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Journal of the Chinese Institute of Environmental Engineering, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp.

39-46 (2006)

Kae-Long Lin,1,* and Chung-Yi Lin2

Department of Environmental Engineering National I-Lan University I-Lan 260, Taiwan 2 Waste Minimization Division Foundation of Taiwan Industry Service Taipei 198, Taiwan

Key Words: Sludge ash, hydration, eco-cement, clinker, setting time, degree of hydration ABSTRACT In this study, the use of waste sludge as a cement replacement material was addressed. Different waste sludge ashes obtained from water, wastewater and industrial sludges as well as limestone and ferrate were prepared by using the optimum proportioning method for the tested mixtures. Test results obtained from X-ray fluorescence analysis shows that SiO2, CaO, Al2O3 were the primary components in the cement clinkers. The degree of hydration increased with the curing time, due to the increase in the amount of hydration products. The heavy metal leaching concentrations for different cement pastes were insignificant, and all the leaching concentrations in the these pastes complied with the Taiwan Environmental Protection Agencys regulatory thresholds. The study demonstrates the feasibility and safety to apply sludge ash as a cement replacement material. INTRODUCTION Large amounts of waste sludge are generated in Taiwan. Increasing costs to dispose sludge become a burden to city governments and shortages of landfill spaces are also noticed. Increasing demands on natural resources and a scarcity of acceptable solid waste disposal sites are pushing many local governments to consider resource recovery as an alternative. In Taiwan, annual amounts of sludge produced from 29 water purification treatment plants and 22 sewage treatment plants are 160,000 tons and 180,000 tons, respectively. In addition, annual dewatered sludge generated from 34 industrial wastewater treatment plants is approximately 670,000 tons [1]. Currently, landfill and agricultural applications are common methods for sludge disposals. Recently, studies have been carried out by various researchers exploring the use of sludge as a construction material. Tay et al. [2,3] reported that sludge mixed with clay could be used in the production of bricks for construction use. Sewage sludge ash has been applied in mortars [4]; in concrete mixtures [5,6]; in bricks [7]; as fine aggregate in mortars [8]; and in asphalt pavement mixes [9]. Further, factors affecting characteristics of eco-cement have been

studied by many researchers. For example, Lin [10] mixed various amounts of water sludge with cement and clay and indicated that changes in the phase were not observed and the f-CaO content decreased with the increasing ratio of fresh water sludge. Further, all cement products with various replacement ratios of sludge met the specifications of first degree Portland cement set by the Chinese National Standard. It is noticed that a moderate addition of CaF2 sludge to the process of cement manufacturing did not affect the quality of cement [11]. Waste contained chemical compositions like SiO2, CaO, MgO, Al2O3 and Fe2O3 can be reused in cement productions. Sludge ash, which primarily consists of SiO2, CaO and MgO, has very similar properties as the powdered minerals [12]. Eco-cement, a revolutionary new type of cement, uses waste sludge as the main raw material. Feasibility tests have been conducted to address the suitability of reuse sludge as eco-cement clinkers in the process of a clinkerization. The goal of this study is to find the optimal conditions of cement making in order to maximize the replacement of cement clay by ash obtaining from different waste sludges. The dewatered sludge cake samples were heated in a brick-firing kiln at a

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Journal of the Chinese Institute of Environmental Engineering, Vol. 16, No. 1 (2006)

Table 1. Chemical analysis and heavy metals of raw materials

IWSA WPSA Chemical composition, %* SiO2 12.19 54.47 43.54 29.12 Al2O3 7.44 7.25 Fe2O3 CaO 2.65 0.93 MgO 0.59 1.12 3.20 0.08 SO3 Na2O 1.24 0.67 0.55 3.55 K2O 1.51 ND P2O5 Cl- (ppm) 315 311 LOI 27.09 2.78 Heavy metal, mg kg-1** Cu 19826 76 Cr 1210 1.2 Cd 54 1.1 Pb 4254 36.4 Zn 6258 96 Note: *Analyzed by XRF; all in % except for Cl**Analyzed by ICP-AES after HF/HClO4/HNO3 digestion; all in mg kg-1 PSSA 63.31 15.38 6.81 1.80 1.03 1.01 0.70 1.51 7.20 105 1.25 1321 16 15.4 284 1084 Ferrate 3.17 1.63 40.50 5.73 0.23 0.82 0.08 0.07 ND 175 4.76 ------

temperature of 900 oC for 1 h. Then samples were added to cement clay and effects of sludge on the sintering conditions and the hydration characteristics of the eco-cement pastes were evaluated. It is hope that the results obtained can promote the recycling technologies for water purification sludge ash (WPSA), primary sewage sludge ash (PSSA) as well as industrial wastewater sludge ash (IWSA), and help to attain the goal of sustainable development by establishing a recycling society with zero discharge. MATERIALS AND METHODS

