advanced Wideband Analyzer Recorder and Emitter System) system, using its stimulus/response operating mode, supports this direct testing approach, thereby providing a means to fully understand the behavior of an ECM system. As shown in Figure 1, the AWARES stimulus/response mode allows a stimulus radar signal to be played into an ECM system under test, while at the same time the ECM systems response signal is recorded. These stimulus and response signals are time synchronized. Analysis software on the AWARES system allows their side-by-side comparison, so that the detailed behavior of the ECM system can be clearly observed and quantified. This comparison can include pulse measurements (e.g., ToA [Time of Arrival], frequency, pulse width, PRI [Pulse Repetition Interval], etc.), or plots versus time of the signals instantaneous envelope, frequency, and phase. The AWARES System An Aeroflex AWARES system, shown in Figure 2, is composed of the following functional components: Signal recorder (frequency tuning up to 18 GHz, 400/70 MHz instantaneous BW) Signal playback (frequency tuning up to 18 GHz,

Figure 1: Aeroflex AWARES Signal Flow Diagram

come from a variety of sources. It can be recorded from an actual radar emitter; it can be generated from scratch using the VSS GUI application on the AWARES system; or it can be a combination of the two. The VSS software allows simple individual test signals to be generated (e.g., tones), as well as arbitrarily complex full signal environments to be generated by combining any of the following: recorded signals, user-generated signals (e.g., from Matlab), and signals taken from the VSS signal library. This library includes: General test signals Tone comb AWGN (Additive White Gaussian Noise) Communications signals PSK (Phase Shift Keyed) QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation) Pulsed signals, with user controlled: Pulse rise/fall times Width PRI Center frequency Frequency hopping Chirp MoP (Modulation on Pulse) In addition, the VSS pulsed signal allows individual control over each pulse in a generated signal via a spreadsheetlike PDW (Pulse Descriptor Word) file. Alternatively, when the VSS software is used to generate the stimulus signal, an ideal version of the radar signal can be created, possibly including user-selected controlled impairments (e.g., a frequency error). This signal can optionally be included within a controlled signal environment. For example, the generated stimulus signal might include the ideal radar and also AWGN, interference, other ECM, etc., so that the behavior of the ECM system in Aeroflex, Cont on pg 88

Figure 2: Aeroflex AWARES system 400/70 MHz instantaneous BW) Signal storage (32 GB RAM per channel, additional 8 TB RAID) Server machine (CPU) Signal analysis software (Broadband Signal Analyzer [BSA] GUI application) Signal creation software (Vector Signal Simulator [VSS] GUI application) Physically, a rack-mounted AWARES system is composed of two 3U chassis (RF and analog/digital conversion), and one 2U server (controller). For portability, these three chassis, plus a 1U power conditioner and a 1U combined monitor/ keyboard, are combined into a single transit case, creating a self-contained platform. Stimulus Signal Options The stimulus signal provided by the AWARES system can

Bigger where it counts

in the Performance.
Boontons 4540 Peak Power Meter delivers the outstanding performance needed for todays demanding radar and communication applications. By incorporating advanced technology from our flagship 4500B peak power analyzer, the smaller, economically priced 4540 outperforms higher priced competitors in many areas. Its fast update rate enables tuning high power amplifiers and processing large amounts of statistical data for CCDF measurements. Advanced trigger technology provides a rock solid view of fast rise time signals and the wide dynamic range allows measuring low duty cycle pulses. The 4540 power meter provides automatic settings for a large number of technologies including WCDMA, WiMAX, WLAN, Wi-Fi, LTE, and Radar. Frequency range: 9.9kHz to 40 GHz Time resolution: 200 ps Video bandwidth: 70MHz Rise time: <7ns Effective sampling rate (RSS): 5GSamples/second Statistical analysis including CCDF GPIB, USB (device) and LAN standard For more information visit us at or call +1 973-386-9696.

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500 Hz to 20 GHz


More models, more applications. For instrumentation, hi-rel military

projects, tough industrial equipment, high-traffic cellular systems, and tightly budgeted commercial products, Mini-Circuits has over 500 mixer models, with tens of thousands in stock for immediate shipment, and ten of thousands more ready for production in a snap!
Outstanding performance. Our hermetic LTCC/semiconductor

mixers are so robust, theyre guaranteed for 3 years! Youll also find IP3s up to 37 dBm,1-dB compression as high as 23 dBm, excellent unit-to-unit matching, extremely wide bandwidths, LO power levels from 3 to 27 dBm, and case profiles as low as 0.06!
Forty+ years of manufacturing experience in multiple

technologieshelp us meet the demands of each of our customers, from cutting-edge performance to low price, small size, and sheer durability.

and our patented Yoni2 search engine will find all the models that meet or exceed your needs. And custom models are just a phone call or email away, with quick turnarounds and surprisingly low prices. go to today to find the mixers you need, and get them in your hands as soon as tomorrow!
Its no secretindustry leaders have known for years:

Quick and easy selection. Enter a few specifications,


P.O. Box 350166, Brooklyn, New York 11235-0003 (718) 934-4500 Fax (718) 332-4661 The Design Engineers Search rch En ng gine finds the model you need, Instantly For detailed performance specs & shopping online see r ch E

ISO 90 900 01

ISO 14001 AS 9100

U.S. Patents 7739260, 7761442



PAGE 18 MAY 2012


rlc electronics

High Power Low Pass Filters These filters are designed for high power systems in the frequency range of 100 to 2000 MHz. Conservatively rated at 500W under extreme temperature and altitude conditions, these filters have low VSWR and approximately 2/3 the loss of the companys F-80 series. 28


Wi-Fi 5.8 GHz Cavity Filter A narrowband cavity filter at 5745 MHz was recently developed that is perfectly suitable for use in Wi-Fi 5.8 GHz applications. It offers a narrow passband of 40 MHz with low passband insertion loss of <1.5 dB and adjacent channel rejection of >20 dB. 29

response microwave

High Power Termination The RMTE.3000Nm100 is a new high power termination for use in ATE and production applications. It covers the DC to 3 GHz band, offering typical electrical performance of 0.8 dB insertion loss and VSWR of 1.20:1. Power handling is 100W. 30

ferro electronic materials

New LTCC Materials System The L8 LTCC system has superior dielectric properties that provide significantly lower loss than competitive, price-sensitive LTCC products. L8 performs well at up to 40 GHz and its reduced loss allows manufacturers to design and build more energy-efficient parts. 31

Offer Lowest Power Consumption for Best SNR!

Analog, Digital & Mixed-Signal ICs, Modules, Subsystems & Instrumentation


















105140 105040 1100 1101 105180 105080 1102



1520 1520 1520 104140 104040 1104 1510 1510 1510 1511 5831 1511 1511 5448 104180 104080




vectron international

Smallest SC-cut OCXO A mini OCXO, the OX-503, is the smallest SC-cut based oscillator on the market today. Features include temperature stability of +/-10 ppb from -20 to +70C and +/-25 ppb from -40 to +85C, aging of 1 ppb/day, supply voltage of 3.3V, and a footprint of 9 x 14 x 9 mm. 32




13-BIT & 12-BIT



Red Green Orange Purple 1041 & 1051 - Parallel (CMOS) Output LP6 1040 & 1050 - Parallel Output LP9 1100, 1101, 1102 & 1104 - Serial (LVDS) Output LP9 1510 & 1511 - Serial (LVDS) Output LP7 Lt. Blue Blue Yellow Gold 1520 - See Hittite for Details 1520 - Serial (LVDS) Output LP7 5448 - Serial (LVDS Demux) 256 BGA 5831 - Serial (CML) LP9

Hittites Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) products provide ultra low power dissipation per channel, ease of use and cost efficiency while maintaining high SNR / SFDR performance. When coupled with our RF & microwave IC solutions these ADCs will optimize your system performance.

Part Number HMCAD1520 HMCAD1511 HMCAD1510 HMCAD1102 HMCAD1101 HMCAD1100 HMCAD1050-80 HMCAD1050-40 HMCAD1051-80 HMCAD1051-40 HMCAD1040-80 HMCAD1040-40 HMCAD1041-80 HMCAD1041-40 Resolution 14 / 12-Bit 8-Bit 8-Bit 13 / 12-Bit 13 / 12-Bit 13 / 12-Bit 13 / 12-Bit 13 / 12-Bit 13 / 12-Bit 13 / 12-Bit 10-Bit 10-Bit 10-Bit 10-Bit Maximum Sample Rate 640 MSPS 1 GSPS 500 MSPS 80 MSPS 65 MSPS 50 MSPS 80 MSPS 40 MSPS 80 MSPS 40 MSPS 80 MSPS 40 MSPS 80 MSPS 40 MSPS # of Channels 1, 2, 4 1, 2, 4 1, 2, 4 8 8 8 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 Power Dissipation [2][3] 490 mW 710 mW 295 mW 59 mW / Channel 51 mW / Channel 41 mW / Channel 102 mW 55 mW 60 mW 33 mW 78 mW 43 mW 46 mW 25 mW SNR (dBFS) 70 49.8 49.8 70.1 72.2 72.2 72 72.7 72 72.7 61.6 61.6 61.6 61.6 SFDR (dBc) 60 / 75 [1] 49 / 64 [1] 49 / 65 [1] 77 82 82 77 81 77 81 75 81 75 81 Package LP7D LP7D LP7D LP9 LP9 LP9 LP9 LP9 LP6H LP6H LP9 LP9 LP6H LP6H EasySuite Evaluation Kit P/N EKIT01-HMCAD1520 EKIT01-HMCAD1511 EKIT01-HMCAD1510 EKIT01-HMCAD1102 EKIT01-HMCAD1101 EKIT01-HMCAD1100 EKIT01-HMCAD1050 EKIT01-HMCAD1050 EKIT01-HMCAD1051 EKIT01-HMCAD1051 EKIT01-HMCAD1040 EKIT01-HMCAD1040 EKIT01-HMCAD1041 EKIT01-HMCAD1041

[1] Excluding Interleaving Spurs.

Visit Hittites New ADC Web Pages at Your Comprehensive Source for High Speed, Low Power A/D Converters.


Xtra Long Life Transfer Switch Model MTS-18-12B+ is a Xtra Long Life transfer switch covering DC to 18 GHz. Features include low insertion loss (0.2 dB typ.), high isolation (85 dB typ.), high power handling (10W), and operating voltage range of 12V (nom) +/-1V. Operating temperature is -15 to +45C. 33

2 Elizabeth Drive Chelmsford, MA 01824 978-250-3343 tel 978-250-3373 fax

Order On-Line at:

Receive the latest product releases - click on My Subscription



ISO 9001:2008 Certified

The World Leader in VCOs & PLLs

Your Trusted Source for High Quality Products, Performance and Delivery
Highly stable, robust solutions up to 4 GHz Superior phase noise performance Low tuning sensitivity and low frequency drift Quick turnaround on custom solutions Unmatched pricing with fast delivery

CRO Series VCOs 400 MHz - 4000 MHz

Low High Tuning 10 kHz Power Supply Freq. Freq. Voltage PN Output Voltage VCO Part No. (MHz) (MHz) (Vdc) (dBc/Hz) (dBm,typ.) (Vdc) CRO0410A-LF 390 CRO1000A-LF 1000 CRO1507A-LF 1504 CRO1940A-LF 1910 CRO2275A-LF 2250 CRO2343A-LF 2310 CRO2477A-LF 2440 CRO2537A-LF 2530 CRO2885A-LF 2880 CRO3069A-LF 3064 CRO3200A-LF 3200 CRO3662A-LF 3657 CRO3850B-LF 3850 430 1000 1511 1970 2300 2376 2540 2545 2890 3074 3200 3667 3850 0.5-4.5 0-3.3 0.5-4.5 0.5-4.5 0.5-4.5 0.5-4.5 0.5-4.5 0.5-4.5 0.5-4.5 0.5-4.5 0.5-4.5 0.5-4.5 0.5-4.5 -117 -121 -117 -112 -113 -109 -108 -115 -115 -116 -116 -113 -109 -4 3 2.5 3.5 1.5 0 3.5 3 7 2.5 11 1.5 2.75 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

iversary n n A r a e 25 Y

For additional parts and ordering information visit WWW.MPDIGEST.COM 219 SEE US AT MTT-s BOOTH # 2528

14118 Stowe Drive, Suite B Poway, CA 92064 Tel: (858) 621-2700 Fax: (858) 486-1927

PAGE 20 MAY 2012


richardson rfpd

High Performance Filters Immediate availability and full design support capabilities for three new RF Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) filters from TriQuint Semiconductor are now offered. They are ideal for wireless infrastructure applications, repeaters and other general purpose wireless applications. 34


Uni-Directional Coupler Model C8188-102 is a uni-directional coupler that covers a full 30 to 3000 MHz bandwidth and is rated at 20W CW. Operating at a tight coupling factor of 20 dB, this model incurs only 2.4 dB of insertion loss, and supplies 18 dB minimum of directivity. 35

dialog semiconductor

Green VoIP IC Family Extended A high performance VoIP phone chipset, the SC14453, has been created for mid and high end desktop phones and extends the portfolio of award winning Green VoIP ICs. This VoIP processor includes class-leading integrated audio, security and graphics functions. 36


rlc electronics

Multi-Switch Module With this new multi-switch module, it is possible to integrate switches from the companys range of products along with other components into a single package. Shown above, this module comprises an electro-mechanical transfer switch and a SPDT switch used to switch an RF power source between two antennas and simultaneously select a fixed delay line to meet circuit configurations. 37



Integrated Microwave Assemblies

Visit us at IMS 2012 Booths 2916 & 2917

RF Distribution Network Switched Filter Bank

X Band DDS Synthesizer

Narda. Your IMA source.

Think NARDA... for the IMAs you need, whenever you need them for: > EW > MILSATCOM > Radar > Missiles > UAVs


Digitally Controlled Oscillator (DTO) Model AUM-1001G-DTOK-3R5MBW is a digitally controlled oscillator covering the frequency range of 100 to 1000 MHz. It is designed to withstand stringent military ground or airborne environments. This unit offers fast switching speeds and a stable frequency output with low phase noise. 38

EW Receiver

FPGA Programmable Source

Ka Band SSPA Ka Band BUC

Passive Distribution Network


SATCOM Transceiver

EW Antenna Interface

Scan using your Smart Phone or Tablet to learn more!

k&l microwave

Three-Section Narrowband Cavity Filter From the new CS series, this 3-section narrowband cavity filter has a center frequency of 1217.2 MHz with an equiripple bandwidth of 2.3 MHz minimum, yielding an insertion loss of 3.0 dB maximum. VSWR is less than 1.5:1 over the passband. 39

Engineering, without compromise since 1954.

w w 631.231.1700

OCTAVE BAND LOW NOISE AMPLIFIERS Gain (dB) MIN Noise Figure (dB) Power -out @ P1-dB 3rd Order ICP Model No. Freq (GHz) CA01-2110 0.5-1.0 28 1.0 MAX, 0.7 TYP +10 MIN +20 dBm CA12-2110 1.0-2.0 30 1.0 MAX, 0.7 TYP +10 MIN +20 dBm CA24-2111 2.0-4.0 29 1.1 MAX, 0.95 TYP +10 MIN +20 dBm CA48-2111 4.0-8.0 29 1.3 MAX, 1.0 TYP +10 MIN +20 dBm CA812-3111 8.0-12.0 27 1.6 MAX, 1.4 TYP +10 MIN +20 dBm CA1218-4111 12.0-18.0 25 1.9 MAX, 1.7 TYP +10 MIN +20 dBm CA1826-2110 18.0-26.5 32 3.0 MAX, 2.5 TYP +10 MIN +20 dBm NARROW BAND LOW NOISE AND MEDIUM POWER AMPLIFIERS CA01-2111 0.4 - 0.5 28 0.6 MAX, 0.4 TYP +10 MIN +20 dBm CA01-2113 0.8 - 1.0 28 0.6 MAX, 0.4 TYP +10 MIN +20 dBm CA12-3117 1.2 - 1.6 25 0.6 MAX, 0.4 TYP +10 MIN +20 dBm CA23-3111 2.2 - 2.4 30 0.6 MAX, 0.45 TYP +10 MIN +20 dBm CA23-3116 2.7 - 2.9 29 0.7 MAX, 0.5 TYP +10 MIN +20 dBm CA34-2110 3.7 - 4.2 28 1.0 MAX, 0.5 TYP +10 MIN +20 dBm CA56-3110 5.4 - 5.9 40 1.0 MAX, 0.5 TYP +10 MIN +20 dBm CA78-4110 7.25 - 7.75 32 1.2 MAX, 1.0 TYP +10 MIN +20 dBm CA910-3110 9.0 - 10.6 25 1.4 MAX, 1.2 TYP +10 MIN +20 dBm CA1315-3110 13.75 - 15.4 25 1.6 MAX, 1.4 TYP +10 MIN +20 dBm CA12-3114 1.35 - 1.85 30 4.0 MAX, 3.0 TYP +33 MIN +41 dBm CA34-6116 3.1 - 3.5 40 4.5 MAX, 3.5 TYP +35 MIN +43 dBm CA56-5114 5.9 - 6.4 30 5.0 MAX, 4.0 TYP +30 MIN +40 dBm CA812-6115 8.0 - 12.0 30 4.5 MAX, 3.5 TYP +30 MIN +40 dBm CA812-6116 8.0 - 12.0 30 5.0 MAX, 4.0 TYP +33 MIN +41 dBm CA1213-7110 12.2 - 13.25 28 6.0 MAX, 5.5 TYP +33 MIN +42 dBm CA1415-7110 14.0 - 15.0 30 5.0 MAX, 4.0 TYP +30 MIN +40 dBm CA1722-4110 17.0 - 22.0 25 3.5 MAX, 2.8 TYP +21 MIN +31 dBm ULTRA-BROADBAND & MULTI-OCTAVE BAND AMPLIFIERS Gain (dB) MIN Noise Figure (dB) Power -out @ P1-dB 3rd Order ICP Model No. Freq (GHz) CA0102-3111 0.1-2.0 28 1.6 Max, 1.2 TYP +10 MIN +20 dBm CA0106-3111 0.1-6.0 28 1.9 Max, 1.5 TYP +10 MIN +20 dBm CA0108-3110 0.1-8.0 26 2.2 Max, 1.8 TYP +10 MIN +20 dBm CA0108-4112 0.1-8.0 32 3.0 MAX, 1.8 TYP +22 MIN +32 dBm CA02-3112 0.5-2.0 36 4.5 MAX, 2.5 TYP +30 MIN +40 dBm CA26-3110 2.0-6.0 26 2.0 MAX, 1.5 TYP +10 MIN +20 dBm CA26-4114 2.0-6.0 22 5.0 MAX, 3.5 TYP +30 MIN +40 dBm CA618-4112 6.0-18.0 25 5.0 MAX, 3.5 TYP +23 MIN +33 dBm CA618-6114 6.0-18.0 35 5.0 MAX, 3.5 TYP +30 MIN +40 dBm CA218-4116 2.0-18.0 30 3.5 MAX, 2.8 TYP +10 MIN +20 dBm CA218-4110 2.0-18.0 30 5.0 MAX, 3.5 TYP +20 MIN +30 dBm CA218-4112 2.0-18.0 29 5.0 MAX, 3.5 TYP +24 MIN +34 dBm LIMITING AMPLIFIERS Input Dynamic Range Output Power Range Psat Power Flatness dB Model No. Freq (GHz) CLA24-4001 2.0 - 4.0 -28 to +10 dBm +7 to +11 dBm +/- 1.5 MAX CLA26-8001 2.0 - 6.0 -50 to +20 dBm +14 to +18 dBm +/- 1.5 MAX CLA712-5001 7.0 - 12.4 -21 to +10 dBm +14 to +19 dBm +/- 1.5 MAX CLA618-1201 6.0 - 18.0 -50 to +20 dBm +14 to +19 dBm +/- 1.5 MAX AMPLIFIERS WITH INTEGRATED GAIN ATTENUATION Model No. Freq (GHz) Gain (dB) MIN Noise Figure (dB) Power -out @ P1-dB Gain Attenuation Range CA001-2511A 0.025-0.150 21 5.0 MAX, 3.5 TYP +12 MIN 30 dB MIN CA05-3110A 0.5-5.5 23 2.5 MAX, 1.5 TYP +18 MIN 20 dB MIN CA56-3110A 5.85-6.425 28 2.5 MAX, 1.5 TYP +16 MIN 22 dB MIN CA612-4110A 6.0-12.0 24 2.5 MAX, 1.5 TYP +12 MIN 15 dB MIN CA1315-4110A 13.75-15.4 25 2.2 MAX, 1.6 TYP +16 MIN 20 dB MIN CA1518-4110A 15.0-18.0 30 3.0 MAX, 2.0 TYP +18 MIN 20 dB MIN LOW FREQUENCY AMPLIFIERS Gain (dB) MIN Noise Figure dB Power -out @ P1-dB 3rd Order ICP Model No. Freq (GHz) CA001-2110 0.01-0.10 18 4.0 MAX, 2.2 TYP +10 MIN +20 dBm CA001-2211 0.04-0.15 24 3.5 MAX, 2.2 TYP +13 MIN +23 dBm CA001-2215 0.04-0.15 23 4.0 MAX, 2.2 TYP +23 MIN +33 dBm CA001-3113 0.01-1.0 28 4.0 MAX, 2.8 TYP +17 MIN +27 dBm CA002-3114 0.01-2.0 27 4.0 MAX, 2.8 TYP +20 MIN +30 dBm CA003-3116 0.01-3.0 18 4.0 MAX, 2.8 TYP +25 MIN +35 dBm CA004-3112 0.01-4.0 32 4.0 MAX, 2.8 TYP +15 MIN +25 dBm

