ENGLISH GRAMMER There are 26 letters in English language, they are divided into two parts are called

Vowels & Consonants.  Vowels (A, E, I, O, U)  Consonants (all other letters expect vowels) 1. What is sentence? 2. Set of words with complete senses is known as sentence. A sentence is a group a words that gives full meaning. Ex: a. Raja goes to college every morning at 10.30 am. b. The leaves are green c. The birds are flying in the sky Simple Sentence: A sentence which has only one subject and one predicate. Ex: The cow gives milk. The fox is cunning animal. The parts of sentence A sentence has two parts. They are called “The Subject:” and “The Predicate” The “Subject” tell us about the person or animal or thing who does the work or who acts. The “Predicate” tell us about what the subject does. Ex: a. the cow eats grass. b. She is dancing c. The cat drank the milk. d. They work in the field e. The children play games. Subject The Cow She The cat They The children Predicate Eats grass Is dancing Drank the milk Work in the filed Play games

Kinds of sentence There are four kinds of sentences.  Assertive Sentence  Imperative sentence  Interrogative sentence  Exclamatary Sentence 1. Assertive Sentence An assertive sentence says something for certain or definite or makes declarations 1

Ex: He is going to college Maven is a good boy The Sun rises in the east The road is very wide Sugar is sweet 2. Imperative Sentence An imperative sentence, we express order commends and also request. Ex: Do not open the door Stand up on the bench Come in, please Kindly give me a cup of milk Don’t go out 3. Interrogative Sentence Interrogative sentence asks questions or make enquires. Ex: Where are you going? What is he doing? Are you drinking coffee? How did he lose his bicycle? 4. Exclamatory Sentence The Exclamatory sentence which express surprise, fear etc. It expresses sudden feeling of joy, sorrow, anger, wonder and the like. Sl 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 11 1 2 1 3 1 Assertive sentence Viday is typing a letter I have completed my work I own a car She helps me He went to belgaum Sita nursed the sick Hari cheats the customers Sunil patted the ox’s back Tapan is a naughty boy They were full of sturdiness and singing I will tame you They have many cleaned words to say I am your teacher He went directly to the waiting man Negative Sentence Viday is not typing a letter I have not completed my work I do not own a car She does not helps me He does not go to belgaum Sita does not nurse the sick Hari does not cheats the customers Sunil did not patted the ox’s back Tpan is not a naughty boy They were not full of sturdiness & singing I will not tame you They have no many clean words to say I am not your teacher He did not go directly to the waiting man 2


Sl 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Negative sentence They are not making noise You did not tell the truth Budda has not questioned the caste system It is not important to record He would not replay it tomorrow Sita did not teach the poor children We are not going to talk I would not like you to listen to me I had not panned it Assertive They are playing hockey Ravi is not working hard He goes to Chennai She sang well Ram is quite good at studies Hari charges higher prices It was very wicked It was very perfect day I am coming out of the shadow I shall help you in very way

Assertive Sentence They are making noise You told the truth Buddha had questioned the caste system It is important to record He will repay it tomorrow Sita tought the poor children We are going to talk I would like you to listen to me I had panned it interrogative Are they playing hockey? Is Ravi not working hard? Does he goes to chenni? did she sang well? Is ram is quite good at studies? Does hari charges higher prices? Was it very wicked? Was it a perfect day? Am I coming out of the shadow? Shall I help you in very way?

Sl.no 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

PARTS OF SPEECH (What is parts of speech) The words which are used in the formation of sentence are called parts of speech. There are eight parts. They are 1. Noun 2. Pronoun 3. verb 4. adverb 5. Adjective 6. Preposition 7.conjunction 8. Interjection 1. Noun: A noun is a word used to denote a person, place, animal, and thing Ex: Atoka was a wise king Santee works hard Rona is a good girl My sore is a beautiful place. 2. Pronoun: The word which is used instead of noun is called Pronoun. Ex: She is a good girl. He is my brother They are students She is cooking


Kinds of Pronoun a. Personal Pronoun Ex: He b. Reflexive Pronouns Ex: c. Demonstrative Pronoun Ex: Those mangoes are mine d. Indefinite pronoun Ex: Anyone some somebody e. Distributive pronoun Ex: everybody each f. Relative Pronoun Ex: g. interrogative Pronoun Ex :which who whose

Verb is a word which is used to express the action of Noun or Pronoun Ex: Rave thrown a stone Krishna is a grazing the cows The rat runs away from the room They have come home. They are two kinds of verbs. 1. Main verb 2. helping verb (auxiliary verb) Helping verbs: is used with the main verb Ex: am, have, have been, had, had been, has, were, may be can , can be shall, could. Ex: I am playing cricket We are going to cinema He is running The have already arrived here. • Irregular verbs are irregular in the past simple in the positive only (not in the negative or question form): go — went She went home yesterday, sit — sat I sat down, write -- wrote She wrote for hours. ADVERB Express the nature of action and it also called the detail of verb. It is used to say something about the verb. Ex: The train moves slowly Dear goes fastly He walks quickly She speaks loudly


Adverbs of manner • Adverbs of manner are formed from adjectives by adding ly: quick --> quickly; polite —> politely; careful —• carefully • Note these irregulars: good -> well; hard -> hard; fast --> fast; early --> early; late --> late; loud --> loud or loudly. He's a good worker. He works well. She's a hard worker. She works hard. She's a fast runner. She runs fast. Practice Write the adverbs. quick slow fast careful stupid dangerous bad intelligent

Polite rude brave early good hard clever nice

Comparison of adverbs • Most adverbs are used with more and most: slowly —> more slowly, most slowly dangerously--> more dangerously, most dangerously • One-syllable adverbs add er and est: hard —• harder, hardest; fast --> faster, fastest; loud --> louder, loudest • The irregular comparisons are: well Better best badly worse worst little less least


farther/ further

farthest/ furthest

ADJECTIVE It is used to say something about the noun. It speaks about the quantity of noun. It also speaks about the number and quality of a noun. Ex: Leela is a good girl Soma is strong boy They gave him ten mangoes There is some rice in the bag.


Possessive adjectives • Each pronoun has a possessive adjective: I —> my you —> your he —> his she — her we —> our you —> our they --> their it —> its

Kinds of Adjective a. Quantitative Adjective Show the kind or quality of a person or thing; as Ex: Kolkata is a large city He is an honest man b. Qualitative Adjective Shows how much of a thing is meant; as Ex: I ate some rice He showed much patience He has little intelligence He has lost all his wealth C.Demonstrative Adjective Point out which person or things is meant; as Ex: The boy is stronger than Prasad I hate such things Those rascals must be punished

COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES IRREGULAR COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES These adjectives have completely irregular comparative and superlative forms: Adjective Good Bad Little Much Far Comparative Better Worse Less More further / farther Superlative best worst least most furthest / farthest



Number of syllables Comparative Superlative One syllable + -er + -est Tall Taller tallest one syllable with the spelling consonant + single vowel + consonant: double the final consonant: Fat Fatter fattest Big Bigger biggest Sad Sadder saddest two syllables + -er OR more + adj + -est OR most + adj ending in: -y, -ly, -ow ending in: -le, -er or -ure these common adjectives - handsome, polite, pleasant, common, quiet Happy Yellow Simple Tender happier/ more happy yellower/ more yellow Simpler/ more simple Tenderer/ more tender happiest/ most happy yellowest/ most yellow simplest/ most simple tenderest/ most tender

If you are not sure, use MORE + OR MOST + Note: Adjectives ending in '-y' like happy, pretty, busy, sunny, lucky etc:. replace the -y with -ier or -iest in the comparative and superlative form Busy Nmber of syllables three syllables or more Important Expensive Examples: a. A cat is fast, a tiger is faster but a cheetah is the fastest b. A car is heavy, a truck is heavier, but a train is the heaviest c. A park bench is comfortable, a restaurant chair is more comfortable, but a sofa is the most comfortable PREPOSITION Preposition is word used before a noun or pronoun in a sentence to show how the noun or pronoun stands in relation with a verb or an adjective or another noun or pronoun. busier Comparative more + adj more important more expensive busiest Superlative most + adj most important most expensive


A preposition is a word placed before a noun or a noun equivalent to show in what relation that noun or noun equivalent stands to something else in that sentence. A preposition can be one word or a group of words. Ex: The crow on the tree There are cows in the field He is fond of sweets

(On, in, of, by, for, at, into, upon, off, from, to inside, outside, without, within, about , beyond, with beside, since, around, beneath, under, through, up, down, between) at in, on • at is used for a place when the exact position is not very important: He was standing at the gate. We were waiting at the station. • on is used when the place is seen as a line or surface: The cat sat on the table. There was a picture on the wall. • in is used when the place is seen as having volume or area: The dog was in the car. My keys are in my bag. Prepositions of movement (to, at, or away from a place) She ran to the gate She stood at the gate. She walked away from the gate. on, onto, or off a line or surface (a wall, table, floor, etc.) put the money onto the table. The money's on the table. The money fell off the table. in, into, or out of a box, car, or anything with volume in (to) out (of) The dog jumped into the car. The dog's in the car. Take the dog out of the car. Certain verbs with to or at • Some verbs are followed by to or at, and some verbs do not use a preposition: Listen to me! Look at me! She told me the news. PREPOSITIONS OF TIME (at, in, on )


• at a point in time: at four o'clock, at bedtime • on a day or date; on Monday, on July 6th, on your birthday • in a period of time: in the morning, in April, in the summer, in 1987 Notes • at night, • on Monday, in the morning, on Monday morning until, before, after • before and after can be followed by a noun, pronoun, clause or gerund: I'll see you after lunch.. John arrived before me. She phoned after the party started. We had some coffee before starting the meeting. 1 I learnt to speak some Turkish. I went to Turkey. / learnt to speak some Turkish before I went to Turkey. 2 They stayed awake. Their daughter came home. 4 I'm going to stay here. It's time to go home. 5 I'm going to finish working. I'm sixty. 6 The meeting started. I arrived. 7 We waited. The ambulance came. 8 Are you going to carry on working at the cafe? You can find a better job. 9 I'd like to visit the Acropolis. I leave Greece. 10 He usually has a big breakfast. He goes to work. Kinds of preposition: a. Simple preposition: (by, for) b. Compound Preposition (about, over) CONJUNCTION Conjunction is a word used to connect the two words or two sentences. (And, but, so, or, because, since, although, unless, if yet, as, as if, where, than, when, that, while, before, after, though, till, than, until, although, whether, in order that) Ex: Time and tide wait for none. Is it coffee or tea? He is tall and thin He ran way because he was afraid Singh and Riana are sisters.


