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Emerald Article: Climate change action at the city level: tales from two megacities in Brazil Rafael D'Almeida Martins, Leila da Costa Ferreira
To cite this document: Rafael D'Almeida Martins, Leila da Costa Ferreira, (2011),"Climate change action at the city level: tales from two megacities in Brazil", Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, Vol. 22 Iss: 3 pp. 344 - 357 Permanent link to this document: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/14777831111122914 Downloaded on: 11-12-2012 References: This document contains references to 53 other documents To copy this document: firstname.lastname@example.org This document has been downloaded 443 times since 2011. *
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Rafael D'Almeida Martins, Leila da Costa Ferreira, (2011),"Climate change action at the city level: tales from two megacities in Brazil", Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, Vol. 22 Iss: 3 pp. 344 - 357 http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/14777831111122914 Rafael D'Almeida Martins, Leila da Costa Ferreira, (2011),"Climate change action at the city level: tales from two megacities in Brazil", Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, Vol. 22 Iss: 3 pp. 344 - 357 http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/14777831111122914 Rafael D'Almeida Martins, Leila da Costa Ferreira, (2011),"Climate change action at the city level: tales from two megacities in Brazil", Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, Vol. 22 Iss: 3 pp. 344 - 357 http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/14777831111122914
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is being considered one of the most signiﬁcant political challenges facing the international community (Giddens. Analyses of advanced developing countries like Brazil are sparse as well as comparison in light of the international experience. Instituto de Filosoﬁa e Cie ´ cleo de Estudos e Pesquisas Ambientais (NEPAM). and 344 Received 30 April 2010 Revised 27 December 2010 Accepted 10 January 2011 Leila da Costa Ferreira ˆ ncias Humanas (IFCH).The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at www. Design/methodology/approach – Through empirical research based on two case studies. 2011 pp. Keywords Climate change.3 Climate change action at the city level: tales from two megacities in Brazil Rafael D’Almeida Martins ´ cleo de Estudos e Pesquisas Ambientais (NEPAM). Governance. The paper also draws attention for the lack of awareness for adaptation at the local level in these countries. 344-357 q Emerald Group Publishing Limited 1477-7835 DOI 10. Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal Vol. Public policy. the authors discuss the governing of climate change action and analyze the factors that can constrain or undermine these actions based on information collected from reports. the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate The authors acknowledge the ﬁnancial support received from the Brazilian Federal Agency for ˜ o Paulo Research Support and Evaluation of Graduate Education (CAPES) and the State of Sa Foundation (FAPESP) as well as the comments received from anonymous reviewers and participants of the 2010 Berlin Conference on the Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change.htm MEQ 22. Introduction Climate change. Nu Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP). The paper megacities in Brazil – Sa seeks to explore how climate change is being framed and how local governments are responding to it in terms of policy strategies. The organization and implementation of climate change measures rely on a landscape formed by multiple actors often spanning several sectors and levels of governance. Brazil. building upon recent scientiﬁc ﬁndings on global climate change. Brazil Abstract Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze the factors shaping climate policies in two ˜ o Paulo and Rio de Janeiro – through a multilevel perspective. institutional web sites and academic and newspaper articles. Nu Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP). Special thanks to Daniela Salgado Carvalho for her editorial assistance in the preparation of the manuscript. 2010). as a global environmental problem. Brazil. Bulkeley and Newell. In this sense. 2009.1108/14777831111122914 . Sustainable development Paper type Research paper 1.com/1477-7835. Findings – The participation in transnational municipal networks has been central for promoting and supporting climate change actions in both cities following the international experience. 3.emeraldinsight. Originality/value – Most of the literature on climate change policy at the local level focuses on the context of developed countries. 22 No.