VSWR 2.0:1 2.0:1 2.0:1 2.0:1 2.0:1 2.0:1 2.0:1 2.0:1 2.0:1 2.0:1 2.0:1 2.0:1 2.0:1 2.0:1 2.0:1 2.0:1 2.0:1 2.0:1 2.0:1 2.0:1 2.0:1 2.0:1 2.0:1 2.0:1 2.0:1 VSWR 2.0:1 2.0:1 2.0:1 2.0:1 2.0:1 2.0:1 2.0:1 2.0:1 2.0:1 2.0:1 2.0:1 2.0:1 VSWR 2.0:1 2.0:1 2.0:1 2.0:1 VSWR 2.0:1 2.0:1 1.8:1 1.9:1 1.8:1 1.85:1 VSWR 2.0:1 2.0:1 2.0:1 2.0:1 2.0:1 2.0:1 2.0:1

CIAO Wireless can easily modify any of its standard models to meet your "exact" requirements at the Catalog Pricing. Visit our web site at for our complete product offering.


Ciao Wireless, Inc.

Tel (805) 389-3224

4 0 0 0 V i a P e s c a d o r, C a m a r i l l o , C A 9 3 0 1 2

Fax (805) 389-3629

PAGE 22 MAY 2012



Ultra High IP3 Wideband Amplifier The ZX60-H242+ uses the companys high dynamic MMIC technology and optimization circuits to provide industry leading linearity over a focused frequency range of 700 to 2400 MHz. Housed in a rugged, cost effective unibody chassis. 40


High Power, High Pass Filter Model HPF130-140-NFF-50W is a high power, high pass filter with a cut-off frequency of 130 MHz and an upper passband of 550 MHz. This filter offers low insertion loss of 1 dB maximum and over 80 dB of rejection at 90 MHz. It is designed for 50 ohms impedance. 41

agilent technologies

Clock Recovery Solutions A new family of instrumentation-grade clock recovery solutions for optical and electrical testing of high-speed digital communications components and systems has been launched. They offer the industrys highest bandwidth and low jitter performance at a lower cost. 42


New Overmolded Cable Connector The companys line of M12 connectors has been expanded with a single-ended overmolded cable connector. The Series 876 D-Coded connectors have adapted the standard Profinet design, which is commonly used in industrial environments of automation networking applications. 43

rlc electronics

Miniature Coaxial Switches This miniature coaxial switch is a single pole, two position type. It provides extremely high reliability, long life and excellent electrical performance characteristics over the frequency range of DC to 65 GHz. Overall volume of the switch is less than cubic inch. 44

Capacitance Ranges: 800C: 2.2 pF to 3000 pF 800E: 3.3 pF to 5100 pF Case Sizes Case C (0.250'' x 0.250'') Case E (0.380'' x 0.380'') NPO Low Loss Rugged Dielectric Voltage Ratings up to 7200 WVDC RoHS Compliant, Pb Free

Proprietary NPO Dielectric for Superior High Voltage Handling Advanced Engineered Silver Electrode System for Lowest ESR Rugged Ceramic Design for Reliable Trouble-Free Operation Improved Image Quality in MRI Scanners Superior Thermal Management in High RF Power Applications Proprietary Dielectric Material

High Tesla

MRI Imaging Coils HF/RF PowerAmplifiers and Transmitters Antenna Tuning Plasma Chambers Industrial Lasers

Radio tower image courtesy of Tom Rauch, W8JI





Panel Feed-Through Terminal Blocks Newly released MPT Panel FeedThrough Terminal Blocks allow the designer to completely separate the internal elements of a circuit from outside world noise interference. The new series is particularly useful for applications including medical imaging, motor and robotic motor control generator sets and other high power switching outputs that will meet domestic and international EMI/RFI requirements. 45

ATC North America 631-622-4700

ATC Europe +46 8 6800410

ATC Asia +86-755-2396-8759

tuf-Flex cables

When the going gets tough, the tough get connected!

center conductor Silver plated OFHC copper per ASTM B-298

dielectric Multi-ply PTFE laminate per ASTM D-1457

shield Silver plated OFHC copper foil

Braid Silver plated copper braid

steel serving silver plated copperweld per astM B-501

Jacket FEP per ASTM D-2116

TUF-FLEX offers an internal layer of silver plated copperweld protection that is crush resistant & offers exceptional resistance to kinking in lieu of external armor. tuF-FleX cable Performance vs. crush Force
Force Max (ins) Max loss VsWr(dB)

0 45 90 160 200 225

1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.22 1.28

1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3

Results of crush and bend tests on IWs TUF-FLEX cable assemblies, using 2 ft long samples of our 1803 cable. Results show max VSWR and insertion loss over a frequency range of .04 to 18 GHz. For crush force testing, the cable was paced between two 1 inch diameter plates with force applied to the top plate. The same cable was then tested using successively smaller bend radii to a minimum bend radius of 1.5.

Insulated WIre, Inc. 203.791.1999

Visit us at the IMs 2012 Booth #509
Scan code to find out how you can get connected

Call us today with your project specs and well show you the most reliable way to get connected in the industry. WWW.MPDIGEST.COM 223

Were how the microwave industry gets connected!

PAGE 24 MAY 2012



Power Divider/Combiners These compact, high performance Wilkinson power divider/combiners are ideally suited for C, X and Ku band systems applications. Two-way and four-way SMAFemale models feature high isolation, low insertion loss, exceptional VSWR and phase/amplitude balance. 46


Surface Mount Directional Coupler The DBTC-16-5-75LX+ is a surface mount directional coupler with a very broadband, multi-octave range of 5 to 1500 MHz. Features include very flat coupling (16 dB), temperature stable, LTCC base, all welded construction, and leads attached for better solderability. 47

richardson rfpd

GPS Modules Featuring SiRFstarIV A new family of GPS modules featuring SiRFstarIV GPS technology from Maestro-Wireless Solutions are offered in flash and ROM memory versions, as well as a highly-integrated GPS/Smart antenna version, to best meet varying application requirements. 48

agilent technologies

Optical Modulation Analyzer The industrys first portable, fully integrated optical modulation analyzer with a laptop-size screen, the N4392A optical modulator analyzer is more accessible to engineers who need to analyze complex modulated optical signals during development and manufacturing of 40/100G coherent transmitters and receivers. 49

Environmentally responsible Lower operating temperatures Improved efficiency reduces BOM count and costs Reduced board layout space Smaller base stations Increased reliability

make it

Our RF products are some of the coolest in the RF industryliterally. Not only are they innovative and unique but they are the performance leaders in thermal management and operating efficiency. The higher efficiency offered by Airfast technology lowers the systems thermal requirements, allowing base stations to operate significantly cooler while enabling signal bandwidth in excess of 100 MHz. The 48V products allow for a 50 percent reduction in RF real estate, resulting in smaller, more nimble base stations. Our RF power products provide air cooled solutions above 1 kW output power for ISM and broadcast applications, with a 50 percent increase in efficiency for UHF broadcast transmitters. Not to be outdone, we offer GaAs power FETs which boast the lowest package thermal resistance available, and highly efficient GaAs medium power MMIC/FETs which deliver Class AB efficiencies. Now thats cool. For more information, visit

aeroflex limited

LTE Test Mobile The TM500 LTE Test Mobile is the first test mobile to emulate LTE Category 5 (Cat5) user equipment (UE), allowing operators to verify the operation of their networks and equipment vendors to prove the performance of their eNodeB (LTE base stations) at the higher data rates that are enabled by Cat5 handsets and terminals. 50

Benefits of Making it Cool

Energy savings provides reduced operating costs


Freescale and the Freescale logo are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., Reg. U.S. Pat. & Tm. Off. Airfast is a trademark of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. 2012 Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.

Digitally Controlled Phase Shifter Model PS-2D2G-360-CD-1 is a 2170 to 2220 MHz, 9-bit digitally controlled phase shifter that offers up to 360 of phase shift range. This model has a LSB of 0.7 and a low insertion loss of 13 dB typically. The unit provides very fast switching speeds of 350nsec typical. 51

Engineered to Outperform

SDPs SMT hybrids, directional couplers, and Doherty combiners available in surface mount package; designed to meet your requirements for wireless applications in all cellular bands. Using innovative manufacturing techniques, our low profile compact designs allow SDP the advantage to provide our customers aggressive cost effective solutions.

SMT Couplers

to complement existing coupler and isolator components lines.

SDP unveils new lines of cost effective


Visit Island Booth 2453

For SDP isolators & circulators, customization to achieve unique combinations of electrical and mechanical constraints has been our key to our global success. Optimized insertion loss <0.1dB solutions are available. A separate line of ultra-low IMD solutions (<-90dBc) are part of an existing database of over 3,000 alternatives. Dropin, SMT, Coaxial, & waveguide formats. 226


SDP Telecom will have Design Engineering and Sales personnel on site throughout the exhibition period to support your inquiries and to discuss potential opportunities. Should you wish to pre-schedule a meeting please contact your SDP interface, or email to

Operational Excellence In
Canada China India

Terminations / Attenuators

High Power loads

SDP introduces new BeO Free SMT terminations and attenuators offered at highly competitive prices. The units are available with and without heat sink, designed for different power levels and attenuation values.

High power fixed terminations and attenuators with power levels up to 500W in both waveguide and coaxial technologies are available. Waveguide terminations and attenuators are available in frequency ranges 2.6 GHz to 110 GHz.

Integrated W/G



Antenna Coupling Units (ACU), output arms, combining systems, switching matrix and other modules that integrate several components and devices such as OMTs, polarizers, filters, circulators, loads, couplers etc... Available in standard waveguide sizes and flanges. 229


A wide range of filters, duplexers, multiplexers using combline, and dielectric resonator technologies for multiband combining, frequency separation and spurious rejection in cellular wireless infrastructure, as well as POI DAS systems.


Diversity of SDP Telecom Product Offerings

PAGE 26 MAY 2012


trm microwave

Six-Way Power Divider Model DL62030 has been added to the companys family of broadband power dividers covering the 20 to 3000 MHz frequency range. This 6-way power divider is well suited for radar and satcom applications, and was designed to operate in temperatures from 0 to +40C. 52

dymax corporation

Digital Syringe Dispenser The SD-100 digital syringe dispenser accurately dispenses low- to highviscosity materials. Operators are able to quickly and easily set up the system for the deposit size needed by utilizing the digital timer control and adjustable pressure gauge. 53


High Speed Absorptive Switch Model P7T-0R8G18G-60-T-SFF-SMC is a high speed, single pole, seven throw absorptive switch capable of switching within 75nsec. Frequency range is 0.8 to 18.0 GHz and it has over 60 dB of isolation with insertion loss of 4.3 dB maximum. 54

kr electronics

Bandpass Filter Part number 2965-SMA is a 500 MHz bandpass filter with a typical 1 dB bandwidth of 8 MHz, insertion loss of 6.5 dB and typical 40 dB bandwidth of 52 MHz. It is supplied in a 0.6 x 0.6 x 2.25" SMA package and can be customized for other center frequencies and bandwidths. 55

Powerful Multipath/Link Emulator

Multipath Rayleigh & Rician Fading Unmanned Arial Vehicle (UAV) testing Sophisticated Satellite link emulation Mobile Comms on the move testing
Test solutions for ....

Hz h 0 M idt 5 2 dw n ba


Surface Mount Diplexer TDP-112-75+ is a low-pass and highpass combination device. Low pass port is designed for DC to 65 MHz and high pass port is designed for 88 to 1100 MHz. Impedance is 75 ohms. This diplexer can be used in CATV, set-top box, defense communications and other multiband radio systems. 56


- warfare information networks, tactical - mobile user objective system - Joint Tactical Radio System - Internet routing in space
dBmCorp, Inc 32A Spruce Street Oakland, NJ 07436 Tel (201) 677-0008 Fax (201) 677-9444
New Lightning Protection Products The Times-Protect LP-GTR series of DC pass RF lightning and surge protection products has been further expanded for higher power handling needs. With the addition of the LP-GTR-N-35 series, the entire product range with either the type N or 716 DIN interface will now handle 50, 210 or 550W. The new series is ideal for distributed antenna systems and tower mounted electronics. 57

Software showing mobile link setup

times microwave systems

RF Test Equipment for Wireless Communications


RF Amplifiers
Gain Blocks Coaxial Module Low Noise Linear Drivers High Power Variable Gain

RF Switches
SPnT Semiconductor Mechanical High Isolation High Power GaN Die

RF Transistors
GaN LDMOS GaAs High Power High Frequency Bipolar

RF Attenuators
Fixed Digital Voltage Variable Chip Temperature Variable Coaxial 236




Test & Measurement

USB Controlled Signal Generators Power Meters Switches Attenuators Vector Modulators Cable Assemblies Coax Components 237

RF Oscillators
The Center of your RF Designs

OCXO VCXO TCXO VCO PLL Synthesizers RF Generators 239


RF Absorber RF Gaskets Wire Mesh Fingerstock Shielding Tape Filtration Panels Shielded Windows 240

RF Cable Assemblies
High Performance Test Cables In-box solutions Pigtails Conformable Flexible Semi Rigid 241

RF Filters
Monoblock SAW / BAW Ceramic Resonator HP / LP / BP Duplexer / Diplexer Cavity 242

RF Diodes
PIN Schottky Varactor Limiter Gunn Tunnel


PAGE 28 MAY 2012


New Low-Profile Hermetic LTCC Mixer Series Raises the Bar for Reliability, Performance, and Price
by Mini-Circuits Abstract new family of ultra-reliable mixers, developed by Mini-Circuits, combines low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) circuitry and specially selected semiconductor dice in a hermetically sealed case (Figure 1)at 1/10th the price of comparable products on the market. Fully automated, tightly controlled, and highly repeatable processes ensure excellent performance at temperatures up to 125C, with small quantity prices as low as $5.95 each. A well-established fact of life in the electronics industry is that manufacturers have no control over where, and how, customers choose to deploy their products. For example, take a high-performance instrument that works perfectly in an air-conditioned, highaltitude, Arizona testing lab, and ship it to an oil refinery on the U.S. Gulf Coast. On the one hand, a relative humidity of 90% means ESD is less of a worry. But on the other hand, the entire assembly is soaking

Figure 1: Mini-Circuits MAC mixer package wet, relatively speaking. What to do? Plug it in and put it to work! Military suppliers have met these kinds of challenges for decades. Their RF and microwave systems may be stored for months or years, only to be shipped in an unpressurized cargo bay to a tropical staging area and on to a cold, highaltitude battlefield in a single day. Massive swings in temperature, pressure, or humidity, and very hard knocks, are to be expected, and nonperformance is not an option. Components that meet tough MIL specifications help make it all possible, but the high associated costsfor example, $80 or more for a hermetic frequency mixerhave kept them out of reach for more tightly budgeted applications. High reliability is increasingly essential for commercial applications as well. The long-term performance of aircraft, medical monitoring

Table 1: Package-level qualifications achieved by Mini-Circuits MAC mixers Gross Leak Fine Leak Thermal Shock Vibration Acceleration Mechanical Shock HTOL Multiple Reflow Bend Test Adhesion Strength MIL-STD-202 Method 112, Condition D (100% testing for all MAC mixers) MIL-STD-202 Method 112, Condition C, Procedure IIIa MIL-STD-202 Method 204, Condition D (-55/+150C, 1000 cycles, 15 minutes) MIL-STD-202 Method 204, Condition D (10-2000 Hz sine, 20g, 3 axis, 12 c.y.ea.) MIL-STD-883 Method 2001, Condition E MIL-STD-202 Method 213, Condition A MIL-STD-202 Method 108, Condition D (1000 hours, 125C, at rated LO level) JESD22-B102 JESD22-B113 Push test >10 lb.

