# SCIENCE SYLABUS Marks: 25 1. Force : work and Energy.

• Source of force and its effects • Simple machines • Levers • source of energy 2. Light • Source of light • Transparent • Translucant and opaque objects 3. Air • Properites and uses 4. Natural Resources a. Renewable b. non-renewable 5. Soil Erosion and conservation 6. First Aid 7. Difference between Plants and animals Time: 30 Minutes

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Chapter 1. Force : work and Energy. 1. Anser the followings questions a. what is force ? Ans : Force is a push or a pull applied to an object to make it move or stop it from moving or change its direction. b. why do we use force ? Ans : We use the force to do work like : i. when we apply force to an object it moves in the direction of the force. ii. we also apply force to stop or slowdown moving object iii. Force can also change the direction of a moving object like batsman change the direction of the ball bowled at him. c. Name and define the different kinds of forces with examples ? Ans : The different kinds of force are : i. Mucular force ii. Gravitational force iii. Magnetic force iv. Water force v. Air exerts force I. Muscular force : The force applied by the muscles of our body is called musclar force Ex : A bull pulling a cart wing force of its muscler. II. Gravitational force : The force of the earth that pulls everythig towards itself is called gravitational force. Ex : Fruits from a tree will fall down III. Magnetic Force : The force applied by a magnet on an object made of iron, cobalt, nickel etc to pull towards itself is called magnetic force. Ex : Iron filling are pulled by a magnet. iv. Water force : Waterfalls are used to generate electricity. When water is boiled in a boiler, steam is produced. Steam makes the train move. water and steam are the source of force. v. Air exerts force : A wind mill blades rotate when air blows over them, the attached wheels are also rotate. These wheels are connected to conveyor belt brings up the water from the well. d. What is work ? Ans : Work is applying force to an object to move it form one place to another in the direction of the force.

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e. Why do we use machines ? Ans : We use machines to make our work easier. Machines increase the speed of the work, machines also change the direction of the force. f. What is a simple machine ? Name the various types of simple machines. Ans : Simple machines ae tools that make our work easier and faster. The various types of simple machines are leaver, pulley, wheel and axle, inclined plane, screw and wedge. g. What is a lever ? Ans : A lever is a type of simple machine. It is straight rigid bear that can turn on a fixed point called the fulcrum. The lever is used for raising or moving a weight (load) at one end by applying force effort on other end. h. What is a pulley Ans : A pulley is a simple machine made of a grooved wheel ( combination of grooved wheels ) over which a rope, a belt, cange or a cable moves to raise lower or move a heavy weight (load) i. What is a wheel and axle arrangement ? Give some of its common examples Ans : Wheel and axle is a type of simple machine in which a wheel has a road, called the axle, passing through its centre in such a way that they turn together. It is used to, lift or move a load. A top an egg beater, a door knote a spinning wheel are some common examples of wheel and axle arrangement. Screw :It is used to hold the things tightly while fixing doors or windows. The screws are also simple machines. Lever of first order : In the lever of first order the fulcrums in between the load at one end and the effort at the other end. Ex : scissors, seesaw Lever of second order : In this kind of lever the load is in between the fulcrum at one end and the effort on the other end. Eg : Bottle opener, nut cracker Lever of third order : In a lever of this kind, the effort is applied in between the fulcrum at one end the load on the other end. eg : bread knife, Single fixed pulley : It is the simplest form of a pulley, Th pulley is attached to fixed position above the load to be lifted. Its axle is fixed or anchored in place. Eg : A single fixed pulley is used to draw water from wells, raise or lower flags Moveable pulley : A movable pulley is attaced to the load. It has a axle which is free to move in space. so the pulley moves along with the load. In this type of

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pulley less effort is required to raise a load movable pulley are used in harbours to lift heavy loads. j. State one use of inclined plane. ans : Ramps which is used in hospitals to carry or bring the patients with the help of wheel chairs. A Ramp is used to push bicycles or scooters into the house. Types of leaver First order Second order Third order Examples A pair of scissors, crow bar Wheel barrow, nut cracker Knife, fire tongs

k. Which order of the leaver does the knife belong to Ans : Knife is belong to third order l. What is Energy ? Ans : People work, animals work and machines also do work. All these things use force to d work. But they also need Energy before they cando any work. Energy is the capacity to do work. m. what are the source of Energy ? Ans : Some of the main source of Energy are as follows : The Sun : The sun is our main source of Energy. It gives us heat and light energy. Plant use sun light to make their food. Moving water and Air : This energy is used to generate electricity. Fuel Energy : These are coal, fraction crude oil e.g. petrol and diesel and natural gase from whcih we make LPG. Muscular Energy : Force applied by the muscual of our body is called force. Ex : pull carts, cycling, walking Chemical Energy : A dry cell is a device which converts chemical energy into electrical energy. Electrical Energy : The energy which is used to switch on fan, bulb and water pump to work. Wind Energy : Wind Energy rotates the wheels of wind mills thus generating mechanical energy. Bio Energy : Energy generated by animal dung, plant residue and agriculature waste on decaying in the absence of air produce a gas called bio-gas. It is used for home lighting and cooking. Water Energy : Water is stored in dams built across the rivers. By making stored water run down through pipes into a turbine, electricity can be produced. 4

Energy is obtained from flowing water, moving air, burning fuels or fossil fuels (coal, crude oil, petrol, diesel, gas). Man and animals get the energy in their bodies from the food they eat. o. Define forms of Energy Ans : Some important forms energy ae as follows. Heat energy, electric energy, light energy, motion energy, sound energy, chemical energy and atomic energy. Energy is classified as renewable energy, non-renewable energy and nuclear enegry. What is renewable energy ? Ans :energy generated from resources that are unlimited, rapidly replenished or naturally renewable such as wind, water, sun and wave. What is non-renewable energy ? Ans :A non-renewable resource is a natural resource that cannot be produced. These resources often exist in a fixed amount, or are consumed much faster than nature can recreate them. Fossil fuels (such as coal, petroleum and natural gas) and nuclear fuel are some examples. p. What is Heat Energy ? Ans : Heat energy is obtained from various source. The most important source of heat is the Sun. We get heat by burning fuel like wood, coal, gas and kerosene oil. Heat is also obtained from electricity. Heat can be converted into motion. q. What is fossil fuels Ans : These are coal, fraction crude oil e.g. petrol and diesel and natural gase from whcih we make LPG. r. what is chemical Energy Ans : We can get energy from a battery. This is called chemical energy. It can be converted into electrical energy. s. What is solar energy ? Ans : The sun is the source of all our energy. The energy from the sun is called solor energy. Give one example of complex machine Ans : Complex machine like bicycle and watch are combinations of simple machine. 5

