You are on page 1of 25

Chapter 11 Introduction to Genetics

MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Gregor Mendel used pea plants to study a flowering. . b gamete formation. . c . d . the inheritance of traits. cross-pollination.

ANS: C

DIF: B

REF: p. 263

OBJ: 11.1.1

2. Offspring that result from crosses between parents with different traits a are true-breeding. c make up the parental generation. . . b make up the F2 generation. d are called hybrids. . .

ANS: D

DIF: A

REF: p. 264

OBJ: 11.1.1

3. Gregor Mendel removed the male parts from the flowers of some plants in order to a prevent hybrids from forming. . b prevent cross-pollination. . c stimulate self-pollination. . d make controlled crosses between plants. .

ANS: D

DIF: E

REF: p. 264

OBJ: 11.1.1

4. The chemical factors that determine traits are called a alleles. c genes. . . b traits. d characters. . .

ANS: C

DIF: B

REF: p. 265

OBJ: 11.1.2

5. Gregor Mendel concluded that traits are a not inherited by offspring. . b inherited through the passing of factors from parents to offspring. . c determined by dominant factors only. . d determined by recessive factors only.

ANS: B

DIF: A

REF: p. 265

OBJ: 11.1.2

6. When Gregor Mendel crossed a tall plant with a short plant, the F 1 plants inherited a an allele for tallness from each parent. . b an allele for tallness from the tall parent and an allele for shortness from the short parent. . c an allele for shortness from each parent. . d an allele from only the tall parent. .

ANS: B

DIF: E

REF: p. 265

OBJ: 11.1.2

7. The principle of dominance states that a all alleles are dominant. . b all alleles are recessive. . c some alleles are dominant and others are recessive. . d alleles are neither dominant nor recessive. .

ANS: C

DIF: B

REF: p. 265

OBJ: 11.1.3

8. When Gregor Mendel crossed true-breeding tall plants with true-breeding short plants, all the offspring were tall because a the allele for tall plants is recessive. . b the allele for short plants is dominant. . c the allele for tall plants is dominant. . d they were true-breeding like their parents. .

ANS: C

DIF: A

REF: p. 265

OBJ: 11.1.3

9. If a pea plant has a recessive allele for green peas, it will produce a green peas if it also has a dominant allele for yellow peas. . b both green peas and yellow peas if it also has a dominant allele for yellow peas. . c green peas if it does not also have a dominant allele for yellow peas. .

d yellow peas if it does not also have a dominant allele for green peas. .

ANS: C

DIF: E

REF: p. 265

OBJ: 11.1.3

10. A tall plant is crossed with a short plant. If the tall F 1 pea plants are allowed to self-pollinate, a the offspring will be of medium height. . b all of the offspring will be tall. . c all of the offspring will be short. . d some of the offspring will be tall, and some will be short. .

ANS: D

DIF: B

REF: p. 265

OBJ: 11.1.4

11. In the P generation, a tall plant was crossed with a short plant. Short plants reappeared in the F 2 generation because a some of the F2 plants produced gametes that carried the allele for shortness. . b the allele for shortness is dominant. . c the allele for shortness and the allele for tallness segregated when the F 1 plants produced . gametes. d they inherited an allele for shortness from one parent and an allele for tallness from the . other parent.

ANS: C OBJ: 11.1.4

DIF: A STO: 12.A.4.a

REF: p. 265, p. 266

12. In the P generation, a tall plant was crossed with a short plant. If alleles did not segregate during gamete formation, a all of the F1 plants would be short. . b some of the F1 plants would be tall and some would be short. . c all of the F2 would be short. . d all of the F2 plants would be tall. .

ANS: D STO: 12.A.4.a

DIF: E

REF: p. 266

OBJ: 11.1.4

13. When you flip a coin, what is the probability that it will come up tails? a 1/2 c 1/8 . .

b 1/4 .

d .

ANS: A STO: 12.A.4.a

DIF: B

REF: p. 267

OBJ: 11.2.1

14. The principles of probability can be used to a predict the traits of the offspring produced by genetic crosses. . b determine the actual outcomes of genetic crosses. . c predict the traits of the parents used in genetic crosses. . d decide which organisms are best to use in genetic crosses. .