Don’t talk while you are writing INTERJECTION An interjection is a word used to express sudden feeling of joy, sorrow, anger, surprise and the like. An interjection is a word of exclamation expressing sudden feeling of excitement. Ex: Hurrah! I have secured the fist rank What a beautiful flower rose is! How big this temple is? How great he is? What a precious thing diamond is! What a useful thing iron is! Kinds of Interjection a. Expressing a joy b. Expressing a sorrow c. Expressing a surprise d. Expressing a recognition e. Expressing a contempt f. Expressing an approval / admiration THE TENSES The Tenses are associated with “verbs”. The word tenses means time. The Tenses tell us about the time of action or event that takes place. The tenses tell us about when actually a work is done or was done, or will be done. Kinds of tenses There are mainly three kinds of tenses. They are Present tenses, Past tenses, Future tenses. 1. Present Tenses a. Simple present tenses Simple present tense shows that action or work take place at present but it does not say when actually the work begins and when it ends. It simply says that works take places at present. Ex: I drink milk He drives the car She clean the floor They eat fruits. Sl.no 1 2 3 4 5 Interrogative (present Tenses) Does he go to college everyday? Do you write a letter? Are you read Hindi? What do you do in this house? Does he climb on the tower


Sl.no 1 2 3 4 5

Negative (present Tenses) He does not go to college He does not write a letter He does note like to read Hindi She does not eat He does not know how to catch

B.Present Continuous Tenses The present continuous Tenses show that the work has started presently but it going on continuously. It means the work has not yet been completed. Hence the verb is said to be in the present continuous Tenses. Ex: He is working in the field. The child is weeping. We are going to school. We are running. Sl.no 1 2 3 4 5 Sl.no 1 2 3 4 5 Interrogative (present continuous Tenses) Am I reading? Is he going to college? Is she coming to your dinner? Are they killing? Am I working in this school? Negative (present continuous Tenses) I am not drinking any cold drinks You are not going to college She is not dancing on the road You are not looking happy I am not going to cinema hall

C. Present Prefect Tenses Present Perfect Tenses shows that the work which has started something now (before) has been just now finished or completed, have been in progress for quite sometime (or over period of time). Perfect means complete. So, the work said to be in the present perfect tense. Ex: The birds have built a strong nest. They have made beautiful kites He has repaired the scooter Sl.no 1 2 Interrogative (present Prefect Tenses) Have you killed a deer? Have you known him? 11

3 4 5 Sl.no 1 2 3 4 5

Has he left his home? Has she met her friends? Have you seen a good picture? Negative (present prefect Tenses) He has not taken She has not finished her job You have not spoken in Hindi I have not won this game I have not finished this lesson

d. Present Prefect Continuous Tenses The Present prefect continuous Tenses shows that work which has started some thing now (before) has been temporarily (once) completed but again it has been set in operating to go on for long. It means the work has been going since long time, to stop ultimately at something. Ex: It has been raining since morning. They have been waiting for him. He has been reading the books since afternoon. He has playing the game since evening. Sl.no 1 2 3 4 5 Sl.no 1 2 3 4 5 Interrogative (present Prefect Continuous Tenses) Have I been reading since morning? Has chandru not been eating the food for two days? Has she been cooking for two hours? Has he been sitting on the rock since morning? Have they been waiting for him? Negative (present prefect Continuous Tenses) He has not been climbing the pole for three minutes I have not been dancing since 5 o’clock She has not been singing for two hours I have not been working since morning She has not been cooking for two hours

2. Past Tenses a. Simple past tenses The simple past tenses show that verb or action took place in the past time. But does not say when actually the work begins and when it ended. It simply says that the work begin and ended in past. Ex: They broke the pot He sold his cow for Rupees. 8000. He held the ball correctly The baby drank milk. 12

Sl.no 1 2 3 4 5 Sl.no 1 2 3 4 5

Interrogative (Simple past Tenses) Did he bring a note book? Did you drink tea? Did she come at morning? Did he write a letter? Did she bring a toy? Negative (Simple past Tenses) I did not go He did not sing a good song She did not speak It did not play He did not write a letter

b .Past Continuous Tenses The past continuous Tenses shows that the work had started in the past time, it was going on continuously. It means that the work had not yet been completed. Hence, the work is said to be in the past continuous tenses. Ex: They were going to the temple The dog was barking He was ploughing the land The cows were eating the grass. Sl.no 1 2 3 4 5 Sl.no 1 2 3 C. Past Prefect Tenses Past prefect tenses shows that the work which had started in the past time had just then been finished or completed, having been in progress quite some time (or over period of time) “perfect” completed. Ex: He had requested them to help him They had gone out when he arrived there She had given a diamond ring to her sister. 13 Interrogative (Past Continuous Tenses) Was he going to college? Were you cooking meals? Were they playing? Was it sitting on the table? Was it raining? Negative (Past Continuous Tenses)

He had participated in all the games. Sl.No 1 2 3 4 5 Sl.no Interrogative (Past Prefect Tenses) Had he bought your site? Had she reached your school? Had he broken the chair before the bus came? Has she seen this dog with you?

Negative (Past Prefect Tenses) 1 I had not been beaten to him before he told 2 He had not broken the chair before the bus came 3 She had not seen this dog with you 4 He had not bought your site 5 He had not reached your school D. Past Prefect Continuous Tenses The past prefect continuous tenses shows that the work had been started in the past had been temporarily (once) complete but again it had been operation to go on far long. It means that work had been gone since long time, to stop ultimately at sometime. Ex: She had been previously learning in our school. He had been writing the poetry before joining the army. He had been working as a professor when he was sent aboard. Sl.No 1 2 3 4 5 Sl.no 1 2 3 4 5 Interrogative (Past Prefect Continuous Tenses) He had been working for ten hours. She had been weeping for two hours Child had been sleeping since 8’o clock He had been writing the books before joining the school He had been working as commissioner when he was sent abroad Negative (Past Prefect Continuous Tenses) Had she not been cooking the food for three days Had he not been working for 3 days Had child not been sleeping since yesterday

3. Future Tenses a. Simple future tenses Simple future tenses shows that the work or action has not yet begun and that will take place sometime later. So, that the work or action will take place in future. Ex: She will return the book in about a week. He will start a hotel in few days.


If you study hard, you will get the first rank. Sl.No 1 2 3 4 5 Sl.no Interrogative (future Tenses) Will you come? Will she meet Ravi on Monday? Shall I play boot ball? Shall he go to school? Shall she sing a good song? Negative (future Tenses)

1 I shall not go to the school 2 She will not come from Hyderabad 3 She will not go now 4 You will not go to market 5 B .Future Continuous Tenses Future Continuous Tenses shows that the work which will start sometime later, that is, in the future time, will continue thereafter for quite some time. Ex: From next month onwards, he will be getting more salary. Tomorrow by this time, we shall be traveling in the bus. Sl.No 1 2 3 4 5 Sl.no 1 2 3 4 5 Interrogative (future Continuous Tenses) Shall I be dancing? Shall I be cutting the plants? Shall I be playing match at this time next morning? Will he be going? Negative (future Continuous Tenses) They will not be coming tomorrow Shall he not be reading a book Shall I not be playing match at this time next morning

C. Future Prefect Tenses Future perfect tenses shows that the work which will begin in the future tie or whichhas already begun and it is in progress over a period of time, will be completed. Ex: Before, his retirement, he will be served the department for twenty years. Tomorrow by now, they will reached their place. Before you reach the bus stand, the bus will have arrived there. Sl.No Interrogative (future perfect Tenses)


1 2 3 4 5 Sl.no 1 2 3 4 5

Shall I be dancing? Shall I be cutting the plants? Shall I be playing match at this time next morning? Will he be going? Negative (future perfect Tenses) They will not be coming tomorrow Shall he not be reading a book Shall I not be playing match at this time next morning

d. Future Prefect Continuous Tenses Future Prefect Continuous Tenses shows that the work or action which has already begun and has been in progress over a period of tie will continue to be in operation in the future time. Ex: Next this day, he will have been running his school for forty years. Tomorrow by now, she will have been celebrating her second marriage anniversary day.

Present Tense Give Go Come Take Do Look Clean Drive Pour Drink Sing Work Bind Bend Arise Write Hope Become Break Ride Grow

Past Tense Gave Went Came Took Did Looked Cleaned Drove Poured Drank Sang Worked Bound Bent Arose Wrote Hopped Became Broke Rode Grew

Past participle Given Gone Come Taken Done Looked Cleaned Driven Poured Drunk Sung Worked Bound Bent Arisen Written Hopped Become Broken Ridden Grown


Broadcast Buy Build Bring Blow Open Shut Wonder See Hide Walk Make Bite Eat Pay Read Know Forget Forgive Hit Ring Rise Send Shake Reply Return Run Sell Mean Leave Lead Tell Understand Hold Keep Fly Feel Fall Lose Sleep Throw Stand Swim Steal Spread

Broadcast Bought Built Brought Blew Opened Shut Wondered Saw Hid Walked Made Bit Ate Paid Red Knew Forgot Forgave Hit Range Rose Sent Shook Replied Returned Ran Sold Meant Left Led Told Understood Held Kept Flew Felt Fell Lost Slept Threw Stood Swam Stole Spread

Broadcast Bought Built Brought Blown Opened Shut Wondered Seen Hidden Walked Made Bitten Eaten Paid Red Known Forgotten Forgiven Hit Rung Risen Sent Shaken Replied Returned Run Sold Meant Left Led Told Understood Held Kept Flown Felt Fallen Lost Slept Thrown Stood swum Stolen Spread 17

Spend Sweep Wear Weep Withhold Withdraw

Spent Swept Wore Wept Withheld Withdrew

Spent Swept Worn Wept Withheld withdrawn

Articles An Article is a word used before a noun to show whether that noun is the singular form or plural form. There are three articles. They are ‘A’, “AN”, and “The”. “A” and “AN” are used before nouns each denoting a singular form. “The” is used before nouns denoting both singular and plural numbers, but particular definite persons, things, etc,. Example on the Article “A” It is a tree. He is a student. She is a singer It is a book It is a chair. There is a cup on the table. Example on the article “An” (“AN” is used before words beginning with vowels, a,e, I , o , u) It is an elephant It is an ink-bottle It is an orange It is an ass. It is an umbrella. Examples on the article “The” (“The” is used before nouns denoting great persons etc., in the world, as – The Mount Everest is the tallest peak in the world. The Atlantic Ocean stretches between Europe and America. Kalidas is the shekespeare of India. The Ganga is the most sacred river.



A group of things that are arranged in or happen in an order is called sequence. Ex: 1. He did a great deal of penance 2. There was a hill called brahmagiri 3. Brahma was pleased and granted his wish. 4. He had no children. 5. On that hill there lived a sage named kavera Answer 2. There was a hill called brahmagiri 5. On that hill there lived a sage named kavera 4. He had no children. 1. He did a great deal of penance 3. Brahma was pleased and granted his wish. SYNONYMS Synonyms are words of the same grammatical class that have a similar meaning. Baby : Infant Buy : purchase Sick : ill Walk : step Fast : quick Harm : damage Funny : amusing Hard : difficult Close : shut Old : aged Smart : wise Avenue - pin Spectator - without taking part Club - a heavy wooden stick Student: Pupil Pretty : attractive Freedom: liberty Dead : deceased House : home Exit : leave Search : seek Noon : midday Easy : simple Silly : foolish Little : small Raised - brought up Stalwart - a wide street in a town

WORD FORMATION – COMPOUND WORDS. A compound word is a combination of two or more separate words that functions as a single word and has its own special meaning. 1. Hand 2. Pen 3. Money 4. Tea 5. Wedding 6. Honey 7. Fire - Hand bag - Pen knife - money cap - Tea spoon - Wedding card - Honey moon - Fire wood


8. Heat 9. Guilty

- heat engine - Guilty person

TRANSFORMATION OF SENTENCE To transform a sentence is to change it from one grammatical form to another without altering its sense. Use of “IF” or “IF NOT” 1.I fail to maintain the standard, I demand of you, you may criticize me. If I fail to maintain the standard I demand of you, you may criticize me. 2. Tell me the truth or I will flog the skin off your back. If Tell me the truth or I will flog the skin off your back. 'IF' SENTENCES AND THE 'UNREAL' PAST In this section you will find information on sentences containing the word 'if', the use of conditional tenses, and the 'unreal past', that is, when we use a past tense but we are not actually referring to past time. IF AND THE CONDITIONAL There are four main types of 'if' sentences in English: 1. The 'zero' conditional, where the tense in both parts of the sentence is the simple present: 'IF' CLAUSE If + simple present If you heat ice If it rains MAIN CLAUSE simple present it melts. you get wet

In these sentences, the time is now or always and the situation is real and possible. They are often used to refer to general truths. 2. The Type 1 conditional, where the tense in the 'if clause is the simple present, and the tense in the main clause is the simple future 'IF' CLAUSE If + simple present If it rains If you don't hurry MAIN CLAUSE Simple future you will get wet we will miss the train.

Nouns- Singular & Plural There are some general rules for changing the singular form of a noun to its plural form.


