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CHARACTERISTICS OF CONTACT STRESSES 1. Represent compressive stresses developed from surface pressures between two curved bodies pressed together; 2. Possess an area of contact. The initial point contact (spheres) or line contact (cylinders) become area contacts, as a result of the force pressing the bodies against each other; 3. Constitute the principal stresses of a triaxial (three dimensional) state of stress; 4. Cause the development of a critical section below the surface of the body; 5. Failure typically results in flaking or pitting on the bodies’ surfaces. TWO DESIGN CASES Two design cases will be considered, 1. Sphere – Sphere Contact (Point Contact Circular Contact Area) 2. Cylinder – Cylinder Contact (Line Contact Rectangular Contact Area) SPHERE – SPHERE CONTACT F x d1 y d2

2a

F x

y

F z

(a) Two spheres held in contact by force F.

F z

(b) Contact stress has an elliptical distribution across contact over zone of diameter 2a.

TEXT FIGURE 4-42 Two Spheres in Contact

†

Text. refers to Mechanical Engineering Design, 7th edition text by Joseph Edward Shigley, Charles R. Mischke, and Richard G. Budynas; equations and figures with the prefix T refer to the present tutorial.

pmax = 3F 2π a 2 (Text Eq. pmax . σ 2 ≥ σ 3 . d 2 = diameters of spheres 1 and 2 This general expression for the contact radius can be applied to two additional common cases: 1. 2. 4. • Calculation of Principal Stresses ªª § 1 « σ x = − pmax «1 − ζ a tan −1 ¨ ¨ζ «¬ © a ¬« = σ y = σ1 = σ 2 ·º 1 (1 + ν ) − ¸ 2 ¸» 2 1+ ζ a » ¹¼ º » » ¼ ( ) (Modified Text Eq. occurs at the center point of the contact area. and σ z being compressive stresses. given as: a = Ka 3 F 2 ª 3 (1 − ν12 ) / E1 + (1 − ν 2 ) / E2 º where K a = « » (1/ d1 ) + (1/ d 2 ) ¬8 ¼ F = applied force 1/ 3 (Modified Text Eq. 4-72) ν1 . 4-74) Shigley. The dominant stress occurs on the axis of loading: σ max = σ z .ν 2 = Poisson's ratios for spheres 1 and 2 E1 . Mischke & Budynas Machine Design Tutorial 4-20: Hertz Contact Stresses 2/10 . σ y . Two planes of symmetry in loading and geometry dictates that σ x = σ y . The principal stresses are σ 1 = σ 2 = σ x = σ y and σ 3 = σ z given σ 1 . 3. Returning to the sphere-sphere case. E2 = elastic modulii for spheres 1 and 2 d1 . 2. Compressive loading leads to σ x . 4-73) State of Stress • The state of stress is computed based on the following mechanics: 1.Consider two solid elastic spheres held in contact by a force F such that their point of contact expands into a circular area of radius a. Sphere in contact with a plane (d 2 = ∞). Sphere in contact with an internal spherical surface or ‘cup’ (d 2 = − d ). the maximum contact pressure.

σ 1 . for the plot is calculated as: τ max = σ1 − σ 3 σ x − σ z σ y − σ z = = 2 2 2 (Modified Text Eq. originating at the point of maximum shear. τ max . 4-76) If the maximum shear stress. shrinking to a point. progresses to the surface where lubricant pressure wedges a chip loose and thus creates surface pitting. σ 3 and σ 2 . are plotted as a function of maximum pressure. Many authorities theorize that this maximum shear stress is responsible for the surface fatigue failure of such contacting elements. Shigley. plotted on top of each other. 4-75) ζ a = z / a = nondimensional depth below the surface ν = Poisson's ratio for the sphere examined (1 or 2) • Mohr’s Circle Plotting the principal stresses on a Mohr’s circle plot results in: one circle. a crack. 4-43 is generated. reveals that a critical section exists on the load axis. p max . and principal stresses.σ3 = σ z = where − pmax 2 1+ ζ a (Modified Text Eq. and two circles. approximately 0.48a below the sphere surface.3 . and σ 3 . σ 2 . based on a Poisson’s ratio of ν = 0. Mischke & Budynas Machine Design Tutorial 4-20: Hertz Contact Stresses 3/10 . This plot. The maximum shear stress. defined by σ 1 . the plot of Fig. σ 3 . τ max . TEXT FIGURE 4-43: Magnitude of the stress components below the surface as a function of maximum pressure of contacting spheres. below the surface contact point. defined by σ 1 = σ 2 .