equipment, and 24-hour automated business systems are all critical, to varying degrees, for end users, manufacturers, and investors alike. And at the same time, global competition maintains a downward pressure on price. Design engineers have no choice but to meet both of these demands. For over 40 years, MiniCircuits has been working to close the long-standing price gap between commercial budgets and the costs associated with hi-rel components. By taking advantage of the latest developments in LTCC ceramics, multilayer distributed circuitry, and automated processing, we have found a way to meet customer demand for long-term performance, while reducing costs by a factor of 10. Our new Ultra-Rel MAC mixers are the first of these products to come to market. EM simulations enable the rapid prototyping of highperformance, double-balanced mixer circuitry, precisely matched to tightly-specified Schottky diodes. The prescreened quads are attached to their purpose-built substrates with gold wire bonds. Highquality hermetic seals are then applied under a controlled, inert atmosphere, using goldplated covers and eutectic AuSn solder. Automated singulation and 100% testing ensure the integrity and performance of every mixer we stock. MAC mixers have already qualified for an extensive list of MIL-STD, JESD, and other specifications (Table 1). The results have been so consistently impressive, were backing them all with a 3-year warranty. These rugged, hermetically sealed ceramic models are ideal Mini-Circuits, Cont on pg 100


GaAs pHEMT MMIC Upconverters and Downconverters for Point-to-Point Infrastructure Applications
The RFMD GaAs pHEMT MMIC upconverters (RFUV1002/ RFUV1003/RFUV1702/RFUV1703) and downconverters (RFRX1001/RFRX1002/RFRX1701/RFRX1702) combine high performance and low cost packaging, making them efficient solutions, ideally suited to both current and next generation point-to-point and VSAT applications. The MMIC upconverters operate in the 9 to 26.5GHz frequency range and incorporate integrated LO buffer amplifier, a balanced single-side band (image rejection) mixer followed by a variable gain amplifier and a DC-decoupling capacitor. The MMIC downconverters operate in the 9 to 26.5GHz frequency range and incorporate an integrated LNA, image rejection mixer, LO buffer amplifier, and DC-decoupling capacitors. All devices are packaged in a 5 x 5mm QFN to simplify both system-level board design and volume assembly.
FEATURES DC to 4GHz IF frequency High level integration for volume assembly No mixer bias required Compact, low cost 5 x 5mm QFN packaging 9 to 26.5GHz RF frequency Excellent performance such as high OIP3 (upconverters), IIP3 (downconverters), image rejections, conversion gain, and NF

RF Freq (Min) (MHz) RF Freq (Max) (MHz) IF Freq (Min) (MHz) DC DC DC DC IF Freq (Max) (MHz) 4000 4000 4000 4000 LO Freq (Min) (MHz) 5000 8000 6850 8600

LO Freq (Max) (MHz) 18000 20000 13800 15250

Conversion Gain (dB) 22 22 20 20

OIP3 (dBm) 28 28 27 27

Image Rejection (dBc) 20 20 15 15


Part Number RFUV1002 RFUV1003 RFUV1702 RFUV1703

9000 12000 17700 21200

14000 16000 23600 26500

RF Freq (Min) (MHz) RF Freq (Max) (MHz) IF Freq (Min) (MHz) DC DC DC DC IF Freq (Max) (MHz) 4000 4000 4000 4000 LO Freq (Min) (MHz) 6000 5000 6850 6850

LO Freq (Max) (MHz)

Conversion Gain (dB) 12 14 13 13

NF (dB) 2.1 1.7 2.5 2.0

IIP3 (dBm) 4 4 6 6

Image Rejection (dBc) 15 15 15 15


Part Number RFRX1001 RFRX1002 RFRX1701 RFRX1702

10000 9000 17700 17700

15400 14000 26500 19700

19400 18000 15250 11850

RFMD is a trademark of RFMD, LLC. 2012 RFMD.


PAGE 30 MAY 2012


response microwave

New 25W Power Termination The RMTE.4000NmT, a 25W termination for use in LTE test and production applications, covers the DC to 4 GHz band, offering typical electrical performance of 0.5 dB insertion loss and VSWR of 1.20:1. Power handling is 25W. 58


Wideband Isolator The RADI-7.0-12.4-S3-1WR-b is a low cost wideband isolator to ensure high performance. Full band specifications include 20 dB isolation, 0.4 dB insertion loss, and VSWR 1.25:1 over the operating temperature of -55 to +85C. Size is 21.3 x 24.7 x 15.2mm. 59

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MMIC Band Pass Filter The HMC899 Tunable MMIC Band Pass Filter (BPF) features a user selectable pass band frequency range of 19 and 38 GHz. The 3 dB filter bandwidth is approximately 18%, while the 20 dB bandwidth is approximately 35%. It is ideal for hybrid and MIC applications. 60

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Amplifiers for CATV Systems Design and sales support is now available for two innovative new amplifiers from TriQuint Semiconductor that reduce component requirements in CATV systems. The TAT8858 cable infrastructure amplifier (shown) offers high gain and efficiency in either 12 or 24V systems. The TAT2814A is ideal for CMTS, Edge QAM and EOC design approaches. 61




X3 Frequency Multiplier The RMK-3-92+ is an X3 frequency multiplier with an output of 450 to 900 MHz. Features include low conversion loss (14 dB typ.) and high rejection of adjacent harmonics (66 dBc typ.). Applications include synthesizers, local oscillators, and satellite up and down converters. 62

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Filter Type / Part Number 707 MHz Ceramic filter 737 MHz Ceramic Filter 763/793 MHz Ceramic Duplexer Application LTE Frequency Range 698-716 MHz Insertion Loss 2.5dB max Rejection 40dB @ 646 MHz; 30dB @ 768 MHz 30dB @ 676 MHz; 30dB @ 798 MHz 60dB @ 758-768 MHz; 60dB @ 788798 MHz 45dB min @ 894 MHz; 45dB min @ 936 MHz 45dBc @ 1010 MHz; 45dBc @ 1845.5 MHz 20dBc @ 5705 MHz; 20dBc @ 5785 MHz Package (mm) 27 x 12.5 x 7.2



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High-Efficiency Ku-Band HPA Model XTD-750KHE high power amplifier (HPA) is an antenna mountable TWTA designed for high linear power and outstandingly high efficiency for Ku-band SATCOM uplinks. It doubles output power and boosts efficiency by offering 750W performance in a 400W size package. 63

Cavity Filters & Diplexers LC Filters Crystal Filters RF Assemblies Switch Filter Banks Ceramic Filters

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PAGE 32 MAY 2012


New Low Insertion Loss Circulator

by Dave Cruickshank and Brian Hartnett, Skyworks Solutions, Inc. he insertion loss of the output circulator of a power amplifier is critical. It is estimated that every 0.1dB of insertion loss at the power amplifier output costs >3W of RF power further up the chain. Engineering teams from Skyworks Solutions, Inc. and Trans-Tech, Inc. (a subsidiary of Skyworks Solutions) have successfully developed new manufacturing processes for the ferrite disk, resulting in circulator designs with industry leading insertion loss performance. The new SKYFR000782 circulator, designed for the frequency range 2110MHz to 2170MHz, achieves a typical insertion loss of just 0.08dB. Over temperature, the insertion loss is guaranteed to meet 0.12dB maximum. The SKYFR-000782 is a single junction circulator in a 19 19 mm housing (see Figure 1), designed to operate in the standard band of 2110 MHz to 2170 MHz. This circulator can achieve insertion loss performance of better than 0.08dB at

Figure 1: SKYFR-000782 image room temperature. The return loss of the three circulator ports is typically 26dB and the isolation is 28dB. Figure 2 compares the insertion loss performance of the SKYFR-000782 to a competitive unit. The competitors unit is designed for minimum insertion loss performance using industry-standard magnetic material. The competitive unit achieves insertion loss performance of 0.15dB versus the Skyworks unit insertion loss of just 0.08dB. The key to achieving this very low insertion loss is the ferrite disk. The ferrite itself is selected with the lowest magnetic and dielectric loss garnets from Trans-Techs range of low linewidth magnetic materials and low loss D2000 series

dielectric. Secondly, those materials are combined into a co-fired garnet/dielectric ring assembly, a patented process in which both materials are processed simultaneously and the net result is a joint with no air gap and no lossy glue. These two factors, plus the excellent transmission and reflection s-parameters of the device, combine to give the very low insertion loss performance. Figures 3, 4, 5, and 6 show the s-parameters of the SKYFR000782 over temperature. In addition to industry leading insertion loss performance, the isolation of the SKYFR-000782 is greater than 28dB at 25C and 25dB over temperature. The return loss performance is greater than 25dB across the operating frequency band and temperature range. The significant improvement in insertion loss performance of the SKYFR-000782 is the result of improved manufacturing processes of the ferrite disk and careful magnetic and elecSkyworks, Cont on pg 62

Figure 2: SKYFR-000782 insertion loss data (black) vs. insertion loss of circulator using standard ferrite (red)

Figure 3: SKYFR-000782 input return loss (s11)













PAGE 36 MAY 2012


DC to 6 GHz Gain Blocks A new family of broadband, cascadable Darlington-pair InGaP/GaAs HBT gain block RFICs operates from DC to 6 GHz with excellent efficiency. They deliver strong performance as generalpurpose gain blocks for IF and RF buffer gain stages in commercial and defense applications ranging from base station transceivers and repeaters to CATV and SATV systems, test equipment, and numerous other RF and microwave systems. The family includes the TQP369180 and TQP369181 that deliver 15 dB of ultra-flat gain and the TQP369182 and TQP369184 that deliver 20 dB of gain. Both 15 and 20 dB gain models are available in a choice of two inexpensive plastic packages. And the TQP369185 offers up to 20.5 dB of gain and up to 19.7 dBm of P1dB, also integrating an internal active bias. All are internally matched to 50 ohms, requiring only an external RF choke, dropping resistor, and blocking/bypass capacitors for operation. They also are very rugged, meeting Class 1C HBM (up to 2kV) electrostatic discharge (ESD) requirements. 70

Ceramic, Hermetically Sealed Frequency Mixer The MAC-113H+ is a wide band (3800 to 11000 MHz) Level 17 (LO Power + 17 dBm) ceramic, hermetically sealed frequency mixer featuring low conversion loss (6.5 dB typ.) and high L-R isolation (28 dB typ.). Operating temperature range is -55 to +100C. This aqueous washable, low cost, low profile frequency mixer is ideal for satellite up and down converters, line of sight links, defense radar, defense communications, and federal fixed service. 72


DRO Replacement Oscillator The ESP-11000 Phase-Locked Oscillator operates at 11000 MHz and features exceptionally-low phase noise (<-112 dBc/ Hz @ 10 KHz). The unit is phase-locked to a 200 MHz external reference and offers +3 dBm output power, low spurs (<-80 dBc), low harmonics (<-40 dBc), while operating off +8VDC supply with low power consumption (<250mA). The ESP units are designed as DRO replacements for test and measurement or in HiRel, ruggedized ground and airborne applications, such as SATCOM, electronic warfare, radar and telemetry. Custom units are available in fixed frequencies from 50 MHz to 26 GHz, with optional internal references, in a connectorized DRO standard package of just 2.25 x 2.25 x 0.6". The package can be optionally hermetically-sealed. 74

em research

m/a-com technology solutions

High Power X-Band SPDT Switch for Radar Applications The MASW-011021 is a Surmount (Surface Mountable) X-band monolithic SPDT switch designed for high power and high performance applications. The surface mount chipscale configuration is designed with minimal parasitic inductances and capacitances that are usually associated with hybrid MIC designs. It is fabricated using the companys patented HMIC PIN diode based process. Packaged as a surface mountable die, the MASW-011021 boasts low insertion loss of 0.65 dB and a high input to output isolation at 36 dB. Selective backside metallization is applied to the switch, producing a surface mount device. The topside is fully encapsulated with silicon nitride and has an additional polymer layer for scratch and impact protection. These protective coatings prevent damage during handling and assembly. 76

triquint semiconductor


Rugged Programmable Noise Generator The NW-ATE series, an economical and rugged programmable noise generator covering from 10 MHz up to 40 GHz, is ideal for military and SATCOM applications, including Ka-band tests such as BER vs. Eb/No, interference, and jamming. The instrument is fully programmable from the front panel and remotely via GPIB and Ethernet. Output level is controlled by an internal broadband variable attenuator in 1 dB steps. Many other options are available, including finer attenuation resolution, an internal signal combiner, and custom frequency ranges. meller optics 71

Sapphire Domes Protect Electro-Optics in Weapons Custom fabricated Sapphire Domes feature Moh 9 hardness, second only to diamond, and provide 160 maximum included angles to extend the viewing angles and protect electro-optics in the front of guided weapons. Providing up to 85% transmission uncoated in the UV to IR, with up to 99% when A/R coated on two sides, they can withstand very harsh environments. Unaffected by moving sand, dirt, water, chemicals, and temperatures up to 1000C, Sapphire Domes can be manufactured in sizes up to 4" O.D. They can incorporate edge steps and profiles for mounting purposes and can be supplied with surface finishes to 20-10 scratch-dig per MIL-PRF-13830. Spinel domes (Moh 8 hardness) in sizes up to 6" O.D. are also available. 73

Second Generation MLSP-Series Frequency Synthesizers A new series of low noise frequency synthesizers covering 2 to 18 GHz and 2 to 20 GHz has been released. Step sizes are programmable from 1 kHz and up using 5 wire SPI or standard USB control. Units are available with internal crystal reference, external crystal reference, or both. Power leveling over a -20 dB delta level is available as an option, as well as a fixed power level option of 0 dBm +/-1 dB. Standard models are specified to operate over the 0 to +60C temperature range, but extended versions covering -20 to +75C are available on special order. These frequency synthesizers are available in a 3 x 5 x 1" tall package designed to fit into a 2-slot PXI or compact PCI chassis. RF connectors are provided in two options, either on the end of the package or on the side of the package, depending on customer needs. 75

Z Termination Thin Film Chip Resistors The Z termination line of miniature, high reliability chip resistors features thin film single surface and wrap around designs. They range in size from 0402 to 2512, with tolerances from 0.1%, power ratings from 50 to 1500mW, temperature coefficients of resistance as low as 25ppm, and voltage ratings from 30 to 200V. The operating range for these resistors is from -55 to +125C. The Z termination is a gold over nickel finish that can be attached with solder, conductive epoxy, or gold wire bonds. The Z termination resistors are a RoHS compliant product. Reliability is assured by extensive in-house testing, which include standard product, MIL-PRF-55342 established reliability (R or S level), or space level to MIL-PRF-55342 T product level. 77

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500 kHz to 7 GHz

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protecting the sensitive devices connected to the limiter output. The surface mount RLM series is housed in a miniature plastic case, 0.25" x 0.31" x 0.17", while the VLM SMA connectorized series is housed in a rugged, patented unibody package for easy connection to sensitive devices following the limiter. Data sheets, performance curves, measurement data, and environmental specifications are available on our website, So why wait, order on our website and get delivery as quickly as the next day.
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Need to protect a low-noise receiver that will be operating in a hostile environment? These limiters offer excellent protection against ESD, power surges and unwanted high-level signalswithout the tradeoff of high insertion loss. And these limiters react nearly instantaneously (as fast as 2 ns response time, 10 ns recovery time ) and work over a very broad band. With an insertion loss as low as 0.23 dB typical, these hi-rel, wide-band limiters provide protection against high level signals from +5 dBm to +36 dBm input. The power out of the limiter is as low as 0 dBm typical, thus

Mini-Circuits...were redefining what VALUE is all about!

ISO 9001 ISO 14001 AS 9100

U.S. Patents 7739260, 7761442

P.O. Box 350166, Brooklyn, New York 11235-0003 (718) 934-4500 Fax (718) 332-4661 The Design Engineers Search Engine finds the model you need, Instantly For detailed performance specs & shopping online see


480 rev C

PAGE 38 MAY 2012


Ceramic Hermetic Frequency Mixers The MAC Series of frequency mixers employ a unique design and a highly repeatable, tightly controlled, automated process that delivers industry-leading reliability at an affordable price. Frequency range is 300 MHz to 12 GHz and LO levels are 4 to 17 dBm. 78


kr electronics

Lowpass Filter Part number 2832-SMA is a 7.5 MHz lowpass filter with >50 dB typical rejection at 10 MHz. The filter is supplied in an SMA package and is also available in a 0.75 x 0.5 x 0.4" surface mount package. It can be customized for other center frequencies and bandwidths. 79


Molded Eight-Pin M8 Cordsets Molded eight-pin cordsets have been added to the M8 sensor connector range. With this new cordset, it is possible to transmit up to 8 signals from a connector that is only 9.7mm in diameter. Each has eight gold-plated contacts and a rated current of 1.5A/contact. 80

New GaAs SP3T Switch The MASW-010612 is a new GaAs SP3T switch for WLAN and Bluetooth (WLAN/BT) applications in smartphone and tablet platforms. It is ideal for low control voltage, low insertion loss, high isolation, and small size applications. Operating frequency range is DC to 3.5 GHz. 81

m/a-com technology solutions

Signal Conditioner and Display Unit The compactly housed E725 signal conditioner and display unit can be used in either a stand-alone or panel mounted mode and offers flexibility and high performance. In addition to displaying values, it can deliver signals concerning transducer status to PLCs or other connected control devices. 82

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Cost-Effective CATV Products Two new innovative TriAccess amplifiers that can replace multiple products in CATV systems have been released. They offer economical RFICs built with market-tested GaAs technology that supports greater functional integration and higher efficiency. 83

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Rugged, repeatable performance. At Mini-Circuits, were passionate about transformers. We even make own transmission line wire under tight manufacturing control, and utilize all-welded connections to maximize performance, reliability, and repeatability. And for signals up to 6 GHz, our rugged LTCC ceramic models feature wraparound terminations for your visual solder inspection, and they are even offered in packages as small as 0805! Continued innovation: Top Hat. A Mini-Circuits exclusive, this new feature is now available on every open-core transformer we sell. Top Hat speeds customer pick-and-place throughput in four distinct ways: (1) faster set-up times, (2) fewer missed components,

(3) better placement accuracy and consistency, and (4) high-visibility markings for quicker visual identification and inspection. More models, to meet more needs Mini-Circuits has over 200 different SMT models in stock. So for RF or microwave baluns and transformers, with or without center taps or DC isolation, you can probably find what you need at Enter your requirements, and Yoni2, our patented search engine, can identify a match in seconds. And new custom designs are just a phone call away, with surprisingly quick turnaround times gained from over 40 years of manufacturing and design experience!