landslides.. heat waves. Satterthwaite et al.. Bulkeley and Newell.. 2007. 2005.. 2005. Satterthwaite. local governments and their legal responsibility and jurisdiction provide opportunities to inﬂuence many of the activities that contribute to climate change and respond to it in terms of both mitigation and adaptation policies (Bulkeley and Betsill. Lankao.. the conventional separation between global and national responses is highly inappropriate. Cities are also source of most of the world’s pollution and high consumers of non-renewable raw materials (Evans et al. The relationship between cities and climate change is usually based on a complex interaction between vulnerability and responsibility (Wilbanks and Kates. 2005. water and natural resources that keep them functioning as engines of the global economy (Sanchez-Rodriguez et al. Satterthwaite et al. droughts and other climate-related phenomena. cities have a very direct interest in both mitigating and adapting to environmental and climatic change (Satterthwaite et al. 2005). Gupta. local governments also participate in the international arena through transnational networks of local (and subnational) governments. energy. 2007). Bulkeley and Kern. Sanchez-Rodriguez et al. 2007. Besides the important role in formulating and implementing climate policies. 2005. 2009). 2007. Urban centers are home to a large proportion of the world’s population. At the same time.. Bulkeley. Hunt and Watkiss. In addition. By mitigation cities can substantially reduce their environmental impact and consequently transform their infrastructure and consumption patterns improving the global environment. Bulkeley et al. 1999). 2007. 2005). Bulkeley and Betsill. As a multi-dimensional problem. Parry et al. 2005. urban centers possess substantial ecological footprints and require vast areas to provide the food. and physical infrastructure that are at risk from ﬂoods. storms. These transnational actors have been attracting increasing attention since the early 1990s and are commonly seen as a concrete result of the Rio Summit in 1992. but also cross-scale challenge (Wilbanks and Kates... 2009. Adger. economic activity.. 2010). Evans et al. Climate change poses not only a local place-based problem. 1999. 2007. Climate change requires actions at different levels of governance (multilevel) and interventions that range from international conventions and treaties at the global scale to climate protection and adaptation measures at the city level (Bulkeley and Betsill. Bulkeley and Betsill (2003) have argued that such networks of transnational local authorities do not fall easily into existing conceptual frameworks for climate change responses as it is difﬁcult to analyze if they are governmental or non-governmental organizations..Change (IPCC) stated with high conﬁdence on its Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) that changes in the global climate are now unequivocal and its impacts are underway with consequences for both urban and rural areas (Solomon et al.. Robinson and Gore. Bicknell et al.. 2005. Although these urban transformations will take decades and are probably reliant on signiﬁcant developments in how cities are governed and planned. Robinson and Gore. This discussion is particularly relevant for developing countries. 2007). Puppim de Oliveira. which have no binding commitments for reducing greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions under the Kyoto Protocol and are more vulnerable to climate change impacts due to their geographical location and low adaptive capacity that usually result from historical Climate change action at the city level 345 . 2008. 2003. 2003. Bicknell et al. 2007. Climate change is expected to exacerbate these impacts on cities around the world (Wilbanks et al. 2006. 2007. 2009). 2009. By adaptation cities become resilient to climatic impacts and reduce risks from climate change and variability (Dawson.. 2007). 2010).
Bulkeley and Betsill. Satterthwaite et al. USA). Building on that. By doing so. interests and sectors combined with structural governance problems in both Brazilian cities poses signiﬁcant challenges for the advancement of these efforts in the two cities as they seem to have limited capacity to address the climate change challenge alone..3 346 development deﬁcits (Wilbanks et al. 2007). civil defense and disaster response and mitigation (Wilbanks and Kates. It megacities in Brazil through a multilevel perspective: Sa explores how climate change is being framed and how local governments are responding to it in terms of policy strategies and instruments. and challenges often spanning several sectors as the two case studies will illustrate. 2003. 2009). 2003. Local governments and climate change Local governments have taken the lead in responding to climate change in diverse contexts. 2003. Betsill and Bulkeley. Bulkeley et al. it is expected to deepen the understanding on how these cities in Brazil are responding to these challenges and uncover the strategies that are being deployed by these local governments. Puppim de Oliveira. there is a growing body of literature that provides robust arguments for the engagement of local governments in climate policy making (Kousky and Schneider. 2005.. It is also mostly important to focus on megacities that are engines of the world’s economy. Bulkeley and Betsill. with considerable attention being devoted to mitigation of GHG. In this direction.. Bulkeley et al. there is critical lack of attention to adaptation measures on a comprehensive manner. 