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Antoni Gaud

Antoni Gaud
Antoni Gaud

Antoni Gaud by Pau Audouard Born Died 25 June 1852Reus, Catalonia, Spain [1] [2]

10 June 1926 (aged73)Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain Work

Buildings Sagrada Famlia, Casa Mil, Casa Batll Projects Parc Gell, Colnia Gell

Antoni Gaud i Cornet (Catalan pronunciation:[ntni wi]) (Riudoms or Reus,[3] 25 June 1852 Barcelona, 10 June 1926) was a Spanish Catalan architect and the best-known representative of Catalan Modernism. Gaud's works are marked by a highly individual style and the vast majority of them are situated in the Catalan capital of Barcelona, including his magnum opus, the Sagrada Famlia. Much of Gaud's work was marked by the four passions of his life: architecture, nature, religion and his love for Catalonia.[4] Gaud meticulously studied every detail of his creations, integrating into his architecture a series of crafts, in which he himself was skilled, such as ceramics, stained glass, wrought ironwork forging and carpentry. He also introduced new techniques in the treatment of the materials, such as his famous trencads, made of waste ceramic pieces. After a few years under the influence of neo-Gothic art, and certain oriental tendencies, Gaud became part of the Catalan Modernista movement which was then at its peak, towards the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th. Gaud's work, however, transcended mainstream Modernisme, culminating in an organic style that was inspired by nature without losing the influence of the experiences gained earlier in his career. Rarely did Gaud draw detailed plans of his works and instead preferred to create them as three-dimensional scale models, moulding all details as he was conceiving them in his mind. Gauds work has widespread international appeal, and there are innumerable studies devoted to his way of understanding architecture. Today he is admired by both professionals and the general public: his masterpiece, the Sagrada Famlia, is one of the most visited monuments in Spain.[5] Between 1984 and 2005 seven of his works were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO. He awakened to his Roman Catholic faith during his life and many religious symbols can be seen in his works, a fact which has led to his being nicknamed "God's Architect"[6] and calls for him to be beatified.[7] [8]

Antoni Gaud

Biography
Birth, childhood and studies
Antoni Gaud was born in 1852, to the industrial boilermaker Francesc Gaud i Serra (18131906) and Antnia Cornet i Bertran (18191876). He was the youngest of five children, of whom three survived to adulthood: Rosa (18441879), Francesc (18511876) and Antoni. Gauds family origins go back to the Auvergne region in southern France, from where one of his ancestors, Joan Gaud, a hawker, moved to Catalonia in the 17th century; the origin of his name could be Gaudy or Gaudin.[9]
El Mas de la Calderera, home of the Gaud family in Riudoms. Gauds exact birthplace is unknown because no documents stating it were kept, leading to a controversy about whether it was Reus or Riudoms (two neighbouring municipalities of the Baix Camp district. In most of Gaud's identification documents from both his student and professional years, Reus is given as his birthplace. Nonetheless, Gaud himself stated on various occasions that it was Riudoms, where his paternal family were from.[10] What is known is that he was baptized in the church of Sant Pere Apstol in Reus the day after his birth. The name that appears on his baptismal certificate is "Antoni Plcid Guillem Gaud i Cornet".[11] Gaud felt a deep appreciation for his native land, and his great sense of pride of being from the Mediterranean is a proof of this. It had a notable influence on his architecture: Gaud used to say that Mediterranean people have an innate sense for art and design, that they are creative and original, whereas Nordic people are more technical and repetitive. In Gauds words:

We own the image. Fantasy comes from the ghosts. Fantasy is what people in the North own. We are concrete. The image comes from the Mediterranean. Orestes knows his way, where Hamlet is torn apart by his doubts.[12]

Antoni Gaud

The time spent in his native land helped Gaud to get to know and study nature profoundly, above all his summer stays in the Mas de la Calderera, home of the Gaud family in Riudoms. He liked the contact with nature and because of this he later on became a member of the Centre Excursionista de Catalunya (1879), an organisation with which he made numerous trips around Catalonia and southern France. Sometimes, he used to horse-ride, or walked around ten kilometres a day.[13] Young Gaud was of a sickly nature; he suffered from rheumatism from childhood, which led to his rather reticent and reserved character.[14] This may also have been the reason for his becoming a vegetarian[15] [16] along with Dr. Kneipps hygienist theories.[17] Because of these beliefsand for religious reasonshe sometimes imposed severe fasting on himself. He took this to a point where it became life threatening, such as in 1894, when he fell seriously ill as the result of a lengthy period of fast.[18] Gauds first studies were at the nursery school run by Francesc Gaud (in the background) with his father (centre), his Berenguer, whose son, also called Francesc, would later become niece Rosa and doctor Santal during a visit to Montserrat (1904). one of Gauds main assistants. Subsequently, he attended the Piarists school in Reus; his talent for drawing stood out during his participation in the seminar El Arlequn (the Harlequin).[19] He also worked as an apprentice in the Vapor Nou textile mill in Reus for some time. In 1868 he moved to Barcelona to study teaching in the Convent del Carme. During his adolescence he was interested in utopian socialism and with his fellow students Eduard Toda i Gell and Josep Ribera i Sans he planned a restoration of the Poblet monastery that would have transformed it into a Utopian phalanstre.[20] Between 1875 and 1878, Gaud completed his compulsory military service in the Infantry regiment in Barcelona as a Military Administrator. He spent the majority of his service on sick leave, which allowed him to continue his studies. Due to his position he was not forced to fight during the Third Carlist War, which took place during this period.[21] In 1876 his mother died at the age of 57, and so did his brother Francesc, 25, who had only recently graduated as a physician; he never got to practice his profession. Gaud studied architecture at the Llotja School and the Barcelona Higher School of Architecture, from which he graduated in 1878. Apart from his architecture classes, he attended French lectures and studied history, economics, philosophy and aesthetics. His grades were average, some of them were fails; Gaud cared more about his own interests than those of the official courses.[22] When handing him his degree, Elies Rogent, director of Barcelona Architecture School, said: We have given this academic title either to a fool or a genius. Time will show.[23] To finance his studies, Gaud worked as a draughtsman for various architects and constructors such as Leandre Serrallach, Joan Martorell, Emili Sala Corts, Francisco de Paula del Villar y Lozano and Josep Fontser.[24] Maybe that was why Gaud, when receiving his degree, said to his friend the sculptor Lloren Matamala, with his ironical sense of humour: Lloren, theyre saying Im an architect now.[25]

Antoni Gaud

Adulthood and professional work


Gauds first projects were the lampposts he designed for the Plaa Reial in Barcelona, the unfinished Girossi newsstands and the Cooperativa Obrera Mataronense (Workers' Cooperative of Matar). He became well known through his first important commission, the Casa Vicens, and subsequently received increasingly more significant requests. At the Paris World Fair in 1878 Gaud displayed a showcase he had produced for the glove manufacturer Comella. Its modernista design, which was at the same time functional and aesthetic, impressed the Catalan industrialist Eusebi Gell, who later on contacted the architect to request him to carry out various projects he had in mind. This was the starting point of a long friendship and a patronage which bore fruit with some of the most distinguished of Gauds works: the Gell wine cellars, the Gell pavilions, the Palau Gell (Gell Gaud and Eusebi Gell on a visit to the Colnia Gell (1910). palace), the Parc Gell (Gell park) and the crypt of the church of the Colnia Gell. He also became a friend of the marquis of Comillas, the father-in-law of count Gell, for whom he designed "El Capricho" in Comillas. In 1883 Gaud accepted responsibility for the recently-initiated works of the Baslica i Temple Expiatori de la Sagrada Famlia (Basilica and Expiatory Church of the Holy Family, more commonly referred to in English as the Sagrada Famlia). Gaud changed the original project completely, making this his world famous and much-admired masterpiece. From 1915 until his death he devoted himself entirely to this project. Given the number of commissions he began receiving, he had to rely on a professional team to be able to work on various projects simultaneously. His team consisted of professionals from all fields of construction. Several of the architects who worked under him made their own name in the field later on, such as Josep Maria Jujol,Joan Rubi, Csar Martinell, Francesc Folguera and Josep Francesc Rfols. In 1885, Gaud moved to rural Sant Feliu de Codines to escape the cholera epidemic that was ravaging Barcelona. He lived in Francesc Ullars house, for whom he designed a dinner table[26] as a sign of his gratitude. The 1888 World Fair was one of the major events of the time in the Catalan capital and was a starting point for Modernisme. The leading architects of the time displayed their best works, and Gaud participated with the building he had designed for the Compaa Trasatlntica (Transatlantic Company). He received a commission to restructure the Sal de Cent of the Barcelona City Council that was not carried out in the end. In the first years of the 1890s, Gaud received two commissions from outside of Catalonia: one Gauds exposition license at the Exposicin Universal de Barcelona (1888) for the Bishop's Palace of Astorga and the other for the Casa Botines in Len. These works spread the fame and prestige of the Reus-born architect across Spain. In 1891, he travelled to Mlaga and Tangiers to examine the plot of land of a project for Franciscan Catholic Missions that the 2nd marquis of Comillas