ANS: A STO: 12.A.4.a

DIF: A

REF: p. 267

OBJ: 11.2.1

15. In the P generation, a tall plant is crossed with a short plant. The probability that an F 2 plant will be tall is a 25%. c 75% . . b 50%. d 100%. . .

ANS: C STO: 12.A.4.a

DIF: E

REF: p. 269

OBJ: 11.2.1

16. Organisms that have two identical alleles for a particular trait are said to be a hybrid. c heterozygous. . . b homozygous. d dominant. . .

ANS: B STO: 11.A.4.c

DIF: B

REF: p. 268

OBJ: 11.2.2

Tt T t

TT

Tt

TT T TT Tt

T t

= =

Tall Short

Figure 111 17. In the Punnett square shown in Figure 111, which of the following is true about the offspring resulting from the cross? a About half are expected to be short. c About half are expected to be tall. . . b All are expected to be short. d All are expected to be tall. . .

ANS: D STO: 11.A.4.c

DIF: E

REF: p. 268

OBJ: 11.2.2

18. A Punnett square shows all of the following EXCEPT a all possible results of a genetic cross. . b the genotypes of the offspring. . c the alleles in the gametes of each parent. . d the actual results of a genetic cross. .

ANS: D OBJ: 11.2.2

DIF: A REF: p. 268, p. 269 STO: 11.A.4.c, 12.A.4.a

19. If you made a Punnett square showing Gregor Mendels cross between true-breeding tall plants and true-breeding short plants, the square would show that the offspring had a the genotype of one of the parents. . b a phenotype that was different from that of both parents. . c a genotype that was different from that of both parents. . d the genotype of both parents. .

ANS: C STO: 11.A.4.c

DIF: E

REF: p. 268

OBJ: 11.2.2

20. What principle states that during gamete formation genes for different traits separate without influencing each others inheritance? a principle of dominance c principle of probabilities . . b principle of independent assortment d principle of segregation . .

ANS: B STO: 12.A.4.a

DIF: B

REF: p. 271

OBJ: 11.3.1

RrYy RY RY RRYY Ry RRYy rY RrYY ry RrYy Seed Shape R = Round r = Wrinkled

Ry RrYy rY

RRYy

RRyy

RrYy

Rryy Seed Color Y = Yellow y = Green

RrYY

RrYy

rrYY

rrYy

ry

RrYy

Rryy

rrYy

rryy

Figure 112 21. The Punnett square in Figure 112 shows that the gene for pea shape and the gene for pea color a assort independently. c have the same alleles. . . b are linked. d are always homozygous. . .

ANS: A STO: 12.A.4.a

DIF: B

REF: p. 271

OBJ: 11.3.1

22. How many different allele combinations would be found in the gametes produced by a pea plant whose genotype was RrYY? a 2 c 8 . . b 4 d 16 . .

ANS: A STO: 12.A.4.a

DIF: A

REF: p. 271

OBJ: 11.3.1

23. If a pea plant that is heterozygous for round, yellow peas ( RrYy) is crossed with a pea plant that is homozygous for round peas but heterozygous for yellow peas ( RRYy), how many different phenotypes are their offspring expected to show? a 2 c 8 . . b 4 d 16 . .

ANS: A STO: 12.A.4.a

DIF: E

REF: p. 271

OBJ: 11.3.1

24. Situations in which one allele for a gene is not completely dominant over another allele for that gene are called a multiple alleles. c polygenic inheritance. . . b incomplete dominance. d multiple genes. . .

ANS: B STO: 12.A.4.a

DIF: B

REF: p. 272

OBJ: 11.3.2

25. A cross of a black chicken (BB) with a white chicken (WW) produces all speckled offspring (BBWW). This type of inheritance is known as a incomplete dominance. c codominance. . . b polygenic inheritance. d multiple alleles. . .

ANS: C STO: 12.A.4.a

DIF: A

REF: p. 272

OBJ: 11.3.2

26. Variation in human skin color is an example of a incomplete dominance. . b codominance. .

c . d .

polygenic traits. multiple alleles.

ANS: C STO: 12.A.4.a

DIF: E

REF: p. 273

OBJ: 11.3.2

27. Gregor Mendels principles of genetics apply to a plants only. c . . b animals only. d . .

pea plants only. all organisms.