See for technical specifications, performance data, pricing, and real-time, in-stock availability! Mini-Circuits...were redefining what Value is all about!
ISO 9001 ISO 14001 AS 9100

U.S. Patents 7739260, 7761442

P.O. Box 350166, Brooklyn, New York 11235-0003 (718) 934-4500 Fax (718) 332-4661 The Design Engineers Search Engine finds the model you need, Instantly For detailed performance specs & shopping online see


377 rev Y

PAGE 40 MAY 2012


Communications Solutions


Frost, Cont from pg 8 RPA-SAT-100D On the other hand, there is also a push for common control and data links, as the creation of the Unmanned Control Segment Working Group (UCS-WG) by the DoD suggests. Common data links and communication services between UAS platforms are still a work in progress. This is part of a larger trend in this industry that is their overall desire for commonality. Another ongoing trend is the continued emphasis on reducing the size, weight and power consumption (SWaP) of UASs, translating into increased development efforts from manufacturers on sensors and subsystems. Work on tiny UAVs that can fly through windows and remain in a room without attracting attention or can be thrown in the air for a few seconds to provide valuable information to those on the ground without being located is in progress. Testament to that is the opening of the Laboratory for Autonomous Systems Research (LASR) by the Navy in April. Manufacturers are looking to increase the usefulness and effectiveness of small UASs while increasing loiter times for large ones. While the achievements of Boeings A160 Hummingbird are impressive, future UAVs are expected to be able to stay in the air for months. Manufacturers are also striving to increase the survivability of UASs. The SWaP trend has made its way into the test and measurement industry, translating into increased demand for modular instruments whose primary advantages over traditional instruments are size, weight and power consumption. While not a new trend, the emphasis on SWaP is expected to increase in the short and medium terms as a result of the current budget environment. Reductions in size, power or weight have a direct impact on costs, says Carl Heide, Market Development Manager, Aerospace & Defense at National Instruments. While

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modular instrumentation requires a capital investment, total ownership cost is not limited to the initial acquisition cost but also includes logistics, calibration requirements, repair, etc. As defense customers better understand the total cost of ownership, their demand is increasingly trending toward modular instrumentation. When taking into consideration the ability of the platform to evolve over time, the importance of the initial acquisition cost further decreases. The rapidly changing environment in which defense companies evolve requires platforms that can adapt to new threats, enabling customers to test new countermeasures, devices, adds Heide. The need for rapid evolution is certain in the defense industry. Testament to that is the increased use of FPGA on platforms so they can adapt quickly. This is also true for the instrumentation and prototyping activities. Reality is that it is difficult at times to get a hold of a plane or device to perform testing or prototyping. As a result, there has been an increase in hardin-the-loop (HIL) applications that enable reduction in development times. There is a requirement to quickly cycle on devices at a lower cost. The industry wants to capture any defect or opportunity to improve the system before it is implemented into the end product. Another important advantage of modular instrumentation is the flexibility of those solutions, enabling users to mix and match modules depending on their uses. Reuse is better facilitated with modular instrumentation than traditional boxes. Looking ahead in the UAS market, technical challenges are expected as a result of simultaneous communication security, spectrum management, and bandwidth use concerns. DoD UAS platforms need the ability to encrypt data and transmit/receive Frost, Cont on pg 44





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from Want a miniature surface mount, shielded plug-in, or rugged coaxial voltage controlled oscillator with the right stuff for your project? Go to! Youll find over 800 standard catalog models, always in stock. Theyre optimized to meet specific requirements, from narrow, broad, or octave bandwidths to linear tuning, low phase noise, dual output, 5V PLL/synthesizer implementation, or size, as small as 0.30 x 0.30 x 0.07. Selection is a snap, even with so many models to choose from! Just enter your requirements, and our patented search engine, Yoni 2 , searches actual test data to find the models that meet your needs. And if you need a

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P.O. Box 350166, Brooklyn, New York 11235-0003 (718) 934-4500 Fax (718) 332-4661 The Design Engineers Search Engine finds the model you need, Instantly For detailed performance specs & shopping online see


359 rev T

PAGE 42 MAY 2012


rigol technologies

Spectrum Analyzer The new DSA815 spectrum analyzer features all-digital IF technology and covers a frequency range of 9 kHz to 1.5 GHz. Features include compact design, easyto-use interface, AM/FM demodulation, and a preamplifier. Ideal for benchtop or field apps. 84


H-Series Power Combiners The H-Series, 100W Wilkinson high power combiner/dividers, is available in 2-way, 3-way and 4-way configurations for wireless applications between 0.400 and 2.200 GHz. High isolation (25 dB), VSWR of 1.15:1, and low insertion loss (<0.3 dB). 85


Amplified Noise Source The new NW6G-B/SM surface mount amplified noise source is an ideal choice for surface mount PCB applications. Offering broadband frequency coverage from 200 kHz to 6 GHz, the unit features at least 30 dB ENR with typical flatness of +/-2.5 dB or better. 86


PIN Diode Attenuator Model DTA-26R5G40G-30-CD-1 is a 10-Bit programmable 30 dB PIN diode attenuator with a step resolution of 0.03 dB over the frequency range of 26.5 to 40 GHz. This model operates on a single +15 VDC supply and draws only 50mA of current. 87

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PAGE 44 MAY 2012

Frost, Cont from pg 40 that data across dedicated frequency spectrums to minimize cross-channel interference. This, as well as SWaP requirements, affects range and bandwidth capabilities. Moreover, the amount of information across communication channels and data links is bound to increase. However, technologies that encrypt large amounts of data for rapid transmission are still being developed. UAS platforms will also need to be protected from DoD offensive weapons designed to affect enemy communications. Spectrum management is required to reduce data loss and mitigate signal interference. Lacking the ability to respond effectively to human-voice controllers, UASs must be granted certificates by the FAA in order to fly. Also, there are regulations on the exportation of UASs and related equipment. This restricts competition in the marketplace currently, however initiatives are in place, such as removing items from ITAR to put them onto CCL, which could alleviate such challenges in the future and lead to greater competition and hence greater growth in the UAV market. Another restraining factor for the UAS market is that technologies for efficient data exploitation and sense-andavoid that will allow UAVs to operate in the same air space are still being developed. While the UAS market is not expected to be affected by program cuts, and will perhaps benefit from cuts made elsewhere, there will certainly be an increased focus on spending. Price sensitivity will be more of a factor in all market segments including UASs as a result of the greater emphasis of the DoD on cost control. EW Market Trends As mentioned earlier, EW as a whole is probably the highest growth area for test and measurement manufacturers. They have witnessed increased investments in this area despite reduced defense budgets due to increased activity to jam signals, especially IEDs, and be able to identify and electronically disable them. Frost & Sullivan research on the U.S. airborne and naval surface EW market, which excludes ground EW including IED EW and signal intelligence (SIGINT), highlights foreign adversary EW developments from China, North Korea, and Iran as a key driving factor for the growth of this market in the foreseeable future. The expansion of Chinas military budget is fueling the need to modernize EW programs and capabilities in the U.S., says John Hernandez, Senior Industry Analyst for Aerospace & Defense at Frost & Sullivan. North Korea has been reported as developing an electromagnetic pulse bomb and having conducted jamming of global positioning devices in the South,


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while Iran unveiled two destroyers last year that were reportedly fitted with updated radars and advanced EW capabilities. Frost & Sullivan Aerospace & Defense experts predict that the DoD will add EW attack capabilities to unmanned combat air vehicles to serve the needs of both Air Force and naval EW missions. Moreover, modern EW capabilities are required by the Air Force to maintain an edge over adversaries and continue to improve radar and air defense networks. EA-18G performance for NATO forces in support of operation ODYSSEY DAWN reinforces the importance of effective EW capabilities. EA-18G Growler inventory will grow and military departments will opt to continue program funding for its EW upgrades. The JSF program includes modernized EW capability that includes next generation jammer (NGJ) capability. Controversy over the F-35 price tag only reinforces that it be equipped with state-ofthe-art EW capabilities. The next generation of jammers initiative, NGJ, is also expected to be a key driving factor for the U.S. airborne and naval EW market. Its success will set the standard for how the government expects companies to work together to meet defense requirements. Partnerships have taken a whole new meaning in the defense industry. A lot of the contract awards now involve several companies dividing up the work that has to be done among different vendors, allowing each one to participate at their level best. At the same time, Frost & Sullivan research foresees reduced defense spending as a key restraining factor for this market over the next four years. Plagued with cost overruns and delays, the F-35 platform is bound to suffer from budget cuts. Any EW package design for a F-35 electronic variant may have to wait for testing to be completed. Another factor expected to restrain the overall airborne and naval EW market is the shortage and retention of EW expertise. Radar Market Trends The radar market constitutes perhaps the largest revenue stream for test and measurement companies. An area in which test and measurement vendors are seeing significant activity has been around the use of ESA technology in advanced radars. These are actively steered arrays that are made up of many transmit/receive (T/R) modules that are individual elements of an array, allowing users to steer the array, divide it into multiple beams, says John Hansen, Senior Application Engineer for Agilent Technologies Electronic Measurement Group. Beyond the technological aspect, Frost, Cont on pg 54

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Characterizing RADAR Interference Immunity

by Bob Muro, Application Group Manager/Product Marketing, Wireless Telecom Group Introduction ue to increased domestic air travel and threats to national security, it is important that our aviation RADAR systems function properly. The current airwaves are filled with many natural and artificial sources of interference. The natural background noise in RADAR bands is fairly constant, but there has been an increase in wireless communications traffic causing unintentional interference that may overflow into these bands, besides the risk from intentional interference. These factors make it important to characterize your RADAR system and clearly understand all of the limitations. This article will demonstrate a simple test strategy to characterize aviation RADAR system performance.

Figure 1

Radar Signal Discussion The primary surveillance RADAR used for aviation is a pulse-modulated sinusoidal carrier signal. The output of this type of RADAR has short pulse bursts with fast rise time power envelopes to resolve distant targets with adequate resolution (see Figure 1). The short duration pulses allow detailed target resolution, while long pauses between each pulse provide enough time for distant signals to return without interfering with the next pulse. These high power pulsed signals may have rise times under 10 ns with pulse widths in the microsecond and sub-microsecond ranges. These low duty cycle signals, often << 1%, create a large peak-to-average ratio, or crest factor. This makes accurate power measurements with traditional, thermal detectors difficult, and requires a wide dynamic range peak power sensor to measure the power of the transmitted pulse (see Figure 2). These types of RADAR sig-

Figure 2

nal from a pulsed radar system that includes the target signature, random noise, and deterministic false alarms. A specific threshold must be determined to discriminate between the real target and the noise. The minimum power value that can be sensed or Smin is equivalent to the minimum detectable signal, or MDS of the RADAR receiver. The MDS must be calculated in order to determine the maximum detection range, or MDR of the system. Point 1 is a false positive, where the noise is above the test threshold and point 2 is an undetected target return below the threshold. Some of the issues below can be resolved with the latest DSP circuitry by averaging out the common mode noise and correlating deterministic events that rise above the MDS. This capability must be tested to prove the system is functioning properly. SNR Calculation MDS, MDR, and the receiver noise floor are all dependent upon one another. When calculating the received power, Pr, the maximum transmit power, Pt, antenna gains, minimum radar cross section, and effective aperture of the antenna must be known in order to solve the equation. Each parameter value will be a function of available investment capital, current technology, and FAA regulatory guidelines for each RADAR system project. The received power (Pr) calculation is illustrated in Figure 5, but an accurate transmit power must be known to solve for the variable. The value for Pt can be calculated by subtracting the antenna return loss from the transmitter output power in dB. The return loss can be measured using a peak power meter, shown in the test diagram in Figure 6, and explained in the test proWTG, Cont on pg 90

Figure 3

nals require a large system signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to locate and define the target properly. For this reason, the receiver portion of a RADAR system must be resistant to natural background RF radiation, un-intentional wireless communication signal interference and intentional signal interference, or jamming signals.

This article will illustrate the value of using an advanced peak power meter in conjunction with a computer controlled noise generator to test RADAR receiver and transmitter system performance by varying SNR. The Importance of Calculating SNR Figure 3 is a typical return sig-

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Microwave Switching Solution The ASCOR rackmount/benchtop microwave switching solution, the Series 8900, provides the ultimate in scalability and reconfigureability. The series is configured to support relays of various sizes from 1x2 up to 1x12, either terminated or unterminated types. 90

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New Techniques Simplify Military Frequency-Converter Characterization

by David Ballo, Agilent Technologies

pconverters and downconverters play fundamental roles in the transmit and receive chains of all defense systems, ranging from EW, ECM, ESM, ELINT, and SIGINT receivers, to satellite terminals and transponders, and radar systems. Two of the key measurements required to characterize converters are port match and transmission response characteristics. For more than a decade, Agilents PNA and PNA-X vector network analyzers have relied on two very capable techniques for this purpose: scalar mixer/ converter (SMC) and vector mixer/converter (VMC). However, Agilent has created a new measurement technique called SMC+Phase that combines the simplicity of SMC with the phase and delay measurement capability of VMC, and eliminates the need for reference and calibration mixers for phase or group delay testing. SMC+Phase can also be used to measure converters with embedded LOs that are difficult or impossible to access. The new technique significantly simplifies and reduces the cost of the measurement test setup. Comparing SMC and VMC The SMC technique is the most accurate way to measure conversion loss and gain. It corrects for mismatch errors during calibration and measurements by combining oneport and power-meter calibrations. The technique is simple to set up and calibrate, and requires a power meter during calibration along with the usual open, short, load and thru standards. SMC corrects for DUT mismatch during transmission measurements by taking advantage of the VNAs ability to measure its source and load match during calibration as well as the DUTs input

Figure 1: The SMC and VMC techniques each have unique benefits lute group delay, mixers that match the frequency range of the DUT are harder to obtain above 26.5 GHz as are filters with acceptable performance. In addition, many mixers may be required to evaluate DUTs with diverse frequency plans, so several calibrations must often be performed to cover all bands. SMC+Phase Explained The SMC+Phase technique (Figure 3) uses simple setup and calibration, requires no external signal source or reference and calibration mixers, provides the most accurate conversion-loss/gain and phase/delay measurements, and removes mismatch errors during calibration and measurement. Not surprisingly, it will likely replace VMC for most frequency converter measurement applications. In contrast to VMC that uses ratios of test and reference signals at the same frequency (thus the required reference mixer), the SMC+Phase technique ratios single-receiver phase measurements performed at the DUTs input and output. It also replaces the calibration mixer with a comb generator as a phase standard, and magnitude measurements are performed the same way as SMC, using a power sensor as a calibration standard. Mismatch correction at the Agilent, Cont on pg 76

Figure 2: Disadvantages of the VMC technique include limited choice of mixers operating above 26.5 GHz that match the frequency plans of many devices. This applies also to reciprocal calibration mixers and filters for the calibration mixer. and output match. Benefits of the two techniques are shown in Figure 1. The VMC technique delivers the most accurate phase and absolute group delay measurements and calibrates the test systems transmission phase response as well as providing mismatch correction at the input and output of the DUT. However, the technique has several inherent drawbacks (Figure 2). It is more complicated and requires more external components than SMC as two additional mixers are needed for reference and calibration. VMC uses a characterized mixer as a calibration thru standard along with the usual open, short, and load standards, and removes magnitude and phase errors for transmission and reflection measurements. An external reference mixer is used as a phase reference, but is not needed for phaselocking the source and receivers with a frequency offset, as offset sweeps are achieved with the instruments internal sources. As both calibration techniques perform corrections for mismatches, external attenuators are rarely needed. While VMC provides the ability to evaluate deviation from linear phase and abso-

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PAGE 54 MAY 2012 Frost, Cont from pg 44 this is an important trend in the defense industry because it has historically been concerned with absolute performance and reliability for small quantities only, while the sheer number of T/R modules is staggering, translating into test throughput concerns in addition to performance and reliability objectives. Frost & Sullivan research published in the early part of 2011 predicted stable funding for radar, with the procurement of Army programs as the priority. Additional overseas contingency operations (OCO) spending requests centered on radar upgrades for fixed wing aircraft and unmanned aerial systems were expected, says

Brad Curran, Senior Industry Analyst with Frost & Sullivans Aerospace & Defense Business Unit. The DoD was also expected to seek continued improvements in radar SWaP, bandwidth efficiency, detection, cross cueing to other types of sensors, and data collaboration. Driving factors for the market included the near end of service of the current fleet of manned airborne surveillance and reconnaissance platforms requiring reinvestments and radar systems led by the Navys P8. R&D activity in sensor fusion, open architectures, W band millimeter wave, non-jammable, high angular resolution moving target indication, ground penetrating and next generation over the horizon (OTH) radars was expected to drive this market growth over the next few years. Cognitive radar based on knowledge aided computer processing was expected to enhance detection and target ID in the crowded frequency spectrum and complex interference and clutter environment. At the same time, research into power amplifier circuits and waveform optimization was expected to allow a wider use of the frequency spectrum and new designs. The key restraint to the market was GPS and electrooptical/infrared technologies taking over air traffic control and surveillance and reconnaissance functions that once relied on radars and the continued radar cross-cueing of other sensors. In addition, the postponing of radar upgrades, such as for F-15E, and of radar maintenance for some naval aircraft and ships was expected to restrain the market over the forecast period (2011-2016). On the technological side, the SWaP trend strikes again, limiting the use of radars on smaller platforms. In addition, the crowded RF spectrum was expected to limit operational flexibility and new architecture designs. Finally, there would be fewer platforms of all types. Future buys were expected to move away from high-end platforms towards proven and reliable designs that afford maximum jointness, mission flexibility, and the capability to be quickly and easily upgraded and integrated as COTS technology matures, in line with the overall themes discussed thus far in this article, including flexibility, cost reduction, and ability to evolve over time. Test & Measurement Corner The defense electronics market is a key market for many of the top test and measurement companies, including Agilent Technologies, Tektronix, Aeroflex, Anritsu, National Instruments, and LeCroy, etc. These companies have broad portfolios of solutions for defense electronics customers. An example of a recent product introduction for this market that can help address the challenges faced by defense customers highlighted earlier in this article is Agilents M1890A arbitrary waveform generator, offering a sample rate of 12 Gigasamples per second (GSa/s). It allows customers to simulate very wide band signals that may be used by UAVs or radars as well as simulate spectrum. This product is able to simulate any kind of electromagnetic environment that might be encountered in the field, says Hansen. For example, while testing an IED defeat system, the user can simulate the background spectrum consisting of FM radio stations, cellular phones, cordless phones, etc. that may be polluting the spectrum behind the signal the user is looking for. Anritsu also continues to focus on developing high performance leading-edge test equipment that enables defense industry customers to assure the performance of their mission-critical components and systems. Anritsu's Marketing Manager for General Purpose products, Bob Buxton, emphasized that the defense industry has always needed high performance test and measurement solutions this continues to be true today, whether it be to solve the challenges of locating small slow-moving targets or Mach 2 airplanes. Anritsu's flagship Vector Network Analyzer, the ME7838A, illustrates the company's commitment to performance covering frequencies from 40 kHz to 125 GHz and offering calibration and measurement stability of 0.1 dB over 24 hours in a compact and lightweight format. Another test and measurement company who has listened to customers in the defense market is Aeroflex, with the development of the Aeroflex Common Platform on which the 7200, 7300, 7100, GPSG-1000, ALT8000 and S-Series products are based. The company leverages a synthetic software-defined test platform to generate the soluFrost, Cont on pg 58