Eg: Common nouns. Pen(singular) – Pens(plural) Collective nouns. Army(singular) – Armies(plural) Proper, abstract & material nouns can have plural forms when they are used as common nouns. All of you must be aware that the most common form of forming a plural by adding an “s” to the noun. Eg: Hand – Hands House - Houses

Plural of the nouns ending in “x” “sh” or “ch” (ahissing sound) is ormed by adding “es” at the end. Eg: glass – glasses box – boxes brush - brushes bench - benches Plural of the nouns ending in a “y” and having a consonant before “y” is formed by changing “y” into “ies”. Eg: army – armies lady - ladies baby – babies fly – flies If there is a vowel before the “y”, we just add “s” to the noun to form its plural. Eg: monkey - monkeys boy - boys toy - toys donkey - donkeys day - days key – keys There are some nouns which are used in plural sense, though they look singular. Eg: These cattle (not cattles) These people These folk Some nouns are used in singular form. Eg: This scenery is beautiful. All this information was wrong. Furniture is sold here. Some nouns have the same form both in singular and plural. Eg: This deer. These deer. This sheep. These sheep. This fish. These fish. Compound nouns form their plural by adding “s” to the important word. Eg: mother-in-law - mothers-in-law step-son - step-sons passer-by - passers-by maid-servant - maidservants. Singular Plural


Man Head Dog Book Brother Formula Radius Goose Mouse Foot Tooth Life Thief

Men heads dogs Books Brothers Formulas Radii Geese Mice Feet Teeth Lives thieves

PUNCTUATION The word punctuation comes from the latin word “Punctum” which means the right use of putting in points in writing. The Full stop The full stop indicates the close of a sentence. The sentence following it would invariably start with a capital letter. Example: He is one of the good boys. The Comm(,) Just as the full stop is the longed pause, the comma represents the shortest pause. Ex: Health, wealth and peace go together. He lived wisely, prudently and honestly. The Quotation Marks / Inverted Comma Quotation marks (inverted comas) are used to mark off the actual words of a speaker, or a quotation. Inverted Comma and Apostrophe Apostrophe is used to show the omission of a letter to letters. Ex: I don’t know, doesn’t I’ve etc… QUESTION MARK (?) It is used at the end of an Interrogative sentence. Ex: Do you know this gentleman? What are you doing there? 22

The Exclamatory Mark (!) The exclamation mark is used after words or sentences expressing surprise, joy, sorrow, or a wish. Ex: What a naughty boy! How heartless they are! COLON (: ) These are some important cities in karnatka: Bangalore, Hubli, Harihar. Semi Colon ( ;) Ex: Here court was pure; serene. Degrees of Compression (Three degree of comparision, positive, comparative degree and superlative degree) Sudha is a tall girl. Ramani is taller than sudha. Geeta is tallest in the class. The sentence 1. merely tells us that height without saying how much of it has, the sentences 2 to tells ramani compare with sudha. Sentence 3 geetha is the tallest in the class (all the class) Positive Comparative superlative Small Smaller Smallest Clever Cleverer Cleverest Young Younger Youngest Tall Taller Tallest Great Greater Greatest Sweet Sweeter Sweetest White Whiter Whitest Large Larger Largest Brave Braver Bravest Happy Happier Happiest Red Redder Reddest Thin Thinner Thinnest Fat Fatter Fattest Big Bigger Biggest Good Better Best Bold Bolder Boldest Wise Wiser wisest ANTONYMS (OPPOSITES) Antonyms are words of the same grammatical class that have opposite meanings. Short Long Good Bad Understand Misunderstand Strong Week Thick Thin Honest Dishonest 23

Outside Legal Valid Expected Wanted Regularly Satiable Reasonable Co-operation Pleasant Like Able Active Artificial Brave Cunning Careful Duplicate Essential Fortunate General High Heavy Hopeful Important Last Meaningful Superior Suitable Regular Same Positive Obedient Pleasant Proper

Inside Illegal Invalid Unexpected Unwanted Irregulary Insatiable Unreasonable Non-co-operation Unpleasant Dislike Unable Inactive Natural Coward Honest Careless Original Inessential Unfortunate Particular Low Light Hopeless Unimportant First Meaningless Inferior Unsuitable Irregular Different Negative Disobedient Unpleasant Improper

Wrong Comfort Healthy Pure Absence Safe Black Open Wicked Major Clean Cold Angry Cheap Difficult Bad Down Efficient False Familiar Grateful Humble Hard Interesting Kind Left Tight Sufficient Slow Dangerous Modern Necessary Old Perfect Small

Right Discomfort Unhealthy Impure Presence Unsafe White Close Virtuous Minor Unclean Hot Calm Costly Easy Good Up Inefficient True Unfamiliar Ungrateful Hughty Soft Uninteresting Unkind Right Loose Insufficient Fast Safe Ancient Unnecessary New Imperfect big

RHYMING WORDS The word having the same sound at end of lines of verses are called rhyming words. Ex: lay – gay, eye – die, ring – sing, so – go. Smile Awhile Upright Height Health Wealth Greed Need Mild Wild Brought Thought Stair There Wicket Cricket On Gone Fears years Sound Found Snow Know 24

Tent Cool Crept Aspire Art Spears Chain Just Folly Gold Ant Borrow By Note Eats Fears Shadow Paid Pool Beauty sun – one book – look pear – share walk – talk read – feed car – bar cat – hat

Bent Pool Wept Fire Heart Tears Brain Dust Jolly Cold Grant Sorrow I Throat Gets Years Meadow Raid Fool Duty Man – fan Sick – kick bright light funny bunny glad lad

Creep Eye Bright Beat Grasp See Far Say Sing See Rain Friend Mine Higher Gloom Rough Urge Paws Great late mate bad lad rude dude long song fat cat to do swiss miss

Peep Sigh Night Feet Clasp Thee Star Gay Spring E Gain Lend Fine Weather Bloom Cough Purge Jaws Late mouse house cross boss funny money

GENDERS There are four genders, they are: Masculine gender, Feminine gender, Neuter Gender and Common Genders. Masculine Gender (All male categories) God, father, brother, uncle, king, husband, emperor, actor, aster, poet, lion, tiger, dog, cock, land lord Feminine Gender (All female categories) Goddess, mother, sister, aunt, queen, wife, empress, poetess, land lady, tigress, lioness, actress.. Neuter Gender Tree, table, bench, chair, house, mountain, field etc. Common Gender Students, audience, devotees, players, umpires, applicants, people, passengers, etc. 25

Masculine Man Brother Uncle King Master Land lord Cock Boy Dog Peacock

Feminine Woman Sister Aunt Queen Mistress Land lady Hen Girl Bitch Peahen

Masculine Poet Father God Husband Actor Horse Author Tiger Lion

Feminine Poetess Mother Goddess Wife Actress Mare Authoress Tigress Lioness

CAPITAL LETTERS Capitals are used: 1. To begin a sentence. 2. to begin each fresh line of poetry 3. to begin all proper nouns and adjective 4. for all nouns and pronouns 5. to write the pronoun I and the interjection

Letter writing
Letters are of three kinds, such as 1. Social letters: letters to relatives and friends 2. Business letters: 3. Official Letters There are six points of form a letter such as a. heading b. greeting c. communication or content d. polite leave e. signature (of the writer) f. address on the envelop (readers address) a. Heading: It consists of address of the writer and date on which it is written. b. Greeting: like “dear father”, dear brother, dear sister, dear son, dear sir, dear teacher, gentle man. c. Communication or content: whatever the writer wants to say. d. Polite leave – Taking: marks the end of the letter with words like “yours lovingly”, “your affectionately”, “your loving son”, “your loving daughter”, “yours faithfully”, “yours truly”, “yours sincerely”


c. Signature (of the writer): It enables the reader to know who exactly has written him the letter. f. Address on the Envelop: The address of the reader of ther letter is written on envelop of the letter fully and neatly. 1. Write a letter to your friend inviting him to the marriage of your sister (social Letter) No. 16th, 4th cross Jayanagar Bangalore Date: 10-aug-08 Dear Ravi I am keeping myself in good health here. I wish to hear the same thing from you. My sister’s marriage is fixed. She is going to marry a handsome doctor who is settled in Bangalore. The marriage is fixed for 5th February, 09. I heartily invite you to the marriage of my sister. I am sending the invitation card along with this letter. Please come to the marriage and please us all. I hope you do not disappoint me by keeping yourself away from us. No more to write now. Yours loving Prasad, (Signature) Leave letter To The Head Master, Alike school Alike Sir Kindly requested with this letter to give one day leave for attending my sister marriage on 15th june 2010. therefore, I am not able to attend the class. Date: 10-jun-2010 Place: Bangalore Letter to father Alike 1 june 2010

yours obedient student (Prasad) th 7 standard

Dear Father


I am healthy and also same expectation from you. My examination will be commenced on next month 19th. I am studying hardly for the examination. So I can’t come to the home. Your loving son Prasad Paragraph writing What is a paragraph? It is a group of sentences that introduces, presents and develops one main idea about the topic. And it can be divided into three major parts. A. The Topic Sentence • • • • It is normally the first sentence of the paragraph. It conveys the overall point of the paragraph. It helps the writer focus on the idea written about. It helps the reader know about what the paragraph is all about.

B. The Supporting Details • • • • • They are sentences used to support the main idea stated in the topic sentence. They give more information about the main idea through examples. They say in details what the topic sentence says in general. They should be clear evidence that what the topic sentence says is trustworthy. They should be strong convincing points on which the topic sentence can rely upon.

C. The Concluding Sentence • • • • • It is a reflection of the main idea pronounced in the topic sentence. It sums up what the topic sentence and the supporting details talk about. It is the closing sentence that reminds the readers of what they have to value. It is compulsory for the completion of the paragraph unity. It eventually indicates the end of a paragraph.

It prepares the reader for a smooth transition to the next paragraph if there is one. Practice Imagine you are asked to write a paragraph about ASPIRIN, which of the following topic sentences you would prefer to open your paragraph with: 1. Aspirin is a pain killer drug, but it has side-effects. 2. Aspirin can be a fatal poison.


3. Aspirin is used to calm down headaches but it attacks the stomach. Simple paragraph Aspirin can be a fatal poison. People are used to taking aspirin whenever they feel pain. It is true that aspirin is an efficacious pain-killer for example in headache cases. However, aspirin is like any other medicine can be dangerously harmful. Any unregulated use of it may result into the damage to the lining of the stomach, prolonged bleeding time, nausea, vomiting, ulcers, liver damage, and hepatitis. It is scientifically proven that excessive use of aspirin turns it into a toxin. Its toxic effects are Kidney Damage, severe metabolic derangements, respiratory and central nervous system effects, strokes, fatal haemorrhages of the brain, intestines & lungs and eventually death. Thus, the careful and regulated use of aspirin is most advisable so as not to turn into a deadly poison Essay Writing Essay writing improves your skills as a complete communicator. It improves your writing skills, allows scope to express better and combines communication skills with knowledge about the subject. Essays, if well written, convey a message to the reader who looks at your points of view and feels Special preparation needs to be done for good essay writing: 1.1 Defining The Subject: You should have a clear conception of the subject of the essay. A little bit of homework before you start writing goes a long way in creating good ideas. 1.2 Collecting Material: For a number of topics, you need to collect more information 1.3 Logical Arrangement: Now you can decide on the line of the essay; the logical order in which you can arrange your points you have selected. But you must put them down according to some plan. 1.4 Filling The Content: Now that you have the outline and the way you want to write, you can start filling in the content in the logical order Verb ‘do’ It is used as a principal and a helping verb subject I, you, we, they He, she, it Present Do Does Past Did Did Past participle done done

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS Making questions • Questions are formed for all tenses except present simple and past simple by changing the position of the auxiliary verb {am, was, will, etc.) and the subject (I, you, she, he, etc.):


You 're going —• Are you going? He has gone -» Has he gone? • Questions are formed for the present simple and past simple by using do, does, or did: They work here. Do they work here? She lived here. Did she live here? Practice Make questions from these statements. 1 She likes travelling Does she like travelling? 2 They're working. Are they working? 3 He was playing tennis. 4 She went to school today. 5 They live here. 6 She's eating at the moment. 7 They drove to the station. 8 She's reading. 9 He had breakfast early. 10 They came today. 11 She drives to work. 12 He left this morning. 13 He was writing a letter. 14 They watched television. 15 She's at home. 16 They went home. 17 She likes horror films. 18 He's walking home. 19 They were eating ice cream. 20 They gave him the money. Make ten questions from the box below, and give the answers. Who Why When Where What What time How How much Are you going? Did they leave? Is she talking to? Did they come here? Are you looking at? Did it cost?

Example: Why did they leave? Because they wanted to catch the train. Who asked you? Who did you ask?: question words as subject or object Who drove the car?


