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The Research Paper

GUIDE FOR WRITING A RESEARCH PAPER 1. Rules for writing a research paper This guide has been created to assist students in thinking and writing through the many aspects of writing, implementing and defending a research paper. A research paper is a written report of research. The aim of the research paper is for the student to demonstrate that he can apply knowledge, understanding and skills gained from knowledge obtained through study (and possibly working experience). This means that the student is able to study independently and critically certain sources, analyse these sources critically and apply the information needed. The student is able to apply general legal knowledge to specific cases and questions, but he is also able to gain general knowledge from specific situations. The student is able to argue clearly and produce a vision of his own. Another aim of the research paper is to gain knowledge and insight about a certain specific legal topic or problem. The content of the research paper has to be a topic within the field of international business law. 2. Criteria used to assess the research paper 2.1 Contents The research paper contains logical, consistent and coherent reasoning. Conclusions are the logical result of what was written before, without omissions and contradictions. It goes without saying that the research paper should not contain inaccuracies. The problem statement is clearly formulated as a question. The conclusions contain the answer to this question. The paper consists of approximately 12,000 words (around 30 pages). 2.2 Creative writing A research paper is not merely an enumeration of a number of facts, literature and case law; the findings of your research have to add something to what already has been written. A research paper has to express that the student has a point of view of his own. This may show because the student has a very definite view regarding his subject and it may also show by the choice of literature. 2.3 Structure A research paper consists of three parts: introduction, body of the paper, divided into chapters and sections, and a conclusion. In the conclusion you have to answer the questions you formulated in the introduction. 2.4 Use of sources In the research paper the student demonstrates the ability to acquire knowledge found in relevant literature, legislature and case law. The student also shows that he/she is able to digest this information and to apply the information in concrete situations. Plagiarism is forbidden and will be sanctioned. All sources have to be mentioned. 2.5 Language The research paper should be written in correct English, idiomatically as well as grammatically. 2.6 Layout

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The Research Paper


2.7 Independent research The student demonstrates that he/she is able to do research independently. He/she will have to find the sources himor herself and he/she will have to digest and apply the information found in these sources. 2.8 Observing deadlines A timely submission of the research paper is important. If a student wishes to hand in his/her research paper after the official deadline, the director of the programme and research paper supervisor should be notified beforehand. 3 How to write your research paper 3.1 Think about your research paper: 1. Try a preliminary study to help clarify your research 2. Discuss your ideas with staff members 3. Focus on your research 4. Be inclusive in your thinking 5. Write down your ideas 6. Do not be over influenced by others it is your research 7. Try and set a realistic goal 8. Set appropriate time lines 9. Search for information in the library, the internet and photocopy relevant articles 10. Organise around a set of questions 11. Prepare a tentative list of literature, table of contents and draft introduction As a guideline, a research paper design should include the following elements: A statement on the nature of the research problem The formulation of the research questions and/or hypotheses that are examined in the research, as precise and concise as possible A table of contents A brief bibliography 3.2 Writing your research paper Start writing sections you know best Your writing should be clear and unambiguous Use similar or parallel wording whenever possible Let your table of contents help you improve the paper Write conclusions and implications do not restate your findings Make your suggestions for further research meaningful The draft introduction should be re-written in conjunction with the conclusion, so that the conclusion provides the answers to the questions in the introduction