Give two example where work is not said to be done Ans : Reading the books, man seeing the tv, wall is not moving after put force by a man. Tick the most appropriate answer Wheel barrow is an example of ----ans : Lever of second order Sessors is an example of Ans : lever of first order f. Name the type of energy used in vehicles Ans : Fuel Energy, Electric energy, wind energy g. What type of Energy used for climbing steps or transfer objects from one place to another ans : Muscular energy h. what type of energy does a dry cell have Ans : chemical energy i. Name any two device where dry cell is used Ans : battery, tv remote, radio, car j. Name the device which converts chemical energy into electrical energy. Ans : A dry cell which converts chemical energy into electrical energy. k. Mention any two uses of solar energy Ans : cooking the food thru solar heaters and heat the water thru solar water heater. convert the light into electricity (solar lamp). L. Mention any two ways of minimising the use of electrical energy. Ans : Use solar energy for cooking, solar energy for boiling the water, solar energy for street lamp. m. Mention any four appliances which work on electricity Ans : Fan, water pump, TV, electric motor n. Mention any two advantages of using solar energy Ans : Solar energy is eco-friendly energy. It is less expensive 2a. Oral Questions Name the type of force which acts in each of the following A A stone thrown vertically upwards B Bullock ploughing the field C A wood cutter cutting the tree 6

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Fast moving wind rotating the wind mill Falling of rain drops Closing of the door

Write True or False in front of the following statements A A boy holding a suitcase in his hand is not exerting any force B The blades of windmill rotate by the blowing force of the wind C The force only changes the direction of a moving object but not the speed D The boat sails on water in a particular direction due to wind and water E Magnetic force always causes attraction 5. Give reasons A. When a magnet is brought near some iron fillings, the iron fillings get attached to the magnet. Ans : Whe a magnet is brought near some iron filling, they get attached to the magnet because the magnetic force of the magnet attract and pulls the filling towards it. b. We use simple macines Ans : we use simple machines as they make our work easier and faster also. it is not possible for us to perform very heavy work. c. Claw hammer is a lever of the first order ? Ans : Claw hammer is a leaver of the first order because in this the fulcrum is between the load at the one end and the effort at the other end. d. We pull the pulley downwards but the load gets lifted upwords. Ans : We pull the pulley downwards but the load gets lifted upwards because of pulley simply changes the direction of rope passing over it makingit easier to lift a load. e. A Screw driver is an example of a wheel and axle arrangement. Ans : A screw drives is an example of wheel and axle arrangement because the thick handle of the screw driver woks as a wheel and the thin rod acts as the axle and both move together Fill in the blanks a. The force of ____________ allways attracts objects towards the earth (gravity) b. The force that attracts the small pins of steel _________ (magnetic force) c. The ____________ force is used in lifting a load (Muscular d. ___________ is the source of all our energy. (sun) e. India ranks ____ in the production of electricty from wind. Karnataka ranks ___ in india (Third / fifth) f. An electric bulb converts electric energy into _________ energy (light) g. Electrical energy can be converted into ____, ________ and _____ energy (heat, light, chemical) 7

h. Chemical energy convert into _________ energy (electrical) i. Sun light can be converted into _________ (electricity) j. Bio gas can be converted into __________ energy (electrical) k. The device which converts solar energy into electric energy is ________ (solor cells) l. Plants prepare food using ________ energy (solor) m. Water energy is used in the production of _________ energy (electric) n. solar energy is an example for ______________ source. (natural) o. Electricity generated in karnataka place are : saravathi, liganamakki Some statements are give below. Against each put (√ ) if it is correct and ( X ) mark if it is work A Heat is a source of enegry T B Eletrical enegry cannot be converted into sound enegry F C Plants prepare food mainly because of water T D Wind enegry is an example for alternate source of enegry T Match the following Sl. Types of Energy A Solar Energy B Electrical Energy C Wind Energy D Bio-energy E Fuel energy F Muscular

Uses Throwing a ball Atracting pins by a magnet Sailing of a boat Moving of bus Electric ironing Preparation of food by the plants Cooking the food Reading a book F C E B A D

Match the following Sl. A 1 Leaver of the first order 2 Leaver of the second order 3 Leaer of the third order 4 Inclined plane 5 Screw

B Screw driver See - saw Icc – tongs Nut cracker Ramp Sewing machine Water pump 5 1 3 2 4

Find the odd one out a.Pulley, inclined plane, watch, screw b.pair of scissors, bread knife, water pump, sea saw c. bottle opener, screw jack, lemon sqaueezer, pair of tongs 8

d. crow bar, pair of sessors, spoon, nut cracker 2. Fill the blanks a. Force is a ______or a _______applied to an object to make it move or stop it (push / pull) b The different kinds of force are ___________ _____________ __________ (Mucular force,Gravitational force,Magnetic force) c. The force applied by the muscles of our body is called _________________ (musclar force) d The force of the earth that pulls everythig towards itself is called ________ (gravitational force) e. The force applied by a magnet on an object made of iron, cobalt, nickel etc to pull towards itself is called _____________ (magnetic force) f. _________ is applying force to an object to move it form one place to another in the direction of the force. (work) g. __________to make our work easier. ________increase the speed of the work (machine) h. _____________ are tools that make our work easier and faster. (Simple machine) i. It is straight rigid bear that can turn on a fixed point called the __________ (fulcrum) j. All need ____________before they can do any work. (Energy) k. _____ our main source of Energy. (The Sun) l. ______ is obtained from flowing water, moving air, burning fuels or fossil fuels (Energy) m. Energy is classified as ___________ energy & ___________energy (renewable, non-renewable) n. :____________energy generated from resources that are unlimited, rapidly replenished or naturally renewable (renewable) o. A __________ energy is a natural resource that cannot be produced. (non-renewable) p. The most important source of heat is ________ (the Sun) q. The energy from the sun is called __________energy. (solor)

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3. Fill in the blanks a. we either ........................ or .......................... to move a particular thing from one place to another (push / pull) b. To stop or slow down a moving object. we apply ............... in the opposite direction. (force) c. The Force which is applied by the muscles is called ........................ force (musclar) d. The force of the earth that pulls everything towards its centre is called ............. (Gravitational) e. A magnet applies ....................... force an objects made of iron, nickel or cobalt to pull them towards itself. (Magnetic) f. when a force is applied to an object and the object moves a distance in the direction of the force .................. is said to be done. (work) g. .................................. help us to do work by applying a little force. (Simple machine) h. The seesaw is an example of a ................................................. and ....................... are some common examples of a lever of the first order (leaver of first order / Hammer) i. ...................................... and ............................... are some common examples of a lever of the first order ( j. in a lever of the second order, the load is in between the .......................... and the ...................... (effort / fulcrum) k. A nutcracker is an example of a lever of the ............................order. (second) l. In a lever of the third order, the ....................... is applied in between the fulcrum and the .................... (effort / load) m. A ........................ is made of a grooved wheel or a combination of grooved wheels over which a rope of chain moves to raise, lower or move a heavy weight. (pully) n. The spinning wheel is a common example of the ............................... arrangement. (wheel and axel) o. An arrangement of two inclined planes attached back to back is called a ............................................ (Wedges) 4. Write T for true and F for false A Bullocks drawing a cart is an example of magnetic force B The lever is an example of a simple machine C The claw hammer is an example of a lever of second order D A machine reduces the speed of work E A pulley changes the direction of the force applied on the rope passing over it F The single fixed pulley is used to draw curtains F T F F T T 10