ANS: D

DIF: B

REF: p. 274

OBJ: 11.3.3

STO: 12.A.4.a 28. Why did Thomas Hunt Morgan use fruit flies in his studies? a Fruit flies produce a large number of offspring. . b Fruit flies take a long time to produce offspring. . c Fruit flies share certain characteristics with pea plants. . d Fruit flies have a long lifespan. .

ANS: A STO: 12.A.4.a

DIF: A

REF: p. 274

OBJ: 11.3.3

29. A male and female bison that are both heterozygous for normal skin pigmentation ( Aa) produce an albino offspring (aa). Which of Mendels principles explain(s) why the offspring is albino? a dominance only c dominance and segregation . . b independent assortment only d segregation only . .

ANS: C OBJ: 11.3.3

DIF: E STO: 12.A.4.a

REF: p. 272, p. 273

30. The number of chromosomes in a gamete is represented by the symbol a Z. c N. . . b X. d Y. . .

ANS: C STO: 12.A.4.a

DIF: B

REF: p. 275

OBJ: 11.4.1

31. If an organisms diploid number is 12, its haploid number is a 12. c 24. . . b 6. d 3. . .

ANS: B STO: 12.A.4.a

DIF: A

REF: p. 275

OBJ: 11.4.1

32. Gametes have a homologous chromosomes. . b twice the number of chromosomes found in body cells. .

c two sets of chromosomes. . d one allele for each gene. .

ANS: D STO: 12.A.4.a

DIF: E

REF: p. 275

OBJ: 11.4.1

33. Gametes are produced by the process of a mitosis. . b meiosis. .

c . d .

crossing-over. replication.

ANS: B STO: 12.A.4.a

DIF: B

REF: p. 276

OBJ: 11.4.2

Figure 113 34. What is shown in Figure 113? a independent assortment . b anaphase I of meiosis . c . d . crossing-over replication

ANS: C OBJ: 11.4.2

DIF: A STO: 12.A.4.a

REF: p. 276, p. 277

35. Chromosomes form tetrads during a prophase I of meiosis. . b metaphase I of meiosis. .

c . d .

interphase. anaphase II of meiosis.

ANS: A STO: 12.A.4.a

DIF: A

REF: p. 276

OBJ: 11.4.2

36. What happens between meiosis I and meiosis II that reduces the number of chromosomes? a Crossing-over occurs. c Replication occurs twice. . . b Metaphase occurs. d Replication does not occur. . .

ANS: D STO: 12.A.4.a

DIF: E

REF: p. 277

OBJ: 11.4.2

37. Unlike mitosis, meiosis results in the formation of a diploid cells. c 2N daughter cells. . . b haploid cells. d body cells. . .

ANS: B STO: 12.A.4.a

DIF: B

REF: p. 278

OBJ: 11.4.3

38. Unlike mitosis, meiosis results in the formation of a two genetically identical cells. c four genetically identical cells. . . b four genetically different cells. d two genetically different cells. . .

ANS: B STO: 12.A.4.a

DIF: A

REF: p. 278

OBJ: 11.4.3

39. Crossing-over rarely occurs in mitosis, unlike meiosis. Which of the following is the likely reason? a Chromatids are not involved in mitosis. . b Tetrads rarely form during mitosis. . c A cell undergoing mitosis does not have homologous chromosomes. . d There is no prophase during mitosis. .

ANS: B STO: 12.A.4.a

DIF: E

REF: p. 276

OBJ: 11.4.3

40. Which of the following assort independently? a chromosomes . b genes on the same chromosome .

c . d .

multiple alleles codominant alleles

ANS: A

DIF: B

REF: p. 279

OBJ: 11.5.1

STO: 12.A.4.a 41. Linked genes a are never separated. . b assort independently. . c . d . are on the same chromosome. are always recessive.

ANS: C STO: 12.A.4.a

DIF: A

REF: p. 279

OBJ: 11.5.1

42. If the gene for seed color and the gene for seed shape in pea plants were linked, a all of Mendels F1 plants would have produced wrinkled, green peas. . b Mendels F2 plants would have exhibited a different phenotype ratio for seed color and . seed shape. c Mendels F1 plants would have exhibited a different phenotype ratio for seed color and . seed shape. d all of Mendels P plants would have produced wrinkled, green peas. .

ANS: B STO: 12.A.4.a

DIF: E

REF: p. 279

OBJ: 11.5.1

43. Gene maps are based on a the frequencies of crossing-over between genes. . b independent assortment. . c genetic diversity. . d the number of genes in a cell. .