Mischke & Budynas Machine Design Tutorial 4-20: Hertz Contact Stresses 4/10 . F x d1 l F x y d2 2b y F F z (a) Two right circular cylinders held in contact by forces F uniformly distributed along cylinder length l. 4-77) E1 .CYLINDER–CYLINDER CONTACT Consider two solid elastic cylinders held in contact by forces F uniformly distributed along the cylinder length l. E2 = elastic modulii for cylinders 1 and 2 d1 . d 2 = diameters of spheres 1 and 2 l = length of cylinders 1 and 2 (l1 = l2 assumed) Shigley. TEXT FIGURE 4-44 Two Cylinders in Contact The resulting pressure causes the line of contact to become a rectangular contact zone of halfwidth b given as: b = Kb F 2 ª 2 (1 − ν12 ) / E1 + (1 − ν 2 ) / E2 º where Kb = « » (1/ d1 ) + (1/ d 2 ) ¬π l ¼ F = applied force ν1 . z (b) Contact stress has an elliptical distribution across contact zone of width 2b.ν 2 = Poisson's ratios for cylinders 1 and 2 1/ 2 (Modified Text Eq.

4-81) °σ x for 0 ≤ ζ b ≤ 0.436 σ1 = ® ° ¯σ y for 0. σ y . and is computed as: pmax = 2F π bl (Text Eq. 3. and σ z being compressive stresses. • Calculation of Principal Stresses and Maximum Shear Stress σ 3 = σ z = − pmax 1 2 1+ζ b (Modified Text Eq. The maximum contact pressure between the cylinders acts along a longitudinal line at the center of the rectangular contact area. 4. and σ z with σ 3 = σ z . σ x = −2ν pmax ª 1 + ζ b2 − ζ b º « » ¬ ¼ ª§ 1 + 2ζ 2 · b ¸ σ y = − pmax «¨ − 2 ζb «¨ 1 + ζ 2 ¸ b ¹ ¬© ζb = z /b (Modified Text Eq. One plane of symmetry in loading and geometry dictates that σ x ≠ σ y .436 ≤ ζ b where. The principal stresses are equal to σ x . Cylinder in contact with an internal cylindrical surface.g. 4-80) Shigley. e. is general and can be used for two additional cases which are frequently encountered: 1. 2.This expression for the contact half-width. b. Compressive loading leads to σ x . 4-78) State of Stress • The state of stress is computed based on the following mechanics: 1. for example the race of a roller bearing (d 2 = − d ). a rail (d 2 = ∞). 4-79) º » » ¼ (Modified Text Eq. 2. σ y . The dominant stress occurs along the axis of loading: σ max = σ z . Cylinder in contact with a plane. Mischke & Budynas Machine Design Tutorial 4-20: Hertz Contact Stresses 5/10 .

436 ≤ ζ b When these equations are plotted as a function of maximum contact pressure up to a distance 3b below the surface contact point.015 inch below the wheel rim surface. σ z and τ 1/3 in the cast iron wheel at the critical section. The Hertzian stresses σ x . Shigley.1: Problem Statement: A 6-in-diameter cast-iron wheel.786 and 0.436 τ max = ® ° ¯τ1/ 3 = (σ z − σ y ) / 2 for 0. Find: 1.The maximum shear stress is thus given as: °τ1/ 3 = (σ z − σ x ) / 2 for 0 ≤ ζ b ≤ 0. Based on a Poisson’s ratio of 0. TEXT FIGURE 4-45: Magnitude of stress components below the surface as a function of maximum pressure for contacting cylinders. σ y . 2.3pmax. the plot of Fig. 4-45 is generated. Example T4. this plot reveals that τ max attains a maxima for ζ b = z / b = 0.3. Mischke & Budynas Machine Design Tutorial 4-20: Hertz Contact Stresses 6/10 . at point A located 0.20. rolls on a flat steel surface carrying a 800 lbf load. 2 in wide. The comparative state of stress and maximum shear stress. arising during a revolution.

Mischke & Budynas Machine Design Tutorial 4-20: Hertz Contact Stresses 7/10 . we need to calculate the contact stresses for a depth of z = 0.5 × 106 psi ν cast iron = 0.292 Solution: 1.5 × 106 psi. 4-45.211 E2 = Esteel = 30. b Material Properties: E1 = Ecast iron = 14. Schematic: Ecast iron = 14. During a single revolution of the wheel. Thus.) We expect point A to “feel” the effects of a semi-elliptical contact pressure distribution as point A moves into and through the contact zone. Compute the value of the contact half-width. 3. 7.211 800 lbf 6 in 2 in A· Esteel = 30 × 106 psi ν steel = 0. 2. 4. Compute the maximum pressure generated by the normal force of the wheel. b. 5. Calculate the maximum shear stress. point A will experience a cycle of stress values varying from zero (when point A lies well outside the contact zone) to a maximum state of stress (when A lies within the contact zone and on the line of action of the 800 lbf force. z/b = 0. Compare these results with those obtained by using Fig.786. Compute contact half-width.Solution Methodology: 1.0 × 106 psi. Evaluate the principal stresses based upon the contact stress calculations. ν 1 = ν cast iron = 0. ν 2 = ν steel = 0. Use the results of steps (1) and (2) to calculate the contact stresses in the cast iron wheel for the critical section.292 Shigley. 6.015 inch. which we expect to lie within the contact zone.