G H

A screw is a wheel and axle arrangement An inclined plane is a flat surface with both ends at the same level

F T

5.Choose the correct answer to fill in the blanks a. Force is ofter used to change the .................. of a moving object (weight / direction) b. Fruits fall down to the ground due to the ............................... force with which the Earth pulls them towards itself (Muscular / gravitational) c. A wheelbrrow is an example of the leaver of the ......................... order (first / second) d. Tongs, bread knives and forceps are levers of the ...................... order (second / third) e. The spining wheel is an example of a .......................... (screw/wheel and axle) 6. Match the following Sl. A A Claw hammer and scissors B Bottle opener and nutcracker C Tons and forceps D Single fixed pulley E Movable pulley F Screw G Wedge B Used to draw water from wells Used to lift heavy loads in harbours Used to hold things together Examples of a lever of the second order Knives and axes Examples of a leaver of the first order Examples of a lever of the third order

D E F B g A C

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Chapter 2 - Light 1. Answer the following questions a.What are the artificial source of light ? Ans : Man made source of light are called artificial source of light. Candle, kerosene lamp, oil lamp, electric bulb, etc b.What are the natural source of light ? Ans : Sun is natural source of energy. Eg : Sun, stars c. How is shadow formed ? Ans : A shadow is formed by an opaque object, when any opaque object block the ligh from he sun or any other source shadow is formed on the opposite side of source of light. d. Define the following : i. Transparent objets : Those materials which allow light to pass through them completely are called transparent objects. They do not cast any shadow. Ex : Glass thin polyethene sheet etc., ii. Translucent objects : Those objects which allow light to pass through them partially are called translucent objects. They cast dim shadow. Ex : traceing paper, butter paper etc., iii. Opaque Objects : Materials that does not allow light to pass through them are called opaque objects. Eg : wood, note book etc. e. What is self luminous objects Ans : Objects which give light of their own are called self luminouse objects. Eg : Sun, Stars, Burning candle. f. What is non-luminous objects Ans : Objects which do not emit light of their own are called non-luminous. ex : table, chair, plants, Moon 2. Fill in the blanks a. Objects are seen when _____________ falls on them (light) b. ____________ is an example for natural source of light (Sun) c. Man made source of light is called _________________ (Artifical) d. An electric bulb is an example for ________ source of light (Artifical) e. Stars have their own light. Hence they are _________ objects (Self luminous) f. A shadow is formed by an __________ object (opaque) g. A stone is an example for _____________ object. (Opaque) 12

h. Glass is a ________ object, hence we see things clearly though it. (transparent) i. _____________ is an exmple for translucent object. (cooling glass) J. Those materials which allow light to pass through them completely are called ________ objects. (Transparent) k. Those objects which allow light to pass through them partially are called __________ objects. (translucent) l. Materials that does not allow light to pass through them are called ________ objects. (opaque) m. Light is the _________ of energy for all living beings (main source) n. ________ is the main source of energy for all living beings (sun light) o. _________ is form of energy (light) p. Man made source of light are called _____________ source of light (artificial) q. _________ is natural source of energy (Sun) Match the following Sl.no A A Glass B Book C Glow worm D Tracing paper E Bulb B Non-luminous Translucent Opaque Luminous Transparent Artificial source of light

c d b A E

Choose the correct answer from the following. A. The sun is an example for --self luminous object b. The moon - refelect the light of the sun (non-luminous) Classify the following into luminous and non luminous objects Luminous Non-luminous Stars Stone Sun Spoon Burning candle Cellophane Paper Glow paper Moon Table Chair Plants

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Chapter 3 - Air 1. Answer the following questions. a. What is air ? What are its properties ? Ans : Air is a mixture of gases. The properties of aire are • Air occupies space • As has weight • It exerts presure b. What is the composition of air ? Ans : Air is mixture of gases. The composition of air is as under. Types of gases Percentage in Atmosphere Nitrogen 78.03% Oxygen 20.95% Argon 0.93% Carbon dioxide 0.03% Hydrogen 0.01% Other gases 0.05% c. How is oxygen important to us ? Ans : Oxygen is important for us as it is vital for life. Living organisms used oxygen to live and also release energy from food. Oxygen is also required for the process of burning. Fire can not burn without oxygen. d. How is nitrogen important for Plants ? Ans : Nitrogen is essential for the growth of plants. It is used to make fertilisers. Plants get nitrogen from fertilisers. e. Why air is important ? Ans : Air is very important because 1. living things breathe in air 2. Air is essential for combustion 3. Air is used for inflating things like ballons, typres and sleeping bags 4. Air allows sound waves to travel through it. 5. Air protect us from harmful radiations that come from the sun 6. Air contains many gases which are useful to living things e. Name the active part of the air Ans : Oxygen is the active part of the air while nitrogen is the inactive part. f. Even though air is around us we cannot see it. Why ? ans : We cannot see air. Its presence can be felt. Air has no colour, no odour and no taste. g. Why do mountainers carry oxygen cylinders ? Ans : Air becomes scarce as we go higher than the sea leve. Hence mountaineers carry oxygen cylinders with them.

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h. How is breathing restored in patients in case of emergency ? Ans : People who have breathing trouble are supplied with oxygen at times of emergency. Hence oxygen filled cylinders are alwasy kept ready in hospitals. i. Breif about theuses of Oxygen Ans : 1. For respiration : Plants, human beings and animals use oxygen for respiration. 2. For patients : People who have breathing trouble are supplied with oxygen at time of emergency. 3. For sea divers : People who work in the deep sea carry oxygen cylinders with them for breathing. 4. For mountaineers : Air become scarce as we go higher than the sea leavel. Hence mountainers carry oxygen. 5. For Astronauts : Astronuats moving in space shuttle, away from earths orbint carry oxygen cylinders with them f. What is atmosphere ? Ans : The envelope of air sourrounding the earth is called the atmosphere. The atmosphere extends to about 1000 kilometres above the surface of the Earth. g. What is atmospheric pressure or air pressure? Ans : The pressure exerted by air due to its weight is called atmosphere pressure. h. What are the different layers of the atmosphere ? Define each. Ans : The different layer of atmosphere are : 1. Troposphere 2. Stratosphere 3. Measosphere 4. Thermosphere 5. Exosphere Troposphere : Trophere is lowest layer of the atmosphere. All weather changes take place in this layer clouds form in this layer and bring rain and snow. This layer extends up to 10 to 15 kilometers above the surface of the earth. It contains about 80 percent of all the gases in this atmosphere. Stratosphere : This layer lies above the Troposphere. It extends upto 50 kilometers above the surface of the earth. Thre are very few clouds in this layer. This layer abserbs the harmful radition from the sun. This layer of Ozone abserbs most of the suns harmful radtion. Mesosphere : This layer has no clouds, so the tempearature is low. It extend up to 80 kilometer from the surface of the earth. Thermosphere : The Thermosphere starts just above the stratosphere and extends upto 500 kilometere from the surface of the earth. The temperature in this layer is very high due to the suns heat. Space shuttles orbits in this thermosphere. 15