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Connectors Offer Durability, Superior Functionality and Practical Application for the Modern Military
by David Impett, Product Manager at ITT Interconnect Solutions ilitary and defense applications require component solutions that are highly reliable, as the consequences for infield failure can be catastrophic. Material selection is critical for applications that experience shock, vibration, high pressure and/or extreme temperatures. Harsh environment and mission-critical systems require connector solutions with superior performance, reliability and durability. Technological trends in military applications also call for highly dependable materials, reduced size and weight and greater functionality. Deployed in a variety of modern military and future soldier applications, such as sophisticated command, control, communication, computer, and intelligence (C41) systems, spring/probe connectors offer these design considerations. Rugged spring/probe interconnects offer a high-density signal packaging approach within a confined space, enabling soldiers to become more mobile and their advanced equipment to become more portable. Most interconnect devices currently available do not offer design engineers a solution that increases signal functionality while meeting confined size constraints, high-temperature requirements and sealing ratings necessary for todays military applications. The Nemesis Space Saver Series features two unique design elements the breakaway Pogo Pin/Pad contact that delivers enhanced contact durability; and the canted spring/probe technology, which provides not only snap-on and rip-away coupling action to prevent a soldiers life from being endangered if a cable is snagged, but also 360 EMI shielding. Combined, these designs deliver a miniature connector solution with superior performance, reliability and durability. The Nemesis Water

The spring/probe contact spacing is reduced down to 0.635mm, thus providing highsignal density in the minimum of space. The lightweight, small form-factor design offers significant space savings for electronic equipment, and can reduce the size of a device by 60%. While many connectors are inherently small, especially given the amount of power they are capable of delivering, system designers continually seek smaller designs. Durability and Rugged Performance Most plastic connectors, even ones with metalized plating, are unable to meet the military reliability and performance standards. Connector shells made of stainless steel material meet stringent requirements for corrosion resistance under MIL-Spec P grade standards, while at the same time meeting JEDEC standards for RoHS compliance. Other connector designs are constructed with high temperature LCP dielectric materials, allowing them to be employed in applications with temperatures as high as 200C, such as military vehicles as well as space and avionics use. The rugged stainless steel construction provides durability, while an enhanced strain relief design eliminates cable overstressing. Anti-reflective salt spray-resistant plating on the connector shells protect the vital cable interface and assist soldier camouflage in marine environment maneuvers, while the seamless ribbed overmolding provides a non-slip grip in damp conditions. Receptacles that utilize spring probe contact system and touch pads allow for ease of cleaning in the field where dirt, moisture, mud, sand and other contaminants may be present. The individual touch pad contacts incorporate no crevices for conITT, Cont on pg 114

Tight, High Mating and Super Clean Series is 50% lighter, 60% smaller and fully sealed compared to conventional connectors. With its unique size 22 termination system, the interconnect successfully passed comprehensive design verification testing (DVT), including meeting stringent specifications for mating repeatability, temperature cycling, vibration, mechanical shock, humidity and mating durability. This connector also offers high density of up to 50 channels per square inch and removable sleeve inserts that allow direct end-face access for termination cleaning and inspection. Size and Weight While materials such as stainless steel are highly reliable, they add to a connectors weight. Components for soldier-carried systems are always a compromise between weight

and performance. Applications need to be robust, yet as lightweight and small as possible. These are conflicting demands robustness often requires the use of stainless steel, as it is extremely durable and allows for a significant number of mating and un-mating cycles; yet it is heavier than alternate materials. An overall weight saving was achieved with Nemesis by decreasing the connectors size. In terms of size, the spring/ probe contact spacing can be as small as 0.635mm, providing high signal density in minimal space, whereas other designs feature size 23 pin-and-socket contacts that have the equivalent electrical performance of size 22 contacts, reducing contact spacing to as little as 0.193mm. In some designs, the use of size 23 contacts for the interconnection of the cable also allows for the use of less stainless steel, thus decreasing both cost and weight.

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Frost, Cont from pg 54 tions customers are looking for, such as a radio test set or an avionic test set or a combination of both. The flexibility and integration of different subsystems into one test platform has been the key aspect of the solution attracting customers, says Marv Rozner, Vice President of Market and Business Development for Aeroflex. For example, we just shipped 350 radio test sets to the U.S. Marine Corps for the Ground Radio Maintenance Automatic Test System (GRMATS) program with a solution based on our

7200 Configurate Automated Test Set. The ability of the solution to grow over time by adding other complementary capabilities such as GPS, SATCOM, data bus, or other testing capabilities, in addition to performance upgrades such as increased frequency, signal processing, etc. was critical in their buying decision. Enabling customers across various industries to improve their development and manufacturing processes, National Instruments is also helping defense customers decrease development times. The com-

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pany has been involved in HIL applications. For instance, National Instruments PXI solution was used by FADA-CATEC to test UAV guidance navigation and control (GNC) solutions in the early stages of development. A comparison was performed that demonstrated the accuracy and similarity of the HIL test environment with real-world results. Performance, flexibility and SWaP are also trends which National Instruments is very familiar with and an expert at addressing. Among other projects, the company was involved in the development of an ozone instrument on the Global Hawk UAV. The companys CompactRIO solution was used to provide the command, control and communication for the UAS ozone instrument payload. The processing speeds, low power consumption, ruggedness, and compactness of CompactRIO were key aspects for the success of the project. In line with the themes discussed throughout this article, the companys PXI solution was leveraged by KOR Electronics to develop a low-cost EW simulator for the military services that not only was modular, flexible and expandable but also leveraged COTS technologies. There is a wonderful coincidence of timing here, summarizes Larry Desjardin, president of Modular Methods LLC. While the services and defense industry need smaller and more flexible instrumentation, the commercial test industry is

embracing modular instrument standards, like PXI and AXIe, that deliver exactly that. The latest product announcements from Aeroflex, Agilent, and National Instruments show that these platforms deliver more than me-too capability. It's a win-win for the industry. Conclusion Despite lower defense spending for the next few years, the defense industry simply cant afford to scale back on performance and reliability. Such times call for true innovation. Test and measurement companies have realized that and are ready to help the defense industry meet its number one challenge of continuing to improve performance, pushing technological barriers further, while reducing costs. References
U.S. DoD Unmanned Aerial Systems (NA4A-16), February 2012. U.S. Airborne and Naval Surface Electronic Warfare Market (N9C3-16), December 2011. U.S. DoD Radar Markets (N84A-16), April 2011. High-growth Test and Measurement Market Opportunity: Modular Instruments (N946-30), September 2011. Analysis of the Signal Generator and Arbitrary Waveform Generator Market (N903-30), December 2011.

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Figure 4: SKYFR-000782 output return loss (s22) Figure 5: SKYFR-000782 insertion loss (s21)

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AWR 2011 Design Suite Delivers More Than 300 New Features
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hen AWR introduced Microwave Office high-frequency design software in 1998, it changed the paradigm of RF and microwave EDA tools, combining sophisticated simulation techniques with a Microsoft Office-type user interface nearly everyone was familiar with. In the ensuing years, Microwave Office software has expanded in the breadth of its capabilities and the speed with which it executes them. AWR 2011 (Figure 1), the latest version of the AWR Design Environment, inclusive of Microwave Office, Visual System Simulator, AXIEM and Analog Office software, fully exploits todays 64-bit high-speed multicore processors and memory, while improving its group design capabilities, enhancing its EM simulation tools, and adding tools for thermal management, circuit envelope simulation, radar system design, and many others. The result is arguably the most comprehensive, accurate, and advanced set of EDA tools available for high-frequency designers. These enhancements have been implemented without sacrificing AWRs original mission to make the designers job easier and faster, while delivering highly-accurate solutions to complex problems that are designed for the production environment. Seamless Design Flow RF and microwave design has traditionally involved a variety of manually-implemented tasks. For example, a typical amplifier design requires independent MMIC circuits that ultimately coalesce into a single project. Die-level analysis must be conducted, physical layers managed, and EM simulation performed for each. If a specification or performance conflict emerges during any of these steps, adjustments must also be made to all sub-circuits within the MMIC design. AWR 2011 significantly reduc-

Figure 1: AWR 2011 provides greater productivity through highly-efficient EM simulation, enterprise-wide design, multi-PC floating windows and other enhancements.

Figure 2: Asynchronous EM simulation eliminates the need to wait for an analysis to finish or EM results to be reintegrated into the design.

or sub-design progresses. Although individual MMICs are still designed discretely, AWR 2011s group design capability allows them to merge into module projects as the design progresses so that conflicts can be resolved on the spot. This in turn reduces the time required for integration of the physical project and saves days or more per chip design. Simulation of the initial imported design can begin immediately with asynchronous EM simulation solvers running in the background as new details emerge. For example, an initial run simulates a modules metal as shorts or microstrip lines and then advances to more detailed EM simulations that incorporate coupling. Completed analyses are immediately available for circuit and system simulation. This ensures that subcomponents of the module are imported correctly and that budget verification and other system-level simulations can begin sooner. That is, design of the module can continue even before the first module-level EM simulation is complete. Asynchronous EM Simulation AWR 2011s new asynchronous EM simulation support allows designers to keep working (Figure 2) as EM analyses run transparently behind the scenes on multiple CPUs on the same computer or as distributed jobs on networks or clusters of computers. Job queuing allows what if scenarios to be scheduled and run in parallel and scheduled jobs are managed by a visual batch manager. Results are automatically updated as they are completed and the results from the most recent simulation or additional simulations can be launched. Asynchronous simulation also allows parallel execution of swept parameter simulations (i.e. materials and geometries) of fully-parameterized EM models. These models can include AWR, Cont on pg 74

Figure 3: Harnessing what if intelligence from EM simulation data is easily managed with AWRs new Simulation State Management (SSM) tool. es the time required to perform these tasks. Group Design AWR 2011s group design makes it possible to manage data and resolve conflicts as sub-designs are combined and merged into a module or subsystem. Schematics, layouts, EM analyses, and measurements all can be imported from existing circuit designs. Multiple sets of global and output equations can be handled readily as well. Conflicts are identified as data is imported and can be addressed immediately, block-by-block, while remaining synchronized as the design

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PAGE 66 MAY 2012 In My Opinion, Cont from pg 3 ic growth through capitalism, stock market growth and in the very end selling and buying of goods in the world markets. Creating an ever-flatter trading market around the world, but at the same time increasing communications throughout the planet. This baggage we carry is a result of the leadership we have provided and examples we have sought to make so that others will follow and grow in our footsteps. The weight and bulk of this baggage may seem to be taking its toll due to our financial condition, but it is something more that drives us. It is the spirit which we have founded and the pride we have to see our compatriots (students, if you will) around

the world emulate our systems, make them their own in their own cultures and methods, set new rules of engagement and break old cultural and business paradigms which have existed for generations. How does all this affect the military way of existence, thinking and planning? Well, as the countries grow, they trade, their people travel and work in far-flung locations around the world. Sea lanes and the population have to be protected. All strong reasons why the USA has expanded our roles since WW2 by establishing security in key venues around the world. Now our students, recent economic powerhouses, seek to fill similar roles in their own micro-spheres surrounding their regions and spheres of influence. And they are all stepping up by building upon their commercial expertise, newfound wealth and investments in an educated and more communicationally aware (not a real word, think communications savvy) populations. People everywhere want security for themselves, their families and what they have built, hence the heavier investments in new infrastructure: telecommunications, roads, bridges, airports, as well as military and other government spending around our planet. Military investments over the eons have usually generated oodles of new whiz-bang technology, which in turn generated innovation for commercial ventures, systems and gadgets. We have for the most part relied on and welcomed the technology nudging ventures brought forth by the likes of DARPA, SBIRs and the military. This time around it is more of a mix of commercial technology leaping ahead and lending itself to new ways of re-innovation in the form of communications equipment, flying platforms, vehicle technology and computer systems. All with the benefits of lower costs, ubiquity and availability worldwide, driven by the commercial innovation and consumer demand for similar systems and gadgets. This is the very essence of what COTS was supposed to be in the early 90s, by dragging low cost reliable products into the military sphere for use by the team and reducing outrageous runaway costs that the government was facing at the time. Military investments are measured in pure dollar terms or as a percentage of GDP. These have been traditional values of measurement, probably initiated by the guys who have been at the top for decades, who may not truly value the bang for the buck which is realized. Some countries have not had to invest as much in R&D and are able to just buy what they need, or emulate it in their own way, with local cost structures. Thus saving many billions that countries like the USA invest yearly in R&D and innovations. How much does the next closest country to the USA spend on military budgets? Could you even venture a guess in these non-Cold War times of rural terrorism and regional mini-conflicts? Remember the days when the Soviet Union was the number two economy in the world? When its military budget was within earshot of our very own and it was building more tanks, missiles, submarines and aircraft than the USA and all of NATO? Its expenditures on big systems to protect it and provide jobs drove it to the point that it went bankrupt! As you can see from the chart, the gross expenditures of the defense budget in the USA are still about equal to what the rest of the world spends combined. This is about 8X what our nearest competitor spends in a given year, when looking at budgets in real dollar terms, not accounting for all the expenditures over the past decades which have yielded some of the best hardware money and technology can afford. The USA leads the world in many areas of hardware deployment, such as ships, submarines, aircraft, missiles and vehicles. Never mind the boggling number of troops deployed, providing a presence in far-flung noncombat and stabilizing regions of the world. The bang for the buck factor is something that needs to be given more thought, but in essence it is the amount spent versus the PPP (purchase power parity) of the countrys currency. While not an exact science, as some costs are affected by external drivers such as oil, it can provide a more accurate representation of the amount of budget impacts on the annual hardware purchases. From all appearances, using the best estimates of the effects of real money internally in each country and the PPP approach, the world is catching up. As an unanticipated aftereffect, it now seems that the rest of the world, especially those in In My Opinion, Cont on pg 68

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PAGE 68 MAY 2012 In My Opinion, Cont from pg 66 growing economies, has benefitted from this commercial mentality for military equipment and systems. Our troops are even facing some of these very same obstacles when fighting for our security out in the field. Fortunately there are ways that our many firms in the defense infrastructure have developed methods to fight back and succeed while doing so. Yes, innovation is our key driver in the USA and it is our broad innovative nature with a capitalistic fervor, driven by revenue generation and a large investment community, which enables our long-term successes. All driven primarily with deep pools of venture capital that are managed by smart money entrepreneurs and driven deep thinking and quick acting inventors who recognize a need for a solution far in advance of a centralized planning structure common in many systems houses and government think tanks. It has been brought up in written media that the USA needs to reevaluate its form of contracting, systems development and expenditures. Look at ways to drive down costs for programs and figure out

Country USA NATO JAPAN CHINA INDIA BRAZIL RUSSIA SAUDI Budget $740B $206B $58.5B $90B $37.5B $37B $53B $46B % World 46% 12% 3.6% 5.5% 2.3% 2.3% 3.3% 3.0% % GDP 5% 2% 4% 1.5% 3% 3% 6% 8% Bang/$ 1 0.7 0.8 6.0 7.0 5.0 1.9 2.5 drive, and these too will spin off new opportunities to the smaller firms. Yes, the large systems houses will still be necessary for the very backbone of our industry and development of the big systems that only they can do. But they, too, will be the recipients of the innovation and technology developments, partnering with the smaller creative firms dispersed all around our great country. Many in the media question the viability of our economic and commercial system to still compete in todays world, leaving a lingering doubt daily as to our national will and ability to reform as we have in every crisis before us. The very competitive commercial, political and yes, even the military environment internationally, which is facing us daily in the news, on the web and television and in every periodical we read, makes it appear that the USA is facing a crisis unlike any it has before in its history. As the beacon of innovation, political leadership, economic power and military might for many around this planet and while politicians talk about economic tools and fixing the economy, we all are beginning again to realize that it is through the will and drive of the people and the force of the individuals, entrepreneurs, banks, creditors and innovators among us that make the difference. We all know that the world is catching up with many measures, such as GDP, military expenditure, steel and oil purchases and pollution generation. This is not the issue, as it is expected that true competitors will eventually get better at what they do and the true champions will strive to emulate and overtake the leader one day. As we reflect: What is it that makes us so good? It is our belief in one another, our friends, capabilities, spirit, capitalism and leadership. It is one thing that binds us together as a nation and that is the belief of ourselves as one!