Antoni Gaud
[27]

had requested from him. The project was never executed, but the towers Gaud had designed for the Missions served him as a model for the towers of the Church of the Sagrada Famlia in Barcelona. In 1899 Gaud became a member of the Cercle Artstic de Sant Lluc (Saint Luke artistic circle), a Catholic artistic society founded in 1893 by the bishop Josep Torras i Bagesand the brothers Josep and Joan Llimona. He also became a member of the Lliga Espiritual de la Mare de Du de Montserrat (spiritual league of Our lady of Montserrat), another Catholic Catalan organisation.[28] This demonstrates the conservative and religious character of his political thought, closely linked to the defence of the cultural identity of the Catalan people. Despite the apparent contradiction between the Utopian ideals of his youth and his subsequent change of direction towards more conservative views, this evolution can be considered natural, bearing in mind the profound spirituality of the architect. In Csar Martinells words, Gaud substituted philanthropy with Christian charity.[29] At the beginning of the century, Gaud was working on numerous projects which all reflected the change in his style, which was becoming increasingly more personal and inspired by nature. In 1900, he received an award for the best building of the year from the Barcelona City Council for his Casa Calvet. During the first decade of the century Gaud dedicated himself to projects like the Casa Figueras (Figueras house), better known as Bellesguard, the Parc Gell, an urbanisation project that had no success, and the restoration of the Cathedral of Palma de Mallorca, for which he visited Majorca several times. Between 1904 and 1910 he constructed the Casa Batll (Batll house) and the Casa Mil (Mil house), two of his most emblematic works. As a result of Gaudis increasing fame, in 1902 the painter Joan Llimona chose Gauds features to represent Saint Philip Neri in the paintings in the aisle of the Sant Felip Neri church in Barcelona.[30] Together with Joan Santal, son of his friend the physician Pere Santal, he founded a company to make wought iron the same year, a project that failed in the end.[31] After moving to Barcelona, Gaud frequently changed his address: as a student he lived in residences, generally in the area of the Gothic Quarter; when he started his career he moved around several rented flats in the Eixample area. Finally, in 1906, he settled in a house in the Gell Park that he owned and which had been constructed by his assistant Francesc Berenguer as a showcase property for the estate. Nowadays it serves as the Gaud Museum. There he lived with his father (who died in 1906 at the age of 93) Saint Philip Neri celebrating the Holy and his niece Rosa Egea Gaud (who died in 1912 at the age of 36). He lived Mass) by Joan Llimona (church of Sant in the house until 1925, a few months before his death, when he set off to Felip Neri (Barcelona). Gaud was the reside in the workshop of the Sagrada Famlia. One of the events that had a model for Saint Philip Neris face. profound impact on Gauds personality was the Tragic week in 1909; Gaud remained in his house in the Gell Park during those days, but given the anticlerical atmosphere and the attacks on churches and convents he was worried about the safety of the Sagrada Famlia, which fortunately was not affected.[32]

Antoni Gaud

In 1910, an exhibition in the Grand Palais of Paris was devoted to his work, during the annual saln of the Socit des Beaux-Arts (fine arts society) of France. Gaud participated on the invitation of count Gell, displaying a series of pictures, plans and plaster scale models of several of his works. Although he participated hors concours, he received very good reviews from the French press. A large part of this exposition could be seen the following year at the I Saln Nacional de Arquitectura that took place in the municipal exhibition hall of Buen Retiro in Madrid.[33] During the Paris exposition in May 1910, Gaud spent a holiday in Vic, where he designed two lampposts made of basalt and wrought iron for the Plaa Major of Vic, for Jaume Balmess centenary. The following year he was obliged to spend some time in Puigcerd due to tuberculosis; during this time he conceived the idea for the faade of the Passion of the Sagrada Famlia.[34] Due to his state of health, on 9 June he made his will at the office of the notary Ramon Cant i Figueres;[35] but luckily he recovered completely.

Official picture of Gaud for the Paris exposition in 1910.

The decade from 1910 was a hard one for Gaud as it was full of tragedy: the deaths of his niece Rosa in 1912, and his main collaborator Francesc Berenguer in 1914; a severe economic crisis paralysed work on the Sagrada Famlia in 1915; in 1916 his friend Josep Torras i Bages, bishop of Vic, died; in 1917 the works at the Colonia Gell were interrupted; in 1918 his friend and patron Eusebi Gell[36] died.Perhaps because of all these tragedies he devoted himself entirely the Sagrada Famlia from 1915, taking refuge in his work. Gaud confessed to his collaborators: My good friends are dead; I have no family and no clients, no fortune nor anything. Now I can dedicate myself entirely to the Church.[37] Gaud dedicated the last years of his life entirely to the Cathedral of the poor, as it was commonly known, for which he even took alms in order to continue the works. Apart from his dedication to this cause, he participated in few other activities, the majority of which were related to religion: in 1916 he participated in a course about Gregorian chant at the Palau de la Msica Catalana taught by the Benedictine monk Gregori M. Sunyol.[39] Gaud lived his life devoted entirely to his profession, remaining single all his life. It seems that it was only on Gaud shows the Sagrada Famlia to the Papal nuncio, Cardinal, Francesco Ragonesi (1915). On that occasion, Monsegnor Ragonesi one occasion that he felt attracted to a woman, Josefa [38] considered Gaud The Dante of architecture. Moreu, teacher at the Matar Cooperative, in 1884, but this was not reciprocated.[40] From then on, Gaud took refuge in his deep religiousness, which gave him profound spiritual peace. Gaud is often depicted as unsociable and unpleasant, a man of gruff reactions and arrogant gestures. However, those who were close to him described him as friendly and polite, pleasant to talk to and faithful to his friends. Among these, his patrons Eusebi Gell and the bishop of Vic, Josep Torras i Bages, stand out, as well as the writers Joan Maragall and Jacint Verdaguer, the physician Pere Santal and some of his most faithful collaborators, such as Francesc Berenguer and Lloren Matamala.[41]

Antoni Gaud

7 Gauds personal appearanceNordic features, blond hair and blue eyeschanged radically over the course of time: he was no longer a young man with a dandy appearance (costly suits, well-groomed hair and beard, gourmet taste, frequent visits to the theatre and the operahe even used to visit his sites in his horse carriage). When older, he became a man of strict simplicity, who ate with frugality, used old, worn-out suits, and neglected his appearance to the extent that sometimes he was taken for a beggar, such as after the accident that caused his death.[42]

Gaud left hardly any written documents, apart from technical reports of his works required by official authorities, some letters sent to friends (above all to Joan Maragall) and a few journal articles. Some of his quotes collected by his assistants and disciples have been conserved, above all by Josep Francesc Rfols, Joan Bergs, Csar Martinell and Isidre Puig i Boada. The only written document Gaud left is known as the Manuscrito de Reus (Reus Gaud at the Corpus Christi procession Manuscript) (18731878), a kind of student diary in which he collected (11 June 1924). diverse impressions of architecture and decorating, putting forward his ideas on the subject. His analysis of the Christian church and of his ancestral house stand out, as well as a text about ornamentation and a reminder for the design of a desk.[43] Gaud was always in favour of Catalonia; however, he never wanted to get involved in politics. Some politicians, such as Francesc Camb and Enric Prat de la Riba suggested he run for deputy, but he refused. Nonetheless, he had various arguments with the police. In 1920 he was beaten by police officers in a tumult during the Floral Games celebrations;[44] on 11 September 1924, National Day of Catalonia; during a demonstration against the banning of the Catalan language by the Primo de Rivera dictatorship. He was also arrested by the Civil Guard, resulting in a short stay in prison, from which he was freed after paying 50 pesetas bail.[45]

Death

Gauds funeral 12 June 1926)