S ilica

Si O 2




C la y
40 60


40 IW SA

80 20

A lu m in a

C aO

1. Clinker Preparation





Al 2 O 3

Fig. 1. A ternary diagram of the raw materials.

A pilot-scale test with WPSA, PSSA, IWSA, limestone, and ferrate as raw materials was conducted to study the feasibility of applying this technology to actual practice. The ash was obtained from water purification treatment plants, sewage treatment plants and industrial wastewater treatment plants, respectively. The dewatered sludge cake samples were heated in a brick-firing kiln at a temperature of 900 C for 1 h. The oxide compositions of these raw materials are given in Table 1. As depicted by the ternary diagram in Fig. 1, it is possible to recycle SSA, WSA, and ASA as substitutes for silica, clay, and alumina, respectively, in raw materials of cement. A computational model [13] was used to formulate the composition of raw clinkers. In addition, theoretical phase compositions were predicted by using a modified Bogue calculation as shown below:

1. Al2O3/ Fe2O3 (iron modulus) 0.64 + 1.43 Fe2O3 + 2.852 SO3) C2S = 2.867 SiO2 - 0.7544 C3S C3A = 2.650 Al2O3 - 1.692 Fe2O3 C4AF = 3.043 Fe2O3 2. Al2O3/ Fe2O3 < 0.64 + 2.859 Fe2O3 + 2.852 SO3) C2S = 2.867 SiO2 - 0.7544 C3S C3A = 0 C4AF - C2F = 2.100 Al2O3 - 1.702 Fe2O3


C3S = 4.071 CaO - ( 7.602 SiO2 + 6.718 Al2O3


C3S = 4.071 CaO - (7.602 SiO2 + 4.479 Al2O3

Lin and Lin: Sludge Ash as Eco-Cement


Table 2. Blend ratios (wt%) of raw materials

ECO-I Type of Blend WPSA PSSA IWSA Ferrate Limestone Modulus LSF HM SM IM 8.69 8.51 1.00 1.68 80.12 0.91 2.00 1.90 2.11 ECO-II 9.72 6.84 1.50 1.97 79.97 0.83 1.87 2.16 2.10 ECO-III 6.18 9.29 3.00 2.10 79.43 0.80 1.72 1.74 1.79

The raw materials were blended with different ratios and three types of eco-cement (ECO-I, ECO-II and ECO-III) are prepared. In each batch of the ecocement, clinker ratio was computed by considering the following properties: hydration modulus (HM: 1.7 < HM < 2.3), lime saturation factor (LSF: 0.8 < LSF < 0.95), silica modulus (SM: 1.9 < SM < 3.2), and the iron modulus (IM: 1.7 < IM < 2.5) as follows: HM = LSF = SM = IM =

CaO SiO2 + Al2O3 + Fe2O3

CaO SiO2 + 1.18 Al2O3 + 0.65Fe2O3

SiO2 Al2O3 + Fe2O3 Al2O3 Fe2O3

cement with a water to binder ratio of 0.38 and by following the ASTM-305 as well as the moulding process specified in ASTM C31-69. The specimens were then demoulded and cured in a container with 95% humidity at 25 C for 3 to 90 d. Based on the specifications of ASTM C 39-72, compressive strengths of the specimens for each type of eco-cement paste were obtained at different ages. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) tests were performed to obtain the leachability of the specimens and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques were carried out to study changes in chemical compositions and hydrates. Note that the hydration of the specimen samples was terminated at the designated testing age with acetone in a vacuum for 24 h.
3. Analyses