ANS: A STO: 12.A.4.a

DIF: B

REF: p. 280

OBJ: 11.5.2

44. If two genes are on the same chromosome and rarely assort independently, a crossing-over never occurs between the genes. . b crossing-over always occurs between the genes. . c the genes are probably located far apart from each other. . d the genes are probably located close to each other. .

ANS: D

DIF: A

REF: p. 280

OBJ: 11.5.2

STO: 12.A.4.a 45. The farther apart two genes are located on a chromosome, the a less likely they are to be inherited together. . b more likely they are to be linked. . c less likely they are to assort independently. . d less likely they are to be separated by a crossover during meiosis. .

ANS: A STO: 12.A.4.a MODIFIED TRUE/FALSE

DIF: E

REF: p. 280

OBJ: 11.5.2

1. A trait is a specific characteristic that varies from one individual to another. _________________________ ANS: T OBJ: 11.1.1 DIF: B REF: p. 264

2. Gregor Mendel concluded that the tall plants in the P generation passed the factor for tallness to the F1 generation. _________________________ ANS: T OBJ: 11.1.2 DIF: A REF: p. 265

3. An organism with a dominant allele for a particular form of a trait will sometimes exhibit that trait. _________________________ ANS: F, always DIF: B REF: p. 265 OBJ: 11.1.3

4. True-breeding plants that produced axial flowers were crossed with true-breeding plants that produced terminal flowers. The resulting offspring produced terminal flowers because the allele for terminal flowers is recessive. _________________________ ANS: F, dominant DIF: A REF: p. 265 OBJ: 11.1.3

5. When alleles segregate from each other, they join. _________________________ ANS: F, separate DIF: B REF: p. 266 OBJ: 11.1.4 STO: 12.A.4.a

6. If the alleles for a trait did not segregate during gamete formation, offspring would always show the trait of at least one of the parents. _________________________ ANS: T OBJ: 11.1.4 DIF: E STO: 12.A.4.a REF: p. 266

7. The principles of probability can explain the numerical results of Mendels experiments. _________________________ ANS: T OBJ: 11.2.1 DIF: A STO: 12.A.4.a REF: p. 267

8. The probability that a gamete produced by a pea plant heterozygous for stem height ( Tt) will contain the recessive allele is 100%. _________________________ ANS: F, 50% DIF: E REF: p. 267, p. 268 STO: 12.A.4.a, 11.A.4.c OBJ: 11.2.1

9. If two speckled chickens are mated, according to the principle of codominance, 25% of the offspring are expected to be speckled. _________________________ ANS: F, 50% DIF: E REF: p. 272 OBJ: 11.3.2 STO: 12.A.4.a

10. Coat color in rabbits is determined by a single gene that has multiple alleles. _________________________ ANS: T OBJ: 11.3.2 DIF: B STO: 12.A.4.a REF: p. 273

11. If an organism has 16 chromosomes in each of its egg cells, the organisms diploid number is 32. _________________________ ANS: T OBJ: 11.4.1 DIF: A STO: 12.A.4.a REF: p. 275

12. If an organism is heterozygous for a particular gene, the two different alleles will be separated during anaphase II of meiosis, assuming that no crossing-over has occurred. _________________________ ANS: F, anaphase I DIF: E REF: p. 276 OBJ: 11.4.2 STO: 12.A.4.a

13. Mitosis results in two cells, whereas meiosis results in one cell. _________________________ ANS: F, four cells DIF: B REF: p. 278 OBJ: 11.4.3 STO: 12.A.4.a

14. If an organism has four linkage groups, it has eight chromosomes. _________________________ ANS: F, four DIF: E REF: p. 279 OBJ: 11.5.1 STO: 12.A.4.a

15. Genes in the same linkage group are usually inherited separately. _________________________ ANS: F, together DIF: A COMPLETION 1. The plants that Gregor Mendel crossed to produce the F1 generation made up the ____________________ generation. ANS: P DIF: A REF: p. 264 OBJ: 11.1.1 REF: p. 279 OBJ: 11.5.1 STO: 12.A.4.a

2. The different forms of a gene are called ____________________. ANS: alleles DIF: B REF: p. 265 OBJ: 11.1.2

3. If the allele for shortness in pea plants were dominant, all the pea plants in Mendels F 1 generation would have been ____________________. ANS: short DIF: E REF: p. 265 OBJ: 11.1.3

4. If the alleles for traits in pea plants did not segregate during gamete formation, offspring that were recessive for a trait could be produced only by crossing two plants that were ____________________ for that trait. ANS: recessive DIF: E REF: p. 266 OBJ: 11.1.4 STO: 12.A.4.a

5. ____________________ is the likelihood that a particular event will occur. ANS: Probability DIF: B REF: p. 267 OBJ: 11.2.1 STO: 12.A.4.a

6. If you flip a coin five times and it comes up heads each time, the probability that it will come up heads the next time is ____________________.