On 7 June 1926, Gaud was walking towards the Sant Felip Neri church, where he went daily to pray and confess with Mosn Agust Mas i Folch. While walking along the Gran Via de les Corts Catalanes, between the streets of Girona and Bailn, he was knocked down by a tram and passed out.[46] Assumed to be a beggar because of his lack of identity documents and neglected appearance, with his worn-out old clothes, it was a while until anybody came to his aid. Finally, a policeman stopped a taxi and took him to the Santa Creu Hospital.[47] The next day, the chaplain of the Sagrada Famlia, Mosn Gil Pars, recognized him. But it was too late and nothing could be done for him. Gaud died on 10 June 1926, at the age of 73, at the height of his career. He was buried on 12 June. A big crowd was present to bid their farewell to him in the chapel of Our Lady of Mount Carmel in the crypt of the Sagrada Famlia. His gravestone bears the following inscription: Antonius Gaud Cornet. Reusensis. Annos natus LXXIV, vitae exemplaris vir, eximiusque artifex, mirabilis operis hujus, templi auctor, pie obiit Barcinone dit X Junii MCMXXVI, hinc cineres tanti hominis, resurrectionem mortuorum expectant. R.I.P.[48]

Antoni Gaud

Subsequent reputation
After his death, Gaud suffered a period of neglect and his works were unpopular amongst international critics, who regarded them as baroque and excessively imaginative. In his homeland he was equally disdained by Noucentisme, the new movement which took the place of Modernisme. In 1936, during the Spanish Civil War, Gaud's workshop in the Sagrada Famlia was ransacked and a great number of his documents, plans and scale models were destroyed. Gauds reputation was beginning to recover by the 1950s, when his work was defended mainly by Salvador Dal but also by the architect Josep Llus Sert. In 1956 a retrospective on Gaud was organised at the Sal del Tinell in Barcelona, and in 1957 his first international exhibition was held, at the MOMA in New York. Between 1950 and 1960, the studies of international critics like George Collins, Nikolaus Pevsner and Roberto Pane disseminated Gauds work widely, while in his homeland it was admired by Alexandre Cirici, Juan Eduardo Cirlot and Oriol Bohigas. It is also worth mentioning the high reputation of Gauds work in Japan, where his work is very much admired, the studies by Kenji Imai and Tokutoshi Torii being particularly notable. Ever since, the appreciation of Gauds work has grown, culminating in 1984 when various works were declared UNESCO World Heritage Sites.[49] In 1952, the centenary year of the architects birth, the Asociacin de Amigos de Gaud (Friends of Gaud Association) was founded with the aim of disseminating and conserving the legacy of the Catalan artist. In 1956 the Gaud Chair at the Polytechnic University of Catalonia was created with the purpose of deepening the study of the Gaudis works and participating in their conservation. In 1987, King Juan Carlos I awarded it the title Real Ctedra Gaud. In 1976, on the 50th anniversary of his death, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs organised an exhibition about Gaud that went around the world.[50] Profoundly religious as he was and a man of ascetic habits, Gauds beatification has been proposed, and the process was initiated in 1998 by the archbishop of Barcelona, Ricard Maria Carles, a move which was authorised by the Vatican in 2000.[51] On the occasion of the 150th anniversary of Gauds birth, a number of official ceremonies, concerts, shows and conferences were held, and several books were published. On 24 September of the same year, the musical Gaud had its premiere in the Palau dels Esports de Barcelona. The authors of the piece were Jordi Galceran, Esteve Miralles and Albert Guinovart.[52] In 2008 in his honour the Gaud Awards were launched, organised by the Catalan Film Academy to honour the best Catalan films of the year.[53]
Gaud bust, by Joan Matamala.

Gaud bust, by Josep Maria Subirachs.

Antoni Gaud

Style
Gaud and Modernisme
The course of Gaud's professional life was unique in that he never ceased to investigate mechanical structures of buildings. Early on, Gaud was inspired by oriental arts (India, Persia, Japan) through the study of the historicist architectural theoreticians, such as Walter Pater, John Ruskin and William Morris. The influence of the Oriental movement can be seen in works like the Capricho, the Gell Palace, the Gell Pavilions and the Casa Vicens. Later on, he adhered to the neo-Gothic movement that was in fashion at the time, following the ideas of the French architect Viollet-le-Duc. This influence is reflected in the Colegi de les Teresianes, the bishop's palace in Astorga, the Casa Botines and the Bellesguard house as well as in the crypt and the apse of the Sagrada Famlia. Eventually, Gaud embarked on a more personal phase, with the individualistic, organic style inspired by nature in which he would build his major works. During his time as a student, Gaud was able to study a collection The four-armed cross, one the most typical features of of photographs of Egyptian, Indian, Persian, Mayan, Chinese and Gaud's works. Japanese art owned by the School of Architecture. The collection also included Moorish monuments in Spain, which left a deep mark on him and served as an inspiration in many of his works. He also studied the book Plans, elevations, sections and details of the Alhambra by Owen Jones, which he borrowed from the Schools library.[54] He took various structural and ornamental solutions from nazar and mudjar art, which he used with variations and stylistic freedom in his works. A noteworthy observation that Gaud made of Islamic art is the spatial uncertainty, the concept of structures with limitless space; taking on a feeling of sequence, fragmented, with holes and partitions, which create a divide without ruining the feeling of open space by closing it in with barriers.[55] Without doubt the style that most influenced him was the Gothic Revival, which was promoted in the latter half of the 19th century by the theoretical works of Viollet-le-Duc. The French architect called for studying the styles of the past and adapting them in a rational manner, taking into account both the structure and design.[56] Nonetheless, for Gaud the Gothic style was "imperfect", because despite the effectiveness of some of its structural solutions it was an art that had yet to be "perfected. In his own words: Gothic art is imperfect, only half resolved; it is a style created by the compasses, a formulaic industrial repetition. Its stability depends on constant propping up by the buttresses: it is a defective body held up on crutches. (...) The proof that Gothic works are of deficient plasticity is that they produce their greatest emotional effect when they are mutilated, covered in ivy and lit by the moon.[57]

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After these initial influences, Gaud moved towards Modernisme, which was then in its heyday. Modernisme in its earlier stages was inspired by historic architecture, as for its practitioners the return to the past was a response to the industrial forms imposed by the new technological advances that the Industrial Revolution produced. The use of these styles from the past represented a moral regeneration that allowed the bourgeoisie to identify with values they regarded as The dragon in the Parc Gell, which has become a symbol of Gauds their cultural roots. The Renaixena (rebirth), the works. revival of Catalan culture that began in the second half of the 19th century, brought more Gothic forms into the Catalan national style that aimed to combine nationalism and cosmopolitanism while at the same time integrating into the European modernizing movement.[58] Some essential features of Modernisme were: an anticlassical language inherited from Romanticism with a tendency to a certain lyricism and subjectivity; the determined connection of architecture with the applied arts and artistic work that produced a remarkably ornamental style; the use of new materials from which emerged a mixed constructional language, rich in contrasts, that sought a plastic effect for the whole; a strong sense of optimism and faith in progress that produced an impassioned and emphatic art that reflected the atmosphere of prosperity of the time, above all of the bourgeoisie.[59]

The quest for a new architectural language


Gaud is usually considered the great master of Catalan Modernism, but his works go beyond any style or classification. They are imaginative works that find their main inspiration in nature. Gaud studied organic and anarchic geometric forms of nature thoroughly, searching for a language to give expression to these forms in architecture. Some of his greatest inspirations came from the mountain of Montserrat, the caves of Mallorca, the saltpetre caves in Collbat), the crag of Fra Guerau in the Prades Mountains behind Reus, the Pareis mountain in the north of Mallorca and Sant Miquel del Fai in Bigues i Riells, all of them places that Gaud had visited.[60] This study of nature translated into his use of ruled geometrical forms such as the hyperbolic paraboloid, the hyperboloid, the helicoid and the cone, which reflect the forms Gaud would find in nature.[61] Ruled surfaces are forms generated by a straight line known as the generatrix, as it moves over one or several lines Hyperboloid vault of the Sagrada Famlia. known as directrices. Gaud found abundant examples of them in nature, for instance in rushes, reeds and bones; he used to say that there is no better structure than the trunk of a tree or a human skeleton. These forms are at the same time functional and aesthetic, and Gaud would use them wisely, knowing how to adapt the language of nature to the structural forms of architecture.

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He used to assimilate the helicoid form to movement and the hyperboloid to light. Concerning ruled surfaces, he would say the following: Paraboloids, hyperboloids and helicoids, constantly varying the incidence of the light, are rich in matrices themselves, which make ornamentation and even modelling unnecessary.[62] Another element widely used by Gaud was the catenary curve. He had studied geometry thoroughly when he was young, studying numerous articles about engineering, a field that praised the virtues of the catenary curve as a mechanical element, one which at that time, however, was used only in the construction suspension bridges. Gaud was the first one to use this element in common architecture. The use of these catenary arches in works like the Casa Mil, the School of the Teresianas, the crypt of the Colnia Gell and the Sagrada Famlia allowed Gaud to add an element of great strength to his structures, given that the catenary distributes the weight it regularly carries evenly, being affected only by tangential forces that cancel each other out.[63]

Helicoid columns of the Sagrada Famlia.