The four unknowns, CaO, SiO2, Al2O3, and Fe2O3, were solved simultaneously by those first-order equations. The blend ratios are shown in Table 2. The burning processes are summarized as follows: (1). Ashes obtained from incinerated sludges were separated, dried, and pulverized in a pretreatment process. (2). Raw materials (e.g., ferrate) and supplements (e.g., limestone) were mixed with the pretreated ashes. (3). The mixtures were then placed in a programmable electrical furnace for 6 h at 1400 C to form eco-cement clinkers, and then the clinkers were allowed to cool rapidly to room temperature. (4). The clinkers thus produced were ground into ecocements (i.e., ECO-I, ECO-II and ECO-III) in a laboratory ball mill with 3.5% per weight of gypsum. The Blaine surface area obtained was more than 300 m2 kg-1.
2. Preparation Approach

Paste specimens, with size of 25.4 25.4 25.4 mm, were prepared by applying three types of eco-

Chemical and physical analyses of the ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and the three types of ecocement paste specimens were conducted at various ages. The determination of the unconfined compressive strength followed those specified in ASTMC3972. The procedures for TCLP test and metal concentrations followed Taiwans standard method. The setting time of the cement mixtures was determined by a Vicat apparatus at room temperature (ASTM C191). The initial setting time was obtained with Vicat needle (1 mm in diameter) penetrated sample to 51 mm measured from the bottom of the mould. The final setting time was measured when a 5-mm cap ring placed on the surface of the sample with no visible mark noticed. The XRD analysis was carried out by a Siemens D-5000X-ray diffractometer with CuK as radiative source and scanning angle, 2, set between 10o and 70o. The X-ray fluorescence (XRF), with an automated RIX 2000 spectrometer, was performed to analyze paste specimen samples. The samples were prepared by mixing 0.4 g of the paste specimens with 4 g of 100 Spectroflux, at a dilution ratio of 1:10. Then homogenized mixtures were placed in Pt-Au crucibles,


Journal of the Chinese Institute of Environmental Engineering, Vol. 16, No. 1 (2006)

Table 3. Chemical composition of the OPC and eco-cement clinkers

OPC Composition, % SiO2 Al2O3 Fe2O3 CaO MgO SO3 R2O* TiO2 P2O5 f- CaO Metal, mg kg-1 Cu Cr Cd Pb Zn Constituents, % C3S C2S C3A C4AF Note: *R2O = Na2O + 0.659 K2O 20.04 5.35 3.44 63.16 2.31 2.03 0.56 0.27 ND 0.23 814 ND ND 964 2212 51.01 23.21 8.21 10.32 ECO-I 21.14 7.55 3.58 64.55 1.28 0.38 0.24 0.33 0.48 0.30 3838 ND ND 2114 3128 45.15 26.55 13.95 10.89 ECO-II 23.11 7.24 3.45 63.17 1.17 0.41 0.21 0.27 0.50 0.30 3326 ND ND 1076 2916 26.74 46.08 13.35 10.50 ECO-III 22.53 8.32 4.64 61.18 1.11 0.45 0.18 0.31 0.85 0.20 4844 ND ND 2794 3418 13.98 54.05 14.20 14.12

and treated in an electric furnace for 1 h at 1000 oC. Finally, the homogeneous melted samples were recast into glass beads with 2 mm in thickness and 32 mm in diameter [14]. The Schlaepfer-Bukowsk titration method [15] was applied to determine the amount of free CaO in the paste specimens. The degree of hydration of the paste samples was obtained by employing thermogravimetric analysis instrument and differential thermogravimetric analysis instrument (both products of TA Instruments) as well as by using the ignition method [16]. The degree of hydration () of the pastes was calculated by applying Eq. 3: = (W105 W580 ) + 0.41(W580 W1007 ) 100% nW1007 (3)

Where n is the amount of water evaporated in the cement paste when hydration is completed. For ordinary cement paste, n equals 0.24. W105, W580, W1007 are the weights of the specimens at 105 C, 580 C, and 1007 C, respectively. The conversion factor, 0.41 represents the mass ratio of 1 mol H2O to 1 mol CO2. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
1. Characterization of the Eco-cement Clinkers