Exosphere : This layer merges into space. It contains almost no gases. i. Define (i) Greenhouse effect : The burning of large amounts of fossil fuels and large areas of forests release a lot of carbon dioxide into atmosphere, as result the level of carbond dioxide is rapidly increasing in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide traps the suns heat in the atmosphere around the Earth and prevents it from escaping. This is called the greenhouse effect. (ii) global warming : By increasing the carbon dioxide in the atomsphere, as result the carbon dioxide trans the suns heat in the atmosphere around the Earth and prevents it from escaping. This has lead to gradual increase in the average climatic temperatures across the world. this is called global warming. 2. Give reasons for the following : a. Oxygen is vital for life Ans : Oxygen is important for us as it is vital for life. Living organisms used oxygen to live and also release energy from food b.Plants need carbon dioxide Ans : Plants need carbon dioxide to prepare their food by the proces of photo synthesis. c. Temperature of the mesosphere is low Ans : Temperature of the mesosphere is low because this layer has no clouds. d. Burning fuels and forests can be very harmful Ans : Burning fuels and forest can be harmful to us as they release a lot of carbon dioxide in the atomoshpere. Plants can not convert so much of carbon dioxide into oxygen quickly. Carbon dioxide trap the Suns heat in the atmosphere around the earth and prevents it from escaping. This may lead to gradual increase in climatic temperatures across the world. e. Carbon dioxide is used in fire extinguishers. Ans : Carbon dioxide is used in fire extinguisher because most substance donot burn in the presence of carbon dioxide. 3. Fill in the blanks A. Air is a _____________ resource (Natural) b. Air has no _______, no ________ and no __________ (colour, odour, taste) c. Air has ________ pressure (upward) d. Air exerts pressure in all ________ (directions) e. one-fifth air is _________ (oxygen) f. four-fifth is ___________ (nitrogen) 16

g. Air has __________ and occupies space (weight) h. Air is used to _______ a balloon (fill) i. Lime water turns milky when _________ is passed through it. (carbon dioxide) j. _______ percent of air is oxygen. (oxygen) k._______ percent of air is nitrogen. (nitrogen) m. __________ is a mixture of gases. (Air) n. The properties of aire are ___________, _______________ and ________ (Air occupies space, As has weight, It exerts presure) o. What is the composition of air ? a) Nitrogen ________ b) Oxygen__________ (78.03%) (20.95%

c) Argon __________ (0.93%) d) Carbon dioxide_______ (0.03%) e) Hydrogen _________ (0.01%) f) Other gases _________ (0.05%) p. ___________ is important for us as it is vital for life. (Oxygen) q. ___________ can not burn without oxygen (Fire) r. ....................................used oxygen to live and also release energy from food. (Living organisms ) s. ___________ is essential for the growth of plants. (Nitrogen) t. The envelope of air sourrounding the earth is called the ________ (atmosphere) u. ______ is lowest layer of the atmosphere. (Trophere) v. All weather changes take place in _________ layer (Trophere) u. ___________ layer contains about 80 percent of all the gases in this atmosphere. (Trophere) w. ____________ layer lies above the Troposphere. (Stratosphere) x. _____________of Ozone abserbs most of the suns harmful radtion. (Stratosphere) y. ___________ layer has no clouds, so the tempearature is low. (Mesosphere). z. The temperature in __________layer is very high due to the suns heat. Space shuttles orbits in this layer. (Thermosphere)

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4. Fill in the blanks a. ___________layer merges into space. It contains almost no gases. (Exosphere) b. Carbon dioxide traps the suns heat in the atmosphere around the Earth and prevents it from escaping. This is called ______________(the greenhouse effect). c.Lead to gradual increase in the average climatic temperatures across the world. this is called ____________ (global warming) d. Air is a ............................................ of gases (mixture) e. ............................................. forms 78% of the air (Nitrozen) f. .............................................. is vital for life (Oxygen) g. ................................ present in air is used to make fertilisers. (Nitrozen) h. Plants use ............................... for preparing food. (carbon di-oxide) i. Air has ..................... and occupies ........................... (weight / space) j. Air air exerts .............................................. (pressure) k. ............................... is the lowest layer of the atmosphere. (Trosphere) l. ............................................. contains the ozone layer (Statosphere) m. ................. extends up to 80 kilometeres from the surface of the earth (meshopere) 5 Write T for true and F for false A We need nitrogen to breathe B Plants use carbon dioxide for preparing their food C Air is weightless D The atmoshpere protects us from the harful rays of the sun E A gradual increase in average climate temperatures across the world is called global warming 6. Choose the correct answer to fill in the blanks a. Plants use ............... for preparing their food (carbon dioxide / sulpur dioxide) b. .................................... is required for burning something (nitrogen / oxygen) c. ................................. is used in a fire existinguisher (oxygen / carbon dioxide) d. we can inflate a .............................. with air. (balloon / wooden ruler) e. The atmosphere traps the heat from the sun to keep the earth (cold / warm) f.. All weather changes take place in the ...................... (troposphere / thermosphere) g. Burning fuels can result in ............................... (global cooling / global warming) 18

F T F T T

7. Match the following Sl.no A A Nitrogen B Oxygen C Carbon dioxide D Argon E Hydrogen

B 20.95% 0.01% 78.03% 0.03% 0.93% B E A C D

8. Fill in the blanks: a. Living organisms used______to live and also release energy from food (oxygen) b. Plants need ____________to prepare their food by the proces of photo synthesis. (carbon dioxide) c. Temperature of the________is low because this layer has no clouds. (mesosphere) d. Burning fuels and forest can be harmful to us as they release a lot of _______ in the atomoshpere. (carbon dioxide) e.___________ trap the Suns heat in the atmosphere around the earth and prevents it from escaping. (Carbon dioxide) f. ______ is used in fire extinguisher because most substance donot burn ( carbon dioxide).