With the use of these elements, Gaud went from plane to spatial geometry, to ruled geometry. These constructional forms are highly suited to the use of cheap materials such as brick. Gaud frequently used brick laid with mortar in successive layers, as in the traditional Catalan vault.[64] This quest for new structural solutions culminated between 1910 and 1920, when he put all his research and experience into his masterpiece, the Sagrada Famlia. Gaud conceived this church as if it were the structure of a forest, with a set of tree-like columns divided into various branches to support a structure of intertwined hyperboloid vaults. He inclined the columns so they could put up better with the perpendicular pressures on their section. He also gave them a double turn helicoid shape (right turn and left turn), as in the branches and trunks of trees. This created a structure that is nowadays known as fractal.[65] Together with a modulation of the space that divides it into small, independent and self-supporting modules, it creates a structure that perfectly supports the mechanical traction forces without need for buttresses, as required by the neo-Gothic style.[66] Gaud thus achieved a rational, structured and perfectly logical solution adapted to nature, creating at the same time a new architectural style that was original, simple, practical and aesthetic. This new constructional technique allowed Gaud to achieve his greatest architectural goal; to perfect and go beyond Gothic style. The hyperboloid vaults have their centre where the Gothic had their keystone, and the hyperboloid allows for a hole in this space to let natural light in. In the intersection between the vaults, where Gothic vaults have their ribs, the hyperboloid allows for holes as well, which Gaud made use of to give the impression of a starry sky.[67] Gaud complemented this organic vision of architecture with a unique spatial vision that allowed him to conceive his designs tridimensionally, unlike the dimensionally flat design of traditional architecture. He used to say that he had acquired this spatial sense as a boy by looking at the drawings his father made of the boilers and stills he produced.[68] Because of this spatial conception, Gaud always preferred to work with casts and scale models or even improvise on site as the works progressed. Reluctant to draw plans, only on rare occasions did he sketch his works, in fact only when required by official authorities.

Antoni Gaud

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One of Gauds many innovations in the technical realm was the use of a scale model to calculate structures: for the church of the Colnia Gell, he built a big scale model (1:10) with a height of four meters in a shed next to the building. There, he set up a model that had strings with little bags full of bullets hanging from them. On a drawing board that was attached to the ceiling he drew the floor of the church, and he hung the strings (for the catenaries) with the bullets (for the weight) from the supporting points of the buildingcolumns, intersection of walls. These weights produced a catenary curve both in the arches and vaults. At that point, he took a picture thatinvertedshowed the structure for columns and arches that Gaud had been looking for. Gaud would then paint over these photographs with gouache or pastel. The outline of the church defined, he recorded every single detail of the building; architectural, stylistic and decorative.[69] Gauds position in the history of architecture is that of a great A scale model of the crypt of the Colnia Gell, creative genius whoinspired by naturedeveloped a style of his Sagrada Famlia Museum. own that attained great technical perfection as well as a cultivated aesthetic value, and bore the mark of his strong character. Gauds structural innovations were to a certain extent the result of his having passed through various styles, from Doric to Baroque via Gothic, his main source of inspiration. It could be said that these styles culminated in the work of Gaud, who reinterpreted and perfected them. Gaud passed through the historicism and eclecticism of his generation without connecting with other architectural movements of the 20th century that, with their rationalist postulates, derived from the Bauhaus School, and represented an antithetical evolution to that initiated by Gaud, given that it later on marked the disdain and the initial lack of comprehension of the work of the modernista architect. Other factors that led to the initial neglect of the Catalan architect's work was that despite having numerous assistants and helpers, Gaud did not create a school of his own and never taught, nor did he leave behind many any written documents. Some of his subordinates followed his footsteps closely, above all Francesc Berenguer and Josep Maria Jujol; others, like Csar Martinell, Francesc Folguera and Josep Francesc Rfols graduated towards Noucentisme, leaving the masters trail.[70] Despite this, a degree of Gaud's influence can be discerned in some architects that either formed part of the Modernista movement or departed from it and who had had no direct contact with Gaud, such as Josep Maria Pericas (Casa Als, Ripoll), Bernard Martorell (Olius cemetery) and Llus Muncunill (Masa Freixa, Terrassa). Nonetheless, Gaud left a deep mark on 20th century architecture: masters like Le Corbusier have declared themselves admirers of his work, and the works of other architects like Pier Luigi Nervi, Friedensreich Hundertwasser, Oscar Niemeyer, Flix Candela, Eduardo Torroja and Santiago Calatrava were inspired by the new style Gaud had invented. Frei Otto used Gaudis forms in the construction of the Munich Olympic Stadium. In Japan, the work of Kenji Imai bears evidence of Gaudis influence, as can be seen in the Memorial for the Twenty-six Martyrs of Japan in Nagasaki (Japanese National Architecture Award in 1962), where the use of Gaud's famous trencads" stands out.[71] Art critics in research and teaching positions since 1950 have given the artist a well-deserved position of relevance within 20th-century architecture.

Antoni Gaud

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Design and craftsmanship


During his student days, Gaud used to attend various craft workshops, such as those taught by Eudald Punt, Lloren Matamala and Joan Os, where he learnt the basic aspects of all techniques relating to architecture, including sculpture, carpentry, wrought ironwork, stained glass, ceramics, plaster modelling, etc.[72] He also took on new technological developments, integrating into his technique the use of iron and reinforced concrete in construction. All this is due to the global vision Gaud had of architecture as a multifunctional design, in Entrance gate of the Gell Pavilions. which every single detail in an arrangement has to be harmoniously made and well proportioned. This knowledge not only allowed him to design architectural projects but also to design all the elements of the works he created, from furnishings to illumination to wrought ironwork. Gaud was also an innovator in the realm of craftsmanship, conceiving new technical and decorative solutions with the materials he used, as for example his way of designing ceramic mosaics made of waste pieces (trencads) in original and imaginative combinations. For the restoration of Mallorca Cathedral he invented a new technique to produce stained glass, which consisted of juxtaposing three glass panes of primary colours, and sometimes a neutral one, varying the thickness of the glass in order to graduate the intensity of the light.[73] This was how he personally designed many of the Sagrada Famlias sculptures, applying a curious method he himself had conceived. To start with, he would thoroughly study the anatomy of the figure, concentrating on gestures. For this purpose, he attentively studied the human skeleton and sometimes used dummies made of wire to test the appropriate posture of the figure he was about to sculp. In a second step, he would take photographs of the models, using a mirror system that provided multiple perspectives. He would then make plaster casts of the figures, both of people and Dedicatory object for Orfe Catal (1922). Designed by Gaud, drawn by Francesc Quintana and coloured by Josep Maria Jujol. animals (on one occasion he made a donkey stand up so it would not move). He would modify the proportions of these casts to obtain the desired appearance of the figure, depending on its place in the church (the higher up, the bigger it would be). Eventually, he would sculpt the figures in stone.[74] Apart from architecture, Gaud also designed urban settings and landscaping, always aiming to place his works in the most appropriate surroundings, both natural and architectural. He studied the location of his constructions thoroughly, trying to integrate them into their surroundings naturally. For this purpose, he often used the material that was most common in these surroundings, such as the slate of Bellesguard and the grey granit of Bierzo in the