ANS: 1/2 50% DIF: A REF: p. 267 OBJ: 11.2.1 STO: 12.A.4.a

Tt T t

T TT T

TT

Tt

TT

Tt

T t

= =

Tall Short

Figure 111 7. In the Punnett square shown in Figure 111, the genotypes of the offspring are ____________________. ANS: TT and Tt DIF: B REF: p. 268 OBJ: 11.2.2 STO: 11.A.4.c

8. Pea plants that are TT, ____________________, or tt have different genotypes. ANS: Tt DIF: A REF: p. 268 OBJ: 11.2.2 STO: 11.A.4.c

9. When two heterozygous tall pea plants are crossed, the expected genotype ratio of the offspring is _________________________. ANS: 1 TT : 2 Tt : 1 tt DIF: E REF: p. 268, p. 269 STO: 11.A.4.c, 12.A.4.a OBJ: 11.2.2

10. The principle of independent assortment states that ____________________ for different traits can segregate independently during the formation of gametes.

ANS: genes DIF: B REF: p. 271 OBJ: 11.3.1 STO: 12.A.4.a

11. If pea plants that are homozygous for round, yellow seeds ( RRYY) were crossed with pea plants that are heterozygous for round, yellow seeds (RrYy), the expected phenotype(s) of the offspring would be _________________________. ANS: round yellow seeds DIF: E REF: p. 271 OBJ: 11.3.1 STO: 12.A.4.a

12. Crossing a pink-flowered four oclock with a white-flowered four oclock will produce pink-flowered offspring and ____________________-flowered offspring. ANS: white DIF: E REF: p. 272 OBJ: 11.3.2 STO: 12.A.4.a

13. An organisms gametes have ____________________ the number of chromosomes found in the organisms body cells. ANS: half DIF: A REF: p. 275 OBJ: 11.4.1 STO: 12.A.4.a

14. Crossing-over occurs during the stage of meiosis called ____________________. ANS: prophase I DIF: A STO: 12.A.4.a REF: p. 276, p. 277 OBJ: 11.4.2

15. The relative locations of each known gene can be shown on a ____________________ map. ANS: gene DIF: B SHORT ANSWER 1. Define genetics. ANS: Genetics is the scientific study of heredity. DIF: B REF: p. 263 OBJ: 11.1.1 REF: p. 280 OBJ: 11.5.2 STO: 12.A.4.a

2. What attributes of the garden pea plant made it an excellent organism for Gregor Mendels genetic studies?

ANS: Garden pea plants produce many offspring, they have traits that come in two forms, and crosses between the plants can be controlled easily. DIF: E REF: p. 263, p. 264 OBJ: 11.1.1

3. What might have caused Gregor Mendel NOT to conclude that biological inheritance is determined by factors that are passed from one generation to the next? ANS: Answers may vary. If the F1 pea plants had had traits of neither parent, Mendel might not have concluded that factors for traits are passed from one generation to the next. DIF: E REF: p. 265 OBJ: 11.1.2

4. How many recessive alleles for a trait must an organism inherit in order to exhibit that trait? ANS: An organism must inherit two recessive alleles for a trait in order to exhibit that trait. DIF: A REF: p. 265 OBJ: 11.1.3 RrYy RY RY RRYY Ry RRYy rY RrYY ry RrYy Seed Shape R = Round r = Wrinkled

Ry RrYy rY

RRYy

RRyy

RrYy

Rryy Seed Color Y = Yellow y = Green

RrYY

RrYy

rrYY

rrYy

ry

RrYy

Rryy

rrYy

rryy

Figure 112 5. What is the phenotype ratio of the offspring in the Punnett square shown in Figure 112? ANS: The phenotype ratio is 9 round, yellow peas : 3 round, green peas : 3 wrinkled, yellow peas : 1 wrinkled, green pea. DIF: A REF: p. 271 OBJ: 11.3.1 STO: 12.A.4.a

6. A pea plant heterozygous for height and seed color ( TtYy) is crossed with a pea plant heterozygous for height but homozygous recessive for seed color (Ttyy). If 80 offspring are produced, how many are expected to be tall and have yellow seeds?

