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Ergonomics & Human Factor

Ergonomics is a combination of two GREEK words: ERGON & NOMIKOS. ERGON means WORK & NOMIKOS means LAW / RULE ERGONOMICS means THE RULE OF WORK. Ergonomics deals with: 1. HEALTH OF MAN 2. SAFETY OF MAN 3. COMFORT OF MAN 4. EFFICIENCY OF MAN 5. OUT PUT OF MAN Any ergonomic design must satisfy all above five parameters It is simply called as MAN-MACHINE relation and concerned with the achievement of optimal relationship with MAN and his Working environment. ILO defines Ergonomics as the application of human, biological science and engineering to improve work environment and at the same time enhance productivity. * Non-Ergonomic approach: To fit in the MAN for the JOB. * Ergonomic approach: To fit in the JOB for the MAN. MAN means the MAN'S - ANTHROPOMETRY (Body structure or configuration) - WORK PHYSIOLOGY - ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSIOLOGY - TIME AND MOTION STUDY These are called ERGONOMIC'S DESCIPLINE ** ANTHROPOMETRY: For the design of Equipments, Work space & Motion pattern w.r.t. Human Structure. ** WORK PHYSIOLOGY: It deals with the response of Human Organism to Physical Activity and different stress to work with least Energy & Fatigue. ** ENVTL.PHYSIOLOGY: Inter action of Gases / Fumes / Noise / Heat and Light etc. with Human Organism. ** TIME & MOTION STUDY: It deals with the Method and Time study, eg; Assembly line jobs etc.

COST OF IGNORING ERGONOMIS: Less production out put Increased lost time Higher medical and material costs Increased absenteeism Low quality work Increased probability of accidents/errors Increased labour turn over Less spare capacity to deal with emergencies. Occupational disorders / injuries. OCCUPATIONAL DISORDERS: ** All persons are engaged in some or other Occupation. ** All persons are liable to have at least one Occupational Disorder. ** There is no treatment for Occupational Disorder. BECAUSE OF: Wrong diagnosis / Late diagnosis Disorders are similar to general decease. BUT THERE ARE PREVENTIVE MEASURES ------- APPLY ERGONOMICS. GOLDEN RULES FOR ERGONOMIC POSTURES (WHILE WORKING) 1. Straight Back Rule.(eg: while handling, sitting or standing) 2. Straight Wrist Rule.(eg: while tightening nut/screw etc) 3. Straight Eyes Rule.(eg: while working on computer etc) 4. Pelvic Tilt Rule.(often tilt your pelvic while working on Standing posture) 5. Button Belly Rule.(keep working table height at your belly Level) 6. No M/c Brain Rule.(You have brain to think, not your m/c) ERGONOMIC DESIGNS:(In relation with man & machine/job) * Design for 90% of user's population.... GOOD * Select specific Men for Machines ....... BETTER * Adjust M/c to specific Man ............ BEST ERGONOMIC DESIGN FOR WORK HEIGHT & CHAIRS ETC. * Standing with feet shifting ............ GOOD * Standing with occasional sitting ............ BETTER * Seating with occasional standing ............ BEST * Work height at mean Elbow height of user ... GOOD * Work height within 2" of Elbow height ... BETTER

* Work height 1' below Elbow height ... BEST * Adjustable height of Chair ........... GOOD * Adjustable height of Back rest ........... BETTER * Adjustable height and Backrest & Waterfall seat & concave back ........... BEST * Space for Legs under the table ............. GOOD * Leg space with thigh clearance ............. BETTER * Leg space with thigh clearance & foot support ............. BEST * Shelves between Knee & Hip ... GOOD * Shelves between Shoulders & 6" above Head ... BETTER * Shelves between Hip & Shoulders ... BEST ERGONOMICS GOAL 1. To generate ' Tolerable' working condition that do not pose known dange to human life or health. 2. To generate 'Acceptable' condition upon which involve man can voluntarily agree under given socioligical , technological and organizational circumstances. 3. To generate 'Optical' condition which are so well adapted to human characteristic, capabilities, and desire that physical , mental and social well being is achieved.