Antoni Gaud Bishops Palace of Astorga. Many of his projects included gardens, like the Casa Vicens or the Gell Pavilions, or were even gardens themselves, like the Gell Park or the Can Artigas Gardens. A perfect example of this integration into nature was the First Mystery of the Glory of the Rosary at Montserrat,, where the architectural framework is nature itselfhere the Montserrat rockthat encircles the group of sculptures that adorned the path to the Holy Cave. Equally, Gaud stood out as interior decorator, taking care of the decoration of most of his buildings personally, from the design of the furnishings to the smallest details. In each case he knew how to apply stylistic particularities, personalising the decoration according to the owners taste, the predominant style of the arrangement or its place in the surroundingswhether urban or naturaland depending on its type, secular or religious. Many of his works were related to liturgical furnishing. From the design of a desk for his office at the beginning of his career to the furnishings designed for the Sobrellano Palace of Comillas, he designed all furnishing of the Interior of the Casa Vicens. Vicens, Calvet, Battl and Mil houses, of the Gell Palace and the Bellesguard Tower, and finally also the liturgical furnishing of the Sagrada Famlia. It is noteworthy that Gaud studied some ergonomy in order to adapt his furnishings to the human anatomy in an optimal way. Many of the furnishings he designed are currently exhibited at the Gaud Museum in the Gell Park.[75] Another aspect to mention is the intelligent distribution of space, always with the aim of creating a comfortable, intimate atmosphere in the interior of all his buildings. For this purpose, Gaud would divide the space into different sections, adapted to their specific use, by means of low walls, dropped ceilings, sliding doors and wall closets. Apart from taking care of every single detail of all structural and ornamental elements, he would make sure his constructions had good lighting and ventilation. For this purpose, he would study the orientation of the building in detail with respect to the cardinal points, as well as the climate of the region and its place in the surrounding natural setting. At that time, there was an increasing demand for more domestic comfort, with piped water and gas and the use of electric light, all of which Gaud expertly incorporated into his constructions. For the Sagrada Famlia, for example, he carried out thorough studies on acoustics and illumination, in order to optimise them. He used to say the following with regard to light: Light achieves maximum harmony at an inclination of 45, since it resides on objects in a way that is neither horizontal nor vertical. This can be considered medium light, and it offers the most perfect vision of objects and their most exquisite nuances. It is the Mediterranean light. Lighting also served Gaud for the organisation of space, which required a careful study of the gradient of light intensity to adequately adapt to each specific environment. He achieved this with different elements such as skylights, windows, shutters and blinds; a notable case is the gradation of colour used in the atrium of the Casa Batll to achieve uniform distribution of light throughout the interior. He also tended to build south-facing houses to maximise sunlight.[76]

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Antoni Gaud

15

Works
Gauds work is difficult to classify. It is normally classed as modernista, and it undoubtedly belongs to this movement on account of its eagerness to renovatethough without breaking with tradition; its quest for modernity; the ornamental sense applied to works; and the multidisciplinary character of its undertakings, where craftsmanship plays a central role. To this, Gaud adds a dose of the baroque, adopts technical advances and continues to use traditional architectural language. Together with his inspiration from nature and the original touch of his works, this is the amalgam that gives his works their personal and unique character in the history of architecture. Chronologically, it is difficult to establish guidelines that illustrate the evolution of Gauds style faithfully. Although he moved on from his initially historicist approach to immerse himself completely in the modernista movement which arose so vigorously in the last third of the 19th century in Catalonia, before finally attaining his personal, organic style, this process did not consist of Scale model of the Sagrada Famlia, Gauds clearly-defined stages with boundaries between one stage and masterpiece. another: rather, at every stage there are reflections of all the earlier ones, as he gradually assimilated them and surpassed them. One of the best descriptions of Gauds work was made by his disciple and biographer Joan Bergs, according to plastic and structural criteria. Bergs establishes five periods in Gaudis productions: preliminary period, mudjar-morisco (Moorish/mudjar art), emulated Gothic, naturalist and expressionist, and organic synthesis.[77]

Early works
Gauds first works both from his student days and the time just after his graduation stand out for the great precision of their details, the use of superior geometry and the prevalence of mechanical considerations in the calculations of the structures.[78] During his studies, Gaud designed various projects, among which the following stand out: a cemetery gate (1875), a Spanish pavilion for the Philadelphia World Fair of 1876, a quay-side building (1876), a courtyard for the Diputaci de Barcelona (1876), a monumental fountain for the Plaa Catalunya in Barcelona (1877) and a university assembly hall (1877).[79]
Student works

Cemetery gate (1875).

Quay-side building (1876).

Fountain in Plaa Catalunya (1877).

University assembly hall (1877).

Antoni Gaud started his professional career while still pursuing his university studies. To pay for his studies, he worked as a draughtsman for some of the most outstanding architects in Barcelona at the time, such as Joan Martorell, Josep Fontser, Francisco de Paula del Villar y Lozano, Leandre Serrallach and Emili Sala Corts.[24] Gaud had a long-standing relationship with Josep Fontser, since his family was also from Riudoms and they had

Antoni Gaud known each other for some time. Despite not having a degree in architecture, Fontser received the commission from the city council of Barcelona for the Parc de la Ciutadella development, carried out between 1873 and 1882. In this project, Gaud was in charge of the design of the entrance gate of the park, the balustrade of the band-stand and the water project for the monumental fountain, where he designed an artificial cave that already shows his liking for nature and the organic touch he would give his architecture.[80] Gaud worked for Francisco de Paula del Villar on the apse of the Montserrat monastery, designing the niche for the image of the Black Virgin of Montserrat in 1876. Later on, he would substitute Villar in the works of the Sagrada Famlia. With Leandre Serrallach, he worked on a project for a tram line to Villa Arcadia in Montjuc. Eventually, he collaborated with Joan Martorell working on the Jesuit church on Carrer Casp and the Salesian convent in Passeig de Sant Joan, as well as the Villaricos church (Almera). He also carried out a project for Martorell for the competition for a new faade for Barcelona cathedral, which was eventually not approved. His relationship with Martorell, whom he always considered one of his main and most influential masters, brought him unexpected luck; it was Martorell that recommended Gaud for the Sagrada Famlia. After his graduation as an architect in 1878, Gaud's first works were a set of lampposts for the Plaa Reial, the project for the Girossi newsstands and the Matar cooperative, which was his first important work. He received the request for the set of lampposts from the city council of Barcelona in February 1878, when he had graduated but not yet received his degree, which was sent from Madrid on 15 March of the same year.[81] For this commission he designed two different types of lampposts: one with six arms, of which two were installed in the Plaa Reial, and another with three, of which two were installed in the Pla del Palau, opposite the Civil Government. The lampposts were inaugurated during the Merc festivities in 1879. Made of cast iron with a marble base, they have a decoration in which the caduceus of Mercury is prominent, symbol of commerce and emblem of Barcelona.

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Lampposts in the Plaa Reial, Barcelona.

Antoni Gaud

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The project of the Girossi newsstands, which was never carried out, was a commission from the tradesman Enrique Girossi de Sanctis. It would have consisted of 20 newsstands, spread out throughout Barcelona. Each of them would have included a public lavatory, a flower stand and glass panels for advertisements as well as a clock, a calendar, a barometer and a thermometer. Gaud conceived a structure with iron pillars and marble and glass slabs, crowned by a large iron and glass roof, with a gas illumination system.[82]

Project for the Girossi newsstands.

The Cooperativa Obrera Mataronense (Matar Workers' Cooperative) was Gauds first big project, on which he worked from 1878 to 1882, for Salvador Pags i Anglada. The project, for the cooperatives head office in Matar, comprised a factory, a housing estate for the workers, a social centre and a services building, though only the factory and the services building were completed. In the factory roof Gaud used the catenary arch for the first time, with a bolt assembly system devised by Philibert de l'Orme.[83] He also used ceramic tile decoration for the first time in the services building. Gaud laid out the site taking account of solar orientation, another signature of his works, and included landscaped areas in the project. He even designed the Cooperatives banner, with the figure of a bee, symbol of industriousness.

Display cabinet for the Esteban Comella glove factory.

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In May 1878 Gaud designed a display cabinet for the Esteban Comella glove factory, which was exhibited in the Spanish pavilion at the Paris World Exhibition that year.[84] It was this work that attracted the attention of the entrepreneur Eusebi Gell, visiting the French capital; he was so impressed that he wanted to meet Gaud on his return, beginning a long friendship and professional collaboration, Gell being Gauds main patron and sponsor of many of his large projects. The first task that Gell gave to Gaud, that same year, was the design of the furniture for the pantheon chapel of the Palacio de Sobrellano in Comillas, which was then being constructed by Joan Martorell, Gauds teacher, at the request of the Marquis of Comillas, Gells father in law. Gaud designed a chair, a bench and a prayer stool: the chair was upholstered with velvet, finished with two eagles and the Marquis coat of arms; the bench stands out with the motif of a dragon, designed by Lloren Matamala; the prayer stool is decorated with plants.

Gibert Pharmacy.