ANS: Thirty of the offspring are expected to be tall and have yellow seeds. DIF: E REF: p. 271 OBJ: 11.3.1 STO: 12.A.4.a

7. What might happen if the gametes of a species had the same number of chromosomes as the species body cells? ANS: When the gametes fused during fertilization, the offspring would have more chromosomes in their body cells than their parents have. As a result, the species chromosome number would not be constant. DIF: E REF: p. 275 OBJ: 11.4.1 STO: 12.A.4.a

8. How many sets of chromosomes are in a diploid cell? ANS: A diploid cell has two sets of chromosomes. DIF: B REF: p. 275 OBJ: 11.4.1 STO: 12.A.4.a

9. Define homologous chromosomes. ANS: Homologous chromosomes are the two sets of chromosomes found in a body cellone set inherited from the male parent and the other inherited from the female parent. DIF: B REF: p. 275 OBJ: 11.4.1 STO: 12.A.4.a

10. What happens to the number of chromosomes per cell during meiosis? ANS: The number of chromosomes is cut in half. DIF: B REF: p. 276 OBJ: 11.4.2 STO: 12.A.4.a

11. Contrast the cells produced by mitosis with those produced by meiosis. ANS: Mitosis produces diploid body cells, whereas meiosis produces haploid gametes. DIF: A REF: p. 278 OBJ: 11.4.3 STO: 12.A.4.a

12. Why did Gregor Mendel not observe gene linkage during his experiments with pea plants? ANS: The genes that Mendel studied were located on different chromosomes or were located far apart on the same chromosome. DIF: B REF: p. 279 OBJ: 11.5.1 STO: 12.A.4.a

13. What is a linkage group? ANS: A linkage group is all the genes on the same chromosome. DIF: A REF: p. 279 OBJ: 11.5.1 STO: 12.A.4.a

14. What does a gene map show? ANS: A gene map shows the relative locations of genes on a chromosome. DIF: A REF: p. 280 OBJ: 11.5.2 STO: 12.A.4.a

15. The gene map of a fruit flys chromosome 2 shows the relative locations of the star eye, dumpy wing, and black body genes to be 1.3, 13.0, and 48.5, respectively. Between which two genes does crossingover occur most frequently? ANS: Crossing-over occurs most frequently between the star eye gene and the black body gene. DIF: E OTHER USING SCIENCE SKILLS Heterozygous male guinea pigs with black, rough hair ( BbRr) are crossed with heterozygous female guinea pigs with black, rough hair (BbRr). The incomplete Punnett square in Figure 11-4 shows the expected results from the cross. BbRr BR BR BBRR Br BBRr bR BbRR br BbRr Hair Color B = Black b = White REF: p. 280 OBJ: 11.5.2 STO: 12.A.4.a

Br BbR r bR

BBRr

BBrr

BbRr

Bbrr Hair Texture R = Roughr = Smooth

BbRR

BbRr

?
bbRr Figure 114

bbRr

br

BbRr

Bbrr

bbrr

1. Using Tables and Graphs Identify the genotype of the offspring that would be represented by the question mark in Figure 114.

ANS: The genotype of the offspring is bbRR. DIF: A REF: p. 271 OBJ: 11.3.1 STO: 12.A.4.a

2. Using Tables and Graphs Identify the phenotype of the offspring represented by the question mark in Figure 114. ANS: The phenotype of the offspring is white, rough hair. DIF: A REF: p. 271 OBJ: 11.3.1 STO: 12.A.4.a

3. Analyzing Data In Figure 114, what are the different phenotypes of the offspring? ANS: The phenotypes of the offspring are black, rough hair; black, smooth hair; white, rough hair; and white, smooth hair. DIF: A REF: p. 271 OBJ: 11.3.1 STO: 12.A.4.a