2. 2009. Through an empirical research. although these non-state actors. De Sherbinin et al. Bicknell et al. capacities. 2007).MEQ 22. do not have direct nor binding commitments under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol (Bulkeley and Betsill. this paper analyzes the factors shaping climate policies in two ˜ o Paulo and Rio de Janeiro.. 1999. 2005. Robinson and Gore. These arguments are usually based on the recognition that cities and its local authorities have the legal jurisdiction and control over areas and sectors that can inﬂuence many activities that are not only critical sources of GHG emissions such as transportation and energy use. Although there is the need for more research to assess the effect of human-induced climate change (global warming) in both cities. steering and implementation of current and future climate change measures rely heavily on a landscape formed by multiple actors with a variety of interests. 2009). including developing. The paper argues that the participation in transnational municipal networks has been central for initiating and supporting climate change actions in both cities following the international experience. 2007.. the paper discusses the governing of climate change at the city level and analyzes the factors that can constrain or undermine these actions. they have been already suffering the impacts of current climatic conditions and variability on a regular basis due to its social vulnerability resulting from poor infrastructures and policies in areas such as housing and sanitation. On the other hand. 2007. 2010).. zoning. centers of innovation and important areas of population growth and concentration as it has been argued elsewhere (Sanchez-Rodriguez et al. 2005.g. This fragmented landscape of actors. The organization. Dawson. developed and countries that have been reluctant in supporting international action towards the mitigation of GHG emissions (e. . 2009. 2003). Bulkeley.. but also key instruments for managing and reducing urban climate risks such as land use regulation. 2007. as referred by constructivist approaches in international relations (Bulkeley and Betsill.
community-based organizations and environmentalist groups on a daily basis (Puppim de Oliveira. Puppim de Oliveira. 2003. In the same direction. Adger. the lack of ﬁnancial and human resources available at the local and the lack of autonomy to regulate speciﬁc sectors and economic agents (Ligeti et al. 2008. This ﬂexibility and readiness in response and action can shape governmental structures to be more adaptive to new situations and agendas so that these governments become less bureaucratic to implement policies as local governments are closer to their constituencies and local ofﬁcials suffer the pressure from interest groups such as civil society. In theory. local governments also face many barriers in developing climate policy at the city level. Satterthwaite. 2010). Puppim de Oliveira. 1999.There are also many reasons for acknowledging local governments as one of the critical actors in climate policy. 2010). and urban centers as the fundamental arena where climate governance is taking place (Bulkeley and Betsill. Martins and Ferreira. 2007. This recognition builds on the assumption that local governments are more ﬂexible and more accountable to their citizens than other levels of governance. Evans et al. 2009. 2005. Birkmann et al.. the city is also the level of governance closest to the people (Wilbanks and Kates. 2010). 2005. they tend to be smaller and decisions can be taken faster than those at the national level. Key factors Resource and capacity Enabling environment Obstacles and constraints Climate change action at the city level 347 Institutional and ﬁnancial capacity to Lack of ﬁnancial. Bulkeley. Lankao. 2008. Bulkeley and Newell. human and undertake climate change actions technological resources Presence of a local champion Lack of commitment from political leaders Allocation of ﬁnancial and human Lack of attention to environmental resources issues Long-term urban planning Short-term view Strong communication and outreach Vulnerability perception and strong risk management approach Strong science-policy interface Business as usual approach Lack of vulnerability assessment and poor understanding in terms of impacts and extend of climate change Mismatch between policy makers and scientiﬁc community Lack of authority and jurisdiction Lack of national and international support Poor vertical and horizontal coordination across levels and policies Poor governance structures and difﬁculties in getting key sectors involved Knowledge and information Institutions and governance Authority to coordinate and regulate climate change actions National programs to support local initiatives Participation in transnational city networks Good governance stakeholder involvement and participation strategy Source: The authors Table I. 2009. 2010. On the other hand. Some barriers are well described and analyzed by the policy and public administration literature such as the presence of short mandates for local authorities.. Key factors that support or constraint climate change action at the city level . 2007. Table I provides a summary of key factors that can support or inhibit local governments to engage in climate policy making.. 2009). Parzen.