Also in 1878 he drew up the plans for a theatre in the former town of Sant Gervasi de Cassoles (now a district of Barcelona); Gaud did not take part in the subsequent construction of the theatre, which no longer exists. The following year he designed the furniture and counter for the Gibert Pharmacy, with marquetry of Arab influence. The same year he made five drawings for a procession in honour of the poet Francesc Vicent Garcia i Torres in Vallfogona de Riucorb, where which this celebrated 17th-century writer and friend of Lope de Vega was the parish priest . Gauds project was centred on the poet and on several aspects of agricultural work, such as reaping and harvesting grapes and olives; however, as a result of organisational problems Gauds ideas were not carried out.[85] Between 1879 and 1881 he drew up a project for the decoration of the church of Sant Paci, belonging to the Colegio de Jess-Mara in Sant Andreu del Palomar: he created the altar in a Gothic style, the monstrance with Byzantine influence, the mosaics and the lighting, as well as the schools furniture. The church caught fire during the Tragic Week of 1909, and now only the mosaics remain, of opus tesselatum, probably the work of the Italian mosaicist Luigi Pellerin.[86] He was given the task of decorating the church of the Colegio de Jess-Mara in Tarragona (18801882): he created the altar in white Italian marble, and its front part, or antependium, with four columns bearing medallions of polychrome alabaster, with figures of angels; the ostensory with gilt wood, the work of Eudald Punt, decorated with rosaries, angels, tetramorph symbols and the dove of the Holy Ghost; and the choir stalls, which were destroyed in 1936.[87] In 1880 he designed an electric lighting project for Barcelonas Muralla de Mar, or sea wall, which finally was not carried out. It consisted of eight large iron street lamps, profusely decorated with plant motifs, friezes, shields and names of battles and Catalan admirals. The same year he participated in the competition for the construction of the San Sebastin social centre (now town hall), won by Luis Aladrn Mendivi and Adolfo Morales de los Ros; Gaud submitted a project that was a synthesis of several of his earlier studies, such as the fountain for the Plaa Catalunya and the courtyard of the Provincial Council.[88]

Antoni Gaud

19 A new task of the Gell-Lpezs for Comillas was the gazebo for Alfonso XIIs visit to the Cantabrian town in 1881. Gaud designed a small pavilion in the shape of a Hindu turban, covered in mosaics and decorated with an abundance of small bells which jingled constantly. It was subsequently moved into the Gell Pavilions.[89] In 1882 he designed a Benedictine monastery and a church dedicated to the Holy Spirit in Villaricos (Cuevas de Vera, Almeria) for his former teacher, Joan Martorell. It was of neo-Gothic design, similar to the Convent of the Salesians that Gaud also planned with Martorell. Ultimately it was not carried out, and the project plans were destroyed in the looting of the Sagrada Famlia in 1936.[90] The same year he was tasked with constructing a hunting lodge and wine cellars at a country residence known as La Cuadra, in Garraf (Sitges), property of baron Eusebi Gell. Ultimately the lodge was not built, only the wine cellars some years later. With Martorell he also collaborated in three other projects: the church of the Jesuit School in Carrer Caspe; the Convent of the Salesians in Passeig de Sant Joan, a neo-Gothic project with an altar in the centre of the crossing; and the faade project for Barcelona cathedral, for the competition convened by the cathedral chapter in 1882, ultimately won by Josep Oriol Mestres and August Font i Carreras.[91]

Gauds collaboration with Martorell was a determining factor in Gauds recommendation for the Sagrada Famlia. The church was the idea of Josep Maria Bocabella, founder of the Devotees of Saint Joseph Association, which acquired a complete block of Barcelonas Eixample district.[92] The project was originally entrusted to Francisco de Paula del Villar y Lozano, who planned the construction of a neo-Gothic church, on which work began in 1882. However, the following year Villar resigned due to disagreements with the construction board, and the task went to Gaud, who completely redesigned the project, apart from the part of the crypt that had already been built.[93] Gaud devoted the rest of his life to the construction of the church, which was to be the synthesis of all of his architectural discoveries.
Gauds drawing for the faade of Barcelona cathedral according to Joan Martorells (1882) project.

Orientalist period
During these years Gaud completed a series of works with a distinctly oriental flavour, inspired by the art of the Middle and Far East (India, Persia, Japan), as well as Islamic-Hispanic art, mainly Mudejar and Nazari. Gaud used ceramic tile decoration abundantly, as well as Moorish arches, columns of exposed brick and pinnacles in the shape of pavilions or domes.[94] Between 1883 and 1888 he constructed the Casa Vicens, commissioned by stockbroker Manuel Vicens i Montaner. It was constructed with four floors, with faades on three sides and an extensive garden, with a monumental brick fountain. The house was surrounded by a wall with iron gates, decorated with palmetto

Casa Vicens.

Antoni Gaud leaves, work of Lloren Matamala. The walls of the house are of stone alternated with lines of tile, which imitate yellow flowers typical of this area; the house is topped with chimneys and turrets. In the interior the polychrome wooden roof beams stand out, adorned with floral themes of papier mach; the walls are decorated with vegetable motifs, as well as paintings by Josep Torrescasana; finally, the floor consists of Roman-style mosaics of "opus tesselatum". One of the most original rooms is the smoking room, notable the ceiling, decorated with Moorish honeycomb-work, reminiscent of the Generalife in the Alhambra in Granada.[95] In the same year, 1883, Gaud designed the Santsimo Sacramento chapel for the parish church of San Flix de Alella, as well as some topographical plans for the Can Rosell de la Llena country residence in Gelida. He also received a commission to build a small annex to the Palacio de Sobrellano, for the Baron of Comillas, in the Cantabrian town of the same name. Known as El Capricho, it was commissioned by Mximo Daz de Quijano and constructed between 1883 and 1885. Cristfor Cascante i Colom, Gauds fellow student, directed the construction. In an oriental style, it has an elongated shape, on three levels and a cylindrical El Capricho, in Comillas. tower in the shape of a Persian minaret, faced completely in ceramics. The entrance is set behind four columns supporting depressed arches, with capitals decorated with birds and leaves, similar to those that can be seen at the Casa Vicens. Notable are the main lounge, with its large sash window, and the smoking room with a ceiling consisting of a false Arab-style stucco vault.[96] Gaud carried out a second commission from Eusebi Gell between 1884 and 1887, the Gell Pavilions in Pedralbes, now on the outskirts of Barcelona. Gell had a country residence in Les Corts de Sarri, consisting of two adjacent properties known as Can Feliu and Can Cuys de la Riera. The architect Joan Martorell had built a Caribbean-style mansion, which was demolished in 1919 to make way for the Royal Palace of Pedralbes. Gaud undertook the task of refurbishing the house and constructing a wall and porter's lodge. He completed the stone wall with several entrances, the main entrance with an iron gate in the shape of a dragon, with a Gell Pavilions. symbology allusive to the myths of Hercules and the [97] Garden of the Hesperides. The buildings consist of a stable, covered longeing ring and porter's lodge: the stable has a rectangular base and catenary arches; the longeing ring has a square base with a hyperboloid dome; the porter's lodge consists of three small buildings, the central one being polygonal with a hyperbolic dome, and the other two smaller and cubic. All three are topped by ventilators in the shape of chimneys faced with ceramics. The walls are of exposed brick in various shades of reds and yellows; in certain sections prefabricated cement blocks are also used. The Pavilions are now the headquarters of the Real Ctedra Gaud, of the Polytechnic University of Catalonia. In 1885 Gaud accepted a commission from Josep Maria Bocabella, promotor of the Sagrada Famlia, for an altar in the oratory of the Bocabella family, who had obtained permission from the Pope to have an altar in their home. The altar is made of varnished mahogany, with a slab of white marble in the centre for relics. It is decorated with plants and religious motifs, such as the Greek letters alpha and omega, symbol of the beginning and end, gospel phrases and images of Saint Francis of Paola, Saint Teresa of Avila and the Holy Family and closed with a curtain of

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Antoni Gaud crimson embroidery. It was made by the cabinet maker Frederic Labria, who also collaborated with Gaud on the Sagrada Famlia.[98] Shortly after, Gaud received an important new commission from Gell: the construction of his family house, in the Carrer Nou de la Rambla in Barcelona. The Palau Gell (18861888) continues the tradition of large Catalan urban mansions such as those in Carrer Montcada. Gaud designed a monumental entrance with a magnificent parabolic-arched entrance and iron gates, decorated with the Catalan coat of arms and a helmet with a winged dragon, the work of Joan Os. A notable feature is the triple-height entrance hall; it is the core of the building, surrounded by the main rooms Palau Gell, detail of the entrance. of the palace, and it is remarkable for its double dome, parabolic within and conical on the outside, a solution typical of Byzantine art. For the gallery on the street facade Gaud used an original system of catenary arches and columns with hyperbolic capitals, a style he used neither before nor afterwards.[99] He designed the interior of the palace with great care, with a sumptuous Mudejar-style decoration, where the wood and iron coffered ceilings stand out. The chimneys on the roof are a highly remarkable feature, faced in vividly-coloured ceramic tiles, as is the tall spire in the form of a lantern tower, which is the external termination of the dome within, and is also faced with ceramic tiles and topped with an iron weather vane.[100] On the occasion of the World Expo held in Barcelona in 1888, Gaud constructed the pavilion for the Compaa Trasatlntica, property of the Marquis of Comillas, in the Maritime Section of the event. He created it in a Granadinian Nazari style, with horseshoe arches and stucco decoration; the building survived until the Passeig Martim was opened up in 1960. In the wake of the event he received a commission from Barcelona Council to restore the Sal de Cent and the grand stairs in Barcelona City Hall, as well as a chair for the queen Maria Cristina; only the chair was made, and Mayor Francesc Rius i Taulet presented it to the Queen.[101]

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Compaa Trasatlntica pavilion (1888).