Who did you see? What happened? What did you do? • who and what are sometimes the subject. who and what as subject + verb: Alison asked you. Who asked you? Alison. NOT Who did ask you! • who and what are sometimes the object. who and what as object + question form of verb: You asked Steve. Who did you ask? Steve. • Who stayed with you? but Who did Jane stay with? (Preposition at the end.) Practice Write the questions. 1 Who came to see me you? Raj came to see me. 2 Who ___________________ last night? Ravi met barbar. 3 What _________________you_________reading?.I like reading books. 4 Who ________________________? Priya made the cake 5 Who _________________________? Helen found the car key. 6 What ________________________ A cigarette started the fire 7 What________________________? I want some help. 8 Who ____________________You? Ravi told me 9 What ___________you_________? I said nothing. 10 Who_______________________? Ravi came with sitha Short responses using so, neither, nor • so + auxiliary verb + subject is used to say that something which is true about one thing or person is also true about another thing or person: 'I can speak Spanish.' So can I.' ( = T can speak Spanish too) • The negative form is neither/nor + auxiliary verb + subject; 'Mike didn't win the prize/ Neither/Nor did Bill' {= And Bill didn't win it) • If there is no auxiliary verb in the first sentence, do / does / did is used: 'Leo plays tennis.' 'So does Tom.' 31

'We went to the cinema last night.' So did we.' Practice Write responses to these statements using So or Neither/Nor and the word in brackets. 1. I've got a cold. (I) So have I. 2 Peter doesn't eat meat. (Steve) Neither/nor does Steve. 3.Sarah had a baby last year. (Jo) 4 We're going away for the New Year, (we) 5 I'd like to have a pet. (I) 6 Harry hasn't finished his essay. (Paul) 7 I won't be able to go to the meeting. (I) 8 Jenny could read when she was three. (Fiona) 9 I wasn't very interested in history when I was at school. (I) 10 You should do more exercise, (you) Short responses: / think so, I hope so 1 think I hope so are used to give a positive answer to a question, or to agree with someone without repeating what the other person said: 7s it Tuesday today?' 'Yes. I think so.' (= I think it is Tuesday.) 7s it ready?' 'I hope so.' (= T hope it's ready) The usual negative forms are I don't think so, and I hope not: 'Will there be many people at the meeting?' I don't think so.' I think it's going to rain.' I hope not.' Practice Underline the correct or most likely response. 1 'Is Auckland the capital of Australia?' a 'I don't think so.' b 'I hope not.' 3 'Will I have to go into hospital?' a 'No, I don't think so.' b 'Yes, I think so.' 4. 'Will the house be finished before next year? b 'No, I don't hope so.' b 'Yes, I hope not.'


5 'I think it's going to be sunny this weekend.' a T think so, because I'm playing tennis on Sunday.' b 'I hope so, because I'm playing tennis on Sunday.' 6 'Are there 31 days in July?' a 'I hope so.' b 'I hope so. 7. I think Mr. Ravi going to give a speech a. I hope so, He's really boring.' b 'I don't think so.' He's really boring. 8. 'Do you think there will be any food at the party? a. I don't think so b. I don't hope so Modals 'Modals' are the small verbs like can, must, and might, which give certain meanings to main verbs. There are twelve modal verbs: could can may date Would shall Must Ought (to) should will might Need (to)

• Positive is formed by putting the modal between the subject and the main verb: We should stay. You ought to go. He might come. • Negative is formed by adding not (or n't) after the modal: We shouldn't stay. You ought not to come. He might not come. • Questions are formed by changing the position of the modal and the subject: Should we stay? Shouldn't we stay? Ought you to go? Oughtn't yon to go? Might he come? Mightn't he come? Notes • need can be needn't [modal form) or don't need to (verb form). • Negative questions generally use n't. If not is used, there is a different word order:


Shouldn't we stay? Should we not stay? Using modals in questions and negatives Practice Rewrite these sentences as questions or negatives, according to the instruction given. 1 I must go to the hospital tonight, (negative) / mustn't go to the hospital tonight. 2 James can play the piano, (question) Can James play the piano? 3 Peter can pay for us. (question) 4 We must go to the passport office today, (negative) 5 We can go to the bank tomorrow, (negative question) 6 You should phone the school today, (negative) 7 You can answer all the questions, (question) 8 She can pay for the lessons, (negative) 9 You can talk to Mary for me. (question) 10 Peter can check the times of the trains for us. (question) 11 We must say goodbye to Alan and Sue. (question) 12 They can stay here for a week, (negative) 13 We can buy a return ticket here, (question) 14 They should help you. (negative) 15 He can understand me. (negative question) can, could • can: (i) know how to, be able to: J can swim. Mary can speak French. (ii) can: be allowed to: You can sit here. My mother says I can't go out tonight. • could: knew how to: Emily could swim when she was two. • couldn't: (i) (ii) wasn't able to: I'm sorry, I couldn't come yesterday. I couldn't go to work this morning. could/couldn't (ii) used in the second conditional [> Exercise 59} If you gave me the money, could I do the shopping? • Requests: both can and could are used in requests. Could is a little more polite: Can I have a. glass of water, please? Could you open the door for me, please?

Notes • can refers To the future if it is followed by a time word {next week, tomorrow, etc): I can do it for you next month. • In the negative: can —* can't or cannot could —* couldn't or could not.


Practice Complete these sentences using can or could. If two answers arc possible, write them both. 1 .Could.. n't you find John yesterday? 2 .Can/.Could. I come and see you tomorrow? 3…………………………………. you pass me the salt, 4. ……………………………. you play the guitar? 5. why………………………….. the children go to the cinema tonight? 6………………………………………… you help me with my suitcase, please? 7…………………………………….. you drive my car if you had to? 8……………………………………………………………. you answer the phone for me? 9 why………………………………………………… you come to the disco tomorrow? 10 It was very difficult to hear; I,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, what she was saying? 11…………………………………………….. I smoke in here. may, might may and might indicate present or future possibility: He might arrive soon. He may arrive soon. She might be angry if yon do that. She may be angry if you do that. May I? or May we? are used for polite requests, in the same way as Can I? or Can we? It is a very polite form: May I ask you a question? May I have a glass of water, please? Notes • may is occasionally used in formal English to mean to be allowed to: Guests may bring husbands or wives if they wish. • may and might are usually used in question form only with / or we: other persons more often use the positive with Do you think ...?: He might be late. —* Do you think he. might be late? • The negative of may is may not. (NOT mayn't). The negative of might is might not or mightn't. Practice


Rewrite these sentences using may or might. Where two answers are possible, write them both. 1 Maybe he'll get a new job. He might/may get a new job. 2 Do you think I could have one of these cakes? May I have one of these cakes? 3 Maybe there's some tea in the pot. 4 Would you mind if I asked you how old you are? 5 Visitors are not allowed to stay in the hospital after ten p.m. 6 Do you think I could have one of these sandwiches? 7 I think the car is in the station car park. 8.Is it all right if I use your phone? 9. Guests are allowed to wear casual dress. 10 Maybe she'll move to London. 11 There's a possibility that the show will be cancelled. 12 Maybe she'll be elected. 13 1 think that Andrew will collect the money. 14 Maybe Peter won't come to the cinema tomorrow. 15 Maybe it'll rain this afternoon. Verb ‘have’ It is used as a principal and a helping verb have to be there at 9 o'clock: have + fo-infinitive subject I, you, we, they He, she, it Present Have to Has to Past Had to Had to Past participle had had

• The verb have + the to-infinitive. Note: have + fo-infinitive has its own meaning and in this way it is like a modal verb. However, it does not have the form of a modal - it is an ordinary verb and we can use it in any tense. The form of the positive, negative and question is the same as for other verbs. USE • have + to-infinitive = It is very important to do something/It is necessary to do something. • not have + to-infinitive = It is not necessary to do something. • have + to-infinitive is very similar in meaning to must but we can use it for all tenses. We can say: We must leave early, or


We have to leave early, but only We had to leave early last night. (We do not use must in the past.) • must and have + to-infinitive have different meanings in the negative: You mustn't stay here. It's very dangerous. ( = It is very important that you don't stay here.) You don't have to wait for me. I can get a taxi home. (= It is not necessary for you to wait for me, but you can wait if you want to.) Practice Complete the sentences with have + to-infinitive in the correct form and one of the verbs below. Use have in the present simple. read come open explain get up answer shout sleep decide be talk take stop send turn

1. I .have to be.. at work at 9 o'clock in the morning, (positive) 3. she………………………………….all the phone calls at work, (positive) 2 We ..don't have to get up...early at weekends, (negative) 3. she………………………………….all the phone calls at work, (positive) 4 ……………………………………you………………………………..all these books for the exam? (question) 5. I …………………………………. which job I want before the end of the week (positive) 6 You ………………………….- I can hear you. (negative) Rewrite the sentences adding have + to-infinitive in the correct tense and form. 1. Did you take a taxi home? Did you have to take a taxi home? 2.I've used the bus for the last two days. I've had to use the bus for the last two days. 3 I do the washing once a week. 4 We didn't go to college yesterday. 5.Did you get up early this morning? 6 I'll start work next week. 7 I've always worked hard. 8 The children go to bed at 8 o'clock. 9 They don't work on Saturdays. 10 Did you take your lunch with you? 11 She worked very hard for her exam. 12 I usually cut the grass once a week. 13 She didn't cook the dinner last night. 14 Do you pay to go in?


15 I usually stay at home on Wednesdays. Complete the sentences with mustn't or the correct form of not have to. 1 She ..doesn't have. to., come if she doesn't want to. 2.we_________________miss the train. It's the last one tonight. 3. I________________do this work tonight. I can do it tomorrow. 4. I_________________clean the floor today. I cleaned it yesterday. 5. we________________ forget to lock all the doors before we go away. 6. They__________ sit in the sun for too long. They might get burnt. 7. we _____________ stay in a hotel in London. We can stay with my cousin. 8. We ________________ spend too much money tonight. We have only got a little left. Silent Letters in Words There are certain words which have a particular letter or letters that are silent and therefore the pronunciation of the word is different. B – Silent in words like Comb Dumb Debt G - Silent in words like Resign Sign K- Silent in words like Know Knee P - Silent in words like Psychology Pneumonia W - Silent in words like Write Answer HOMONYMS A homophone is a word that is pronounced the same as another word but differs in meaning. The words may be spelled the same, such as rose (flower) and rose (past tense of "rise"), or differently, such as their, there, carat, caret, and carrot, or to, two and too. Here are two or more homonyms in each sentence. Read the sentences carefully and then underline the homonyms. The first two sentences have been done for you. C - Silent in words like Scene Scent GH – Silent in words like Brought Though Night L - Silent in words like Talk Half T - Silent in words like Listen Catch D - Silent in words like Judge Edge H - Silent in words like Hour Honor N – Silent in words like Autumn U- Silent in words like Tongue Guard


1. The wind blew my blue shirt into the pool. 2. Cheryl rode along as we rowed the boat from the island to the lakeside road. 3. I’ve never seen such a beautiful scene. 4. We want a site for our home that will be out of sight. 5. The seam in the tent doesn’t seem to hold back the rain. 6. Due to the dry weather, we do not see any dew on the grass. 7. I knew they had a new gnu at the zoo. 8. Some people know that you add to find the sum. 9. They’re hanging their coats over there. 10. I ate the eight cakes that were on my plate. 11. How many ways can I tell him that he weighs too much? 12. They banned the crude band from playing at the concert. 13. She only won one ticket to the show. 14. We must raze the old building before the sun’s rays can raise the temperature. 15. We’ll find a tropical isle where I’ll walk down the aisle with my bride. 16. You’re crazy if you pierce your ankle! Pronunciation Pronunciation is the way in which a word is pronounced or spoken. Ways To Improve Your Pronunciation 1. Listen to the English news regularly - CNN - BBC - Star News 2. Be attentive when you hear others speak. 3. Look up the dictionary for the correct pronunciation of words. 4. Read the paragraph loud loudly and then tape it. After listening to tape correct your mistakes and speak again. The formation of the mouth and placing of the tongue is important for correct pronunciation. Looking into a mirror will help. 5. Enjoy the company of people who speak fluent English. 6. Buy tapes of speeches of great leaders of the world and listen to them. A skillful speaker never pronounces a word in a way that is alien to the habits of his listener. The three most common mistakes that happen while pronouncing: -- carelessness -- a put-on accent -- pronunciation that is too careful Take for example: Two most commonly used words :


Either Neither When pronounced as Either and Neither, no one notices them. But if they are pronounced as Eyether and Nyether, they will be certainly noticed and the chances are that they will cause irritation. THE QUANTIFIERS NUMBERS The cardinal numbers (one, two, three, etc.) are adjectives referring to quantity, and the ordinal numbers (first, second, third, etc.) refer to distribution. Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 40 50 Ordinal one two three four five six seven eight nine ten eleven twelve thirteen fourteen fifteen sixteen seventeen eighteen nineteen twenty twenty-one twenty-two twenty-three twenty-four twenty-five twenty-six twenty-seven twenty-eight twenty-nine thirty thirty-one forty fifty Cardinal first second third fourth fifth sixth seventh eighth ninth tenth eleventh twelfth thirteenth fourteenth fifteenth sixteenth Seventeenth eighteenth nineteenth twentieth twenty-first twenty-second twenty-third twenty-fourth twenty-fifth twenty-sixth twenty-seventh twenty-eighth twenty-ninth thirtieth thirty-first fortieth fiftieth 40

60 70 80 90 100 500 1,000 100,000 1,000,000

sixty seventy eighty ninety one hundred five hundred one thousand one hundred thousand one million

sixtieth seventieth eightieth ninetieth hundredth five hundredth thousandth hundred thousandth millionth

Examples: ● There are twenty-five people in the room. ● He was the fourteenth person to win the award since 1934. ● Six hundred thousand people were left homeless after the earthquake. ● I must have asked you twenty times to be quiet. ● He went to Israel for the third time this year. Fractions and decimals Said Half a quarter three quarters Percentages Written 25% 50% 75% 100% Said twenty five percent fifty percent seventy five percent a/one hundred percent Written 0.5 0.25 0.75 Said point five point two five point seven five

Some Tips To Learn English Better Read an extract from a book everyday. Newspaper editorials make good reading material. Read articles in magazines and try to rewrite them in your own words. Use the language as often as possible, but also try and be a good listener. Listen to the news broadcast on the radio and also on the television. It will help you improve your pronunciation. Maintain a register and keep noting down your grey areas. Go through them every week and try to correct your mistakes. Intonation and emphasis on the right word at the right time is


very important. Read aloud a passage from a book or a poem, record it and then correct intonation as you listen to it. The dictionary should be your constant companion. When in doubt about the meaning or pronunciation of a word, always refer to the dictionary. Note down some new words and phrases, which you think could be used in your day to day conversation, in your register. Group discussions are extremely important. Select a topic of your choice and discuss it with a group of friends. It will boost your confidence and will also allow you to think of new sentences. Select a topic and try to speak about it for at least a minute in front of the mirror.