2012 Data: IISS, Economist & ICCS Global LLC

new ways to resolve mission needs while at the same time retaining leadership in areas we chose to do so. Drones have proven to be a major lever for use in combat as well as for security purposes such as border control. With new innovations in low cost over the horizon RADAR, which are portable, lightweight and consume minuscule amounts of power when compared to their aircraft brethren, showing their capability, we will see even more Drone ready products coming out. Driven by the smaller, more nimble and hungry firms. As all of our readers know,

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what makes the USA very different is the fact that many of the smaller firms are filled with innovators and entrepreneurs who went off on their own to make a difference in the smaller, more nimble firms. The true creators make major contributions and a difference every day to the strength and variety of the capabilities of our leadership in this area. The very same smaller firms in the USA (and some set up in other places around the world) who are designing and manufacturing for the government and military (worldwide) are still the most viable force in our arsenal. It is the smaller firms that generate the majority of the innovation, jobs, manufacturing base and investment in new approaches to innovation. Yes, the delicate balance of key technology funding, investor seed money and confidence and entrepreneurial spirit and innovation all are the recipe needed for defining a better approach for the future. A methodical approach taking into account the limited budget resources where we can no longer afford to dump wasteful amounts of money into long, drawn out, expensive projects will win over. Replacing the old ways of doing business will not be easy, but in the end a more cost effective technology driven approach will benefit the troops in the field and provide for a maximum bang for the buck we need. Yes, there will still be the must have factors for new technology development, which only demanding programs can


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Figure 4: Yield analysis is faster and more comprehensive in AWR 2011. AWR, Cont from pg 64 parameterized materials and geometries obtained using techniques such as AWRs unique extraction approach or AWR 2011s new graphical geometry parameterization. Each instance of a swept EM simulation can run in parallel, which greatly reduces simulation time. Tasks such as yield analysis can run Monte Carlo simulations of EM structures in parallel as well. For example, AWR 2011 will perform parallel yield analysis on a power amplifier module using graphical modifiers that automatically simulate the impact on manufacturing of mask registration errors, etching tolerances, die placements, and substrate variations. This lets the designer simultaneously offload EM analysis to compute nodes, set EM to different levels of accuracy and simulation speed, and add what-if scenarios. Simulation State Management (SSM) SSM, another new feature within AWR 2011 (Figure 3), presents a new approach to managing simulation results within the design environment, including both synchronous and asynchronous simulation data. It efficiently manages the large collection of simulation

Figure 5: The new envelope simulator lets amplifier designers better simulate circuit-level, time-variant phenomena such as memory effects and the impact of digital predistortion (DPD) linearization circuits. results from optimization runs, swept simulations, or Monte Carlo analyses, and all EM data (structures, meshes, currents, yield analysis, and optimization results) is intelligently managed at all stages and states of the process. Users can plot and view results on top of other results to provide further insight into a designs behavior. SSM tracks, manages, and displays simulation results for the current or any previous simulation state via a check point approach that restores results to any previous point that the user set in the design. All simulation results can be stored in data sets and managed by SSM so the user can control the amount of simulation history retained as the design progresses. This makes it simple to return to previous results without rerunning any new simulations. SSM also supports a persimulation approach to data sets for more granular control, and keeps track of which data sets match the current state of the design, eliminating potential errors. With results synchronized to the current design state, the user can be sure that the schematic and layout view are exactly what is being simulated in EM. A data pinning feature lets the user override data synchronization for simplified what if analysis using previous design states. Parameterized EM AWR 2011 also includes rulebased shapes and parameterized, schematic-based EM shapes. As parameterized, graphical geometry manipulation is incorporated within AWRs unified data model (UDM) architecture, parameterized geometry in the entire design remains synchronized. This allows EM permutations to be invoked and controlled with a mix of graphical, equation-based, and rule-based parameterization. In addition, a processaware geometry processing algorithm can automatically convert mask-ready geometries to EM-ready layouts while also automating operations such as via creation and de-featuring that would normally require manual geometry modification. When used with AWRs EM extraction technique, processaware geometry processing eliminates manual steps, making EM extraction faster and virtually seamless. Yield and Optimization Enhanced yield and optimization analyses within AWR 2011 lets designers capitalize on the softwares parametric and schematic EM shapes, arbitrary shapes, and geometries. User-defined layers take into account manufacturingrelated effects such as mask alignment and etch tolerance. By overlaying these features with SSM capabilities users can find corner cases (Figure 4), sweep manufacturing-related parameters, and monitor overall circuit simulation performance in linear, harmonic balance, or time-domain circuit simulations. Even system-level parameters such as Error Vector Modulation (EVM), Adjacent Channel Power Ratio (ACPR), AWR, Cont on pg 108


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PAGE 76 MAY 2012 Agilent, Cont from pg 52


crete phase jumps, phase is mathematically stitched together to maintain phase coherency across the sweep. Sweep-to-sweep startingphase variation is removed by normalizing one point in the phase sweep to zero, which allows sweep averaging to be employed as an effective noise-reduction technique. Normalizing one point of the phase sweep does not affect measurements of deviation from linear phase or group delay calculated from the change in phase from point to point. For calibration of test system transmission phase response and delay, SMC+Phase offers three approaches, one of which is new. The first is to use a mixer with known delay that uses a fixed value of delay (the average of mixer delay versus frequency) with delay determined from simulation or measurement. The second choice is use of Figure 3: Advantages of the SMC+Phase technique include a characterized mixer and simplified setup and elimination of an external signal uses actual delay data versource and reference and calibration mixers sus frequency and relies on the same characterization method as VMC, based on reflection measurements. It requires a reciprocal mixer and filter for selecting the desired conversion product. The new third choice is the How It Works use of a comb generator as a The phase-measurement phase standard with a twotechnique employed by step approach in which the SMC+Phase relies on the first step is power and phase phase coherency of the sigcalibration and the second nal sources in the instrurequires only S-parameter ments fractional-N-based calibration (Figure 5). synthesis architecture to In the first step of this new eliminate the reference mixer method, the VNA receivers (Figure 4). This is an advanare calibrated for absolute tage of the PNA and PNA-X power and phase relative over other VNAs that do to the test ports without not have such phase cohertest cables or other sysency over their frequency tem interconnects attached. range for single-receiver Figure 4: The high-modulus, fractional-N synthesizer and The second step is a simple measurements. In the PNA integrated phase accumulator in the PNA and PNA-X S-parameter calibration that and PNA-X, relative phase allows single-receiver phase coherent (un-ratioed) measureremoves the effects of test coherency is maintained ments to be made over frequency (top left) which cannot be cables, adapters, attenuaacross a frequency sweep by achieved with most other VNAs (lower right) tors, and wafer probes. The digitally incrementing the comb generator creates a digital signal processing. phase accumulators embedAt band-crossings where changing repetitive, negative-going impulse in the ded in the fractional-N hardware and by employing synchronous IF detection and synthesizer-divide numbers causes disAgilent, Cont on pg 78 input and output frequencies is still performed. By eliminating the reference and calibration mixers, SMC+Phase simplifies and reduces the cost of the converter measurement system. For example, to test singlestage converters that require an external LO, only three cables are required, one each for input, output, and LO signals. For dual-stage converters, the second LO signal can be supplied by an external signal generator routed from the rear panel to test port three or four of the PNA or PNA-X. For converters with embedded LOs, only input and output cables are needed. Calibration is simple, as three broadband coaxial standards are used to calibrate the entire frequency range of the instrument: a power meter for a magnitude standard, a comb generator for a phase standard, and an S-parameter calibration kit. The latter can be a mechanical-standards-based kit or an electronic Agilent ECal module. The technique makes it possible to test any frequency converter within the frequency range of the instrument.

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Figure 5: The comb generator provides a broadband, phase-calibrated comb of signals that is used to calibrate the phase of the VNAs receivers. The phase calibration method is derived from electro-optical sampling and is traceable to NIST. Agilent, Cont from pg 76 time domain, which provides a broadband phase-calibrated frequency spectrum (i.e., a comb of signals) that is used to calibrate the phase of the VNA receivers. The calibration performed during the first step calibrates the VNA receivers for absolute power using a power sensor and phase using a comb generator. It is typically performed directly at the reference plane of the instruments test ports or with adapters connected to them. This eliminates the effect of test cables, making the calibration more accurate and repeatable. Calibration is typically performed over the full frequency range of the instrument and can be performed infrequently because of the instruments stability. The S-parameter calibration performed in the second step includes the system interconnect hardware that was not

Figure 6: Embedded LOs, a fact of life in satellite transponders, make it impossible to provide coherent frequency synchronization of the VNA and the transponder, which has until now eliminated the VNA as a measurement tool for this application. This problem has been solved with the PNA Series by using sophisticated tuning algorithms to compensate for the frequency offset of the embedded LO. included in the first step and is performed at the end of the test cables, adapters, or wafer probes that connect to the DUT. For coaxial calibrations in which the ECal module connectors match those of the DUT, this calibration can be done as a single step. Tackling Embedded LOs Embedded LOs are common in converters used in satellite transponders because of the spacecrafts size and weight limitations and to eliminate or greatly reduce spurious signals. As a result, it is impossible to access the DUTs LO or its time base and thus also impossible to make the necessary connections to provide coherent frequency synchronization of the VNA and the transponder (Figure 6). This is why VNAs have traditionally not been used for these measurements, which has hindered efforts to reduce the time required for transponder characterization. Agilent has created a way to circumvent this problem that makes it possible to make very accurate VNA-based converter measurements in these situations. There are four basic obstacles that must be surmounted in order to make possible VNA-based measurements of embedded LOs. The first is frequency stability, which is not an issue for most transponders, as their LOs are locked to highly-stable crystal oscillators and have low phase noise. The second issue is establishAgilent, Cont on pg 80



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PAGE 80 MAY 2012

Agilent, Cont from pg 78 ing frequency coherency because the narrowband VNA receivers must be tuned to frequencies that exactly match the output frequencies of the DUT. The VNAs LO must also be stable enough relative to the DUTs LO to ensure that errors caused by non-ratioed phase are not excessive. The next issue is phase stability that arises because even when the frequencies are the same there will be sweepto-sweep variations in absolute phase response caused by the architecture of the instrument. Fortunately, phase can be normalized at each sweep to an arbitrary phase reference so that averaging can be used just as effectively as with a common time-base. Finally, as the phase noise of the LOs in the VNA and DUT cannot be ratioed out, averaging and smoothing can be used to lower the noise of the group delay measurements. In order to establish the appropriate pseudo-coherent phase relationship between the DUT and the test instrument, the PNA or PNA-X breaks down the measurement of the converters effective LO into coarse and fine measurements. This two-step approach quickly achieves the needed frequency accuracy. Coarse tuning is achieved by first setting the RF stimulus to an appropriate CW frequency within the defined input frequency band, and the instrument calculates the output frequency corresponding to the input frequency and the nominal value of the DUTs LO. The instruments internal receivers are swept around the expected center frequency of the DUTs output. The difference between the peak of the actual signal and the expected signal (based on the nominal value of the DUTs LO) gives a frequency-offset value for adjusting the nominal LO value of the mixing plan. The VNA is then tuned very close to the DUTs actual output frequency. The frequency span of the course receiver sweep can be set by the user up to 10 MHz. The coarse-tune process gets the instrument close to the desired output frequency but not close enough to stop phase slippage between the VNA and the DUT. The necessary frequency accuracy can be obtained by taking a different measurement approach for the fine sweep. Once the coarse offset is applied, the PNA performs a ratioed phase-versustime sweep between the DUT and test

Speed your RF and microwave circuit design.

receivers at a fixed input frequency and with the test receiver fix-tuned to the output frequency of the DUT derived with the coarse sweep. Any small residual frequency offset will show up as a linear phase change versus time. The slope of this phase change can be accurately estimated, which gives the fine offset value. This fine-tune process can be repeated multiple times to get a good sub-hertz estimate of the DUTs LO frequency. Minimizing the phase shift versus time until the phase response has a flat slope over the measurement period provides a pseudo-locked condition and places the two local oscillators in a fixed phase relationship. This method is much faster than performing a narrowband sweep of the VNAs receivers with a large number of data points. Both coarse and fine tuning can be performed at every sweep of the group delay measurement, creating a coherent relationship between instrument and the DUT. Summary Fully characterizing a frequency converter is a necessity, and traditional methods have typically been cumbersome, costly, and time-consuming. Two essential measurements required to characterize converters, port match and transmission response characteristics, have been performed with excellent results, but Agilents new SMC+Phase technique streamlines the process, reduces the complexity of the test setup, requires neither reference nor calibration mixers, and provides the same or better levels of accuracy as previous methods. In addition, Agilents PNA and PNA-X VNAs can characterize converters even when the DUTs LO is not accessible, which is often the case with transponders employed in communications satellites. Together these techniques represent significant advances in converter characterization that are likely to become the standard for the way these measurements are made in the future.

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Next Generation Passives for Defense Electronics

by Chris Reynolds, Technical Marketing Manager, AVX Corporation

s a vertical market, all areas of Defense Electronics from portable communications to transportation, avionics and shipborne radar are pushing for higher performance in terms of downsizing, higher temperature operation, higher data rates and higher power. At the same time, historic performance needs remain a given they must be robust (shock, vibration, temperature extremes), highly reliable, able to powerup after periods of dormancy and based on components with minimal obsolescence. From high data rates to high power, one common requirement is the control of parasitic elements. All passive components characteristics can be

simulated by lumped models incorporating capacitance, resistance and inductance but in many emerging applications, the closer the component can perform to an ideal model, the better. Consider the higher data rates being handled by all digital applications in the latest generation of remote devices. From drones to mules, real-time communication with homebase requires terabyte download capability for imaging, video and local onboard analysis. As ASICs (including programmable arrays and analog digital [ADC or DAC] conversion for sensors) continue to evolve everincreasing processing power, the need for purer, and higher capacitance, lower voltage solutions has to keep in step.

Figure 1: Relative loop sized on the PCB for main low inductance capacitor families

Figure 2: LGA designs can give significant reduction in current loop area. Via placement is important to obtain best performance on the board.

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Figure 3: High CV stacked capacitors that utilize base metal electrode (BME) technology to deliver ultra-low ESR/ESL Multilayer ceramic chip capacitors (MLCCs) used for ASIC decoupling must achieve lower parasitic elements to reduce the total reactance of the device in the application. This reactance can be separated into resistive and inductive components, i.e. low equivalent series resistance (ESR) and low equivalent series inductance (ESL). Fortunately, the ESR is a function of dielectric thickness (and, in turn, voltage rating), so the trend toward lower voltage applications requiring thinner dielectrics and higher layer counts (for increased capacitance) comes hand-in-hand with intrinsically lower ESR. Unfortunately, the ESL of a standard design MLCC is largely geometric and increases with the size of the component which is not at all helpful for higher capacitance requirements. The closer to the core ASIC or programmable array, the more critical becomes the control of the ESL. The geometric effect on ESL arises from standard capacitors being 2-terminal devices, so the base ESL characteristic arises from the part size itself the two terminals effectively define a current loop for the signal, and the AVX, Cont on pg 98

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Figure 4: Aeroflex AWARESBSA modulation domain analysis function results Figure 3: Aeroflex AWARES spectrum and spectrogram display

Figure 5: Aeroflex AWARESBSA modulation domain analysis function results of a single pulse Aeroflex, Cont from pg 14 the presence of these real-world effects can be investigated. Yet another alternative is the combination case, where the signal from an actual radar is recorded, and used as the basis for a signal environment. The total signal environment, as described, can be gener-

Figure 6: Aeroflex AWARESBSA pulse analysis function results of a stimulus/response pulse pair

ated using the VSS software, which might include AWGN, or interference, other ECM, etc. In this case, both the actual radar signal and real-world

effects can be combined, creating a complex, realistic testing scenario. Aeroflex, Cont on pg 94


PAGE 90 MAY 2012


Figure 4 WTG, Cont from pg 46 cedure section. We need to find a reasonable value for the noise density, No, in order to calculate the system SNR. The total system noise will be a combination of natural background RF and electronic system noise. The formula to calculate thermal noise power is (Np = kTB), where the noise power Np is equal to (Boltzmanns constant, k) x (temperature in Kelvin) x (bandwidth B). The standard temperature for an external antenna is 62 F, or 290K. The noise power in a 1Hz BW is equal to 4.004e -21 W/Hz. This value normalized to 1mW in a 50 system displayed in a logarithmic scale is

Figure 5: This example Pr calculation is for a Quasimonostatic system, but our monostatic example has the same transmit and receive antenna gain value. the familiar -174 dBm/Hz. In the case of RADAR, the noise density is commonly normalized to Bn, or 1/ (envelope pulse width). This noise density value, No, must be added to the electronic noise of the RADAR test system and includes the receiver Noise Figure and all RF path components in terms of temperature K. The calculation for amplifier noise figure can be found in most microwave text books, but is omitted for this article. The formula below to calculate system SNR uses the values of received power (Pr) and noise density (No) previously calculated.

Factors have been added for processing gain, Gp, and loss, L. Most radars are designed so that Bn 1/ (envelope pulse width). No = Ts= thermal noise + electronic noise density normalized to Bn. Test Procedure Initial testing with simulation software or a prototype will determine the type of DUTs used for testing. Figure 6 is a simplified block diagram of a typical RADAR system including transmitter, receiver, and antenna structures. This example is a full scale system using real aircraft. The monostatic system used for this example is only one of many possible RADAR systems. In a monostatic system, the transmit and receive antennas are co-located (ie. the same antenna is used for both transmit and receive), but either bistatic or quasimonostatic sytems can be tested in a similar manner. Example System Block Diagram The Radar output signal (blue) is transmitted towards WTG, Cont on pg 92


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PAGE 92 MAY 2012


Figure 6: Example System Block Diagram WTG, Cont from pg 90 the target aircraft, and the return signal (green) is switched

through to the radar receiver under normal working conditions. The peak power meter

can monitor the effective radiated power of the antenna system via the field strength measurement or the system mismatch, using the ratio of forward to reflected power. The C2 alternate path is used to measure the signal field strength via a calibrated antenna or the forward power (C1 blue) is compared to the reflected power (C2 pink) to measure the actual power delivered to the antenna. The ratio of forward to reflected power, or return loss in dB, is an important figure of merit for the system because actual transmit power (Pt) has a major influence on the maximum distance of the RADAR system. The RADAR transmitter has an output trigger pulse (purple) that can be used as an external trigger input for the power meter to synchronize system measurements in addition to using the main power measurement channels. The receiver can be used in a similar manner as an external trigger input via the second trigger channel. The power meter can trigger on a single pulse, or a complex sequence of events using the transmitter, or the receiver external inputs similar to a digital oscilloscope. The receiver system is disturbed by the interference simulator signal (red) to emulate either unintentional wire-

less interference, or intended interference, jamming. This interference simulator provides versatile, repeatable interference for complex system testing. The Noisecom UFX7000A noise generator can be configured as an interference simulator with multiple AWGN sources, CW sources, and filtered signal paths to emulate real world interference and jamming. A 0.1 dB minimum attenuation step size over a total of 80 dB of attenuation allows accurate, repeatable disturbance control for precise SNR system testing. Conclusion A Boonton Peak Power Meter and a Noisecom UFX7000A series RADAR interference generator pair is one example of an advanced solution for testing these RADAR systems. The combined transmitter and receiver pair can test system performance by providing complex random and deterministic repeatable interference in addition to accurate peak and average power measurements.