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Chapter 4 - Natural Resources 1. Answer the following questions a. What are the natural Resources ? Ans : Material that occur in nature and are essential for human life are called natural resources. Water, air, land, forests, wildlife, soil and minerals are natural resources. b. Define (i) Renewable resources : Natural resources which are replanished naturally in the course of time and can be used repeatedly and continuously are called renewable resources. (ii) Non-renewable resources : The resources which can not be replenished by nature at the rate at which we use them are called non renewable resources. Ex : Iron ore, Petrol, coal etc., c. Why is soil important ? Ans : Plants grow in soil. Plants give us food and oxygen. Animals in turn depend on plants, directly or indirectly, for their food. All living things depend upon soil. d. What are the ways in which we can conserve soil ? Ans : The ways by which we can coserve soil are 1. By planting more trees 2. By crop rotation 3. By educing he use of chemical fertilizers, which harm the soil and crops 4. By practising terrace farming in hilly area. e. What is crop rotation ? Ans : Crop rotation is an agricultural practice by which different types of crops are grown in the same filed in a planned manner for example after growing cereals in one season, farmers should grow beans, peas or pulses in the next season. f. why are forests our national wealth ? Ans :Forest our national wealth because 1. Forest are home to numerous plants that provide us food and oxygen 2. They provide a safe habitats for a wiede variety of animals. 3. They help to check floods and prevent foil erosion. 4. They maintain the balance in the enviornment g. How can forests be protected ? Ans :Forest can be protected in the following ways : 1. By making sure that trees are not felled or uproated thoughtlessly. 2. By planting more trees 3. By checking overgrazing by cattle and goats. 4. By preventing and controlling forest fires. 20

5. By creating awarness among the people about the importance of preventing forest. h. How can we conserve wildlife ? Ans : The following steps can help to conserve wildlife. 1. Hunting specially poaching should be prohibited 2. More wildlife sanctuares should be setup 3. National and international organisations, should take up projects that aim to conserve wild life. 4. use of animal products should be banned i. What are the steps taken by the government to protect wildlife ? Ans : Governemtn is taking many steps to protect wildlife they are : 1. There are laws that prohibit the killing of wild animals 2. There are laws that banning the hunting of wild animals 3. Indian governement has 88 national parks and 490 wildlife sanctuaries to protect the wild animals. j. what are project tiger and project rhino ? Ans : Tiger and Rhino projects are aim to protect endangered plants and animals as well as the habitats they live in from harmful human influences. k. What is sanctuary ? Ans : A protected aera of forest where wild animals and birds live safley and move freely is called sanctuary. Bird Sanctuaries in karnataka are : 1. Ranganathittu near mysore, 2. kokkare belluru near Maddur 3. Adichunchanagiri near Mandya 4. Mandagadde near shimoga 5. Gudavi in soraba Taluk National Park : 1. Bandipur near Chamarajanagar 2. Bannergatta near Bangalore 3. Kudremukh near Chickmangalore 4. Nagarhole near Mysore 5. Amshi near Belagum l. how can we prevent wastage of water ? Ans : We should be caeful not to waste water. 1. we should not leave the tap running 2. we must repair leaking taps and pipes 3. we should not wash clothes near river, lakes, canals 4. Factories should treat the waste water, sewage before releasing to the river. 5. we should harvest rainwater my making dams and barrages to store m. how can we prevent air pollution ? Ans : The following steps can help to protect air from polluted. 21

1. 2. 3. 4.

we should use public transport vehicles should use eco-friendly fuels like CNG Factories and industries should be sifted away from residential areas create more awarness about harmful effects of pollution.

n. what are minerals ? Ans : Minerals are non renewable natural resources that are obtained by mining. Minerals can be either metallic or non metallic. o. what is overpopulation ? what are its effects ? Ans : Overpopulation occurs when the population of a place increases much beyond its natural capacity. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. A major effect of overpopulation is overcrowding. Natural resource are getting depleted. Minerals and fuels ae getting used up. climatic change and enviornmental imalances. More slums area will be get created

2. Give reasons for the following : a. Natural resources are very useful to us. Ans : Natural resources are very usefull to us as they provide many things like water, air, land, forest, wildlife, soil and minerals that are useful to us in our daily life. b. planting trees can prevent soil erosion Ans : Trees should be planted to prevent soil erosion because the roots of the trees hold the soil particles together this help to prevent the fertile to gether from being washed away by heavy rainfall or flods. Trees also slow down strong winds preventing the top soil from being blown way. c. If a farmer grows cereals on an area of land in one season, he sould grow beans, peas or pulses on that land in the next season Ans :If a farmeer grows cerals on an area of land is one season, he should grow peas, beans or pulses in the next season because this will help to replace nutrients such as nitrogen that were used up by the crops grown in previous season, crop rotation help to restore the fertility of the soil and help the eradicae crop diseases. d. hunting, especially the poaching of wild animals, should be strictly prohibited Ans : e. we should use fules like CNG Ans : CNG is eco-friendly fules. 2. Fill the blanks

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a. Material that occur in nature and are essential for human life are called ___________ (natural resources). b. Natural resources which are replanished naturally in the course of time and can be used repeatedly and continuously are called _______________ (renewable resources) c. The resources which can not be replenished by nature at the rate at which we use them are called __________________ (non renewable resources) d. All living things depend upon _____ (soil) e. ____________ is an agricultural practice by which different types of crops are grown in the same filed in a planned manner (Crop rotation) f. _________ our national wealth (Forest) g. Indian governement has ____ national parks and ____wildlife sanctuaries to protect the wild animals. (88/490) h. _____ and ______ projects are aim to protect endangered plants and animals as well as the habitats they live in from harmful human influences. (Tiger/Rhino) i. we should _______rainwater my making dams and barrages to store (harvest) j. vehicles should use _________ fuels like CNG ((eco-friendly) k. __________ occurs when the population of a place increases much beyond its natural capacity. (Overpopulation) 3. Fill in the blanks a. Resources like soil, forests, air, wind and water are called .................... resources. (Natural) b. ................. resources & ......................... resources are two types of natural resources. (renewable / non-renewable) c. we should plant more trees to prevent soil .................................(erosion). d. Nutrients of the soil can be replaced by crop ............................. (rotation) e. .......................... are our national wealth (forest) f. wildlife ........................ should be set up to protect wildlife in their natural habitat (sanctuaries) g. India has .................................... national parks and .................... wild life sanctuaries. (88/490) h. Vehicles should use eco-friendly fuels like ............................... (CNG) i. ........................................................... and ................................... are some nonrenewable resources. (Petrol / ores) 23