Who is applied to persons only; as, "The man who was here." Which is applied to the lower animals and things without life; as, "The horse which I sold." "The hat which I bought." That is applied to both persons and things; as, "The friend that helps." "The bird that sings." "The knife that cuts." What is a compound relative, including both the antecedent and the relative and is equivalent to that which ; as, "I did what he desired," i. e. "I did that which he desired." Relative pronouns have the singular and plural alike. Who is either masculine or feminine; which and that are masculine, feminine or neuter; what as a relative pronoun is always neuter. That and what are not inflected. Who and which are thus declined: Sing. and Plural N. Who P. Whose O. Whom Sing. and Plural N. Which P. Whose O. Which

Who , which and what when used to ask questions are called Interrogative Pronouns . Tenses Present Can May Shall Will Ought Past Could Might Should Would Ought Passive Participle (Wanting) " " " " 52

There are nine auxiliary or helping verbs, viz., Be , have , do , shall , will , may , can , ought , and must . They are called helping verbs, because it is by their aid the compound tenses are formed. TO BE The verb To Be is the most important of the auxiliary verbs. It has eleven parts, viz., am, art, is, are, was, wast, were, wert; be, being and been . AM COME--HAVE COME " I am come " points to my being here, while "I have come" intimates that I have just arrived. When the subject is not a person, the verb to be should be used in preference to the verb to have ; as, "The box is come" instead of "The box has come." PAST TENSE--PAST PARTICIPLE The interchange of these two parts of the irregular or so-called strong verbs is, perhaps, the breach oftenest committed by careless speakers and writers. To avoid mistakes it is requisite to know the principal parts of these verbs, and this knowledge is very easy of acquirement, as there are not more than a couple of hundred of such verbs, and of this number but a small part is in daily use. Here are some of the most common blunders: "I seen" for "I saw;" "I done it" for "I did it;" "I drunk" for "I drank;" "I begun" for "I began;" "I rung" for "I rang;" "I run" for "I ran;" "I sung" for "I sang;" "I have chose" for "I have chosen;" "I have drove" for "I have driven;" "I have wore" for "I have worn;" "I have trod" for "I have trodden;" "I have shook" for "I have shaken;" "I have fell" for "I have fallen;" "I have drank" for "I have drunk;" "I have began" for "I have begun;" "I have rang" for "I have rung;" "I have rose" for "I have risen;" "I have spoke" for "I have spoken;" "I have broke" for "I have broken." "It has froze" for "It has frozen." "It has blowed" for "It has blown." "It has flowed" (of a bird) for "It has flown." N. B.--The past tense and past participle of To Hang is hanged or hung . When you are talking about a man meeting death on the gallows, say "He was hanged"; when you are talking about the carcass of an animal say, "It was hung," as "The beef was hung dry." Also say your coat " was hung on a hook." THE PRONOUNS Very many mistakes occur in the use of the pronouns. "Let you and I go" should be "Let you and _me_ go." "Let them and we go" should be "Let them and us go." The verb let is transitive and therefore takes the objective case. "Give me _them_ flowers" should be "Give me _those_ flowers"; "I mean _them_ three" should be "I mean those three." Them is the objective case of the personal pronoun and cannot be used adjectively like the demonstrative adjective pronoun. "I am as strong as _him_" should be "I am as strong as _he_"; "I am younger than _her_" should be "I am younger than _she_;" "He can write better than _me_" should be "He can write better than I," for in these examples the objective cases _him_, _her_ and _me_ are used wrongfully for


the nominatives. After each of the misapplied pronouns a verb is understood of which each pronoun is the subject. Thus, "I am as strong as he (is)." "I am younger than she (is)." "He can write better than I (can)." Don't say " It is me ;" say " It is I " The verb To Be of which is is a part takes the same case after it that it has before it. This holds good in all situations as well as with pronouns. The verb To Be also requires the pronouns joined to it to be in the same case as a pronoun asking a question; The nominative I requires the nominative who and the objectives me , him , her , its , you , them , require the objective whom . " Whom do you think I am?" should be " Who do you think I am?" and " Who do they suppose me to be?" should be " Whom do they suppose me to be?" The objective form of the Relative should be always used, in connection with a preposition. "Who do you take me for?" should be " Whom do, etc." "Who did you give the apple to?" should be "Whom did you give the apple to," but as pointed out elsewhere the preposition should never end a sentence, therefore, it is better to say, "To whom did you give the apple?" After transitive verbs always use the objective cases of the pronouns. For " He and they we have seen," say " Him and them we have seen."

Subject and predicate 1. Napoleon was banished. 2. Andre was captured. 3. Money is circulated. 4. Columbus was imprisoned. 5. Acorns are sprouting. 6. Bells are tolled. 7. Summer has come. 8. Sentences may be analyzed. 9. Clouds are reddening. 10. Air may be weighed. 11. Jehovah shall reign. 12. Corn is planted. 13. Grammarians will differ. 14. Snow is falling. 15. Leaves are rustling. 16. Children will prattle. 17. Crickets are chirping. 18. Eclipses have been foretold.


19. Storms may abate. 20. Deception may have been practiced. 21. Esau was hated. 22. Treason should have been punished. 23. Bees are humming. 24. Sodom might have been spared. Sentence Building Prefix the little helping words in the _second column_ to such of the more important words in the _third column_ as with them will make complete predicates, and join these predicates to all subjects in the _first column_ with which they will unite to make good sense. | | Burgoyne | Henry Hudson | Sparrows | Comets | Time | Turbans | Lime | Steam | Air | Carpets | 1 | | are | woven. was | defeated. can be | condensed. is | inhaled. have been | worn. may be | slacked. has been | wasted. could have been | seen. must have been | deceived. were | quarreling. 2 3

One verb may consist of _two, three_, or _four_ words; as, _is singing, will be sung, might have been sung_. Form _verbs_ by combining the words in columns 2 and 3, and add these verbs to all the _nouns_ in column 1 with which they appropriately combine. 1 Laws Clouds Food Health Taxes Books | 2 | | has been | have been | will be | should have been | | may be | are | | | published. | paid. | restored. preserved. | collected. | obeyed. 3

Tenses Let the teacher give other verbs, and require the pupils to name and explain the different tenses. _I walk. Thou walkest. He walks. They walk_.


In the second sentence, the verb _walk_ was changed by adding _est_; and in the third, it was changed by adding _s_. These changes are for the sake of agreement with the person of the subject. The verb ending in _est_ agrees with the subject _thou_ in the second person, and the verb ending in _s_ agrees with _he_ in the third person. In the fourth sentence, the subject is in the third person; but it is plural, and so the verb drops the _s_ to agree with they in the plural. Verbs are said to agree in +Person+ and +Number+ with their subjects. The person and number _forms_ will be found in Lessons 93, 94. +DEFINITIONS+. +_Mode_ is that modification of the verb which denotes the manner of asserting the action or being+. +The _Indicative Mode_ asserts the action or being as a fact+. +The _Potential Mode_ asserts the power, liberty, possibility, or necessity of acting or being+. +The _Subjunctive Mode_ asserts the action or being as a mere condition, supposition, or wish+. +The _Imperative Mode_ asserts the action or being as a command or an entreaty+. +The _Infinitive_ is a form of the verb which names the action or being in a general way, without asserting it of anything+. +The _Participle_ is a form of the verb partaking of the nature of an adjective or of a noun, and expressing the action or being as assumed+. +The _Present Participle_ denotes action or being as continuing at the time indicated by the predicate+. +The _Past Participle_ denotes action or being as past or completed at the time indicated by the predicate+. +The _Past Perfect Participle_ denotes action or being as completed at a time previous to that indicated by the predicate+. +_Tense_ is that modification of the verb which expresses the time of the action or being+. +The _Present Tense_ expresses action or being as present+. +The _Past Tense_ expresses action or being as past+. +The _Future Tense_ expresses action or being as yet to come+. 56

+The _Present Perfect Tense_ expresses action or being as completed at the present time+. +The _Past Perfect Tense_ expresses action or being as completed at some past time+. +The _Future Perfect Tense_ expresses action or being to be completed at some future time+. +_Number_ and _Person_ of a verb are those modifications that show its agreement with the number and person of its subject+. _Present_. Be _or_ am, Begin, Blow, Break, Choose, Come, Do, Draw, Drink, Drive, Eat, Fall, Fly, Freeze, Go, Get, Give, Grow, Have, Know, Lay, Lie, (to rest) Ride, Ring, Rise, Run, See, Set, Sit, Shake, Sing, Slay, Speak, _Past_. was, began, blew, broke, chose, came, did, drew, drank, drove, ate, fell, flew, froze, went, got, gave, grew, had, knew, laid, lay, rode, rang _or_ rung, rose, ran, saw, set, sat, shook, sang _or_ sung, slew, spoke, _Past. Par._ been. begun. blown. broken. chosen. come. done. drawn. drunk. driven. eaten. fallen. flown. frozen. gone. got _or_ gotten. given. grown. had. known. laid. lain. ridden. rung. risen. run. seen. set. sat. shaken. sung. slain. spoken. 57

Steal, Swim, Take, Tear, Throw, Wear, Write,

stole, stolen. swam _or_ swum, swum. took, taken. tore, torn. threw, thrown. wore, worn. wrote, written.

The following irregular verbs are called +_Defective_,+ because some of their parts are wanting. _Present_. Can, May, Shall, _Past_. | _Present_. | could. | Will, might. | Must, should. | Ought, _Past_. would. -------


INDICATIVE MODE. PRESENT TENSE. _Singular_. 1. I see, 2. You see, _or_ Thou seest, 3. He sees; PAST TENSE. 1. I saw, 2. You saw, _or_ Thou sawest, 3. He saw; FUTURE TENSE. 1. I shall see, 2. You will see, _or_ Thou wilt see, 1. We shall see, 2. You will see, 1. We saw, 2. You saw, 3. They saw. 1. 2. _Plural_. We see, You see, Page 88

3. They see.


3. He will see; PRESENT PERFECT

3. They will see. TENSE. 1. We have seen, 2. You have seen, 3. They have seen. 1. We had seen, 2. You had seen, 3. They had seen.

1. I have seen, 2. You have seen, _or_ Thou hast seen 3. He has seen; PAST PERFECT TENSE. 1. I had seen, 2. You had seen, _or_ Thou hadst seen, 3. He had seen; FUTURE PERFECT TENSE.

1. I shall have seen, 1. We shall have seen, 2. You will have seen, _or_ 2. You will have seen, Thou wilt have seen, 3. He will have seen; POTENTIAL MODE. PRESENT TENSE. _Singular_. 1. I may see, 2. You may see, _or_ Thou mayst see, 3. He may see; PAST TENSE. 1. I might see, 2. You might see, _or_ Thou mightst see, 3. He might see; PRESENT PERFECT TENSE. 1. I may have seen, 2. You may have seen, _or_ Thou mayst have seen, 3. He may have seen; PAST PERFECT TENSE. 3. They will have seen. _Plural_. 1. We may see, 2. You may see, 3. They may see.