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Figure 7: Aeroflex AWARESBSA pulse analysis function per-pulse measurements Aeroflex, Cont from pg 88 Analysis of a Stimulus/ Response Measurement In an AWARES system, the Broadband Signal Analzyer (BSA) GUI application is used to control the recording hardware as well as analyze live or archived signals. The BSA software is composed of a number of analysis functions (e.g., spectrum, modulation domain, pulse analysis, PSK/QAM demodulation, etc.), and ties together their operation and the display of their results. The input to a stimulus/ response analysis is two timesynchronized signalsthe stimulus and the response. The goal is to be able to view and summarize these two together, so as to better understand how the ECM system responded to the stimulus. There are three levels to this analysis: spectrum, modulation domain, and full pulse analysis. The first two levels are primarily singlechannel (i.e., either the stimulus or the response). The last level, full pulse analysis, shows sideby-side analysis of the stimulus and response signals, including delta measurements between the two signals. The BSA spectrum display (bottom) and spectrogram display (top) of a generic frequency-hopping radar are shown in Figure 3. In the spectrogram, the horizontal axis is frequency, the vertical axis is time, and the signal power at each timefrequency point is encoded in the color of the plotted point. This spectrogram shows the time-versus-frequency behavior of the signal. At the bottom of this figure, the spectrum display, with the max-hold enabled, shows the hop frequencies. These measurements only require knowledge of the frequency band of the signal, and provide a high-level view of the signal, as well as the specific hop frequencies. Now that the frequency content of the signal is known, the next level of analysis uses the modulation domain. The BSA modulation domain analysis function shows detailed time-domain behavior of a signal in a specified band. This band could either be the band containing all of the hop frequencies, or, for very detailed measurements, might be only the band around a single hop frequency. Figure 4 shows the

Figure 8: Aeroflex AWARESstrip chart for log of perpulse measurements instantaneous envelope, frequency, and phase (all versus time) for a pulsed signal containing a linear frequencychirp. The center plot in the figure (instantaneous frequency versus time) shows the frequency-chirp. This modulation domain level in the analysis provides a view of the signal in three domains simultaneously, and can be used to make coarse estimates of the pulse parameters, as well as to see effects like pulse envelope over/undershoot, frequency-to-amplitude leakage, etc. By zooming in on a single pulse, the frequency-chirp is seen to be linear and extends over 3 MHz (see Figure 5). The final and most comprehensive level of analysis uses the BSA pulse analysis function. The use of this analysis function requires some knowledge of the signals pulse characteristics (e.g., pulse width, PRI, etc.). Figure 6 shows plots of the instantaneous envelope, frequency, and phase versus time for the paired stimulus and response pulses. For this example, both the stimulus and response pulses contain a phaseencoded 13-bit Barker code. The top two plots in this Figure show the stimulus and response pulse envelopes versus time, the middle two show plots of their frequency versus time, and the last two, which are the most interesting here, show their phase versus time. The last two plots in this Figure show the phase-encoded Barker code in stimulus and response pulses. This display can be used to view the detailed characteristics of both signals, and their relation in time. Figure 7 shows the per-pulse measurements and delta measurements made for the paired stimulus and response pulses. The sequence of these paired, per-pulse measurements can be logged to a spreadsheet-like file, or plotted on a strip chart as shown in Figure 8. Logging these measurements to a spreadsheet compatible file produces a permanent record of a test, and also provides the raw data for further test summarization and analysis. Figure 8 shows plots of four measurements from the paired pulses on channels 1 and 2 (stimulus and response). Any of the measurements shown in Figure Aeroflex, Cont on pg 96

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PAGE 96 MAY 2012 Aeroflex, Cont from pg 94 7 can be used in a plot like this, but these four are relevant for this example. For this example, the response pulse train contains both velocity-gate and rangegate pull-offs. The first two plots in this Figure show the Doppler frequency offsets for the stimulus and response pulses (frequency hopping has been removed). The first plot shows that the stimulus pulse train has no Doppler offset. The second plot shows the velocity-gate pull-off in the response. The third plot in this figure shows the frequency difference (deltafrequency) between the stimulus and response pulses, and also shows the velocity-gate pulloff. In the last plot, the timedifference between the stimulus and response pulse start times (delta-ToA) is shown. This plot shows the range-gate pull-off. The vertical red lines in these plots indicate times when pulses were missing from either the stimulus or response. These are times at which the ECM system either did not generate a pulse corresponding to a stimulus pulse, or generated an extra pulse not corresponding to a stimulus pulse.

Other Uses for Aeroflex AWARES System In addition to its stimulus/ response operating mode, an AWARES system provides support for the general recording and playback of signals. A signal must be recorded to be used as the stimulus in a stimulus/ response measurement, but it can also be useful to record signals and save them to RAID for later use. For example, signals can be recorded in the field during a live exercise or in the presence of an interesting device. Afterward, the data can be taken back to the laboratory for detailed analysis or used for the stimulus of an ECM system. Operating as a signal recorder, an AWARES system can frequency-tune to between 10 MHz and 18 GHz, and supports either a 400 MHz instantaneous bandwidth (using 8-bit ADC samples), or a 70 MHz instantaneous bandwidth (using 12-bit ADC samples). At the 400 MHz bandwidth, over 28 seconds of signal may be recorded. At the 70 MHz bandwidth, with no digital tuning, over 80 seconds of signal may be recorded. At the 60 MHz bandwidth, digital tuning may be used to trade reduced signal bandwidth for longer maximum recording durations and quicker analysis times. In this case, a sub-band within the selected 70 MHz band is chosen, and only this sub-band is recorded. This results in a possibly dramatic decrease in the size of the recorded signal, which translates into longer maximum recording durations or quicker analysis times. The factor of the savings is the decimation order, which can vary between four and 4096, in powers of two. For example, if a 10 MHz instantaneous bandwidth is sufficient for the signal, then a decimation order of sixteen may be used, and over 10 minutes of signal may be recorded. Longer record durations can be supported, for smaller signal bandwidths, using higher decimation orders. Recorded signals may be analyzed using the BSA GUI application on the AWARES system. In addition to the general spectrum, modulation domain, and pulse analysis modules mentioned previously, other analysis modules are available which support digital demodulation (e.g., PSK, QAM, FSK, ASK), analog demodulation (e.g., AM, FM, PM, SSB), the measurement of power in arbitrary frequency bands, and the Environment Signal Parameter (ESP), a module which finds, tracks, and makes measurements on spectral bumps. Operating as a signal generator, an AWARES system can frequency-tune to between 10 MHz and 18 GHz, and supports either a 400 MHz instantaneous bandwidth (using 8-bit DAC samples), or a 70 MHz instantaneous bandwidth (using 12-bit DAC samples). At the 400 MHz bandwidth, over 28 seconds of signal may be played. At the 70 MHz bandwidth, with no digital up-conversion, over 80 seconds of signal may be played. At the 70 MHz bandwidth, digital up-conversion may be used to trade reduced signal bandwidth for longer maximum playback durations. This processing operates analogously to the digital tuning in a signal recorder, with similar benefits. The signal generator can play back all AWARES recorded signals. Roadmap for Aeroflex AWARES System Future plans include: Digital tuning and digital up-conversion (decimation and interpolation) for the 400 MHz bandwidth signals FPGA-based acceleration of the analysis processing Two new pulse recording modes, explained below In the first of these new pulse recording modes, the pulse descriptor word (PDW) characteristics (e.g., pulse start time [ToA], width, power) of each pulse in the input signal are estimated in real-time and only these characteristics are stored. This results in the ability to store the pulse characteristics of an input signal continuously for many hours. In the second new recording mode, the PDWs are estimated for each pulse as in the first mode. Also, the ADC samples from just before the pulse begins to just after it ends are stored. This case is less compact than the first new recording mode, but is much more compact than the full storage case. (The gain is approximately the ratio of the PRI to the pulse width.) This second mode allows for more complete post-processing of the pulses (e.g., chirp, MOP, rise/ falls times, etc.), and for plots of the instantaneous envelope, frequency, and phase for cases in which having only the PDW is insufficient. For Additional Information For more information, visit

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Figure 5: High voltage tantalum polymer chip capacitors provide capacitance stability, low ESR/ESL and filtering capability Figure 4: MIL-QPL qualified molded tantalum chip capacitors AVX, Cont from pg 86 larger the part, the larger the loop ESL. A basic way to counter this is to use a reverse geometry low inductance chip capacitor (LICC), which has the terminations on the sides, rather than on the ends of the parts. In a 2:1 aspect ratio part such as a 1206 size, using a reverse geometry version, 0612, will reduce inductance by a factor of 2 (typically from 1nH to 500pH) for the same capacitance/voltage design and the same amount of real estate. Lower inductances still can be achieved by using a smaller outline part with smaller loops (0508 instead of 0805, 0306 instead of 0603, etc.), but this comes at the cost of decreasing capacitance value and capacitance retention at the ASIC operating frequency is still a requirement. So, for faster speeds, new component designs are needed where the inductive component can be separated from the capacitative. There are three ways to do this by inductance cancellation, by having very small signal loops, and by minimizing inductive coupling to the PCB ground plane. A good example of inductance cancellation is the inter-digitated capacitor (IDC). This is a reverse geometry design, but instead of having solid terminations, the part is terminated along the side with stripes, or fingers, with each alternate pair

Figure 6: Example of the military version of the EIA535BAAC tantalum capacitor, ideal for space-level applications of stripes connected to alternating pairs of plates in the multilayer stack. This means that inductive cancellation can take place, and by having a via-inpad (VIP) design, the loop to the ASIC I/O can be minimized. This type of design can result in <200pH ESL for an 0612 4.7uF/6V device. In order to minimize current loop, a new series of land grid array (LGA) components has been developed with extremely tightly controlled termination dimensions. Using a vertical internal electrode system means that the average current loop between ports is extremely small and has the added advantage of minimizing ground plane coupling. These parts can achieve <30pH for a 0.1uF/4v for a small 0306 4.7uF/6v device. Once the optimum component for the electrical application has been defined, the appropriate reliability and mechanical specifications need to be considered. While the commercial versions of these products are RoHS compliant and have matte tin terminations, many missioncritical applications still prefer to have some lead content (typically 3% Pb minimum), so AVX offers tin-lead solder terminations for all of the above devices. Additional testing can also be requested, from COTSplus to space/ flight level, depending on the end application requirements. For power conditioning applications, as switch modes also progress to higher speed switching, the principle of AVX, Cont on pg 106

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Figure 2: Typical Conversion Loss for the MAC-42+ (at IF = 30 MHz)

Figure 3: Typical L-R Isolation for the MAC-42+

Figure 4: Typical Conversion Loss at Temperature for the MAC-42+ Mini-Circuits, Cont from pg 28 whenever long-term exposure to humidity, dust, airborne contaminants, or changing environments are a concern. Add the vibration, mechanical shock, acceleration, or high temperatures associated with busy production lines, high-speed distribution centers, server farms, automotive and aerospace systems, heavy industry, or hostile battlefields, and our ultra-reliable mixers offer even more value. But theres a lot more to MAC mixers than just a rugged case: new technology enables new designs, and improved performance. For starters, the extremely small package size of these mixers (0.3 x 0.25 x 0.06") reduces parasitics and improves the frequency response, for low, Mini-Circuits, Cont on pg 102

Figure 5: Typical unit-to-unit Repeatability Histogram for a MAC-42 production run

Table 2: Key specifications and prices for the Mini-Circuits MAC mixer family. See for individual datasheets, environmental specifications, and more, including pricing and real-time availability at higher quantities. Model MAC-24+ MAC-24LH+ MAC-24MH+ MAC-42+ MAC-42LH+ MAC-42MH+ MAC-60+ MAC-60LH+ MAC-60MH+ MAC-80LH+ MAC-80MH+ MAC-80H+ MAC-85L+ MAC-85+ MAC-113H+ MAC-12GL+ MAC-12G+ LO Level (dBm) 7 10 13 7 10 13 7 10 13 10 13 17 4 7 17 4 7 Frequency (GHz) 0.3-2.4 Conv. Loss (dB) 6.1 Isolation L-R (dB) 40 Price % ea. (Qty 10) 5.95






6.5 5.8 5.8 6.5 7.0 6.1 6.5 6.6 6.3


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PAGE 102 MAY 2012 Mini-Circuits, Cont from pg 100 flat conversion losses across broad bandwidths (Figure 2). Low parasitics also deliver better matching for the RF, LO, and IF paths, and consistently high isolation (Figure 3). The inherent mechanical and thermal stability of LTCCs have long been recognized. These mixer designs take consistent performance across temperature one step further: all MAC models are rated for operation at up to +125C (Figure 4). High-volume automated processes ensure high unit-tounit and lot-to-lot repeatability, as demonstrated by our conversion loss histogram,


Figure 6: Physical specifications, pin connections, and maximum ratings for Mini-Circuits MAC mixers well within 4.5 (Figure 5). Other advantages of these game-changing new mixers only become apparent as they are put to use. Standard tapeand-reel packaging allows the easy integration of hi-rel components into customer assembly processes. Gold-plated terminations provide excellent long-term solderability, with exposed termination ends for easy visual solder inspection, faster throughput, and greater quality assurance. And end-users will soon appreciate how consistent electrical performance adds value, day after day and year after year whether in unmanned, remote installations, or temperature and humidity controlled instrumentation labs. Low loss, high isolation, temperature stability, and high repeatability are calling cards for the whole MAC mixer family. The first 17 models cover RF/LO frequencies from 300 MHz to 12 GHz, IF frequencies from DC up to 2 GHz, and LO power levels from 4 to 17 dBm (see Figure 6 for a complete list). Other models under development are expected to reach LO/RF frequencies as high as 18 GHz. Data sheets, performance curves, S-parameters, outline drawings, PCB layouts, environmental ratings, green info, and everything else you need for a full, quick evaluation can be found at minicircuits. com. Or enter your requirements into our patented search engine, Yoni2, and it will search actual test data to find the models that meet your needs. All MAC mixers are backed by our exclusive 3-year guarantee, and prices, stock quantities, and real-time availability are listed for every catalog model. Looking ahead, the systems and processes developed for the MAC are proving to be highly adaptable for a whole range of ultra-reliable components combining LTCC passive circuitry with semiconductor devices. Amplifiers, attenuators, limiters, doublers and other components are already well into the design phase, and in some cases close to production. For more on our new hermetic ceramic productsthat put Ultra-Reliable performance within the reach of tightly budgeted applicationsjust keep an eye on the New Products section at!

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PAGE 104 MAY 2012


TWTAs, MPMs Continue Upward Performance Climb

by Fred Ortiz, President, dB Control f the RF and microwave industry prophets had been correct in their predictions, traveling wave tubes (TWTs) and other vacuum electron devices used for microwave power generation would be extinct by now. Instead, these devices are very much alive and the prognosis for their continued good health is rosy. One reason for the markets continuing demand for tubes is that no solid state device can deliver the combination of high RF output power, instantaneous bandwidth, and ability to operate far into the millimeter-wave region. Companies like dB Control that use these devices to form the core of amplifiers for radar, electronic warfare (EW), electronic countermeasures (ECM), and satellite communications systems continue to make incremental improvements in many areas year after year. For example, the companys two new TWT Amplifiers (TWTAs) and a Microwave Power Module

Figure 1: The dB-4409 is a 30- by 8.5-inch pod-mountable TWTA delivering 300 W CW from 2 to 18 GHz in two overlapping bands through the use of two TWTs and solid state driver amplifiers, power supplies and control circuits. (MPM) from dB Control clearly illustrate not only what can be achieved in TWT-generated power, but also with the low prime power required to achieve it. Plus, all three units feature incredibly compact packaging. New TWTAs Pack High Power in Compact Package dB Controls new dB-4409 (Figure 1) is an excellent example of how far TWTAs have come in the ability to condense capabilities into a very small package compared to TWTAs of the past. This pod-mounted TWTA designed for airborne EW, ECM, and broadband or multiband communication systems delivers RF output power of 300 Watts continuous wave (CW) in two bands (2 to 8 GHz and 7.5 to 18 GHz) with a 55 dB gain and spurious rejection of -50 dBc. The TWTA, utiliz-

Table 1: New dB Control TWTAs and MPM at a Glance dB-4409

Type of amplifier Frequency range (GHz) RF output power (W) Gain (dB) Spurious rejection (dBc) Load VSWR Dimensions (inches, LxWxD) Weight (lb.) Environmental Operating temp. (C) Altitude (ft.) Humidity (non-condensing), % Vibration (g RMS) Shock (g) Cooling TWTA 2 to 8 & 7.5 to 18 300 CW 55 -50 1.5:1 30 x 8.5 x 8.1 90

TWTA 7.5 to 18 300 CW 57 -45 1.5:1 10.7 x 8.9 x 19.3 70

MPM 15 to 18 1000 peak1 60 -60 1.5:1 12 x 10 x 3 14 -40 to +85 40,000 95% 0.02 g2/Hz, 10 to 1000 Hz Conduction At left, plus excessive PRF, pulse width, or duty cycle

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ing two TWTs and two highvoltage power supplies in one 30-inch long by 8.5-inch wide package, operates from either a 115 VAC or 200 VAC, 400 Hz, three-phase power supply. The amplifier is protected by circuits covering helix overcurrent and arcing, cathode overvoltage, TWT and power supply over-temperature, and loss of phase. A high-voltage supply interlock in included for safety. Indicators are provided for warm-up, standby, operate, and fault. Liquid cooling is provided through the base plate. A variety of options are available including custom frequency bands, different prime power requirements, convection cooling, different RF and control interfaces, gain equalizers and a PIN diode modulator input. A second TWTA recently introduced by the company, the dB-4410 (Figure 2), is designed for a somewhat different set of applications such as airborne data links, ECM transmitters, and EW threat simulators. It delivers at least 300 Watts CW from 7.5 to 18 GHz with 57 dB of gain, spurious rejection of -45 dB, and AM-to-PM conversion of six degrees per decibel. The amplifier operates from either 115 or 200 VAC. In addition to providing protection for helix overcurrent and arcing, cathode overvoltage, TWT and power supply over-temperature, and phase loss, the dB-4410 also offers protection from extreme impedance mismatch (high VSWR), and an RF output monitoring port with signal level attenuated by 60 dB. This amplifier can be either TTL- or RS-422 controlled and can be reconfigured for different frequency ranges, power supply requirements, interfaces, gain equalization, and also with a PIN-diode modulator at the RF input. It provides output switching into an internal dummy load for testing, along with comprehensive built-in test (BIT) routines. The unit meadB Control, Cont on pg 112

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purer capacitance with low ESR & ESL equally applies. In this case, the total reactance of a device directly relates to noise in a filtered line. Stacked ceramic capacitors have long been the component of choice for critical DC-DC input and output applications due to their intrinsic low ESR, but a new version of these has been designed the ST Series (TurboCap), which features stacking in a vertical Figure 7: Tantalum modules feature high packaging rather than horizontal configudensity to deliver high capacitance, high voltage, ration. This has the advantage and ultra-low ESR of reducing coupling between the ground plane of the PCB and the capacitor electrodes, reducing the under 100mOhms. Beyond the MIL ratings, overall effective inductance and ensuring tantalum chips are also available in a new DSCC drawing (DSCC 07016). This drawcleaner power filtering. As we come out from the core, the DC ing is a new standard defining high reliability power that holds up the system also requires versions of the latest low ESR EIA size high bulk capacitance with low ESR to mini- tantalum chip. All the above tantalum chips are charactermize noise and ripple, with the ideal SMT passive technology for maximum volumetric ized by a fully molded body with compliant (wraparound) termination, decoupling them efficiency being the tantalum chip. Tantalum technology enables high CV mechanically from the PCB, so that they are (capacitance x voltage) to be achieved with ideally suited to withstand high shock and high volumetric efficiency (e.g. CV ratings vibration over a wide range of substrate matefrom 330uF/6v to 4.7uF/50V in a 77mm3 rials with differing coefficients of thermal package). Apart from filtering and decoupling expansion (CTE). To match their mechaniapplications, their high CV range also suits cal performance with electrical robustness for mission critical applications, all CWR them to pulse applications. The main advantage with tantalum has series capacitors require full lot assessment been the high CV (capacitance voltage prod- which includes voltage conditioning (defined uct) achieved with low voltage ratings ideal as Weibull reliability grading which is also for digital line power. But there are many bus a requirement for DSCC 07016 ratings). As applications on 28v lines that also benefit tantalum dielectric cannot be subjected to a from 50v tantalum ratings. As many design- high level of overvoltage to accelerate life coners will use a tantalum chip at 50% voltage ditions, the Wiebull system uses a combinaderating (tantalum reliability is a logarithmic tion of voltage and temperature acceleration function of voltage derating), the latest devel- factors while the lot is statistically monitored opment in the conventional tantalum chip has throughout the 42.5hr min. test. This gradbeen the introduction of a 63V rating specifi- ing allows parts to be released to failure rates below (0.1 to 0.001)%/1000hrs at 90% concally for this application. Meanwhile, for professional/ industrial fidence limit. Having optimized the characteristics for applications, a new generation of polymer electrode tantalum chip has been developed. discrete capacitors, for power applications The polymer counter-electrode system pro- its often necessary to use a bank of capacivides lower ESR than conventional tantalum, tors in parallel, or for higher voltage bus lines and the latest releases of 63V, 75V and 100V (e.g. 28V) in applications where the derating rated chip tantalum polymers will enable rules are conservative, a parallel/series conimproved filtering capability for both 28V figuration of capacitors to achieve the needed total application capacitance, ESR target and and 48+V systems. For high reliability, low ESR applications, required voltage derating. A new series of parts that allows this is a new series recently incorporated into MILPRF-55365 is the CWR29 family. These the TCP Series stacked tantalum module. include a very wide range of CV options up These can be configured in standard two, to 50V rated, with Weibull reliability grading four, or six unit stacks with other custom and optional surge current test. The typical configurations available. The advantage of ESR performance of these parts is well within using such stacks is that they can be assemspecification; for example, the 330uF/6v rat- bled with parts having inset ESR limits and, ing noted above will have a maximum limit by matching the ESR in a stack, ensure that of 180 mOhms, but typical performance well AVX, Cont on pg 110

