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Chp. 6.2: The Transport System A. The Human Heart Atria: thin-walled, muscular chambers.

. Each side of the heart has this collection chamber for blood that is moving slowly in from the veins. Ventricle: a thick-walled muscular pump which builds up enough pressure to send the blood out from the heart with a force we refer to as blood pressure. Blood that is pumped out from the heart makes a circuit through these blood vessels in consecutive steps: A large artery Smaller artery branches An arteriole (smallest type of artery) A capillary bed (in lungs) A venule (smallest type of vein) Larger veins A large vein which takes blood back to the heart to be pumped out once again Two sides of heart = two routes for blood to flow along. Right side of the heart sends blood along a route that is called your pulmonary circulation. On this route, the capillary bed is in one of your lungs, and blood picks up oxygen and releases carbon dioxide. Left side of the heart sends blood along a route that is called your systemic circulation. The artery that emerges from your heart for this route is your aorta. Branches of the aorta carry blood to almost every organ and cell type in your body. On this route, the capillary bed is in one of your organs or tissues, and blood picks up carbon dioxide and releases oxygen (opposite from the pulmonary circulation). B. Pulmonary Circulation Blood cell is first found in a large vein that is bringing blood to the right atrium. Because red blood cells (RBC) have already been out to the body tissues, it is in need of oxygen before beginning another trip around the body (This is an imagined situation only.). Therefore, a volume of blood collects within the right atrium (including the RBC) and begins moving down into the right ventricle through an open valve known as the right atrioventricular valve. The right atrium contracts in order to force any remaining blood into the right ventricle. Once a volume of blood has accumulated in the right ventricle, it begins to contract. This contraction initiates several events that include the closure of the atrioventricular valve to prevent backflow to the right atrium. Then, a dramatic increase in blood pressure inside the right ventricle which opens the right semilunar valve and allows blood to enter the pulmonary artery. After this, due to the increase in pressure, blood leaves the heart through the pulmonary artery. Now the RBCs are in one of the lungs. As it approaches and enters a lung, the RBCs will move along smaller and smaller arteries (smallest arteries called arterioles). Any one arteriole leads to a capillary bed. Capillaries are blood vessels that have a very small diameter and are typically only a single cell thick.