Results of the XRF analysis are summarized in Table 3. It is noticed that SiO2, CaO, Al2O3 were the

primary components found in the eco-cement clinkers. The theoretical phase compositions stated above are also given in Table 3. The eco-cement clinkers contained 13.4-14.2% of C3A (3CaOAl2O3) and other components, C3S (3CaOSiO2), C2S (2CaOSiO2), C4AF (4CaOAl2O3Fe2O3) were also presented. The eco-cement clinkers contained more Al2O3 than the OPC. Alkalis such as Na2O and K2O were shown in all eco-cement clinkers tested. Normally, the alkali content in Portland cement is 0.5-1.3%. Further, the C3S content in the ECO-I clinkers was similar to that in the OPC clinkers. Results indicate that the contents of Cu, Pb and Zn in the clinkers were high. However, the heavy metal leaching concentrations obtained were relatively low and met the regulatory thresholds (Table 4). Figure 2 shows the X-ray diffraction patterns of the OPC and the eco-cement clinkers. The JCPDS patterns for C3S (2 = 32.12 and 41.2), -C2S (32.21 and 41.2), -C2S (32.21), C3A (33.27), C4AF (33.94), and -C2S (31.5) phases are also shown in Fig. 2. Results indicate that the major components of OPC such as C3S, C2S, C3A, and C4AF were found in the all ECO clinkers. In addition, large amount of C2S was noticed in the ECO-II and the ECO-III clinkers and larger amount of -C2S phase were obtained in the ECO-III clinker. The relatively larger amount of C2S could possibly be resulted from the decomposition of C3S.

Lin and Lin: Sludge Ash as Eco-Cement


Table 4. Heavy metal concentrations (mg L-1) in the TCLP leachates of the OPC and eco-cement clinkers
OPC ECO-I ECO-II ECO-III Regulatory thresholds Note: *Detection limits < 0.020 mg L-1 **Detection limits < 0.016 mg L-1 ***Detection limits < 0.014 mg L-1 ND: not detected
1. C3 S 2.-C2 S 3. CaO 4. C3 A 5. C4 AF 6. -C2 S
1 2 1 6 1

Cu* ND ND ND ND 15

Cr** ND ND ND ND 5

Cd*** ND ND ND ND 1

Pb 0.720.02 0.610.01 0.560.01 0.680.02 5

Zn 0.330.01 0.280.01 0.320.01 0.460.02 -

Table 5. Setting time for the OPC and Eco-cement pastes






Initial setting time, h 3.2 4.53 4.03 7.82

Final setting time, h 5.28 6.25 6.97 11.43


1. 2


Compressive strength (MP Compressive strength (MP a) a)

100 80 60 40 20 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 Curing time (d) OPC paste ECO-I paste ECO-II paste ECO-III paste

OPC 25 30 35 40 45

Fig. 2. XRD patterns of the OPC and eco-cement clinkers. 2. Setting Time of the OPC and Eco-cement Pastes

The hardness and strength of cement paste are developed with the progress of cementitious hydraulic reactions. In general, the setting behavior of paste is a result of cement grains dispersing (dissolving) and hydrating in water, and then gradually solid/liquid suspension of various hydrates is formed [18]. As the hydration process continues, the inner structure of the cement paste is further reinforced and forms a network, which allows the cement to set and gain strength. The setting times for the OPC and three types of the eco-cement pastes are given in Table 5. The ECO-I paste had an initial setting time and final setting time similar to those of the OPC. The delay of final setting time in the ECO-II paste could be attributed to having more C2S. Further, the delay of both setting times was also observed in the ECO-III paste which could be primarily caused by the larger amounts of -C2S presented [17].
3. Compressive Strength Development of the OPC and Eco-cement Pastes

Fig. 3. Compressive strength development of the OPC and eco-cement pastes.

90 d. The strength of the ECO-I pastes was similar to that of the OPC cured at 28 d and the strength developed for the ECO-II paste was less than that of the OPC paste cured at the first 7 d. However, from 28 to 90 d, the compressive strength of the ECO-II paste was greater than that of the OPC paste. Further, the compressive strength of the ECO-III paste was lower than that of the OPC paste, possibly due to lesser amounts of C3S in ECO-III. In addition, the low C3A and the higher -C2S in the ECO-III clinkers, which could cause an insignificant development in strength for the ECO- III paste in the later stages of hydration [17].
4. Hydrates of the OPC and Eco-cement Pastes

Figure 3 shows the compressive strength of the OPC and eco-cement paste specimens, cured from 3 to