11:06:57 AM


PAGE 108 MAY 2012


Figure 6: EM schematics include parameterized cells (pCells) or static shapes that can be manipulated to define an EM parameterized model. AWR, Cont from pg 74 or Bit Error Rate (BER) are available. Circuit Envelope Simulation Circuit envelope simulation (Figure 5) is a major benefit to designers of amplifiers used in wireless systems that use higher-order modulation techniques and Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM). When it is enabled with both Microwave Office and Visual System Simulator (VSS) software, designers can create amplifiers that deliver high linearity and efficiency over broad bandwidths that, since they are conflicting parameters, would otherwise be extremely difficult to simultaneously achieve. AWRs circuit envelope simulation technology effectively processes modulation data in the time domain and carrier signals in the frequency domain. The result is a time-varying spectrum that lets designers assess modulation information (i.e. amplitude and phase) for every harmonic of the signal, which makes it possible to analyze key performance metrics such as EVM and ACPR with greater accuracy earlier in the design flow. Other Key Features In addition to AWR 2011s designer-centric productivity enhancements, there are many

Figure 7: An electrical-thermal co-simulation design lets MMIC designers MMICs further delve into the intricacies of their circuits. other features that quicken pace at which designers achieve firsttime design success. User-Defined Parameterized Models: User-defined parameterized models with EM schematics, parameterized cells (pCells), or static shapes can be accessed and manipulated to define an EM parameterized model (Figure 6). Shape manipulation capabilities include Booleans, resizes, and other operations that go well beyond simply making a shape bigger or changing an aspect ratio of a polygon. The designer can define the parameterized model and simulate it on demand to create a model that can be interpolated for use in tune-mode or for fast circuitbased optimization. Sub-circuit Parameterization: This capability allows nonlinear circuits in Microwave Office software to share the same hierarchical parameter-passing as blocks within VSS software, revealing how metrics such as resistance value or inductor Q impact the overall system-level design. AWR Connected for Antenna Magus: This tool makes evaluation of multiple antenna design options easier and faster while providing greater insight into the design as well. The expansive database within Antenna Magus streamlines the design process from initial stages (synthesis) to the final customization phase (circuit/EM simulation). AWR Connected for CapeSym SYMMIC: Removing thermal hotspots in GaN, GaAs, and silicon RF power transistors and MMICs is essential to achieve performance, yield, and device longevity. With this tool designers can capture and view the interdependencies between thermal and electrical properties (Figure 7) and address them throughout the design process. RF Aware Short/Open Checker: This tool allows wiring and layout errors to be eliminated earlier in the design flow when it is more cost-effective to do so. VSS Radar Library: Provides detailed behavioral modeling of radar system signal processing as well as 3D antenna patterns derived from synthesis or measurement. The software is integrated with LabVIEW and MATLAB so custom signal processing algorithms can be employed. Summary As commercial and military RF and microwave components and subsystems have become more complex, tools within the AWR Design Environment have risen to the challenge. The enhancements within AWR 2011 further the capabilities of this multidimensional, highlysophisticated design suite while remaining true to AWRs core goal of making RF and microwave design easier, faster, and better attuned to right-the-firsttime design philosophy. To learn more about using AWR 2011 visit

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PAGE 110 MAY 2012


Figure 8: 1.0uF multilayer ceramic chip capacitors for military / space applications AVX, Cont from pg 106 current sharing is better equalized. From the design perspective, this advantage provides a large reduction in real-estate with better system volumetric efficiency on the PCB. For additional safety, there is also a series available (TBW Series, available to DSCC drawing 04053) that includes a Weibull-grade reliability capacitor matched to an internal fastacting (thin film) fuse. This offers the best of both options established reliability performance and failsafe operation, with the minimum of added ESR. It is designed as both a discrete capacitor and in module format (and all with standard dimensions). In the module version, each element is independently fused, so in the event of one element failure, there is still redundancy in the system. For broadband filtering on power lines, MLCCs with resonances in the 1MHz to 100MHz range are often used in parallel with the tantalum chips. The CDR series, available to MIL-PRF-55681, is ideal in this respect, and can also be augmented by DSCC drawing for smaller size, COTSplus 0805 and 0603 packages. AVX has recently expanded MIL-123 ratings to 1.0uF in both chip and leaded series. While current capacitor technologies are able to maximize the performance of high-speed digital applications, the devices themselves are more at risk due to increased EMI and ESD susceptibility, so onboard circuit protection is in turn an area of major focus. While the newer generations of low-voltage/high-speed ASICs are increasingly susceptible, they are also being used in more ESD/EMI hostile environments. From an ESD point of view, the increasing number of handheld secure comms devices, with multiple USB I/Os and increasing data stream sensitivity, will require protection against multiple ESD events throughout their operational lifetimes. As EMI detection devices become more sensitive, they must also have emissions minimized for stealth operations. At the same time, they require protection from any local EMI generator they may encounter in the field. For ESD protection, the Transguard Series is a multilayer varistor (MLV) which has become the mainstay of the electronics industry, due to its small size, standard chip outline (0402 1210 size) and robust characteristics (-65C to +150C operation). The benefits of this technology are that due to its unique material characteristics, it will clamp ESD spikes faster than a silicon transient voltage suppressor (TVS) type, as well as survive thousands of events with zero degradation. These events are based on 8kV contact, or 14kV air human body model discharges. Because the parts are supplied in standard SMT chip format, it means that arrays can also be provided typical solutions can have 2 to 4 channels in 0508 or 0612 size for protecting multiple data lines with a single placement. Another benefit of the construction is that capacitance can be controlled; in some applications,

Figure 9: Multilayer varistor (MLV) clamps ESD spikes faster than a silicon transient voltage suppressor

Figure 10: Comparative S21 characterisics for Transguard and Transfeed configured MLVs the capacitance can be maximized (10pF 100pF range) so the parts act as ESD protection with a small built-in EMI capacitor. In other applications (data port or antenna protection), capacitance can be minimized. Typically, USB ports any antennae will benefit from low capacitance (3pF 10pF range), but new applications for HDMI data protection require sub pF capacitance even lower than the typical parasitic capacitance of a silicon TVS device. The latest series of sub pF (SPV) varistors is now available for harshenvironment applications. For EMI control, AVX manufactures feedthru capacitors, also in standard SMT chip sizes, that maxmize the intrinsic inductance from the geometry of the internal feedthru channel and capacitor plates (standard Class I or Class II materials) to provide an LC filter with precise inductance value and essentially no insertion loss in the circuit. Again, these are readily available as feedthru arrays to provide multi-line filtering. One application that benefits is filtering RGB signal lines for LCD screen or CCD camera applications (especially if connected with flex cables which can have high EMI cross-sections). With S21 of -20dB over the 500MHz to 2GHz range, the 0612 4-channel feedthru array is an ideal solution for onboard filtering at the individual device level. For combined ESR/EMI there is another alternative a standard chip with feed-thru geometry, but manufactured from Transguard (MLV) materials. This is the Transfeed series, has the fastest turn-on time of any ESD protection device sub picosecond and can achieve rejection to -60dB. This is an ideal device for filtering and protecting low noise amplifier circuits, where signal differentiation in the uV to mV range needs to be maintained.

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PAGE 112 MAY 2012


Figure 2: The 10.7- by 8.9-inch dB-4410 TWTA (300 W CW from 7.5 to 18 GHZ) has the interfaces and standard features that make it well suited for applications such as EW threat simulators, airborne data links and ECM transmitters. dB Control, Cont from pg 104 sures 10.7 inches long by 8.9 inches wide by 18.3 inches deep and weighs 70 pounds. Small MPMs Well Suited for Airborne Apps There have been continuous advancements in MPMs since these devices were first introduced, thanks to development of the mini-TWT. dB Control has been at the forefront of MPM technology since the beginning, and in fact helped develop the earliest working specimens. The companys new dB-3814 MPM (Figure 3) for pulsed (i.e., radar) applications is about the size of a hardcover novel (12 inches by 10 inches by 3 inches). It weighs only 14 pounds, and operates from 28 VDC, yet delivers 1 kW of peak power (7 percent duty cycle, 40 kHz pulse repetition frequency, and 0.2 to 50 microsecond pulse width) from 15 to 18 GHz. The MPMs phase and amplitude stability and other features make it well suited for airborne synthetic aperture radars (SARs) and multi-mode radars. as well as EW threat simulators and ECM transmitters on either manned or unmanned airborne platforms. It has gain of 60 dB, uses a GaAs MMIC amplifier to drive the TWT, and provides harmonic suppression of -12 dBc, spurious rejection of -60 dBc, and phase noise of 110

Figure 3: For pulsed-signal applications such as radar systems, the dB-3814 MPM provides 1 kW of peak power from 15 to 18 GHz, high amplitude and phase stability, low phase noise and high spurious and harmonic rejection. The module operates from 23 VDC, measures only 12- by 10- by 3 inches and weighs just 14 pounds. dBc/Hz at a 1 kHz carrier offset. The dB-3814 has the same protection circuits as its TWTA counterparts, as well as circuits for excessive pulse repetition frequency, pulse width and duty cycle. Control is provided by RS-422, and a variety of options are available to configure the MPM for specific applications. Detailed specifications for all three products are shown in Table 1. These two new TWTAs and the MPM join dB Controls other amplifiers for defense applications that cover 500 MHz to 40 GHz with RF output power from 10 W to 1 kW CW and up to 20 kW pulse. As power supplies and power control subsystems are essential to ensure the performance and longevity of TWTs, dB Control has invested considerable resources to advance the performance of these devices. The result is a family of amplifiers that deliver reliable long-term performance and compact packaging. Information about the dB-4409, dB-4410, and dB-3814 is available at, by calling (510) 656-2325, or by sending an e-mail to

dB Control

A TWT Refresher

or those not familiar with TWTs, TWTAs, and MPMs, heres a refresher. A TWT is a high-gain, low-noise amplifier that uses a slow-wave structure (either a helix or coupled-cavity circuit) to create an interaction between a high-energy electron beam and an RF wave in a vacuum envelope. A heated cathode generates electrons in an electron gun assembly and launches them into the interaction region. An electrode turns the beam on and off by switching the bias of the control electrode to either positive or negative with respect to the cathode. The modulator in the transmitter switches the bias voltages that produce a transition from conduction to cut-off states. The electron beam is focused by magnets that are placed along the axis of the TWT and is accelerated by a high potential between the cathode and the anode (collector). The result is that the RF wave propagates from the input to the output of the device through the slow-wave structure, with the electron beam transferring energy to the RF wave as it travels along the tubes axis. This, in turn, results in an impressive level of RF amplification at the TWTs output. The mini-TWT was developed with the help of government funding. This shorter, lighter, lower-power version of the standard TWT is about 7 inches long. While it does not deliver

the same high RF output power as a conventional TWT, it also does not require as high an input voltage. For example, an 8-kW, X-band helix TWT typically employs an input voltage of about 14 kV, and a 100-kW coupled-cavity TWT requires about 45 kV. In comparison, a mini-TWT requires only 3.7 to 7 kV. The mini-TWT made possible the development of the Microwave Power Module (MPM). An MPM combines a solid state RF power amplifier to drive a mini-TWT, and the two amplifiers are integrated with a power supply and control circuits in a very compact enclosure. The first iteration of the MPM delivered a stunning 5:1 reduction in size and weight, 100:1 reduction in noise, and 50 percent improvement in efficiency over traditional approaches. Exploiting the integral advantages of solid-state and TWT technologies, microwave power modules breathe new life into this well-entrenched technology. allowing both TWTAs and MPMs remain key components used on platforms such as UAVs. There are, according to various estimates, between 300,000 and 400,000 vacuum electron devices in service in U.S. defense systems throughout the world, and many have been in operation for decades. Reliability is also demonstrated by the fact that there are comparatively few solid state power amplifiers in the transponders of satellite communications systems, where failure would be financially catastrophic.

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Lansdale Semiconductor still manufactures some of the most popular and timeless commercial wireless, telecommunications, military and aerospace integrated circuits (ICs) classic designs. As a global pioneer in IC products life cycle management, Lansdale manufactures over 3,000 classic design ICs in the original package, exactly as they were created and produced by AMD, Farchild, Freescale Semiconductor, Harris, Intel, Motorola, National, Philips (formerly Signetics), and Raytheon. Our exclusive life cycle management program assures you of a dependable, continuous, cost effective, and high quality source of classic designed ICs today and tomorrow! This means Lansdale eliminates the need to go to the time or expense of designing in a replacement part or even doing a complete product redesign not when we still make em exactly like they used to.
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PAGE 114 MAY 2012 ITT, Cont from pg 56 taminants to accumulate a desirable feature in harsh environment field conditions while eliminating the need for dust caps. This technology is complemented by Nemesis Super Clean patented draw back barrel cleaning technology, which allows the user to clean the plug connector and be operational again in only a few seconds. Functionality Offering a simple mating mechanism enables users to mate and un-mate the connector system quickly as the need arises. The connectors blind mating design provides reliable and fast connection without the need to see the mechanical keying.Multiple keyway options are incorporated into the inter-

connect family to prevent any possibility of mis-mating. The interconnect also provides plug polarization color-coding to allow users to easily identify the correct mating connector, which is an important feature for applications with duplicated connectors. The typical pull force is 5lbs to 8lbs, but may be adjusted based on specific connector design considerations. The Pogo Pin/Pad connector technology increases the number of mating cycles, guaranteeing more than 10,000 cycles. The internal clip mechanism also maintains constant connection with the contact itself, reducing electrical resistance and accommodating misalignment issues. The pogo pin/pad connectors are fully sealed in the unmated state (watertight to 20m) and weigh less than 25g, which is critical for on-soldier applications. The spring probe system allows the connector receptacle to house individual touch pad contact areas. This design allows for an effective electrical engagement point of contact. Further, the spring probe contact system and touch pads allow for ease of cleaning in the field where dirt, moisture, mud, sand, and other contaminants may be present. Standard termination options include PCB tails, solder cups, and pin contacts. Conclusion Todays military electronic system design engineers are required to develop products that increase functionality and withstand extreme environments. Even more demanding is the need for continuously evolving smaller and lighter electronic systems where space and weight are at a true premium. Not only must designers ensure that their system modules perform in demanding elements, they must ensure that the interconnect link for their systems survive and maintain signal integrity. Electronic interconnects designed and integrated into electronic equipment for harsh conditions must be able to withstand severe shock, vibration, and thermal dynamics.

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PAGE 118 MAY 2012

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Englewood Cliffs, NJ 07632 Phone (201) 569-5870 Fax (201) 569-6684 Doug Markhouse

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Aeroflex / Inmet 92 Aeroflex / Weinschel 70 Aethercomm 35 AMCOM 96 American Microwave 108 Anatech Electronics 4 Applied Radar 74 AR RF/Microwave Instrumentation 47 ATC 22 AWR 80 Boonton 15 C.W. Swift 51 Ciao Wireless 21 Connectronics 102 CPI Beverly Microwave Division 115 CTS Valpey Corporation 103 Daisy RS 95 dBm 26 Dow-Key Microwave 89 EM Research 87 Emerson Network Power 65 EMI Filter 116 ESM Cable 11 Exodus Dynamics 43 Fairview Microwave 111 Freescale 24 Herley-CTI 7 Hittite 18 Inrworx 116 Integrated Microwave 98 IW 23 JFW 10 K&L Microwave 9 KR Electronics 116 Krytar 48 Lansdale Semiconductor 113 Logus Microwave 44 Lorch Microwave 67 Luff Research 116 Manz Communications 84 MECA 5, 62 MegaPhase 86 Metropole Products Inc. 40 Micro Lambda Wireless 49 Microlab 69 Microtech 34 Microwave Components 45 Microwave Dynamics 101 Mini-Circuits Cov. 2, 16, 17, 37, 39, 41, 60, 61, 81, 83, 85, 105, 117, Cov.3, Cov.4 MITEQ 57 Modco Inc. 116 Molex 12 Narda 20 Networks International 30 NoiseWave 50 NuWaves 58, 68 OPHIR RF 42 Planar Monolithics 53, 55 Polyflon 66 Precision Connector 38 Pulsar 90 QUEST Microwave 116 R&D Microwaves 79 Reactel 93 RFMD 29 RFMW 27 RLC 59 Rogers Corporation 71 San-tron 77 SDP Telecom 25 SGMC 73 Skyworks 75 State of the Art 54 SV Microwave 6 Teledyne Microwave Solutions 13 Teledyne Relays 31 Teledyne Storm 63 Telemakus 106 Thunderline-Z 110 Times Microwave 109 TRU Corporation 99 UTE 91 Vaunix 78 Vectron 107 Voltronics 97 Werlatone 33 Z-Communications 19
This index is provided as an additional service. The publisher does not assume any liability for errors or omissions.

Southeast 1509 Estuary Trail

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Northeast/Midwest P.O. Box 217


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3334 Kroy Way Sacramento, CA 95820 Phone (650) 346-4351 Fax (866) 258-9315 Don Harway

Ed i to ri a l a n d Bu s i n e s s O f f i ce
385 Sylvan Avenue, Suite 16, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey 07632 (201) 569-5870 Fax: (201) 569-6684

2012 IEEE
August 5 10, 2012
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility

Cross over with us to the city of bridges. This event will have something for everyone from the novice EMC engineer to the advanced practitioner. This is an opportunity to advance your knowledge, build new relationships, and reconnect

EM Interference and Environments Shielding, Grounding, Bonding EMP, Lightning, ESD Transient Suppression EMC Measurement Signal Integrity EMC Management Nanotechnology Spectrum Management EM Product Safety

Learn the Leading Edge Info on:

with industry friends from around the world.


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