292) 2 º ¬ ¼ ¬ ¼ =® ¾ (1/ 6. pmax pmax = 2F 2(800 lbf) = = 20 980 psi π bl π (1. l = 2.786) ¾ 2 « » ° ° ¯ ¬ 1 + (0.786) ¼ ¿ = −3895 psi σ z = − pmax 1 2 1+ζ b = −20 980 psi 1+(0.786 º « » ¬ ¼ = −4302 psi ª§ 1 + 2ζ 2 b σ y = − pmax «¨ 2 «¨ ¬© 1 + ζ b · ¸ − 2 ζb ¸ ¹ º » » ¼ ª 1 + 2(0. Mischke & Budynas Machine Design Tutorial 4-20: Hertz Contact Stresses 8/10 .0) + (1/ ∞) ° ° ¯ π (2. Hertz Contact Stresses in Cast Iron Wheel At the critical section.786) 2 º ½ ° ° « » = (−20 980 psi) ® − 2(0.291× 10−4 in/ lbf b = Kb F = (4.291×10 −4 in/ lbf )(800 lbf )1/2 = 1.0 × 106 ) ½ ° 2 ª ° 1 − (0.211) 2 º 1 − (0.5 ×106 ) + ª /(30.0 in) 3. d 2 = ∞.211)(20 980 psi) ª 1+(0.786)2 = −16 490 psi Shigley.0 in (Modified Text Eq. 4-72) 1/ 2 2 ª 2 (1 − ν12 ) / E1 + (1 − ν 2 ) / E2 º Kb = « » (1/ d1 ) + (1/ d 2 ) ¬π l ¼ /(14. σ x = −2ν1 pmax ª 1 + ζ b2 − ζ b º « » ¬ ¼ = −2(0.786 .214 ×10−2 in)(2.786)2 − 0.0 in.214 × 10-2 in 1/ 2 2. ζ b = z / b = 0.Dimensions: b = Kb F d1 = 6. Maximum Pressure.0) ¿ = 4.

8 pmax = −16 780 psi τ max ≈ 0. Since σ x .3 pmax = −6294 psi σ y ≈ −0. σ x ≈ −0. Mischke & Budynas Machine Design Tutorial 4-20: Hertz Contact Stresses 9/10 . σ y . and τ max are independent of ν since the graphical estimates of their values are within 3 % of those obtained from the plot which assumes a Poisson’s ratio of 0. For a depth of 0. and thus exceptionally high stresses. relative to the applied force. 4.015 in = 1.2 pmax = −4196 psi σ z ≈ −0. we find that only σ x is a function of ν.Note that the small contact area involved in this type of problem gives rise to very high pressure. Maximum Shear Stress τ max = τ1/ 3 = σ 1 − σ 3 σ y − σ z −3895 psi − (−16 490 psi) = = 2 2 2 = 6298 psi 6.236 1. Comparison with results based on Text Figure 4-45: For z/b ≈ 0.75. Shigley. ζb = 0.015 in below the cylinder surface.3 pmax = 6294 psi Comparing these results with those calculated using a value of ν = 0. σ y . 7. we can conclude: σ 1 = σ y = − 3895 psi σ 2 = σ x = − 4302 psi σ 3 = σ z = −16 490 psi 5. σ z . and σ z are all principal stresses.214 × 10 −2 in Substituting.211.3.

τmax also decreases. The difference between the principal stresses is also smaller and consequently.236)2 − 1. Mischke & Budynas Machine Design Tutorial 4-20: Hertz Contact Stresses 10/10 . the magnitudes of all three principal stresses are smaller than those calculated for z/b = 0.236 º « » ¬ ¼ = −3133 psi ª§ 1 + 2ζ 2 b σ y = − pmax «¨ «¨ 1 + ζ 2 b ¬© · ¸ − 2 ζb ¸ ¹ º » » ¼ ª 1 + 2(1.236 ¾ = (−20 980 psi) ® « 2 °« ° ¬ 1 + (1.786.236 > 0. at a depth corresponding greater than the critical section ( z/b = 1.211)(20 980 psi) ª 1+(1.786). Shigley.236) 2 º ½ ° ° » − 2 1.236) 2 = −13 200 psi τ max = σ 1 − σ 3 σ y − σ z −1652 − (−13 200) = = = 5774 psi 2 2 2 As expected.2 − ζb º σ x = −2ν pmax ª 1+ ζ b « » ¬ ¼ = −2(0.236) » ¼ ¯ ¿ = −1652 psi σ z = − pmax 1 1 + ζ b2 = −20 980 psi 1+(1.

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