Figures 4 show the XRD analyses of hydrates produced in the OPC and the three types of ecocement pastes at 28 and 90 d. It is noticed that the main hydration products in the pure cement and all ECO pastes were C-S-H gels, Ca(OH)2, and unhydrated


Journal of the Chinese Institute of Environmental Engineering, Vol. 16, No. 1 (2006)

Table 6. Heavy metal concentrations in the TCLP leachates from the eco-cement pastes
Heavy metal, mg L-1 Pb Cr Cd Cu Zn Paste OPC 0.610.01 ND ND ND 0.070.02 ECO-I 0.450.01 ND ND ND 0.050.01

ECO-II 0.500.02 ND ND ND 0.050.02

100 90

ECO-III 0.300.02 ND ND ND 0.080.02

Taiwan EPA's regulatory thresholds 5 5 1 15

1. Ca(OH)2 , 2. C-S-H, 3. C3 S

Degree of of hydration Degree hydration(% (%)

1 3 1 1 1

80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 10 20 30 OPC paste ECO-I paste ECO-II paste ECO-III paste 40 50 60 Curing time (d) 70 80 90 100

ECO- paste

ECO- paste

ECO- paste OPC paste


ECO- paste

ECO- paste ECO- paste OPC paste

Fig. 5. Degree of hydration of the OPC and eco-cement pastes.






35 2









Fig. 4. XRD patterns of the OPC and eco-cement pastes. (a) 28 d, (b) 90 d.

cement clinkers delayed the hydration process during the early curing stages, hence much lower value. Further, because of the decomposition of C3S which contained -C2S(rich in P2O5) in eco-cement, the amount of P2O5 in eco-cement (2.5%) was higher than that in OPC (0.5%) and lead to a lower value [17]. Results obtained for the hydration are in good agreement with t those from XRD and chemical compositions analysis.
6. Heavy Metal Leachability of the Eco-cement Pastes

C3S as well as C2S (Fig. 4a). The hydration products in the ECO-I paste mixture were the same as those in the pure cement mixture. The ECO-I, ECO-II, and ECO-III paste hydrates were the same as those in the OPC after 90 d (Fig. 4b). Further, the peaks for C3S and C2S diffraction decreased at 90 d. In addition, due to the formation of vast amount of Ca(OH)2 , the hydration of the ecocement increased greatly, which clearly enhanced the rate of strength developed in the eco-cement pastes [19].
5. The Degree of Hydration of the OPC and Ecocement Pastes

Figure 5 shows the degrees of hydration for the OPC and three types of eco-cement pastes. C3S and C2S in the ECO-I clinkers played significant roles in hydration reaction at 90-d and the value of the ECO-I paste samples was similar to that of OPC paste. However, valued of the ECO-II paste samples exceeded OPC paste by about 5% at 90 d. As for the ECO-III paste, lesser amounts of C3S in the eco-

Stephan et al. [20] found that heavy metals like Cr, Ni, and Zn with concentration of 1,000 ppm exhibited no effect on the strength in the Portland cement and no change was detected for concentrations that were 10 to 20 times higher than normal. Table 6 lists the test results of heavy metal leachability for the OPC and eco-cement paste. Since heavy metals with different volatilities were either evaporated or incorporated into the glassy Si-O matrix during the process of clinkerization, the heavy metal leaching concentrations for the OPC and the eco-cement pastes were very small. The study indicates that all targeted heavy metal leaching concentrations in the eco-cement pastes met the regulatory thresholds. It implies that the incorporation of heavy metals into the Si-O network during the clinkerization process and the immobilization effects of the eco-cement paste contributed to the extremely low heavy metal leachability, and thus environmental safety of the eco-cement paste is assured.