1. We might see, 2. You might see, 3. They might see.

1. We may have seen, 2. You may have seen 3. They may have seen. englishgrammar _Singular_. _Plural_. 1. I might have seen, 1. We might have seen, 2. You might have seen, _or_ 2. You might have seen, Thou mightst have seen, 3. He might have seen; 3. They might have seen. SUBJUNCTIVE MODE. PRESEN T TENSE. _Singular_. 1. If I see, 2. If you see, _or_ If thou see, 3. If he see; IMPERATIVEMODE. PRESEN T TENSE. 2. See (you _or_ thou); INFINITIVES . PRESEN T TENSE. To see. PRESEN T PERFECT TENSE. To have seen. PARTICIPLE S. PRESEN T. 2. See (you). _Plural_. 1. If we see, 2. If you see, 3. If they see.






Having seen.

+To the Teacher+.--Let the pupils prefix _do_ and _did_ to the simple present _see_, and thus make the _emphatic form_ of the present and the past tense. Let _can_ and _must_ be used in place of _may_; and _could_, _would_, and _should_, in place of _might_. Require the pupils to tell how each tense is formed, and to note all changes for agreement in number and person. A majority of modern writers use the _indicative_ forms instead of the _subjunctive_, in all of the tenses, unless it may be the _present_. The _subjunctive_ forms of the verb _to be_ are retained in the present and the past tense. Let the pupils understand that the mode and tense forms do not always correspond with the actual meaning. _The ship sails next week. I may go to-morrow_. The verbs _sails_ and _may go_ are _present_ in form but _future_ in meaning. _If it rains by noon, he may not come_. The verb _rains_ is _indicative_ in form but _subjunctive_ in meaning. The plural forms, _You saw, You were_, etc., are used in the _singular_ also. CONJUGATION OF THE VERB--SIMPLE FORM. Fill out the following forms, using the principal parts of the verb _walk. Pres., walk; Past, walked; Past Par., walked_. INDICATIVE MODE. PRESEN T TENSE. _Singular_. 1. I / _Pres_ 2. You / _Pres_ Thou / _Pres_ 3. He / _Pres_ PAST TENSE 1. I 2. You Thou 3. He / / / / _Past_ _Past_ _Past_ _Past_ /, /, /st, /; 1. We 2. You 3. They / _Past_ /, / _Past_ /, / _Past_ /. /, /, /est, /s; _Plural_. 1. We / _Pres_ /, 2. You / _Pres_ /, 3. They / _Pres_ /.

FUTURE TENSE. / _Pres_ /, / _Pres_ 2. You _will_ /, Thou _wil-t_ / _Pres_ /, 1. I _shall_ 1. We _will_ / _Pres_ /,

2. You _will_ / _Pres_ /,


3. He _will_ / _Pres_ /; PRESEN T PERFECT TENSE.

3. They

_will_ / _Pres_ /.

1. I _have_ /_Past Par._/, 1. We _have_ /_Past Par._/, 2. You _have_ /_Past Par._/, 2. You _have_ /_Past Par._/, Thou _ha-st_ /_Past Par._/, 3. He _ha-s_ /_Past Par._/; 3. They _have_ /_Past Par._/. PAST PERFECT TENSE. 1. I _had_ /_Past Par._/, 1. We _had_ /_Past Par._/, 2. You _had_ /_Past Par._/, 2. You _had_ /_Past Par._/, Thou _had-st_ /_Past Par._/, 3. He _had_ /_Past Par._/; 3. They _had_ /_Past Par._/. FUTURE PERFECT TENSE. 1. I _shall have_ /_Past Par._/, 1. We _will have_ _Past Par._, 2. You _will have_ /_Past Par._/, 2. You _will have_ _Past Par._, Thou _wil-t have_ /_Past Par._/, 3. He _will have_ /_Past Par._/; 3. They _will have_ _Past Par._. POTENTIAL MODE. PRESENT TENSE. 1. I _may_ 2. You _may_ Thou _may-st_ 3. He _may_ PAST TENSE. 1. I _might_ / _Pres._ /, 2. You _might_ / _Pres._ /, Thou _might-st_ / _Pres._ /, 3. He _might_ / _Pres._ /; PRESENT PERFECT TENSE. 1. I _may have_ /_Past Par._/, 1. We _may have_ /_Past Par._/, 2. You _may have_ /_Past Par._/, 2. You _may have_ /_Past Par._/, Thou _may-st have_ /_Past Par._/, 3. He _may have_ /_Past Par._/; 3. They _may have_ /_Past Par._/. PAST PERFECT TENSE. 1. I _might have_ /_Past Par._/, 1. We _might have_ /_Past Par._/, 2. You _might have_ /_Past Par._/, 2. You _might have_ /_Past Par._/, Thou _might-st 1. We _might_ 2. You _might_ / _Pres._ /, / _Pres._ /, / / / / _Pres._ _Pres._ _Pres._ _Pres._ /, /, /, /; 1. We _may_ 2. You _may_ 3. / _Pres._ /, / _Pres._ /, They _may_ / _Pres._ /.

3. They _might_ / _Pres._ /.


have_ /_Past Par._/, 3. He _might have_ /_Past Par._/; 3. They _might have_ /_Past Par._/. SUBJUNCTIVE MODE. PRESENT TENSE. _Singular_. 1. If I 2. If you If thou 3. If he / / / / _Pres._ _Pres._ _Pres._ _Pres._ /, /, /, /; _Plural_. 1. If we 2. If you / _Pres._ /, / _Pres._ /,

3. If they / _Pres._ /.

IMPERATIVE MODE. PRESENT TENSE. 2. / _Pres._ INFINITIVES. PRESENT TENSE. To / _Pres._ /. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE. To _have_ /_Past Par._/. PARTICIPLES. PRESENT. PAST. /_Pres./ing_. /_Past Par._/ PAST PERFECT. _Having /Past Par./_ / (you _or_ thou); 2. / _Pres._ / (you).

+To the Teacher+.--Let the pupils fill out these forms with other verbs. In the indicative, present, third, singular, _es_ is sometimes added instead of _s_; and in the second person, old style, _st_ is sometimes added instead of _est_. CONJUGATION OF THE VERB BE. In studying this Lesson, pay no attention to the line at the right of each verb. INDICATIVE MODE. PRESENT TENSE. _Singular_. 1. I am ----, 2. You are ---- _or_ Thou art ----, 3. He is ----; PAST TENSE. 1. I was ----, 2. You were ----, _or_ Thou wast ----, 3. He was ----; FUTURE TENSE.


1. I shall be ----, 2. You will be ----, _or_ Thou wilt be ----, 3. He will be ----; PRESENT PERFECT TENSE. 1. I have been ----, 2. You have been ---- _or_ Thou hast been ----, 3. He has been ----; PAST PERFECT TENSE. 1. I had been ----, 2. You had been ---- _or_ Thou hadst been ----, 3. He had been ----; FUTURE PERFECT TENSE. 1. I shall have been ----, 2. You will have been ---- _or_ Thou wilt have been ----, 3. He will has been ----; POTENTIAL MODE. PRESENT TENSE. _Singular_. 1. I may be ----, 2. You may be ---- _or_ Thou mayst be ----, 3. He may be ----; PAST TENSE. 1. I might be ----, 2. You might be ---- _or_ Thou mightst be ----,

_Plural_. 1. We are ----, 2. You are ----, 3. They are ----.

1. We were ----, 2. You were ----, 3. They were ----.

1. We shall be ----, 2. You will be ----, 3. They will be ----.

1. We have been ----, 2. You have been ----, 3. They have been ----.

1. We had been ----, 2. You had been ----, 3. They had been ----.

1. We shall have been ----, 2. You will have been ----, 3. They will have been ----. _Plural_. 1. We may be ----, 2. You may be ----, 3. They may be ----. 1. We might be ----, 64

2. You might be ----,


3. He might be ----; PRESENT PERFECT TENSE. 1. I may have been ----, 2. You may have been ---- _or_ Thou mayst have been ----, 3. He may have been ----; PAST PERFECT TENSE. 1. I might have been ----, 2. You might have been ---- _or_ Thou mightst have been ----, 3. He might have been ----;

3. They might be ----. 1. We may have been ----, 2. You may have been ----, 3. They may have been ----. 1. We might have been ----, 2. You might have been ----, 3. They might have been ----.



PRESENT TENSE. _Singular_. 1. If I be ----, 2. If you be ---- _or _ If thou be ----, 3. If he be ----; PAST TENSE. 1. If I were ----, 2. If you were ---- _or_ If thou wert ----, 3. If he were ----; IMPERATIVE MODE. PRESENT TENSE. 2. Be (you _or_ them) ----; INFINITIVES. PRESENT TENSE. To be ----. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE. To have been ----. PARTICIPLES. PRESENT. Being ----. _Plural_. 1. If we be ----, 2. If you be ----, 3. If they be ----. PAST. Been.

1. If we were ----, 2. If you were ----, 3. If they were ----. 2. Be (you)------. PAST PERFECT. Having been ----. +To the Teacher+.--After the pupils have become thoroughly familiar with the verb _be_ as a principal verb, teach them to use it as an auxiliary in making the +Progressive Form+ and the +Passive Form+. The _progressive form_ may be made by filling all the blanks with the _present participle_ of some verb. 67

The _passive form_ may be made by filling all the blanks with the _past participle_ of a _transitive_ verb. Notice that, after the past participle, no blank is left. In the progressive form, this participle is wanting; and, in the passive form, it is the same as in the simple. AGREEMENT OF THE VERB. +To the Teacher+.--For additional matter, see pp. 163-167. +_Remember_+ that the verb must agree with its subject in number and person. Give the person and number of each of the following verbs, and write sentences in which each form shall be used correctly. _Common forms_.--Does, has=ha(ve)s, is, am, are, was, were. _Old forms_.--Seest, sawest, hast=ha(ve)st, wilt, mayst, mightst, art, wast. When a verb has two or more subjects connected by _and_, it must agree with them in the plural. _A similar rule applies to the agreement of the pronoun_. CORRECT THE FOLLOWING ERRORS. +Model+.--Poverty and obscurity _oppresses_ him who thinks that _it is oppressive_. Wrong: the verb _oppresses_ should be changed to _oppress_ to agree with its two subjects, connected by _and_. The pronoun _it_ should be changed to _they_ to agree with its two antecedents, and the verb _is_ should be changed to _are_ to agree with _they_. Industry, energy, and good sense is essential to success. Time and tide waits for no man. The tall sunflower and the little violet is turning its face to the sun. The mule and the horse was harnessed together. Every green leaf and every blade of grass seem grateful. +Model+.--The preceding sentence is wrong. The verb _seem_ is plural, and it should be singular; for, when several singular subjects are preceded by _each_, every_, or _no_, they are taken separately. Each day and each hour bring their portion of duty. Every book and every paper were found in their place. When a verb has two or more singular subjects connected by _or_ or _nor_, it must agree with them in the singular. _A similar rule applies to the agreement of the pronoun_. CORRECT THE FOLLOWING ERRORS. One or the other have made a mistake in their statement. Neither the aster nor the dahlia are cultivated for their fragrance. Either the president or his secretary were responsible. 68

Neither Ann, Jane, nor Sarah are at home. To foretell, or to express future time simply, the auxiliary _shall_ is used in the first person, and _will_ in the second and third; but when a speaker determines or promises, he uses _will_ in the first person and _shall_ in the second and third. CORRECT THE FOLLOWING ERRORS. I will freeze, if I do not move about. You shall feel better soon, I think. She shall be fifteen years old to-morrow. I shall find it for you, if you shall bring the book to me. You will have it, if I can get it for you. He will have it, if he shall take the trouble to ask for it. He will not do it, if I can prevent him. I will drown, nobody shall help me. I will be obliged to you, if you shall attend to it. We will have gone by to-morrow morning. You shall disappoint your father, if you do not return. I do not think I will like the change. Next Tuesday shall be your birthday. You shall be late, if you do not hurry. ERRORS IN THE FORM OF THE VERB. CORRECT THE FOLLOWING ERRORS. +Model+.--Those things _have_ not _came to-day_. Wrong, because the past _came_ is here used for the past participle _come_. The present perfect tense is formed by prefixing _have_ to the _past participle_. I done all my work before breakfast. I come in a little late yesterday. He has went to my desk without permission. That stupid fellow set down on my new hat. _Set_ is generally transitive, and _sit_ is intransitive. _Lay_ is transitive, and _lie_ is intransitive. He sat the chair in the corner. Sit that plate on the table, and let it set. I have set in this position a long time. That child will not lay still or set still a minute. I laid down under the tree, and enjoyed the scenery. Lie that stick on the table, and let it lay. Those boys were drove out of the fort three times. I have rode through the park. I done what I could. He has not spoke to-day. The leaves have fell from the trees. This sentence is wrote badly. 69