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The Research Paper


4 Presenting your research paper Presenting your research paper is an integrated part of the programme. To complete the programme successfully every student must present his or her research paper in approximately 15 minutes (barring unforeseen circumstances no exception can be made) by giving a PowerPoint presentation. To give a successful presentation: Discuss your research and ideas with others Make sure your PowerPoint presentation is clear and easy to follow by the audience. Note: do not put to much information on one slide. The examiner will ask you questions about your research paper. This will also take ten minutes. Prepare for your presentation by making a list of questions you could expect from the examination committee and prepare the answers. There will be a separate information session in May where the presentation schedule and procedures will be explained (the exact date will follow) 5 Technical Specifications 5.1 Paper The submitted copies of the research paper must be on standard A-4 and binded. The entire research paper must be printed on the same paper. The submitted copies are to be free of materials used to correct mistakes, such as correcting fluid. 5.2 Printing The research paper should be printed using black ink on white paper. The device chosen to produce the final copy should provide a clean, non-smudged copy with consistent contrast throughout the document. 5.3 Type Style and Spacing The print should be 12 point. The text should be spaced 1,3. The same type font must be used throughout the text and main body of the submitted manuscript. A differing font may be used for titles, headings or quotes. 5.4 Margins The margins of a research paper page are: Top = 2,5 cm or 1" Bottom = 2,5 cm or 1" Outside = 2,5 cm or 1" Inside or Binding Edge = no less than 3 cm or 1,5 . These spacing and heading systems are required in order to make proper binding possible. 5.5 Page numbers All pages except the title page must be numbered. Begin the numbering with small Roman ii, the title page counting as i, but remaining unnumbered. Use the Arabic number one (1) to start the Introduction or Chapter I of the body or main text of the research paper, and continue with every page that follows, whether it be text, figure, table, map, appendix, etc., numbering pages consecutively to the end. The number of each text page is placed in the same position on all pages.

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The Research Paper


5.6 Footnotes References to relevant literature should follow the commonly accepted practice in legal writing. Footnotes are indicated by superscript numbers, inserted in the text, at the appropriate point. Usually they appear at the bottom of each page, or at the end of the chapter (footnotes or endnotes). If you repeat the reference immediately in the following note, you can shorten it by using ibidem (or ibid.), if applicable followed by a reference to the page number. If you want to refer to a footnote that is not immediately proceeding, you should use op. cit. n. X. Generally, abbreviations are not printed in italics. 5.7 References to the sources/literature used for writing the paper as well as additional comments on the main text of the paper are made in footnotes. Footnotes may include references to pertinent literature, or may simply consist of parenthetical elaboration. In any case, a section containing a list of all cited material and all references consulted but not cited must be included. This list must be alphabetical by the first author's last name. 5.8 Quotations and paraphrasing Please note that you should always duly acknowledge the work of authors you build on. If you in any way use or elaborate on somebody else's work you should make that clear through a reference. Literal quotations must be put in quotes. If they are longer than two lines they may be indented and single -spaced. Use quotations sparingly, and only where they seem essential, either to clarify or substantiate a point already made or to provide a starting point for an idea which you wish to discuss. Quotations should never be used to prove that you have read certain literature, or to simply reiterate what you have read, but rather to strengthen your line of argument or for purposes of illustration. 5.9 Bibliography A bibliography lists the books and articles that you have consulted for the paper. It is very important to have a good bibliography. It also concerns the referencing system. You are free to choose any referencing system, but please make sure that you provide full details of the sources used and that you apply the same referencing system throughout the whole paper. References to books should include: name author, title book, place of publication: publisher, year. Example Peter Malanczuk, Akehurst's Modern Introduction to International Law, London and New York: Routledge, 1997. References to a chapter of an edited book: Subrata Roy Chowdhury, Common but Differentiated State Responsibility in International Environmental Law, in: Konrad Ginther et al. (eds.), Sustainable Development and Good Governance, Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1992, pp. 322-342. References to journals: Th. Meron, 'International Criminalization of Internal Atrocities', in 89 American Journal of International Law (1995), pp. 554-577. Reference to internet sources (you must indicate the date of visit; give the full address) www.imf.org/source (visited 1 January 2009).

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The Research Paper


6. Parts and Organisation Since most research papers follow the same format and have a number of parts in common, these parts are listed here for the student's convenience. Parts of the Research paper Title Page required Copyright Notice if used Table of Contents required Prefatory Material (Preface, Acknowledgements, etc.) required Introduction required Discussion: arguments, analyses required Summary and Conclusions required References in footnotes required Literature Cited required Appendix required if tables/figures are present A student who desires the protection for his research paper that a copyright affords, must obtain a copyright and include a copyright notice as the second page of the research paper. The notice consists of three parts: the copyright symbol '' and/or the word copyright, the name of the copyright owner, and the year of publication.

