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TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. Introduction 2. The Composition of Aeroplane Weight 3. The Calculation of Aircraft Weight 4. Weight and Balance Theory 5. Centre of Gravity Calculations 6. Adding, Removing and Repositioning Loads 7. The Mean Aerodynamic Chord 8. Structural Limitations 9. Manual and Computer Load/Trim Sheets 10. Joint Aviation Regulations 11. The Weighing of Aeroplanes 12. Documentation 13. Definitions 14. CAP 696 - Loading Manual 1. Introduction
1. As a professional pilot you will deal with aircraft loading situations on every flying day of your working life. The course that you are about to embark upon considers the interrelationship between aircraft loading and other related subjects (principally aircraft performance and flight planning), and the very important airmanship aspects of proper aircraft loading. In general (nonaircraft type specific) terms, the ways in which the centre of gravity of both unladen and laden aircraft can be determined and checked as being within safe limits will be discussed. As and when you are introduced to new aircraft types, both during your flight training and during your subsequent career, you will be taught the loading procedures which are specific to that particular aircraft type.
Conversion between Weight and Volume 6. secondly. are operated to the highest possible level of safety. There is a set of rules and requirements for each Class of aeroplanes. In the Aircraft Performance book the problem of determining the maximum permitted takeoff weight for an aircraft in a given situation is addressed. are addressed. In all British and American publications. In Aircraft Loading the problems of distributing the load within the aircraft such that the resultant centre of gravity is. positioned so as to enhance the efficient performance of the aircraft.e. which can be carried on a given flight. within the safe limits laid down for the aircraft and. For example a British or . Therefore weight and mass are synonymous. weight = mass x 1. In addition to this the metric system of measuring weight and volume is preferred by the JAA and it may be necessary to convert Imperial or American quantities to metric equivalents. With the introduction of the Joint Aviation Authority syllabus the word ‘mass’ is used instead of the word ‘weight’. Throughout this book the word ‘weight’ has been used and may be exchanged for the word ‘mass’ if preferred. 3. If such is the case use the following method. All public transport aircraft are divided into Classes in which the types have similar levels or performance.2. 4. The Joint Aviation Authority has the task of ensuring that all public transport aircraft. The Flight Planning book addresses the determination of the maximum payload. 5. firstly. The reason the JAA use mass is because weight = mass x acceleration i. irrespective of size or number of engines. which dictate the maximum mass at which an aeroplane may be operated during any particular phase of flight. The weights and volumes obtained for the purpose of centre of gravity calculations are frequently given as a mixture of metric and imperial measures. To discharge this commission the JAA periodically introduces legislation in the form of operating rules or regulations and minimum performance requirements. weight is still preferred and used to express the downward force exerted by mass. which are complementary.
American built aircraft may well have its weights presented in the Aeroplane Flight Manual (AFM) in pounds and when loaded on the continent the load may be quoted in kilograms. 9. 2 Pints = 1 Quart . when moving in the opposite direction. imperial gallons or US gallons. but of course must figure in the load sheet calculations in pounds or kilograms. or when converting kilograms to litres the weight must be divided by the specific gravity. Fuel is delivered in litres.0. 12. It does not matter. 1 litre of pure water weighs 1 kg and 1 imperial gallon pure water weights 10 lb.0. In some problems the oil is measured in quarts. Aviation fuels and oils are lighter than pure water. When using the diagram at Figure 0-1 and moving in the direction of the arrows. multiply (as shown). therefore their specific gravities will be less than 1. when converting imperial gallons to pounds the volume must be multiplied by (10 x the specific gravity). the conversion is the same as shown below in Paragraph 12. To convert a volume of liquid to weight and vice versa the density of the liquid must be considered. Volume Conversions 11. 8. 10. and indeed the conversion between volume and weight for fluids with a given specific gravity. is covered elsewhere in the course. The diagram at Figure 0-1 may help you with these conversions. Although the conversion between differing units of weight and volume. When converting litres of any liquid to kilograms the volume must be multiplied by the specific gravity. divide. They may be in Imperial measurements or American. the following paragraphs are included in this manual for your guidance. 7. The density is expressed as a specific gravity (SG). The SG of pure water is taken as the datum SG of 1. Conversely. Similarly. or to convert pounds to imperial gallons the volume must be divided by (10 x the specific gravity) of the liquid.
Total weight comprises three elements. The Composition of Aeroplane Weight 1. when travelling in the opposite direction divide. 2. . unusable fuel and undrainable oil. The Composition of Aeroplane Weight Weight Limitations 1. The total weight of an aeroplane is the weight of the aeroplane and everyone and everything carried on it or in it. Basic equipment is that which is common to all roles plus unconsumable fluids such as hydraulic fluid. When travelling in the direction of the arrows multiply. the variable load and the disposable load. the basic weight. This is the aeroplane weight plus basic equipment. Basic Weight.4 Quarts = 1 Gallon 8 Pints = 1 Gallon 13.