He throwed his pen down, and said that the point was broke. He teached me grammar. I seen him when he done it. My hat was took off my head, and throwed out of the window. The bird has flew into that tall tree. I was chose leader. ar I have began to do better. I begun this morning. My breakfast was ate in a hurry. Your dress sets well. That foolish old hen is setting on a wooden egg. He has tore it up and throwed it away. William has took my knife, and I am afraid he has stole it. This should be well shook. I begun to sing, before I knowed what I was doing. We drunk from a pure spring. I thought you had forsook us. His pencil is nearly wore up. He come, and tell me all he knowed about it. REVIEW questions +To the Teacher+.--See "Scheme," p. 187. How many modifications have verbs? Ans.--_Five; viz., voice, mode, tense, number, and person_. Define voice. How many voices are there? Define each. Illustrate. What is mode? How many modes are there? Define each. What is an infinitive? What is a participle? How many different kinds of participles are there? Define each. Illustrate. What is tense? How many tenses are there? Define each. Illustrate. What are the number and the person of a verb? Illustrate. What is conjugation? What is synopsis? What are auxiliaries? Name the auxiliaries. What are the principal parts of a verb? Why are they so called? How does a verb agree with its subject? When a verb has two or more subjects, how does it agree? Illustrate the uses of _shall_ and _will_. +To the Teacher+.--Select some of the preceding exercises, and require the pupils to write the parsing of all the verbs. See Lessons 34, 35, 48, 49, and 56. +Model for Written Parsing--Verbs+.--_The Yankee, selling his farm, wanders away to seek new lands_. CLASSIFICATION. _Verbs_. *selling wanders *seek _Kind_. MODIFICATIONS. --Ind. ----Pres. " SYNTAX . ----- Mod. of _Yankee_. Sing. 3d. Pred. of " ----- Prin. word in phrase Mod. of _wanders_. 70

_Voice_. _Mode_. _Tense_. _Num_. _Per_.

Pr. Par., Ir., Tr. Ac. Reg., Int. --Inf, Ir., Tt, Ac.

[Footnote *: Participles and Infinitives have no _person_ or _number_.] SENTENCE-BUILDING. Participles sometimes partake of the nature of the noun, while they retain the nature of the verb. Build each of the following phrases into a sentence, and explain the nature of the participle. +Model+.-- ----_in building a snow fort_. They were engaged _in building a snow fort_. The participle _building_, like a noun, follows the preposition _in_, as the principal word in the phrase; and, like a verb, it takes the object complement _fort_. ---- by foretelling storms. ---- by helping others. ---- on approaching the house. ----- in catching fish. Use the following phrases as subjects. Walking in the garden ----. His writing that letter ----. Breaking a promise ----. Use each of the following phrases in a complex sentence. Let some of the dependent clauses be used as adjectives, and some, as adverbs. ---- in sledges. ---- up the Hudson. ---- down the Rhine. ---- through the Alps. ---with snow and ice. ---- into New York Bay. ---- on the prairie. ---- at Saratoga. Build a short sentence containing all the parts of speech. Expand the following simple sentence into twelve sentences. Astronomy teaches the size, form, nature, and motions of the sun, moon, and stars. Contract the following awkward compound sentence into a neat simple sentence, Hannibal passed through Gaul, and then he crossed the Alps, and then came down into Italy, and then he defeated several Roman generals. Change the following complex sentences to compound sentences. When he asked me the question, I answered him courteously. Morse, the man who invented the telegraph, was a public benefactor. When spring comes, the birds will return. Contract the following complex sentences into simple sentences by changing the verb in the dependent clause to a participle. Notice all the other changes. A ship which was gliding along the horizon attracted our attention. I saw a man who was plowing a field. When the shower had passed, we went on our way. I heard that he wrote that article. That he was a foreigner was well known. I am not sure that he did it. Every pupil who has an interest in this work will prepare for it. 71

Change the following compound sentences to complex sentences. +Model+.--Morning dawns, and the clouds disperse. When morning dawns, the clouds disperse. Avoid swearing; it is a wicked habit. Pearls are valuable, and they are found in oyster shells. Dickens wrote David Copperfield, and he died in 1870. Some animals are vertebrates, and they have a backbone. each of the following sentences as much as you can. Indians dance. The clock struck. The world moves.

MISCELLANEOUS ERRORS. CORRECT THE FOLLOWING ERRORS. I have got that book at home. +Model+.--Wrong, because _have_, alone, asserts possession. _Got_, used in the sense of _obtained_, is correct; as, _I have just got the book_. Have you got time to help me? There is many mistakes in my composition. +Model+.--Wrong, because _is_ should agree with its plural subject _mistakes_. The adverb _there_ is often used to introduce a sentence, that the subject may follow the predicate. This often makes the sentence sound smooth, and gives variety. There goes my mother and sister. Here comes the soldiers. There was many friends to greet him. It ain't there. +Model+.--_Ain't_ is a vulgar contraction. Correction--It _is not_ there. I have made up my mind that it ain't no use. 'Tain't so bad as you think. Two years' interest were due. Every one of his acts were criticised. I, Henry, and you have been chosen. +Model+.--Wrong, for politeness requires that you should mention the one spoken to, first; the one spoken of, next; and yourself, last. He invited you and I and Mary. Me and Jane are going to the fair. I only want a little piece. He is a handsome, tall man. Did you sleep good? How much trouble one has, don't they? He inquired for some tinted ladies' note-paper. 72

You needn't ask me nothing about it, for I haven't got no time to answer. Him that is diligent will succeed. He found the place sooner than me. Who was that? It was me and him. If I was her, I would say less. Bring me them tongs. Us boys have a base-ball club. Whom did you say that it was? Who did you speak to just now? Who did you mean, when you said that? Where was you when I called? There's twenty of us going. Circumstances alters cases. Tell them to set still. He laid down by the fire. She has lain her book aside. It takes him everlastingly. That was an elegant old rock. ANALYSIS AND PARSING. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain. Strike! till the last armed foe expires! You wrong me, Brutus. Shall we gather strength by irresolution and inaction? Why stand we here idle? Give me liberty, or give me death! Thy mercy, O Lord, is in the heavens, and thy faithfulness reacheth unto the clouds. The clouds poured out water, the skies sent out a sound, the voice of thy thunder was in the heaven. 9. The heavens declare his righteousness, and all the people see his glory. 10. The verdant lawn, the shady grove, the variegated landscape, the boundless ocean, and the starry firmament are beautiful and magnificent objects. 11. When you grind your corn, give not the flour to the devil and the bran to God. 12. That which the fool does in the end, the wise man does at the beginning. 13. Xerxes commanded the largest army that was ever brought into the field. 14. Without oxygen, fires would cease to burn, and all animals would immediately die. 15. Liquids, when acted upon by gravity, press downward, upward, and sideways. 16. Matter exists in three states--the solid state, the liquid state, and the gaseous state. 17. The blending of the seven prismatic colors produces white light. 18. Soap-bubbles, when they are exposed to light, exhibit colored rings. 19. He who yields to temptation debases himself with a debasement from which he can never arise. 20. Young eyes that last year smiled in ours Now point the rifle's barrel; And hands then stained with fruits and flowers Bear redder stains of quarrel. CAPITAL LETTERS AND PUNCTUATION. 73

+Capital Letters+.--The first word of (1) a sentence, (2) a line of poetry, (3) a direct quotation making complete sense or a direct question introduced into a sentence, and (4) phrases or clauses separately numbered or paragraphed should begin with a capital letter. Begin with a capital letter (5) proper names and words derived from them, (6) names of things personified, and (7) most abbreviations. Write in capital letters (8) the words _I_ and _O_, and (9) numbers in the Roman notation. [Footnote: Small letters are preferred where numerous references to chapters, etc., are made.] +Examples+.--1. The judicious are always a minority. 2. Honor and shame from no condition rise; Act well your part, there all the honor lies. 3. The question is, "Can law make people honest?" 4. Paintings are useful for these reasons: 1. They please; 2. They instruct. 5. The heroic Nelson destroyed the French fleet in Aboukir Bay. 6. Next, Anger rushed, his eyes on fire. 7. The Atlantic ocean beat Mrs. Partington. 8. The use of _O_ and _oh_ I am now to explain. 9. Napoleon II. never came to the throne. +Period+.--Place a period after (1) a declarative or an imperative sentence, (2) an abbreviation, and (3) a number written in the Roman notation. For examples see 1, 7, and 9 in the sentences above. +Interrogation Point+.--Every direct interrogative sentence or clause should be followed by an interrogation point. +Example+.--King Agrippa, believest thou the prophets? +Exclamation Point+.--All exclamatory expressions must be followed by the exclamation point. +Example+.--Oh! bloodiest picture in the book of time! +_Comma_+.--Set off by the comma (1) a phrase out of its natural order or not closely connected with the word it modifies; (2) an explanatory modifier that does not restrict the modified term or combine closely with it; (3) a participle used as an adjective modifier, with the words belonging to it, unless restrictive; (4) the adjective clause, when not restrictive; (5) the adverb clause, unless it closely follows and restricts the word it modifies; (6) a word or phrase independent or nearly so; (7) a direct quotation introduced into a sentence, unless _formally_ introduced; (8) a noun clause used as an attribute complement; and (9) a term connected to another by or and having the same meaning. Separate by the comma (10) connected words and phrases, unless all the conjunctions are expressed; (11) independent clauses, when short and closely connected; and (12) the parts of a compound predicate and of other phrases, when long or differently modified. +_Examples_+.--l. In the distance, icebergs look like masses of burnished metal. 2. Alexandria, the capital of Lower Egypt, is an ill-looking city. 3. Labor, diving deep into the earth, brings up long-hidden stores of coal. 4. The sun, which is the center of our system, is millions of miles from us. 5. When beggars die, there are no comets seen. 6. Gentlemen, this, then, is your verdict. 7. God 74

said, "Let there be light." 8. Nelson's signal was, "England expects every man to do his duty." 9. Rubbers, or overshoes, are worn to keep the feet dry. 10. The sable, the seal, and the otter furnish us rich furs. 11. His dark eye flashed, his proud breast heaved, his cheek's hue came and went. 12. Flights of birds darken the air, and tempt the traveler with the promise of abundant provisions. +_Semicolon_+.--Independent clauses (1) when slightly connected, or (2) when themselves divided by the comma, must be separated by the semicolon. Use the semicolon (3) between serial phrases or clauses having a common dependence on something that precedes or follows; and (4) before _as, viz., to wit., namely, i. e._, and _that is_, when they introduce examples or illustrations. +_Examples_+.--1. The furnace blazes; the anvil rings; the busy wheels whirl round. 2. As Caesar loved me, I weep for him; as he was fortunate, I rejoice at it; as he was valiant, I honor him; but, as he was ambitious, I slew him. 3. He drew a picture of the sufferings of our Saviour; his trial before Pilate; his ascent of Calvary; his crucifixion and death. 4. Gibbon writes, "I have been sorely afflicted with gout in the hand; to wit, laziness." +_Colon_+.--Use the colon (1) between the parts of a sentence when these parts are themselves divided by the semicolon; and (2) before a quotation or an enumeration of particulars when formally introduced. +_Examples_+.--l. Canning's features were handsome; his eye, though deeply ensconced under his eyebrows, was full of sparkle and gayety: the features of Brougham were harsh in the extreme. 2. To Lentullus and Gellius bear this message: "Their graves are measured." +_Dash_+.--Use the dash where there is an omission (1) of letters or figures, and (2) of such words as _as_, _namely_, or _that is_, introducing illustrations or equivalent expressions. Use the dash (3) where the sentence breaks off abruptly, and the same thought is resumed after a slight suspension, or another takes its place; and (4) before a word or phrase repeated at intervals for emphasis. The dash may be used (5) instead of marks of parenthesis, and may (6) follow other marks, adding to their force. +_Examples_+.--1. In M------w, v. 3-11, you may find the "beatitudes." 2. There are two things certain in this world--taxes and death. 3. I said--I know not what. 4. I never would lay down my arms--_never_-- NEVER--+NEVER+. 5. Fulton started a steamboat----he called it the Clermont--on the Hudson in 1807. 6. My dear Sir,--I write this letter for information. +_Marks of Parenthesis_+.--Marks of parenthesis may be used to enclose what has no essential connection with the rest of the sentence. +Example+.--The noun (Lat. _nomen_, a name) is the first part of speech. +_Apostrophe_+.--Use the apostrophe (1) to mark the omission of letters, (2) in the pluralizing of letters, figures, and characters, and (3) to distinguish the possessive from other cases. +_Examples_+.--1. Bo't of John Jones 10 lbs. of butter. 2. What word is there one-half of which is _p's_? 3. He washed the disciples' feet. 75