Lin and Lin: Sludge Ash as Eco-Cement


CONCLUSIONS From the studies discussed above the following conclusions are drawn: 1. Results of XRF analysis indicate that the primary components in the eco-cement clinkers were SiO2, CaO, Al2O3. and the C3S content in the ECO-I clinkers was similar to that in the OPC. 2. The study shows that the ECO-I pastes had a similar initial and final setting time to the OPC pastes. The delay of the setting time observed in the ECOIII pastes could primarily be attributed to the larger amounts of -C2S in the paste. 3. The degree of hydration of the ECO-II paste sample exceeded that of OPC by 5% at 90-d. On the other hand, lesser amounts of C3S in the ECO-III clinkers delayed the hydration process during the early curing stages, hence lower value. 4. The heavy metal leaching concentrations for the OPC and the eco-cement pastes were insignificant, and all the leaching concentrations in the ecocement paste complied with the Taiwan EPA's regulatory thresholds, indicating the feasibility and safety to apply sludge ash as a cement replacement material. 5. The results indicate that it is feasible to use 20% or more of sludge ash and ferrate waste to replace the mineral components of the raw materials in cement mixtures. REFERENCES 1. Lin, K.L. and C.Y. Lin, Hydration properties of eco-cement pastes from waste sludge ash clinkers. J. Air Waste Manage., 54(12), 1534-1542 (2004). 2. Tay, J.H. and W.K. Yip, Sludge ash as lightweight concrete material. J. Environ. Eng.- ASCE, 115(1), 56-64 (1987). 3. Tay, J.H., Bricks manufactured from sludge. J. Environ. Eng.-ASCE, 113(2), 278-283 (1989). 4. Monz, J., J.M. Pay and V.A. Borrachero, Use of sewage sludge ash (SSA)-cement admixtures in mortars. Cem. Concr. Res., 26(9), 1389-1398 (1996). 5. Tay, J.H. Sludge ash as filler for portland cement concrete. J. Environ. Eng.-ASCE, 113(2), 345-351 (1987). 6. Tay, J.H. and K.Y. Show, Clay blended sludge as lightweight aggregate concrete material. J. Environ. Eng.-ASCE, 117(6), 834-844 (1991). 7. Alleman, J.E. and N.A. Berman, Constructive sludge management: Biobrick. J. Environ. Eng.ASCE., 110(2), 301-311 (1984).

8. Bhatty, J.I. and J.K. Reid, Compressive strength of municipal sludge ash mortars. ACI Mater. J., 86, 394-400 (1989). 9. Heikal, M., I. Aiad, M.M. Shoaib and H. ElDiamony, Physico-chemical characteristics of some polymer cement composites. Mater. Chem. Phys., 71(1), 76-83 (2001). 10. Lin, S.H., Reuse of Fresh Water Sludge as a Raw Material for Cement. Master Thesis, National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan (2003). 11. Lin, S.J., Feasibility Study of Calcium Fluoride Sludge of High Technical Industry as Raw Meal for Cement. Master Thesis, National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan (2002). 12. Bentur, A., Effect of curing temperature on the pore structure of tricalcium silicate pastes. J. Colloid Interf. Sci., 74(2), 549-560 (1980). 13. Majling, J. and D.M. Roy, The potential of fly ash for cement manufacture. Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull., 72(10), 77-80 (1993). 14. Idris, A. and K. Saed, Characteristics of slag produced from incinerated hospital waste. J. Hazard. Mater., 93(2), 201-208 (2002). 15. Altun, I.A., Effect of CaF2 and MgO on sintering of cement clinker. Cement Concrete Res., 29(11), 1847-1850 (1999). 16. Su, N. and Y.N. Peng, The characteristics and engineering properties of dry-mix/steam-injection concrete. Cement Concrete Res., 31(4), 609-619 (2001). 17. Caponero, J. and J.A.S. Tenorio, Laboratory testing of the use of phosphate-coating sludge in cement clinker. Resour. Conserv. Recy., 29(3), 169-179 (2000). 18. Lin, K.L., The influence of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash slag blended in cement pastes. Cement Concrete Res., 35(5), 979-986 (2005). 19. Taylor, H.F.W., Cement Chemistry, Academic Press, New York (1997). 20. Stephan, D., R. Mallmann, D. Knfel and R. Hrdtl, High intakes of Cr, Ni, and Zn in clinker part II: Influence on the hydration properties. Cement Concrete Res., 29(12), 1959-1967 (1999). Discussions of this paper may appear in the discussion section of a future issue. All discussions should be submitted to the Editor-in-Chief within six months of publication. Manuscript Received: March 24, 2005 Revision Received: August 31, 2005 and Accepted: December 7, 2005


Journal of the Chinese Institute of Environmental Engineering, Vol. 16, No. 1 (2006)

1,* 2

20%XRF SiO2CaOAl2O3