[JAR-OPS 1. 2. Empty Weight.Variable Load. All Up Weight (AUW). Role equipment is that which is required to complete a specific tasks such as seats. Although these are the weight definitions used in the load sheet there are other terms which are commonly used.607 (a)]. lavatory pre-charge water and fluids intended for injection into the engine . engine coolants (if applicable) and all hydraulic fluid and all other fluids required for normal operation and aircraft systems. toilets and galley for the passenger role or roller convey or. The total weight of an aircraft and all of its contents at a specific time. lashing points and tie down equipment for the freight role. The traffic load plus usable fuel and consumable fluids. and potable water and lavatory chemicals. catering equipment. The traffic load is the total weight of passengers. baggage and cargo including non-revenue load. The maximum traffic load that may be carried in any circumstances. crew baggage. The traffic load is the total weight of passengers. The dry operating weight is sometimes referred to as the Aircraft Prepared for Service (APS) weight. Dry Operating Weight. The lowest weight at which an aeroplane complies with the structural requirements for its own safety. This includes the role equipment. baggage and cargo. It is a limitation caused by the stress limitation of the airframe and is equal to the maximum zero fuel weight minus the aircraft prepared for service weight. It includes such items as crew. (Standard Empty Weight) The weight of the aircraft excluding usable fuel. The total weight of the aeroplane for a specific type of operation excluding all usable fuel and traffic loads. removable passenger service equipment. crew and traffic load but including fixed ballast. These are: Absolute Traffic Load. engine oil. including any non-revenue load. Design Minimum Weight. The items to be included are decided by the Operator. Disposable Load. except potable water. The disposable load is sometimes referred to as the useful load. the crew and the crew baggage.
In other words anything or anyone carried that earns money for the airline. The sum of the aircraft basic weight. [JAR-OPS 1.(demineralised water or water-methanol used for thrust augmentation). Maximum Structural Landing Weight. at the time of landing.607 (c)]. The gross weight of the aeroplane. in the most favourable circumstances in accordance with the Certificate of Airworthiness in force in respect of aircraft. The maximum weight at which an aircraft may commence taxiing and its equal to the maximum take-off weight plus taxi fuel and run-up fuel. Landing Weight. The weight of fuel contained in particular tanks must be included in the zero fuel mass when it is explicitly mentioned in the Aeroplane Flight Manual limitations. This is a structural limitation imposed to ensure that the airframe is not overstressed. Maximum Structural Take-Off Weight.607 (b)]. Payload. including all of its contents. passengers.607 (d)]. The maximum total weight of aircraft prepared for service. It must not exceed the surface load bearing strength. [JAR-OPS 1. The maximum permissible total aeroplane weight at the start of the take-off run. Maximum Ramp Weight. [JAR-OPS 1. The maximum permissible total aeroplane weight on landing in normal circumstances. the variable load and disposable load. The maximum permissible weight of an aeroplane with no usable fuel. Total Loaded Weight. Maximum Zero Fuel Weight. Anyone or anything on board the aeroplane the carriage of which is paid for any someone other than the operation. Maximum Total Weight Authorised (MTWA). baggage and cargo at which the aircraft may take-off anywhere in the world. the crew (unless already included in the APS weight). .
That part of the fuel carried which is impossible to use because of the shape or position of particular tanks.607 (f)]. Zero Fuel Weight. The unconsumable fluids and the equipment which is common to all roles for which the operator intends to use the aircraft. if necessary. to ensure the centre of gravity remains within the safe limits. [JAR-OPS 1. that are carried. That part of the oil lubrication system that cannot be removed due to the construction of the system.Traffic Load. . The total mass of passengers. baggage and cargo. in certain circumstances. Basic Equipment. Additional fixed weights which can be removed. This is the dry operating weight plus the traffic load. Unusable Fuel. including any nonrevenue load. A mechanical device inserted between the cargo and the aircraft floor to distribute the weight evenly over a greater floor area. In other words it is the weight of the aeroplane without the weight of usable fuel. Unusable Oil. Load Spreader. Equipment Ballast.
unusable fuel. The total weight of an aeroplane comprises many different components. all of which. all engine coolant . together with the appropriate lever arms. the crew and the traffic load but including any fixed ballast. The standard empty weight of the aeroplane is the weight of the aircraft excluding the usable fuel. are recorded in the weight and CG Schedule.3. 4.