4. Analyzing Data In Figure 114, what are the genotypes of the offspring that have black, rough hair? ANS: Offspring with black, rough hair have the genotypes BBRR, BBRr, BbRR, and BbRr. DIF: A REF: p. 271 OBJ: 11.3.1 STO: 12.A.4.a

5. Calculating What fraction of the offspring in Figure 114 would be expected to have white, smooth hair? ANS: One sixteenth of the offspring would be expected to have white, smooth hair. DIF: A REF: p. 271 OBJ: 11.3.1 STO: 12.A.4.a

USING SCIENCE SKILLS

Figure 115 6. Inferring What do the letters R and I represent in Figure 115? ANS: R represents the allele for red flowers. I represents the allele for ivory flowers. DIF: B REF: p. 272 OBJ: 11.3.2 STO: 12.A.4.a

7. Interpreting Graphics In Figure 115, what is the genotype of the pink-flowered snapdragons? ANS: The genotype of the pink-flowered snapdragons is RI. DIF: B REF: p. 272 OBJ: 11.3.2 STO: 12.A.4.a

8. Inferring Explain whether the alleles in Figure 115 show dominance, incomplete dominance, or codominance. ANS: The alleles show incomplete dominance, because a cross between red-flowered snapdragons and ivory-flowered snapdragons produces snapdragons with an in-between traitpink flowers. DIF: B REF: p. 272 OBJ: 11.3.2 STO: 12.A.4.a

9. Inferring According to Figure 115, if red-flowered snapdragons and ivory-flowered snapdragons are crossed, what percentage of their offspring would be expected to be pink-flowered? ANS:

One hundred percent of the offspring would be expected to be pink-flowered. DIF: B REF: p. 272 OBJ: 11.3.2 STO: 12.A.4.a

10. Inferring According to Figure 115, if two pink-flowered snapdragons are crossed, what percentage of their offspring would be expected to be pink-flowered? ANS: Fifty percent of the offspring would be expected to be pink-flowered. DIF: B REF: p. 272 OBJ: 11.3.2 STO: 12.A.4.a

USING SCIENCE SKILLS

Figure 116 11. Interpreting Graphics In Figure 116, what is the structure labeled X in stage A? ANS: The structure is a tetrad. DIF: E REF: p. 276 OBJ: 11.4.2 STO: 12.A.4.a

12. Interpreting Graphics In Figure 116, during which stage might new allele combinations form? Identify the stage. ANS: New allele combinations might form during stage A, which is prophase I. DIF: E REF: p. 276 OBJ: 11.4.2 STO: 12.A.4.a

13. Inferring If the stages shown in Figure 116 are taking place in a female animal, how many eggs will result from stage G? Explain your answer. ANS: One egg will result. One of the four haploid cells will form an egg. The other three will form polar bodies. DIF: E REF: p. 278 OBJ: 11.4.2 STO: 12.A.4.a

14. Interpreting Graphics List the stages in Figure 116 in which the cells are 2N and those in which the cells are N. ANS: The cells in stages A, B, and C are 2N. The cells in stages D, E, F, and G are N. DIF: E STO: 12.A.4.a REF: p. 276, p. 277 OBJ: 11.4.2

15. Inferring In Figure 116, in which stage does each cell have a single copy of each gene? Identify the stage. ANS: Each cell in stage G, telophase II, has a single copy of each gene. DIF: E ESSAY 1. A pea plant with yellow seeds was crossed with a plant with green seeds. The F 1 generation produced plants with yellow seeds. Explain why green seeds reappeared in the F 2 generation. ANS: When the heterozygous yellow-seed F1 plants produced gametes, their dominant allele for yellow seeds segregated from their recessive allele for green seeds. As a result, some of their gametes had the dominant allele, and others had the recessive allele. When the F 1 plants self-pollinated, some male gametes with the recessive allele fused with female gametes with the recessive allele during fertilization. Some of the offspring that resulted had two alleles for green seeds and therefore had green seeds. DIF: A REF: p. 268 OBJ: 11.1.4 STO: 11.A.4.c REF: p. 277 OBJ: 11.4.2 STO: 12.A.4.a

2. You wish to determine whether a tall pea plant is homozygous or heterozygous for tallness. What cross should you perform to arrive at your answer? Explain your choice of cross.