4 Write T for true and F for false A Soil is a natural resource B All natural resources are renewable C Planting more trees can prevent soil erosion D Topsoil is infertile E Crop rotation decreases the fertility of soil F Trees must be felled and uprooted thoughtlessly G Hunting should be prohibited H Sewage should be released into water bodies, without being treated I CNG is an eco-friendly fuel J Metals are extracted from ores 5. Choose the correct answer to fill in the blanks a. Resources that occur in nature and are essential for human life are called ................... resources. (natural / artificial) b. Water is a .............................. resource (renewable/non renewable) c. Planting trees can prevent soil .......................... (erosion/conservation0 d. Crop ........................ can prevent decrease in soil fertility (rotation / revolution) e. Wildlife ................... are set up to protect wildlife in their natural habitats (sanctuaries / museums)

T F T F T F T T T T

f. We should try and use .............. transport as much as possible (private / public) 6. Match the following Sl.no A A Wind, air and sun B Minerals and natural gas C Iron, zinc, copper and gold D Oil, salt and mica B Non-metallic Metallic Renewable resources Non-renewable resources

D C A b

7. Fill in the blanks a. Natural resources are very ______ to us. (useful) b. planting trees can _________ soil erosion (prevent) c. _______also slow down strong winds preventing the top soil from being blown way. (Trees) d. we should use fules like ______ (CNG) e. _______is eco-friendly fules. (CNG)

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Chapter 5. Soil Erosion and conservation 1.Answer these questions A. What is soil ? What is topsoil ? Ans : The uppermost layer of the earth is called soil and the top fertile layer of the soil is known as top soil. b. What are the various organisms that live in soil ? Ans : 300 Million creatures liver per hectare of the soil. Rodents like rats and mice, insects like millipedes, mites and bugs, reptils like snakes, works like earthworks, certain protozoa and spiders are some organisams commonly found in soil. d. What is soil erosion ? Ans : The phenomenon by which the top layer of soil is washed away or lost by natural forces like wind and water is called soil erosion. e. What are the various factors that cause soil erosion ? Ans : The various factors that can cause soil erosion are water, wind deforestration, urbanisation, climatge changes, overgrazing, drought and intensive farming. f. What is deforestration ? Ans : Cutting down of a large number of trees from an area of land for various purpose is called deforestration. g. What is soil conservation ? Ans : The techniques and processes by which soil is protected against soil erosion is called soil conservation. h. Mention the various ways by which soil can be conserved ? Ans : The various ways by which soil can be conserved are 1. Planting trees and grass 2. Making trunks and embankments 3. Terrace farming 4. Afforestration i. Define : (i) Terrace farming (ii) Afforestation (iii) bunds and embankments Ans : (i) Terrace Farming : Areas of cultivation land on hill slopes are cut and levelled in the form of terraces or furrows when water runs down these slopes the furrows or terraces weaken the force with which the water flows down. This help to prevent soil erasion. (ii) Afforestation : The process of planting many trees in an area of land is called afforestration. 25

(iii) bunds and embankments Strong bunds or embankments are constructed at places where the river strike the banks. These break and slow down the flow of river water. j. What is Van Mahotsava ? Ans : Van Mahotsava is the festival of tress which is celebrated every year through out india in the first week of july. During this festival saplings of different species are planted all over the country. 2. Give reasons for the following : a. soil is very important for life. Ans : Soil is very important for life because it is made up of rocks, organic substances, minerals, water and aire which is essentail for life. b. The balance between the topsoil and the subsoil gets distrubed at times Ans : The Balance between the topsoil and the sub-soil gets distrubed due to erosion of soil by water and wind c. Trees help in preventing soil erosion Ans : Trees help in preventing soil erosion because the roots of the trees bend the soil firmly and protect it from being blown or washed away. d. Soil erosion is very harmful to the soil Ans : Soil erosion is very harmful to the soil because it leads to the loss or decrease of the fertility of soil. This affect farming as cultivation mainly depends on the top fertile layer of the soil. e. Embankments help in preventing soil erosion Ans : Embankments help in preventing soil erosin as they break and slow down the flow of river water. f. winds are harmful for the soil Ans : Winds are harmful for the soil as they carry away a large part of the fertile topsoil. g. Terrace farming prevents soil erosion in hilly areas Ans : Terrace farming prevents soil erosion in hilly areas because when water rans down the slopes, the furrows or terraces weaken the force with which the water flows down. As as result, the amount of soil washed away in also reduced. 3.Fill in the blanks a. The uppermost layer of the earth is called _____ (soil) b. _____ Million creatures liver per hectare of the soil. (300) c. top layer of soil is washed away or lost by natural forces like wind and water is called _________ (soil erosion) 26

d Cutting down of a large number of trees from an area of land for various purpose is called _________ (deforestration) e. The techniques and processes by which soil is protected against soil erosion is called __________ (soil conservation) f. Areas of cultivation land on hill slopes are cut and levelled in the form is called ____________ (terraces farming ) g. The process of planting many trees in an area of land is called ___________ (afforestration.) h. ___________ are constructed at places where the river strike the banks. (Embankments) i. ___________ is the festival of tress which is celebrated every year through out india in the first week of july. (Van Mahotsava) 4.Fill in the blanks a.The uppermost layer of the Earth is called ............................... (soil) b. ........................... are some of the few organisms found in the soil.(worms, rats) c. Soil ................... leads to loss or decrease of he fertility of soil. (erosion) d. Rainwater loosens and washes away the ........................ (top soil) e. The soil deposited by rivers is called...................................... (silt) f. Cutting down of a large number of trees from an area of land for various purposes is called........................ (deforestration) g. The techniques and processes by which soil is protected against soil erosion is called soil ............................. (Conservation) h. Land on hill slopes are cut and levelled in the form of furrows in ............. farming. i. Planting many trees in an area of land is called ..................................... 5. Write T for true and F for false A The uppermost layer of water is called soil B Soil does not remain stationary C Factors that cause soil erosion are always man-made D Planting trees and grass prevent soil erosion E Embrankments prevent soil from being washed away by rivers F Planting many trees is called afforestation 6,Choose the correct answer to fill in the blanks a.Rodents and ................................ live in the soil. (fish / reptiles) 27

b.rainwater washes away the .................... (topsoil/subsoil) c.Erosion makes soil ............................................. (fertile/infertile) d.Strong ..................................... are constructed to prevent soil from being washed away by floods (fences / embankments) e. ................................... is a major cause of soil erosion. (Afforestation / Deforestation) f. Embankments help in preventing _________ as they break and slow down the flow of river water. (soil erosin) g. Winds are harmful for the ______as they carry away a large part of the fertile topsoil. (soil) h. Terrace farming prevents ___________in hilly areas (soil erosion) 7. Match the following Sl.no A A Top soil and subsoil B Soil erosion C D E F Afforestation Deforestation Embankments Terrace farming