6. The total weight of the aeroplane comprises the APS weight plus the disposable load. 10. 5. together with the declared basic equipment showing the weight and arm of each item. which is made up of usable fuel and the payload. For an aircraft having a valid Certificate of Airworthiness a valid Weight and CG . Details of the disposable load must be entered in Part C of the Weight and CG Schedule. or the Dry Operating Weight (DOW). that is equipment which is common to all roles in which the aircraft may be required to perform. otherwise the weight of each crew member must be determined by weighing. standard crew (and passenger) weights are assumed. 7. To equip an aircraft to perform a particular role it may be necessary to fit additional equipment. toilets and galleys. The basic weight of an aeroplane is essentially the empty weight plus the weight of basic equipment. The weight of the aircraft in this condition is called the Aircraft Prepared for Service (APS) weight. an example would be the passenger seats. This is known as role equipment. The basic weight and the corresponding CG position. Under certain circumstances. which contains the lever arm of each cargo stowage position. The weight and moment of the crew is included in Part B. are shown in Part A of the Weight and CG Schedule or in the Loading and Distribution Schedule as appropriate.and all hydraulic fluid. 9. but for every role the weights and moments must be stated. 8. The role equipment (variable load) detailed in Part B may be for as many roles as the operator wishes. The occasions on which standard weights may be used are discussed in the Chapter entitled ‘Joint Airworthiness Requirements’. Full details of all fuel and oil tanks are also included in this part of the Schedule stating the arm. With the role equipment fitted the aircraft is ready to enter service. hold and each row of passenger seats. which may vary in quantity for a large public transport aircraft. maximum capacity and weight when full for aircraft exceeding an MTWA of 2730 kg.
which are imposed by the manufacturer. the loss of power from a specified number of engines will be assumed when determining the maximum weight at which the aircraft can safely clear en-route obstacles. he (or his representative if he dies) must retain the Schedule or pass it on to the new operator for retention for the requisite period. Each Schedule must be preserved for a period of six months following the subsequent re-weighing of the aircraft. to ensure the aeroplane is not over-stressed. This is the TOW as limited by the available field lengths and the prevailing meteorological conditions at the departure aerodrome. The Field-Length Limited Take-Off Weight. the FieldLength Limit or the WAT Limit at the destination or alternate aerodromes. The weight of the aircraft at any stage of the flight enroute must be such that the aircraft can safely clear any objects within a specified distance of the aircraft’s intended track. This limitation is imposed on TOW by minimum climb gradient requirements. These are weight limits. Depending on the aircraft’s performance category. the maximum zero fuel weight and the maximum structural landing weight. The Weight-Altitude-Temperature (WAT) Limit. En-route terrain clearance may impose a limitation on the take-off weight. This may be dictated by the structural limitation. The Maximum Landing Weight. the maximum structural take-off weight. which are specified in Joint Airworthiness Requirements The En-Route Requirements. Weight Limitations 12. If the person who is the operator ceases to be the operator. and agreed by the Authority. . These structural weights include the maximum structural ramp weight. 11. The factors which may limit the maximum Take-Off Weight (TOW) are: The Structural Limits.Schedule must be completed every time the aircraft is weighed.
Diversion Fuel. Contingency Allowance. it is normally prudent to reduce the fuel load to a safe minimum in order to reduce the all up weight of the aircraft. Whether or not the fuel carried actually limits the traffic load. reduced thrust take-offs and/or easier compliance with noise abatement procedures on take-off. The fuel required to proceed from the destination to the alternate aerodrome in the prevailing conditions. higher cruise levels. the WAT limitation and the structural limitation is the maximum TOW. 13. Alternatively. Landing Allowance. On occasions it is advantageous to carry more than the minimum fuel for a given sector. As already discussed. The fuel required to enable the aircraft to hold at a specified pressure altitude and for a specified period of time. Holding Allowance. The obvious example is when fuel will not be available at the destination aerodrome. The total fuel required on any particular flight comprise the following: Route Fuel.The Maximum Take-off Weight. the disposable load consists of the usable fuel and the traffic load. The fuel required to be used from overhead the landing aerodrome to the end of the landing roll. The lowest restricted weight of the field-length limitation. 14. but not below the minimum safe altitude. the cost of fuel at the destination aerodrome may be so high that the cost differential (departure aerodrome fuel cost versus destination aerodrome fuel cost) may be so great that it is . An amount of fuel carried to counter any disadvantage suffered because of unforecast adverse conditions. This is the fuel used from departure to destination aerodromes and may be minimised by operating at the most economical pressure altitude accounting for the temperature and wind component. This will result in lower operating costs. In order that the maximum traffic load can be carried it may be necessary to limit the amount of fuel which is carried to a safe minimum.