constitutes a major source of GHG emissions in Brazil ( Joly. 2009). climate action was analyzed in ˜ o Paulo and Rio de Janeiro (Figure 1). 2005). Puppim de Oliveira (2009) highlights that Brazil is also one of the leading countries in the number of projects within the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and one of the largest receiver of resources from the Global Environment Facility (GEF). Giddens. engaging with other local governments and collaborating in other levels of governance. “wicked problems”. laws.3 348 One of the major barriers. subnational and national levels. According to Brown (2009). however. 2009). particularly in the Amazon region. Brazil does not have emission targets under the Kyoto protocol. including the Amazon and the Atlantic rainforests (MEA. 2009). climate change action is Sa understood in terms of policy responses. a network approach has been argued to best tackle a wicked problem where diverse actors from government and differing sectors and stakeholders get together to share resources and knowledge. This fundamental barrier may hide the chain and scale of causes and consequences of climate change in all levels and thus make climate change action at the local level ineffective or only palliative (Puppim de Oliveira. Addressing climate change at the local level: tales from two megacities in Brazil In order to understand how local governments from the largest Brazilian cities are responding to the challenge posed by climate change. Brazil has not been able to design and implement a comprehensive climate change strategy even though a National Plan on Climate Change was approved by the Congress and by the President in December 2009 . It is also home of one of the greatest ecosystems and forests of the planet. involve multiple and intertwined sets of public and private actors and challenges that cut across interconnecting policy domains and levels of government (Brown. However. In this direction. 2009. deforestation and burning of biomass. the country relies mostly on electricity generated by hydroelectric plants that contributes signiﬁcantly with mitigation efforts (Setzer. BRASIL. and different instruments deployed to explicitly address the climate change issue in the two cities (e. Furthermore. 2009. is poorly approached and understood by most climate change governance research. a program led by the main funding organizations for the implementation of the UNFCCC and other international conventions. the analysis of the modes of governing these actions is crucial for understanding how local governments from two megacities in Brazil are addressing climate change. On the other hand. 2009) providing several comparative advantages in terms of sustainable development. there are a number of ongoing climate change initiatives at the local. 2009). In terms of energy. 3. policies. and plans).MEQ 22. programs. Climate change illustrates the dynamic complexity of many modern public problems as it is unstructured making the causes and effects of a changing climate extremely difﬁcult to be identiﬁed and addressed by local authorities (Brown. As a non-annex 1 country. Brazil has ratiﬁed the Kyoto Protocol and was one of its stronger supporters. Today. In recent years. It draws upon the fact that climate change is considered a “wicked problem” in policy circles (Brown.g. it is also one of the ﬁve major emerging economies in the world and presents comparative advantages in dealing with climate change when compared to other advanced developing economies. In this context. measures. as coined and deﬁned by Rittel and Webber (1973). 2010).
information was collected from reports. law enforcement for industrial plants and the restriction of 20 percent of the city’s automobiles during peak hours in the central area (Puppim de Oliveira. ˜ o Paulo 3. 2009). ˜ o Paulo and The cities of Sa Rio de Janeiro in Brazil (National Law 12. The main ﬁndings of the case studies are presented below followed by a discussion of the key factors shaping climate change policy making.1 The city of Sa ˜ o Paulo is the largest urban agglomeration in South America and is The city of Sa among the top-10 cities in the world with a population of over 11 million people (City Mayors Statistics.187).Climate change action at the city level 349 Figure 1. In the same direction. 2010). 2010). Over the last decade. The analysis of two ˜ o Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. the city has developed a series of local initiatives to address climate change. environmental degradation and air pollution due to high industrial and automotive emissions (Lucon and Goldemberg. It included increasing regulatory standards. The city is an important ﬁnancial and commercial hub for the region and responds to up 10 percent of Brazil’s total GHG emissions when the deforestation of the Amazon rainforest is excluded. namely in the cities of Sa interesting insights on the way these actions are being framed and how these local governments are acting in different policy domains and contexts. institutional web sites and academic and newspaper articles (Puppim de Oliveira. Case studies are frequently applied in social science research and provide an in-depth investigation and a systematic way of looking at different policies and actions (Yin. 2009). some local regulations are taking place in different parts of the country particularly at the subnational level. . For the purpose of this paper. 2009). provides of these efforts.