+_Hyphen_+.--Use the hyphen (-) (1) between the parts of compound words that have not become consolidated, and (2) between syllables when a word is divided. +_Examples_+.--1. Work-baskets are convenient. 2. Divide _basket_ thus: _bas-ket_. +_Quotation Marks_+--Use quotation marks to enclose a copied word or passage. If the quotation contains a quotation, the latter is enclosed within single marks. +_Example_+---The sermon closed with this sentence: "God said, 'Let there be light.'" +_Brackets_+.--Use brackets [ ] to enclose what, in quoting another's words, you insert by way of explanation or correction. +_Example_+.--The Psalmist says, "I prevented [anticipated] the dawning of the morning." SENTENCES AND PARAGRAPHS. +_To the Teacher_+.--It is very profitable to exercise pupils in combining simple statements into complex and compound sentences, and in resolving complex and compound sentences into simple statements. In combining statements, it is an excellent practice for the pupil to contract, expand, transpose, and to substitute different words. They thus learn to express the same thought in a variety of ways. Any reading-book or history will furnish good material for such practice. A few examples are given below. +_Direction_+.--Combine in as many ways as possible each of the following groups of sentences:-+_Example_+.--This man is to be pitied. He has no friends. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. This man has no friends, and he is to be pitied. This man is to be pitied, because he has no friends. Because this man has no friends, he is to be pitied. This man, who has no friends, is to be pitied. This man, having no friends, is to be pitied. This man, without friends, is to be pitied. This friendless man deserves our pity.

1. The ostrich is unable to fly. It has not wings in proportion to its body. 2. Egypt is a fertile country. It is annually inundated by the Nile. 3. The nerves are little threads, or fibers. They extend, from the brain. They spread over the whole body. 4. John Gutenberg published a book. It was the first book known to have been printed on a printing-press. He was aided by the patronage of John Paust. He published it in 1455. He published it in the city of Mentz. 5. The human body is a machine. A watch is delicately constructed. This machine is more delicately constructed. A steam-engine is complicated. This machine is more complicated. A steam-engine is wonderful. This machine is more wonderful. You see that short statements closely related in meaning may be improved by being combined. But young writers frequently use too many _ands_ and other connectives, and make their sentences too long. 76

Long sentences should be broken up into short ones when the relations of the parts are not clear. As clauses may be joined to form sentences, so sentences may be united to make _paragraphs_. A +_paragraph_+ is a sentence or a group of related sentences developing one point or one division of a general subject. The first word of a paragraph should begin a new line, and should be written a little farther to the right than the first words of other lines. +_Direction_+.--Combine the following statements into sentences and paragraphs, and make of them a complete composition:-Water is a liquid. It is composed of oxygen and hydrogen. It covers about three-fourths of the surface of the earth. It takes the form of ice. It takes the form of snow. It takes the form of vapor. The air is constantly taking up water from rivers, lakes, oceans, and from damp ground. Cool air contains moisture. Heated air contains more moisture. Heated air becomes lighter. It rises. It becomes cool. The moisture is condensed into fine particles. Clouds are formed. They float across the sky. The little particles unite and form rain-drops. They sprinkle the dry fields. At night the grass and flowers become cool. The air is not so cool. The warm air touches the grass and flowers. It is chilled. It loses a part of its moisture. Drops of dew are formed. Water has many uses. Men and animals drink it. Trees and plants drink it. They drink it by means of their leaves and roots. Water is a great purifier. It cleanses our bodies. It washes our clothes. It washes the dust from the leaves and the flowers. Water is a When predicate verbs immediately follow their subjects, there is little danger of errors in agreement, except that _was_ is often used incorrectly for _were_, and _don't_ for _doesn't_. The chief object of introducing these exercises here is to train the pupils' observation so that they will readily and naturally note the agreement of the subject and predicate when these terms are transposed, or are separated by other words. To determine the correct form of the verb in such cases, let the pupils see how it sounds when placed immediately after its subject. We suggest exercises like the following:-1 is 2 was 3 has 4 does 5 comes 6 goes 7 thinks 8 writes
Exercise 1.

are were have do come go think write


1 Group One find hear say get sit tell

3 Group Three drive eat fall give ride take

lose sell stick win

forget hide shake write

1 They _____________ the apartment that they had in Gandia for a very good price. 2 He _____________ me his name but now I've forgotten it. 3 We _____________ home at three o'clock last night. 4 Sorry I'm late. I was _____________ in traffic. 5 Valencia FC _____________ The King's Cup in 1999. 6 I _____________ the news about The World Trade Centre on the radio. 7 We entered the restaurant, _____________ a table and sat down. 8 Sorry. I didn't hear what you _____________ . 9 We were all a bit hot and tired so we all _____________ down on the grass. 10 I've _____________ three umbrellas this month. Terrible! I'm so careless. 2 Group Two be become break X2 come choose see steal

1 We _____________ all night to get to France. 2 Have you ever _____________ a horse? 3 I've _____________ a letter to my bank manager. 4 We _____________ hands at the end of the meeting. 5 She had a headache so she _____________ an aspirin. 6 I _____________ too much for dinner yesterday and I feel fat. 7 My sister _____________ me a watch for Christmas. 8 He _____________ over on the wet floor and broke his wrist. 9 She _____________ the money under the mattress. 10 Blast! We _____________ to buy milk.

freeze speak

1 I've never _____________ to Caceres. 2 Have you _____________ Sarah today? 3 Mr Aznar _____________ president in 1996. 4 Has Beatriz _____________ back from lunch yet? 5 Rita _____________ her leg skiing. 6 What colour have you _____________ for the curtains? 7 It was so cold that the lake _____________ over. 8 She _____________ fluent French on holiday last year. 9 My purse's been _____________. 10 A friend's kid _____________ my stereo.


Exercise 2. Sports Stars Last week, Venus and Serena Williams played each other in the final of a tennis tournament. Venus is now fourth in the world, and her younger sister Serena is really happy because she has moved up to third. The two sisters have already come a long way from the poor area in California where they were born. It was full of violence and drugs, and the girls’ father, Richard, wanted to move to a safer place. They moved in 1991 and they have never looked back. Richard started to train Venus when she was four, and says: “The first time I took Venus to the tennis court, I told my wife: ‘We have a champion’.” She played in her first big tournament in 1996. She hasn’t won Wmbledon yet, but she has already reached important finals such as the US Open. Serena has continued to improve and she has made fantastic progress. In 1999, she won the US Open, but she hasn’t won the singles yet. Has tennis ever caused problems between sisters? “We’ve played each other before and it hasn’t worried us-yet!”, says Venus. “If she wins,” Serena jokes, “Mama says she has to do the dishes!” Questions: 1. Why are the sister unusual? 2. What kind of bacground are they from? 3. Who helped the to succeed? 4. How do the two sisters get on at home?

Exercise 3. What happened? What has happened? Study these sentences. Pay close attention to the words in italics. What happened? What has happened? I wrote to him last month. The train has just left the station. I bought this car last year. I’ve already seen that film. He came to see me this morning. He has been abroad for six years. I saw him ten minutes ago. Have you ever met him before? I have never met him before. I have not finished work yet. There have been a great number of accidents lately.


Exercise 6. Find the regular verb in each line and write it into the gap. Example: Answer: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. say, lose, dance, sing - _____ say, lose, dance, sing - dance

read, feel, play, see listen, do, go, make know, help, say, think like, write, forget, eat take, bring, cut, clean watch, be, have, meet put, buy, cook, teach catch, find, answer, lose -

Exercise 7. Fill in the missing forms of the phrases. Use the long form of the auxiliary only. Infinitive 1 2 3 you work 4 5 we count 6 the brothers 7 live 8 9 10 Susan looks Simple Past I played Andrew cleaned I have helped he has watched they started Past Participle she has listened

Exercise 8. In each sentence choose the correct form of verb. Exercise 9. Choose teh correct answer. 1 1. I ____________________ in 1960. was born have been born were born 2 I ____________________ in this city for many years, and I still enjoy the place. has lived Lived have lived 3 I ______________to high school here, and now I am a full time teacher. has gone went


have gone 4 Freddy and Ivan ______________ in this university since 1980, and next year they plan to study abroad. have worked has worked Worked 5 I ____________ this morning at 8 o'clock. waken up woken up have waken up woke up 6 Our friends _____________ for almost 2 years. They are going to celebrate their anniversary in three weeks. was married is married be married have been married 7 Last night, I ______ TV for an hour, and now I don't have time to do my homework. have watched watched has watched watches 8 She ____________ my best friend for two years. We talk on the phone everyday. is was were has been 9 Monica _____________ her first baby a month ago. has had have has had 10 My wife and I ______________ Paris last summer. This year we want to go again. visited visits have visited has been there Exercise 10. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Where's your wallet? I don't know. I LOSE it. I BE in London two years ago and I HAVE a great time. Look! Someone DAMAGE the bus stop. It looks terrible! How YOU/BREAK your arm? By accident? My parents are a happy couple. They BE MARRIED for ten years. YOU/SEE Mary yesterday? I couldn't find her anywhere.


7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

Jane plays the piano. She PLAY it for two years and she's brilliant. Ann isn't here. She LEAVE the house but she should be back in an hour. My grandfather DIE in 1989 and my grandmother LIVE alone since then. Her brother is a writer. He WRITE many books and they're really good. What time YOU/GO to bed? Around 11 p.m or even later? Where YOU/BE last night? YOU/GO to Mary's party? My room is clean. JUST/CLEAN it and it looks better now. Oh, they are here! When THEY/ARRIVE ? Shakespeare WRITE many plays and they're all famous. I NOT/DRINK anything today so I'm very thirsty. Can I ask you for some water, please? Is Monica here? No, she NOT/COME yet. She must be on her way. I WORK at school for two years and then I left it because I was fed up with teaching. The days BE very windy recently and some trees have even been destroyed. What YOU/SAY ? Could you repeat it, please?

The Past Perfect Continuous Tense Fill in the blanks with had (hadn’t) + been + a present participle. EXAMPLES: a.- (protest) When the war in Vietnam finally ended, people all over the world had been protesting against it for many years. b.- (get) Everything in our garden was dying because we hadn’t been getting any rain for more than five months. 1.- (go) Fred and Peggy ________________ together for three years before they finally got married. 2.- (make) He lost his job because he ______________ (causing) trouble at the office. He was a real troublemaker. 3.- (bother) I had to go to the dentist because a tooth __________________ me for a month; (take) I ___________________ care of myself. 4.- (rain) When the monsoon finally ended, it __________________ for more than a month. 5.- (wait) When they finally had their baby boy, they _____________________ for more than seven years. Now complete the following sentences orally or on a separate piece of paper. EXAMPLE: c.- I wasn’t surprised by the Director’s decision to suspend Jim from the school because he’d been making a great deal of trouble for a long time.


6.- When the rain finally stopped… 7.- When I finally found a good job… 8.- When our daughter finally became a medical doctor… 9.- My eyes were very tired last night because… 10.- My feet were very tired last night because… 11.- John’s father had to go to the doctor because… 12.- The patient wasn’t feeling well because… 13.- When we finally reached the top of Mt. Everest… 14.- When our plane finally landed at JFK (Kennedy Airport in New York)… 15.- When my alarm clock rang… 16.- When my girlfriend/boyfriend finally got to our meeting place… 17.- When they finally got married… 18.- When the surgeon finally finished the operation… 19.- We were tired yesterday morning because our baby… 20.- He was kicked out of (suspended from) school because he… 21.- When the concert finally ended… 22.- When I finished my homework last night…