B Planting may trees in an area of land Cutting down of a large number of trees from an area of land Layers of the soil Built where rivers strike the banks Causes infertility in soil Employed in hilly areas

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Chapter 6. First Aid 1. Answer the following a.What is first Aid ? Ans : Basic medical treatment that is given to someone before professional help reaches is caled First Aid. b. Why do we require First Aid ? Ans : First Aid is the immediate help given to a sick or injured person before getting the doctor’s treatment. c. How do you prepare ORS solution at home ? Ans : 2 Glasses of water + a fist full of sugar or jaggery + a Pinch of salt. d. Why do we drink more water during summer ? Ans : The body loses water and salts rapidly due to sweating. We drink more water to keep the body away from dehydration e. Whom First Aid is required ? Ans : First aid may be necessary for someone who has been injured or taken ill suddenly. f. How can First Aid help on injured Person ? Ans : First Aid can help the injured person in the following ways. i. It can save a persons life ii. It can prevent an injury from getting worse iii. It can keep the injured or sick person comfortable till medical help arrives g. What are the standanrd Itmes that a First Aid Kit should have ? Ans : Some Standard items that a first aid kit must have are Plaster, Gauze, cotton wool, disinfectant, antiseptic cream or ointment, thermometer and tweezers. h. Which are the two most important principles of First Aid ? Ans : i. What are the common injuries or illnesses requires first aid i. cuts and wounds ii. Nosebleeds iii. Burns iv. Sprains and fractures v. Sprain vi. Insect Bites vii. Snakebites viii. Animal Bites ix. Electric Shock x. Heatstroke

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j. what is rabies ? Ans : rabies is a serious disease caused by the bite of a dog. k. how can we treat a minor cut or wound ? Ans : i. We treat a minor cut or wound in the following ways :ii. Dry the wound with a clean cloth iii. swap it with a disinfectant to clean it of germs iv. cover the wound with plaster l. how can we treat a severe wound or cut ? Ans : i. Wash your hand with soap and water before touching the wound ii. Swap it with a disinfectant to clean it of germs iii. Apply some aniseptic crean on it iv. cover it with lint or cotton and bandage it firmly v. if the wound is deep, call the doctor m.What safety rules should be follow in the kitchen to prevent a fire ? Ans : The safety rules that should be followed in the kitchen to prevent a fire are : i. Kerosene should be stored in on air tight container, keep way from heat and fire. ii. Do not keep a lit kerosene stove on the floor iii. The gas stove must be switched off when it is not in use iv. we should wear cotton clothes when cooking food not nylon clothes v. If there is a gas leak, we must open all the door and windows n. what is fire extinguisher ? How does it work ? Ans : A fire extinguisher is an effective device for putting out small fires in homes or in the offices. It contain water or chemicals. It release carbon dioxide gase or foam. Gas foam helps to put out the fire by enveloping it and thus curring off the supply of air to it. o. What first aid should be give to a person who has nosebleed ? Ans : If a person has nosebleed follow these steps. i. Sit the person in an upright postion with his head slightly tilted forward. ii. Press his nostrils firmly and place a wet town on his forhead. This will stop the bleeding. iii. Make sure that the person does not blow his nose for a few hours p. What first aid should be given to a person with a minor burn ? Ans : if the burn is minor, simply apply an antiseptic cream on the affected area. q. What first aid should be given to a person with a severe burn ? Ans : if person with severe burn follow these steps :i. make the person lie down ii. place a clean cloth over the burnt area. iii. do not try to break the blisters formed on the persons skin 30

iv.

rush the person to the hospital immediately.

r. What first aid should be given to a person who has had a fracture ? Ans : if person with fracture follow these steps. i. Tie a stick or a split to support the broken bone ii. donot try to move broken bone, as this can dislocate it. iii. call an ambulance and take to hospital immediately s. What first aid should be given to a person had a sprain ? Ans : Someone had a sprain, take the following steps : i. raise the affected part of the body by resting it on chair or stool ii. Apply a cold compress on the injured area. iii. Apply a ice cubes on the injured area. t. How will you treat a person who has been stung by a bee Ans : Insect like bees, wasps and ants can sting the people, follow the following steps i. Remove the sting with tweezers ii. wash the wound with lime water or ammonia iii. apply ice on the wound to prevent swelling and pain iv. apply a soothing cream and cold cream to the affected area u. how will you treat a person who has been bitten by an animal or by a dog ? Ans : follow these steps, If some has been bitten by a dog or animal. i. Wash the wound with soap and water to wash off the saliva ii. rush the person to the doctor v. what first aid should be given to a person had a heatstorke Ans : if some person has heat storke, follow these steps a. take the person to a place sheltered from the hot sun b. make him lie down and rest his legs on a high stool or chair c. loosen or remove the persons clothes d. cool the person by spraying cold water on him e. make him dring cool water or juice w. what first aid should be given to a person who had a electric shock Ans : if some person has electric shock, follow these steps a. use a wooden stick to separate the person from the source of current wear rubber slippers or stay on the mat b. switch off the main fuse box c. call the doctor 2.Give Reasons for the following a. A first aid kit should be kept near at hand at home, in school or in office Ans : A first aid box should always be kept ready in home, school , office because accidents and injuries happen suddenly and unexpectedly. The first aid can save a person life. 31

b. We should firmly press the nostrils of a person who has a nosebleed and then place a wet towel on his forehead. Ans : This will stop the bleeding after few minutes c. If someone gets burnt severely, place a clean cloth over the burnt area of the person. Ans : This will protect the wound against germs. d. if someone is bitten by a snake, tie a tight band a little above and below the bite Ans : If someone is bitten by a snake bite a tie a tight band little above and below the bite. This will stop the venom or poison from spreading to other parts of the body. e. if someone is bitten by an animal, the wounded area should be washed with soap and water Ans : to wash off the saliva f. Never keep a lit kerosene stove on the floor Ans : Never keep a lit kerosene stove on the floor as it can get knocked over and the fire can be spread. 3. Fill in the blanks a. Basic medical treatment that is given to someone before professional help reaches is caled ___________ (First Aid) b. _________ may be necessary for someone who has been injured or taken ill suddenly. (First aid) c. First aid can ________ an injury from getting worse (prevent) d. __________ is a serious disease caused by the bite of a dog. (rabies) e. Loss of water and salts from the body leads to a condition known as _______ (Dehydration ). f. A crack or break in the bone is called _________ (Fracture). g. In the case of hand fracture _________ is required as an extra support. (triangular shape bandage) 4. Fill in the blanks a. ...................is the basic medical treatment given as soon as someone is sick or injured. b. ......................., .......................... and .................................. are among the three essential things to be kept in a first aid kit.