it established a concrete target of 30 percent reduction in GHG emissions by 2012 through initiatives that are aimed to improve the public transport. 2009. Nobre et al. ICLEI. research centers and the State of Sa Paulo government) trying to combine climate security with economic beneﬁts arising from air pollution (avoiding health effects). 2007). Climate change measures in Sa devotes very little attention to adaptation policies and planning although the city often suffers from several climate-related events such as ﬂoods. Since 2007. adopting emission targets. in the beginning. It is also the second most populous city in the country with great economic. a campaign of the In 2003.3 350 ˜ o Paulo joined the Cities for Climate Protection (CCP). 2010).MEQ 22. the city of Sa developed a speciﬁc policy to address climate change as a result of the partnership between a research center. another law has been approved obligating buildings with more than three bathrooms to use solar water heating systems (Bulkeley et al. land use. energy efﬁciency. Local governments join the CCP campaign by passing a resolution pledging to reduce GHG emissions through ﬁve milestones.933). landslides and water scarcity (Puppim de Oliveira. Although general in its lines as the law still waits for speciﬁc regulations. where the CH4 (methane) released by the solid waste is being used for power generation and the revenues invested for the beneﬁt of poor communities located in the surrounding area of the landﬁll. the municipal secretary for the environment and committed individuals and policy entrepreneurs. 2010). 1993). Sa International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI). Lucon and ˜ o Paulo has also Goldemberg. cultural and historical importance (Egler. ˜ o Paulo elaborated an emission inventory in partnership with research centers to Sa set priorities for climate action (Puppim de Oliveira.2 The city of Rio de Janeiro The city of Rio de Janeiro is the largest and most complex urban center in the Brazilian coastline with around ten million people. 2007. developing local action plan and implementing speciﬁc policies and measures (ICLEI. ICLEI is one of the major transnational municipal networks worldwide and it has been supporting climate action at the municipal level for almost two decades focusing. transport. 2009). land ˜ o Paulo was a pioneer municipal use and solid waste management. 2009). Although well known for its beaches and beautiful . and ˜ o Paulo. however. Sa government in approving such law in the country. Puppim de Oliveira (2009) shows that this action alone was estimated to have reduced GHG emissions by 11 percent in the city. the city has also implemented a CDM project in the Bandeirantes landﬁll. This policy was approved by the City Council and became a municipal law in June 2009 (Municipal Law 14. In doing so. political. 2009. Sa In this direction. air pollution ˜o control) and actors (e.. ICLEI.g. The World Bank. basically elaborating a baseline emissions inventory. It is also important to acknowledge that these measures were an important milestone due to the importance of the city of ˜ o Paulo for Brazil and South America.g.. a subnational champion for Energy Efﬁciency Program of the State of Sa environmental and climate change policies in Brazil (Cunha et al. 3. ˜ o Paulo shows synergies and Climate change policy making in the city of Sa interaction with other policies (e. In parallel with the state initiatives. only on mitigation and more recently also on adaptation measures. one of the largest in the country. still revenues from carbon credits.. green building. De Sherbinin et al. The city has also joined the ˜ o Paulo. solid waste management.. better urban planning.
but also worldwide (Bulkeley et al. This was followed by the organization a series of events bringing together civil servants. 4. favelas). and industrial waste among many others. disposal.. It mainstreams climate change across different municipal sectors. 2010). Nacaratti. This protocol encompasses both mitigation and adaptation measures and tries to integrate key sectors within the municipal administration towards an action plan to address both causes and risks associated with climate change. These seminars. as well as a number of ﬁeld visits to learn from best practices in different contexts including Canada and the USA. 2007). Clinton Foundation. The case studies showed that the new governance arrangements such as the participation in transnational municipal networks has been crucial for initiating and supporting climate change activities in both cities not only in Brazil. Bulkeley and Newell. De Sherbinin et al. climate change projections and health impacts. For instance. (2007) analyzed the vulnerability of Rio de Janeiro to climate change and highlighted that the socioeconomic problems can be highly exacerbated by climate change in the near future.595). it demands the inclusion of climate change into the city’s masterplan as well as improvements in the local regulations for urban planning. climate change was brought back in the municipal agenda in early 2007 when the Mayor signed a Protocol of Action in February 2007. Climate change action at the city level 351 . After some years of silence and no political action. 2007).landscapes. Governing climate change in Brazil: key messages ˜ o Paulo and Rio de Janeiro provide examples of two megacities. the local government commissioned scientiﬁc assessments in key speciﬁc sectors such as ecosystems’ vulnerability.g. coastal zone management and possible effects on urban infrastructure and human settlements. informal and illegal settlements in hazardous areas (e. a group of large cities committed to tackling climate change that work in partnership with the Clinton Climate Initiative (CCI) from The William J. scholars and community organizations to discuss the results of these assessments in light with the city’s current and future reality. the city of Rio de Janeiro faces many social problems and environmental challenges such as urban violence. 