The size of the traffic load may be restricted by reasons other than the disposable load which is available once the fuel load has been decided. 15. in which case some of the traffic load may have to be off-loaded. . In either event. when this is done the first sector would be termed a ‘Tankering Sector’. The take-off speeds are increased because of the weight. A safely loaded aircraft is one in which the total weight of traffic load is equal to or less than the maximum permissible traffic load for a given flight and the distribution of that traffic load is such that the centre of gravity of the laden aircraft lies within the fore and aft limits of centre of gravity which are permitted for that aircraft operating in the specified role. Together these reduce the aeroplane’s ability to stop rapidly in the event of an abandoned take-off. and this results in an increased take-off run required and an increased take-off distance required. (d) Increased stalling speed which reduces the safety margins. Operating Overweight 16. (c) Increased take-off speeds impose a higher load on the undercarriage and increased tyre and wheel temperatures. Floor loading factors may have to be considered. (e) Reduced cruise ceiling which increases the fuel consumption resulting in a decreased operational range. It may also cause en-route terrain clearance problems. The effects of operating in an overweight condition include: (a) Reduced acceleration on the ground run for take-off.cheaper to carry the fuel for the return or subsequent sector outbound from the original departure aerodrome. It may be impossible to distribute the traffic load such that the centre of gravity of the laden aircraft remains within the safe specified limits. 17. (b) Decreased gradient and rate of climb which decreases obstacle clearance capability after take-off and the ability to comply with the minimum climb gradient requirements. With a payload which is light in weight but bulky it may be physically impossible to fit the traffic load into the aircraft.
(Note if there is no removable ballast. Standard Empty Weight = Basic Empty Weight). • Dry Operating Weight + Traffic Load = Zero Fuel Weight. EXAMPLE 2-1 and 2-2: . • Zero Fuel Weight + Usable Fuel = All Up Weight Problems related to these fomulae will be met as follows: (Note optional equipment and removable ballast will not be mentioned unless it is carried). 3. The Calculation of Aircraft Weight From the diagram at Figure 1-1 it can be determined that: • Aircraft Weight + Basic Equipment = Basic Weight • Basic Weight + Usable Oil = Standard Empty Weight • Standard Empty Weight + Optional Equipment = Basic Empty Weight (Note if no optional equipment is added. (h) Reduced one-engine inoperative performance on multi-engined aircraft.(f) Impaired manoeuvrability and controllability. • Basic Empty Weight + Variable Load = Aircraft Prepared for Service Weight (APS). • APS Weight + Removable Ballast = Dry Operating Weight. landing ground run. (g) Increased approach and landing speeds causing a longer landing distance. In addition to ensuring that the maximum permissible all-up weight of an aircraft is not exceeded it is of vital importance to ensure that the distribution of the permissible weight is such that the balance of the aircraft is not upset. APS Weight = Dry Operating Weight). 18. increased tyre and wheel temperatures and reduced braking effectiveness. (i) Reduced structural strength safety martins with the possibility of overstressing the airframe.
Problems concerning the traffic load capacity of an aircraft often occur in the Flight Planning. The problems are not complicated because there is no consideration of whether the centre of gravity of the laden aircraft lies within the trim envelope. 2. remember that the All Up .EXAMPLE 2-3 and 2-4: Weight and Traffic Load 1. To avoid getting lost in a mass of figures and definitions. Navigation or Mass and Balance examination papers.
4. For an aircraft to perform a particular role it may be necessary to fit additional equipment. (c) Maximum Zero Fuel Weight. the fuel and the traffic load. The APS weight and the traffic load remain constant throughout the flight whereas the weight of the fuel will progressively decrease. as limited by one of three limiting maximum weights: (a) Maximum Take-Off Weight. To answer this type of question use the layout shown in the following examples and approach the problem in a logical manner remembering the total weight at any time comprises the APS weight. (c) The traffic load carried. 3. The Total Weight of the aeroplane then comprises of the APS weight plus the Disposable Load. 6. The weight of the aircraft in this condition is called the Aircraft Prepared for Service (APS) weight. This is known as role equipment. EXAMPLE 2-5 . which makes the aircraft ready to enter service. (b) The weight of the Fuel Onboard. for example the passenger seats and galleys required in a public transport aircraft. or the Dry Operating Weight. 5. (b) Maximum Landing Weight. In the examination you will be required to calculate the weight of the traffic load that can be carried.Weight of an aircraft at any stage of flight consists of three elements: (a) The Aircraft Prepared for Service Weight (or Dry Operating Mass). which is made up of the usable fuel and traffic load.
EXAMPLE 2-6: .
EXAMPLE 2-6: .
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