Antoni Gaud

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Neo-Gothic period
During this period Gaud was inspired above all by medieval Gothic art, but wanted to improve on its structural solutions. Neo-gothic was one of the most successful historicist styles at that time, above all as a result of the theoretical studies of Viollet-le-Duc. Gaud studied examples in Catalonia, the Balearic Islands and Roussillon in depth, as well as Leonese and Castillian buildings during his stays in Len and Burgos, and became convinced that it was an imperfect style, leaving major structural issues only partly resolved. In his works he eliminated the need of buttresses through the use of ruled surfaces, and abolishing crenelations and excessive openwork.[102]

Colegio de las Teresianas.

The first example was the Colegio de las Teresianas (18881889), in Barcelonas Carrer Ganduxer, commissioned by San Enrique de Oss. Gaud fulfilled the wish of the order that the building should be austere, in keeping with their vows of poverty. He designed a simple building, using bricks for the exterior and some brick elements for the interior. Wrought ironwork, one of Gaud's favourite materials,is also used on the facades, the building is crowned by a row of merlons which suggest a castle, a possible reference to Saint Teresas Interior Castle.[103] On the corners are brick pinnacles topped by helicoidal columns and culminating in a four-armed cross, typical of Gauds works, and with ceramic shields bearing various symbols of the order. In the interior there is a corridor which is famous for the series of catenary arches that it contains. These elegant arches are not merely decorative, but are there to support the ceiling and the floor above. For Gaud, the parabolic arch was an ideal constructional element, capable of supporting great loads with slender masonry .[104] Gaud received his next commission from a clergyman who had been a boyhood friend in his native Reus. When he was appointed bishop of Astorga, Joan Baptista Grau i Vallespins asked Gaud to design a new episcopal palace for the city, as the previous building had caught fire. Constructed between 1889 and 1915, in a neo-Gothic style with four cylindrical towers, it was surrounded by a moat. The stone with which it was built (grey granite from the El Bierzo area) is in harmony with its surroundings, particularly with the cathedral in its immediate vicinity, as well as with the natural landscape, which in late 19th-century Astorga was more visible than it is today. The porch has three large flared arches, built of ashlar and Bishop's palace of Astorga. separated by sloping buttresses. The structure of the building is supported by columns with decorated capitals and by ribbed vaults on pointed arches, and topped with Mudejar-style merlons. Gaud resigned from the project in 1893, at the death of Bishop Grau, due to disagreements with the Chapter, and it was finished in 1915 by Ricardo Garca Guereta. It currently houses a museum about the Way of Saint James, which passes through Astorga
[105]

Antoni Gaud

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Another of Gauds projects outside of Catalonia was the Casa de los Botines, in Len(18911894), commissioned by Simn Fernndez Fernndez and Mariano Andrs Luna, textile merchants from Leon, who were recommended Gaud by Eusebi Gell, with whom they did business. Gauds project was an impressive neo-Gothic style building, which bears his unmistakable modernista imprint. The building was used to accommodate offices and textile shops on the lower floors, as well as apartments on the upper floors. It was constructed with walls of solid limestone.[106] The building is flanked by four cylindrical turrets Casa Botines in Len. surmounted by slate spires, and surrounded by an area with an iron grille. The Gothic facade style, with its cusped arches, has a clock and a sculpture of Saint George and the Dragon, the work of Lloren Matamala.[107] It is now the headquarters of the Caja Espaa. In 1892 Gaud was commissioned by Claudio Lpez Bru, second Marquis of Comillas, with the Franciscana Catholic Missions for the city of Tangier, in Morocco (at the time a Spanish colony). The project included a church, hospital and school, and Gaud conceived a quadrilobulate ground-plan floor structure, with catenary arches, parabolic towers, and hyperboloid windows. Ultimately the project was not carried out, something Gaud deeply regretted, always keeping his design with him. In spite of this, the project influenced the works of the Sagrada Famlia, in particular the design of the towers, with their paraboloid shape like those of the Missions.[108]

Design for the Franciscan Missions in Tangier.

In 1895 he designed a funerary chapel for the Gell family at the abbey of Montserrat, but little is known about this work, which was never built. That year, construction finally began on the Bodegas Gell, the 1882 project for a hunting lodge and some wineries at La Cuadra de Garraf (Sitges), property of Eusebi Gell. Constructed between 1895 and 1897 under the direction of Francesc Berenguer, Gauds aide, the wineries have a triangular end facade, a very steep stone roof, a group of chimneys and two bridges that join them to an older building. It has three floors: the bottom one for a garage, an apartment and a chapel with catenary arches, with the altar in the centre. It was completed with a porters lodge, notable for the iron gate in the shape of a fishing net.

Bodegas Gell.

In the township of Sant Gervasi de Cassoles (now a district of Barcelona), Gaud was given a commission by the widow of

Antoni Gaud

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Jaume Figueras to renovate the Torre Bellesguard (19001909), former summer palace of King Martin I the Humane.[109] Gaud designed it in a neo-Gothic style, respecting the former building as much as possible, and tried as always to integrate the architecture into the natural surroundings. This influenced his choice of local slate for the construction. The building's ground-plan measures 15m x 15m, with the corners oriented to the four cardinal points. Constructed in stone and brick, it is taller than it is wide, with a spire topped with the four-armed cross, the Catalan flag and the royal crown. The house has a basement, ground floor, first floor and an attic, with a gable roof.[110]

Torre Bellesguard.

Naturalist period
During this period Gaud perfected his personal style, inspired by the organic shapes of nature, putting into practice a whole series of new structural solutions originating from his deep analysis of ruled geometry. To this he added a great creative freedom and an imaginative ornamental style. His works acquired a great richness of structure, with shapes and volumes devoid of rational rigidity or any classic premise.[111] Commissioned by the company Hijos de Pedro Mrtir Calvet, Gaud built the Casa Calvet (18981899), in Barcelonas Carrer Casp. The faade is built of Montjuc stone, adorned with wrought iron balconies and topped with two pediments with wrought iron crosses. Another notable feature of the facade is the gallery on the main floor, decorated with plant and mythological motifs. For this project Gaud used a Baroque style, visible in the use of Solomonic columns, decoration with floral themes and the design of the terraced roof . In 1900 he won the award for the best building of the year from Barcelona City Council.[112]

Casa Calvet.

A virtually unknown work by Gaud is the Casa Claps (18991900), in Carrer Escorial 125, commissioned by the painter Aleix Claps, who collaborated on occasion with Gaud, such as in decorating the Palau Gell and the Casa Mil. It has a ground floor and three apartments, with stuccoed walls and cast-iron balconies. Due to its lack of decoration or original structural solutions its authorship was unknown until 1976, when the architects plans signed by Gaud were discovered.[113] In 1900 he renovated the house of Dr. Pere Santal, in Carrer Nou de la Rambla 32, a work of equally low importance. Santal was a friend of Gaud's, whom he accompanied during his stay in Puigcerd in 1911.It was he who recommended him to do manual work for his rheumatism.[114]