Finding a research topic

1. Choose a subject that interests you but from which you can still learn much. 2. Choose a subject that is not broad. 3. Choose a subject not too difficult, one for which you can find materials from popular magazines or books aimed at general reading. 4. Choose a subject that has some interest for the average reader. Once you have settled upon a subject, you are now ready to gather materials. Begin by defining the specific problem with which you wish to deal. Select only materials related specifically to your problem. The sources of materials are the following: observation or experience, interview, library and special bulletin and reports. If your source of materials is books, you will need to take note the following: the author or editor, title of the book, place of publication, publisher, date of publication, and call number. If you use magazines as source of material, you will need to the author and title of the article, name of magazines or newspaper, volume number, date of issue, and page number. To ensure the completion of the study and to make research work enjoyable to the researcher, certain criteria should be observed.

Within the interest of the researcher. The research problem or topic should be within the interest of the researcher so that the researcher will focus his full attention on the research work.

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The Research Paper

Competence of the researcher. The researcher must have a workable understanding of his study such as the method of research to be used to the problem to his problem. Specialization of the researcher. Research problem or topic should be within the specialization of the researcher to make research work easier for him. This will also improve his specialization skills, and competence of his profession. Research budget. The researcher should be able to finance or find funding for his research until his study is completed. Personal choice of the researcher problem or topic. This is to prevent from blaming others or offering excuses for any problem encountered. Researchable and manageable research problem or topic. All the data used should be accessible as well as equipment and instruments for research are available and can give valid and reliable results. Also, the hypothesis formulated are testable and the research problem or topic should be able to meet the standards of accuracy, objectivity and verifiability. Within period of time. Research topic should be completed within a reasonable period of time. There must be a project time table. Relevant to the present time. Research topic should be significant, important and relevant to the present time and situation, and of current interest. In addition, it should be able to arouse peoples interest. Add human knowledge. Research topic must contribute a new bit of knowledge to what we already have since all the facts and knowledge are the products of research. Solve problems. Prove the way for the solution of the problems or problems intended to be solved. After research or project have been conducted, recommendations are made for the solution and if implemented can solve the problems. Moral and spiritual values. Research topic must promote divine values and admirable human values including love, peace, goodwill, etc. Quality of human life. Research topic must improve the quality of human life or show how to improve unsatisfactory conditions.

Parts of a research paper

Abstract - Contains that brief discussion of the background and objectives of the problem, statement of the problem, short discussion of research design as well as findings, conclusion and recommendations.
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The Research Paper


Title Page - Composes of title of the research, full name of the researcher, the subject for which the research is presented. Also, it includes the college and department of the institution to which the research is presented and the month and year in which the research is submitted. Acknowledgement - Mention the people who guided in the completion of the research. Table of Contents - Lists the chapter headings of the research such as the preliminaries, chapter number, chapter titles and page citations, sub-headings of main headings, bibliography, appendix(ces) with corresponding page. List of Tables - Demonstrate the presentation of the captions of the tables with the number of tables, caption of titles and pages in the research where the table is located. List of Figures and Illustrations - Includes graphs, charts and other illustrations used in the research. It shows the numbers of figures and illustration, captions or title, and pages in the research where the figures/illustrations appear. Introduction - Background of the study, statement of the problem, statement of the hypothesis, theoretical and conceptual framework, definition of terms, importance of the study and scope and delimitation of the study are included in the introduction. Review of Related Literature - Presents what has and has not been researched on the problem by explaining the basis of the theoretical framework. Methodology - Presents the procedures in data gathering such as the design of the study, variables and measures, sources of data, instrumentation, procedure, and treatment of research and data. Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data - Presentation and analysis of data as well the interpretation are included in this section. Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations - Summarizes findings to answer the research questions. Also, include conclusions or generalizations from the collected data as well as the recommendation and implications for further research and policy implementation

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