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c. If someone has cut himself, we should first .................................. the wound with a clean cloth d. A crack or a break in the bones is called a ........................................ e. A ............................ is an injury in a muscle or joint. f. If someone has been bitten by an insect, the ................................ should first be removed with tweezers. g. Dog bites can cause a serious disease called .................................. h. A .......................... is an effective device for putting out small fires in homes or offices. 5. Write T for true and F for false A Accidents and injuries happen suddenly and unexpectedly B C D E F G H I J We should keep nail polish in the first aid kit If someone has cut himself, a doctor should be called immediately If someone has a nosebled, the person should blow his nose continuously A crock or a break in the bone is called a sprain If a person has a sprain, a cold compress should be applied on the injured area If a person has been bitten by a snake, the would should be washed with lime water or ammonia Dog bites causes a serious disease called rabies Always keep a lit kerosene stove on the floor Some fire extinguishers release carbon dioxide

6.Fill the blanks a................................. is a standard item in a first aid kit. b. If a person has had a nosebleed, place a wet towel on the persons’s ................. c. ............................... Can be caused by fire and boiling water d................................. is an injury in a muscle or a joint e. If someone has been bitten by an insect .............................. is often applied to the wounded area f. Make sure that a gas stove is switched ........................... when it is not in use. 7. Match the following Sl.no A A Cuts and wounds B Burns C Sprain D Insect bites E Dog bite F Fire extinguisher B Carbon dioxide and foam Lime water and ammonia Rabies Antiseptic cream Cold compress Blisters 33

8.Fill in the blanks a. A ............................ should always be kept ready in home, school , office because accidents and injuries happen suddenly and unexpectedly. (First Aid box) b. The first aid can ______ a person life. (save) c. We should firmly press the ................. of a person who has a nosebleed and then place a wet towel on his forehead. (nostrils) d. If someone gets burnt severely, place a ...................over the burnt area of the person. (clean cloth) e. If someone is bitten by a snake bite a tie a tight band little above and below the bite. This will stop the...................from spreading to other parts of the body. (poson or venom) f. Never keep a lit kerosene stove on the floor as it can get ....................and the fire can be spread. (knocked over)

Chapter 7. 34

Difference Between Plants and animals 1. Give Reasons a.Animals depend on plants or other animals for food Animals depend on plants of other animals for food because they cannot make their own food. b.Animals respond to a stimulas quickly where as plants are slows in their response Animals respond to a stimulas quickly where as plants are slows in their response because they do not have well developed sense organ. c.Plants prepare their own food Plants prepare their own food because the leaves have green colour pigment called chlorophyll which traps the sunligh and help in preparing their food. 2.Aswers the following a.Mention the common features of plants and animals The common features of plants and animals are :- Both of them need food to live - They respond to stimuuli - They grown in size - Both of them reproduce - both are made of cells - Both have life cycles - Both are composed of cells. The cells also contain many of the same organelles - Both plants and animals use mitosis and meiosis. - Cellular respiration occurs in the mitochondria in both plants and animals - Both have hormones - Both require water and nutrients Animals depend on plants to manufacture food, which then enters the food chain. Animals eat the plants. Upon death, the animals decompose to provide nutrients for plants. Plants use the nutrients from the decaying remains of animals and other plants. In addition, plants use nutrients found in animal manure for growth. b.Why are animals called consumers Animals consume (depend on) plants and other animals and therefore they are called consumer. c.What is meant by re-production ? How do animals re-produce ? Reproduction is the process through which living being produce the young ones. Animals reproduce by laying eggs or giving birth to young ones.

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d.How do animals respond to stimucli ? Animals have sense organs and they show a quick response to almost all stimuli such as light, sound, heat, taste or touch. e. Name two methods by which plants reproduce Ans : 1. Plants reproduce by producing seeds eg : mango, neem, tamarind 2. Plants reproduce thru their bud (eg : potato) f. Name two methods by which animals reproduce Ans : 1. Insects / birds reproduce by laying eggs. 2. Animals like dogs, cows and human beeings give birth to the young ones. 3.Fill in the blanks a. Plants and animals give out _________ gas during respiration (carbon di-oxide) b. The pigment present in green leaves is called _________ (chlorophyll) c. Plants utilize ___________ gase to prepare their own food (carbon di-oxide) d. In animals growth is __________ (uniform) e.Animals depend on plants or other animals for food because they cannot make their ............................ (own food.) f.Animals respond to a stimulas quickly where as plants are slows in their response because they do not have well developed ............................(sense organ) g. Animals consume plants and other animals and therefore they are called ................................ (consumer) h. ............................. is the process through which living being produce the young ones/laying eggs. (Reproduction) Write the difference between plants and animals ? Shape and size : Plants and animals have definite shape and size. Sl.no Plants Animals 1 Plants produce food and are Animals consume plants and other known as producers animals and are know as consumers 2 Plants are called autotrophs Animals are called heterotrophs 3 They donot have any sense organs Animals have sense organs 4 They show slow response to Animals shows quick response to stimuli stimuli 5 Movements Movements They stay in one place or Animals move from place to placeon stationary their own in search of food. 6 They do not have a well Animals have a well developed developed digestive system digestive system 36

7 8

9

10 11

Plant utilise rain and sunlight to make food. They do not need protection from rain and sunlight Respiration : Plants breathe through pores on the surface of their leaves called stomata Nutrition Plants have a green pigment called chlorophyll in their leaves which helps them to make food. Reproduction Most plants reproduce with the help of seeds. Male and female reproductive parts are present on each individual plant.

Animals find natural shelters or make their own homes to live in Respiration : Animals breathe through their lungs, gills, air holes etc Nutrition Animals do not have chlorophyll and they depend on plants or other animals for food Reproduction Most animals reproduce either lay eggs or give birth to their young ones. Animals are typically male or female.

Sunflower always faces the sun 4.Fill in the blanks a) Plants are called ___________________ b) During respiration, animals take in ________________ c) Plants take in __________________ from the air during photosynthesis. d) During night, the plants give out _________________ e) Growth in plants is ___________________ f) Most plants reproduce with the help of _____________________ g) Plants respond to stimuli _____________________ 5.Write T for True and F for false A B C D E Plants have special sense organs Green plants are autotrophs Animals are slower in responding to stimuli Animals generally develop new body parts when the old ones get damaged Animals eat plants or other animals

6. Choose the correct answer to fill in the blanks a.The tiny pores in the leaves are called .............................................................. b.The gas produced during photosynthesis is.................................................... c.organs through which fish breathe are called .................................................. d. the main sources required for the preparation of food are................................ 37

e. Exchange of gases takes place in ..................................................................... 7. Match the following Sl.no A A Stomata B Starch C Chlorophyll D Animals E Plants Figures LPG (Liquid Petrolem Gas) B Green pigment Tiny holes in leaves Food prepared in leaves Producers Consumers

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