2009. government ofﬁcials. 2010. Building on the experience from developed countries. These seminars named “Rio in the next 100 years” (or Rio þ 100) have also called attention to the city’s high vulnerability to climate change in terms of its physical exposure. Bulkeley. sensitivity and low adaptive capacity (De Sherbinin et al.. ﬁnancial activities and industrial innovations (De Sherbinin et al. As in the case of Sa inventory of GHG emissions for the period of 1990-1998 in partnership with a local university in 2003 (Dubeux and La Rovere.. In order to raise public and internal awareness to the climate change issue. had the support of C40 – Cities Climate Leadership Group. may be most important in the earliest stages of climate policy making as local actors are usually seeking ideas from cities that share similar politics or urban characteristics. 2007. 2008). sewage treatment. the city of Rio de Janeiro elaborated an joined CCP. Climate policy making in Rio de Janeiro began in 1998 when the city government ˜ o Paulo. It also introduces the development of CDM projects within municipal activities. urban The cities of Sa areas with more than ten million people that are important centers of economic growth not only for Brazil but also for South America through their long-standing relationships with the rest of the world as important hubs for trade. particularly the ICLEI CCP. Schreurs (2008) argues that these networks. namely the Rio Protocol (Municipal Decree 27.
USA and Australia. and the existence of informal networks to support policy design and implementation engaging with a range of different actors. communities and institutions in order to build resilient cities. The ﬁrst generation of local government efforts is important to raise public and government awareness and mitigate partially some causes of the problem. Ribeiro. Although with slightly distinctive interpretations. 2009b. Bulkeley and Newell. It is urgent to reduce inequalities and enhance the capacities of individuals. In the light of the challenge ahead. 2008. the availability of funding for assessments and GHG inventories. Rockstro have limited capacity to address the causes and cope with the unavoidable impacts of climate change without strong commitment and leadership from national governments and the international community. These ﬁndings highlight factors that have been raised elsewhere (Bulkeley and Betsill. self-governing. However. These factors include the presence of committed individuals and political will to address climate change within the local government agenda. these measures have been patchy and tentative with most attention being given to mitigation. political champions and community organizations (Sanchez-Rodrı 2005. 2008). bodies. It is not an easy task in a . recent research on the magnitude and scale of the global changes (Fu ¨ m et al. 2010. Gupta. governmental ´guez et al. state and municipal). especially in developing countries like Brazil. Setzer (2009) had already argued ˜o in the same direction when analyzing climate policies in the city and the state of Sa ˜ o Paulo and Rio de Janeiro Paulo. 2003) when analyzing climate change action in the UK. energy and industry. (2009) identiﬁed contrasting modes of governing these initiatives. although the national government has been acting by designing integrated plans and programs to address mitigation and adaptation in speciﬁc sectors such as agriculture. such as research institutions. as in many other developing countries. steering and implementation of policies and measures with the participation of multiple actors that span several sectors.MEQ 22. 2008. 1999. These modes of governing climate change at the local level include the deployment of different strategies such as networking and partnerships. the governance of climate change responses will require the organization. In the Brazilian context. In this sense. lack of institutional capacity and pathways of unsustainable development that have been permeating the Brazilian history for many decades (Ferreira. 1998. In Brazil. previous works such as Bulkeley and Kern (2006) and Bulkeley et al. Bulkeley. ¨ ssel. 2009a). exercising regulation and authority. 2010). local power and jurisdiction over key sectors.. governance emerges as a key concept to bridge different efforts and provide the pathway for the development of appropriate strategies (Moser. 2007. Table II summarizes ˜ o Paulo and Rio de Janeiro.. climate change action and policy making in both Sa These different approaches applied to address climate change illustrate that it is not only a place-based problem but also a cross-scale and multilevel challenge (Wilbanks and Kates. 2009) suggests that local governments alone may Parry et al. not only the environmental area (Moser. Bulkeley and Newell. although this paper argues that Sa follow some common patterns of climate change action at the local level. Martins and Ferreira. and enabling an environment for private investments and action. The need for strong adaptation interventions is constrained by social inequality. where the 1988 Federal Constitution divided responsibilities for environmental and social policies among the three levels of government (federal.. 2010).3 352 ˜ o Paulo and Rio de Janeiro bring evidence on the factors that The case studies of Sa are shaping climate policy at the local level at these early stages in Brazil. 2010).