ANS: The tall pea plant should be crossed with a short pea plant. If the tall pea plant is homozygous, all of the offspring will be tall. If the tall pea plant is heterozygous, it is likely that about half of the offspring will be tall and half will be short. DIF: A REF: p. 268 OBJ: 11.2.2 STO: 11.A.4.c

3. Why are the results of genetic crosses shown in Punnett squares interpreted as probabilities, not certainties? Give some specific reasons. ANS: The kinds of offspring produced by genetic crosses are the results of chance. For example, the number of gametes produced that contain particular alleles is not certain. Likewise, the fusion of two gametes with particular alleles is not certain. Thus, the results of genetic crosses shown in Punnett squares are probable, not actual, results. DIF: E REF: p. 269 OBJ: 11.2.2 STO: 12.A.4.a

4. A cross between two organisms heterozygous for two different genes ( AaBb) results in a 9 : 3 : 3 : 1 phenotype ratio among the offspring. Is the offsprings genotype ratio the same? Explain your answer. ANS: The genotype ratio of the offspring is not the same as their phenotype ratio. The same phenotype can be produced by several different genotypes. DIF: E REF: p. 268 OBJ: 11.3.1 STO: 11.A.4.c

5. Explain the difference between incomplete dominance and codominance. ANS: In incomplete dominance, one allele is not completely dominant over another. As a result, the heterozygous phenotype is intermediate between the two homozygous phenotypes. In codominance, both alleles are dominant. As a result, the heterozygous phenotype is a combination of each homozygous phenotype. DIF: A REF: p. 272 OBJ: 11.3.2 STO: 12.A.4.a

6. A florist wants to guarantee that the seeds she sells will produce only pink-flowered four oclock plants. How should she obtain the seeds? ANS: The alleles that determine flower color in four oclock plants show incomplete dominance. The florist should use pollen from white-flowered four oclock plants to pollinate red-flowered four oclock plants, or vice versa. She should then collect seeds from the plants after they are produced. All of these hybrid seeds will produce only pink-flowered four oclock plants. DIF: E REF: p. 272 OBJ: 11.3.2 STO: 12.A.4.a

7. The stages of meiosis are classified into two divisions: meiosis I and meiosis II. Compare and contrast these two divisions. ANS:

Both meiosis I and meiosis II contain a prophase, a metaphase, and an anaphase. However, chromosomes replicate prior to meiosis I but not prior to meiosis II. Also, during meiosis I, tetrads form and align along the center of the cell. Then, the homologous chromosomes are separated and two haploid daughter cells form. During meiosis II, sister chromatids align along the center of the cell and are then separated. Four haploid daughter cells form. DIF: A STO: 12.A.4.a REF: p. 276, p. 277 OBJ: 11.4.2

8. Suppose the homologous chromosomes that make up a tetrad fail to separate during anaphase I of meiosis. Predict the results of this event. ANS: If the homologous chromosomes of a tetrad fail to separate, half the gametes formed will have an extra chromosome. The other half will lack a chromosome. When one of these gametes fuses with a normal gamete during fertilization, the offspring will have an abnormal number of chromosomes (not 2N) in its cells. DIF: E REF: p. 277 OBJ: 11.4.2 STO: 12.A.4.a

9. Explain why the daughter cells produced by meiosis are genetically different from each other, whereas the daughter cells produced by mitosis are not. ANS: During meiosis, the pairs of homologous chromosomes in the parent cell form tetrads and then separate. As a result, each daughter cell receives only one chromosome from each homologous pair, and the particular chromosomes that it receives are random. Thus, each daughter cell has a different combination of chromosomes. Also, crossing-over may occur during meiosis and may result in new combinations of alleles on the chromosomes in the daughter cells. In contrast, during mitosis, homologous chromosomes usually do not form tetrads and separate, and therefore crossing-over usually does not occur. DIF: E REF: p. 278 OBJ: 11.4.3 STO: 12.A.4.a

10. Define linkage, and explain how linkage is used to make gene maps. ANS: Linkage is the condition in which two genes are located on the same chromosome. As a result, the genes alleles are usually inherited together. However, if crossing-over occurs between the alleles of the linked genes, those alleles no longer are inherited together. The frequency of crossing-over between linked genes (or the frequency in which linked genes are inherited separately) is used to determine the relative locations of genes on the same chromosome, resulting in a gene map. The greater the frequency, the farther apart the genes on the chromosome. DIF: A STO: 12.A.4.a REF: p. 279, p. 280 OBJ: 11.5.2