energy efﬁciency. green building ˜ o Paulo Sa Mitigation and adaptation Rio de Janeiro Mitigation Public transport.Cities Implementation Yes (particularly in terms of (CCP ICLEI and C40) mitigation) Scientiﬁc assessment and scenario modeling Environmental education Implementation Yes (particularly in terms of (CCP ICLEI and C40) mitigation) No Yes Governing by authority (municipal decree and speciﬁc regulations) Basic scientiﬁc assessment Environmental education Yes (30%) Yes Governing by authority (municipal laws and speciﬁc regulations) Raise awareness Focus Stage Municipal governments Transnational Emission CDM networks targets projects Strategy Infrastructure Public transport. Summary of climate change activities and ˜o policy making in Sa Paulo and Rio de Janeiro . solid waste management. green building Source: The authors Climate change action at the city level 353 Table II. solid waste management. landﬁlls. landﬁlls. cycling lanes. cycling lanes.
Sustainability Science. J. pp. one federal district. Kraas. (2009). Conclusion This paper has investigated climate change activities and policy making in two ˜ o Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. ˜ o Nacional do Brasil a ˜ o-Quadro das Nac ˜ es ` Convenc BRASIL (2010). “Climate change and Ontario forests: prospects for building institutional adaptive capacity”. “Looking back and thinking ahead: a decade of cities and climate change research”. 447-56. 513-36. Brası ´ rio de Cie ´lia. J. The participation in transnational municipal networks has fostered political action and policy making at the city level particularly in mitigating GHG emissions. and Quang. Although being considered a signiﬁcant step towards addressing the climate change issue. 354 . F. and more than 5500 municipalities as highlighted by Puppim de Oliveira (2009).MEQ 22. (2007). economic groups and political contexts may often conﬂict with each other and undermine climate change efforts in the long run. Dodman.P. 13 No. considered to be the most important megacities in Brazil. The roles of the three levels of government combined with the speciﬁc interests of the different regions of the country. Ministe Brown. Birkmann. the analysis has shown that these cities have followed the international experience building on the factors that have shaped these initiatives at the local level. Adapting Cities to Climate Change: Understanding and Addressing the Development Challenges. Even though local governments are closer to the people. 921-31. mainly in terms of better urban planning and improved city infrastructure to be able to cope with the unavoidable effects of increasing global temperatures and its consequences for the global and regional climate systems. Journal of International Development. London. References Adger. (2005). 12 No. Bicknell. (Eds) (2009). D. Vol. 5. 14. D. Unidas sobre Mudanc ¸a do Clima. Betsill.. Despite of these developments. Earthscan. (2010). 5. H. However. “Scales of governance and environmental justice for adaptation and mitigation of climate change”. and Satterthwaite. H. M. pp. Sa in the country in terms of population concentration and economic and political relevance. there is still an important gap in terms of the adaptation needs. and Bulkeley. “Adaptive urban governance: new challenges for the second generation of urban adaptation strategies to climate change”. Garschagen. 7.3 country with 27 states. pp. Vol. they rely on measures taken and supported by higher levels of government intervention as their responsibility and jurisdiction is constrained by legal and institutional aspects such as lack of ﬁnancial and technical resources. Segunda Comunicac ¸a ¸a ¸o ˆ ncia e Tecnologia (MCT). pp.. N.. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change. W. 5.N. No. It has also raised public and governmental awareness in terms of the challenge posed by human-induced climate change and climate variability. M. Through a multilevel perspective. Local Governments. recent research on global climate change and its impacts suggests that local government action may not be enough to cope with the magnitude and frequency of the predicted changes as they might have limited capacity to respond and adapt effectively to the climate change problem.C.M. 185-206. understanding and approaching the governance challenge through the local level perspective is crucial for securing a safe and sustainable pathway for megacities and countries worldwide. Vol.
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