Antoni Gaud

25

Also in 1900 he designed two banners: for the Orfe Feliu (of Sant Feliu de Codines), made of brass, leather, cork and silk, with ornamental motifs based on the martyrdom of San Flix (a millstone), music (a staff and clef) and the inscription Orfe Feliu; and Our Lady of Mercy of Reus, for the pilgrimage of the Reus residents of Barcelona, with an image of Isabel Besora, the shepherdess to whom the Virgin appeared in 1592, work of Aleix Claps and, on the back, a rose and the Catalan flag. In the same year, for the shrine of Our Lady of Mercy in Reus, Gaud outlined a project for the renovation of the churchs main faade, which Entrance of la Finca Miralles. ultimately was not undertaken, as the board considered it too expensive. Gaud took this rejection quite badly, leaving some bitterness towards Reus, possibly the source of his subsequent claim that Riudoms was his place of birth.[115] Between 1900 and 1902 Gaud worked on the Casa Miralles, commissioned by the industrialist Hermenegild Miralles i Angls; Gaud designed only the wall near the gateway, of undulating masonry, with an iron gate topped with the four-armed cross. Subsequently, the house for Seor Miralles was designed by Domnec Sugraes, associate architect of Gaud. Gauds main new project at the beginning of the 20th century was the Parc Gell (19001914), commissioned by Eusebi Gell. It was intended to be a residential estate in the style of an English garden city. The project was unsuccessful: of the 60 plots into which the site was divided only one was sold. Despite this, the park entrances and service areas were built, displaying Gauds architectural genius and putting into practice many of his innovative structural solutions, which are emblematic of the organic style that culminates in the Sagrada Famlia. The Parc Gell is situated in Barcelonas Crmel district, a rugged area, Parc Gell. with steep slopes that Gaud negotiated with a system of viaducts integrated into the terrain. The main entrance to the park has a buildings on each side, intended as a porters lodge and an office, and the site is surrounded by a stone and glazed-ceramic wall. These entrance buildings are an example of Gaud at the height of his powers, with Catalan vaults that form a parabolic hyperboloid.[116] Having passed through the gate, there are steps leading to higher levels, decorated with sculpted fountains, notably the dragon fountain, which has become a symbol of the park and one of Gauds most recognised emblems. These steps lead to the Hypostyle Hall, which was to have been the residents market, constructed with large Doric columns. Above this chamber is a large plaza in the form of a Greek theatre, with the famous undulating bench covered in broken ceramics ("trencads"), the work of Josep Maria Jujol.[117] The parks show home, the work of Francesc Berenguer, was Gauds residence from 1906 to 1926, and currently houses the Casa-Museu Gaud.

Antoni Gaud

26 During this period Gaud contributed to a group project, the Rosary of Montserrat (19001916). Located on the way to the Holy Cave of Montserrat, it was a series of groups of sculptures that evoked the mysteries of the Virgin, who tells the rosary. This project involved the best architects and sculptors of the era, and is a curious example of Catalan Modernism. Gaud designed the First Mystery of Glory, which represents the Holy Sepulcher, with a statue of Christ Risen, the work of Josep Llimona, and the Three Marys sculpted by Dions Renart. Another monumental project designed by Gaud for Montserrat was never carried out: it would have included crowning the summit of El Cavall Bernat (one of the mountain peaks) with a viewpoint in the shape of a royal crown,

The Resurrection of Jesus, First Mystery of the Rosary of Montserrat.

incorporating a 20 m high Catalan coat of arms into the wall.[118] In 1901 Gaud decorated the house of Isabel Gell Lpez, Marchioness of Castelldosrius, and daughter of Eusebi Gell. Situated at 19 Carrer Junta de Comer, the house had been built in 1885 and renovated between 1901 and 1904; it was destroyed by a bomb during the Civil War.[119] The following year Gaud took part in the decoration of the Bar Torino, property of Flaminio Mezzalana, located at 18 Passeig de Grcia; Gaud designed the ornamentation of el Saln rabe of that establishment, made with varnished Arabian-style cardboard tiles (which no longer exist). A project of great interest to Gaud was the restoration of the Cathedral of Santa Maria in Palma de Mallorca (19031914), commissioned by the citys bishop, Pere Campins i Barcel. Gaud planned a series of works including removing the baroque altarpiece, revealing the bishop's throne, moving the choir-stalls from the centre of the nave and placing them in the presbytery, clearing the way through chapel of the Holy Trinity, placing new pulpits, fitting the cathedral with electrical lighting, uncovering the Gothic windows of the Royal Chapel and filling them with stained glass, placing a large canopy above the main altar and completing the decoration with paintings. This was coordinated by Joan Rubi i Bellver, Gauds assistant. Josep Maria Jujol and the painters Joaqun Torres Garca, Iu Pascual and Jaume Llongueras were also involved. Gaud abandoned the project in 1914 due to disagreements with the Cathedral chapter.[120]

Antoni Gaud

27

One of Gauds largest and most striking works is the Casa Batll (19041906). Commissioned by Josep Batll i Casanovas to renovate an existing building erected in 1875 by Emili Sala Corts,[121] Gaud focused on the faade, the main floor, the patio and the roof, and built a fifth floor for the staff. For this project he was assisted by his aides Domnec Sugraes, Joan Rubi and Josep Canaleta. The faade is of Montjuc sandstone cut to create warped ruled surfaces; the columns are bone shaped with vegetable decoration. Gaud kept the rectangular shape of the old buildings balconieswith iron railings in the shape of masksgiving the rest of the faade an ascending undulating form. He also faced the facade with ceramic fragments of various colours ("trencads"), which Gaud obtained from the waste material of the Pelegr glass works. The interior courtyard is roofed by a skylight supported by an iron structure in the shape of a double T, which rests on a series of catenary aches. The helicoidal chimneys are a notable feature of the roof, topped with Casa Batll. conical caps, covered in clear glass in the centre and ceramics at the top, and surmounted by clear glass balls filled with sand of different colours. The faade culminates in catenary vaults covered with two layers of brick and faced with glazed ceramic tiles in the form of scales (in shades of yellow, green and blue), which resemble a dragons back; on the left side is a cylindrical turret with anagrams of Jesus, Mary and Joseph, and with Gaudis four-armed cross.[122] In 1904, commissioned by the painter Llus Graner i Arruf, he designed the decoration of the Sala Merc, in the Rambla dels Estudis, one of the first cinemas in Barcelona; the theatre imitated a cave, inspired by the Coves del del Drac (Dragon's Caves) in Mallorca. Also for Graner he designed a detached house in the Bonanova district of Barcelona, of which only the foundations and the main gate were built, with three openings: for people, vehicles and birds; the building wold have had a structure similar to the Casa Batll or the porter's lodge of the Parc Gell.[123] The same year he built a workshop, the Taller Badia, for Josep and Llus Badia Miarnau, blacksmiths who worked for Gaud on several of his works, such as the Batll and Mil houses, the Parc Gell and and the Sagrada Famlia; located at 278 Carrer Npols, it was a simple stone building. Around that time he also designed hexagonal hydraulic floor tiles for the Casa Batll, they were eventually not used at this location but were used for the Casa Mil; they were a green colour and were decorated with seaweed, shells and starfish. These tiles were subsequently chosen to pave Barcelonas Passeig de Grcia.[124]

El chalet de Catllars (1905), in La Pobla de Lillet.

Also in 1904 he built the Chalet de Catllars, in La Pobla de Lillet, for the Asland cement factory, owned by Eusebi Gell. It has a simple structure though very original, in the shape of a pointed arch, with two semi-circular flights of stairs leading to the top two floors. This building fell into ruin when the cement works closed, and when it was eventually restored its appearance was radically altered, the ingenious original staircase being replaced with a simpler metal one. In the same area he created the Can Artigas

Antoni Gaud Gardens between 1905 and 1907, in an area called Font de la Magnesia, commissioned by the textile merchant Joan Artigas i Alart; men who had worked the Parc Gell were also involved on this project, similar to the famous park in Barcelona.[125] In 1906 he designed a bridge over the Torrent de Pomeret, between Sarri and Sant Gervasi. This river flowed directly between two of Gauds works, Bellesguard and the Chalet Graner, and so he was asked to bridge the divide. Gaud designed an interesting structure composed of juxtapositioned triangles that would support the bridges framework, following the style of the viaducts that he made for the Parc Gell. It would have been built with cement, and would have had a length of 154m and a height of 15m; the balustrade would have been covered with glazed tiles, with an inscription dedicated to Santa Eullia. The project was not approved by the Town Council of Sarri.[126]

28

Jardines de Can Artigas, in La Pobla de Lillet.

The same year Gaud apparently took part in the construction of the Torre Dami Mateu, in Llinars del Valls, in collaboration with his disciple Francesc Berenguer, though the projects authorship is not clear or to what extent they each contributed to it. The style of the building evokes Gauds early work, such as the Casa Vicens or the Gell Pavilions; it had an entrance gate in the shape of a fishing net, currently installed in the Parc Gell. The building was demolished in 1939.[127] Also in 1906 he designed a new banner, this time for the Guild of Metalworkers and Blacksmiths for the Corpus Christi procession of 1910, in Barcelona Cathedral. It was dark green in colour, with Barcelonas coat of arms in the upper left corner, and an image of Saint Eligius, patron of the guild, with typical tools of the trade. The banner was burned in July 1936.[128] Another of Gauds major projects and one of his most admired works is the Casa Mil, better known as La Pedrera (19061910), commissioned by Pere Mil i Camps. Gaud designed the house around two large curved courtyards, with a structure of stone, brick and cast-iron columns steel beams. The whole faade is built of limestone from Vilafranca del Peneds, apart from the upper level, which is covered in white tiles, evoking a snowy mountain. It has a total of five floors, plus a loftmade entirely of catenary archesand the roof, as well as Casa Mil. two large interior courtyards, one circular and one oval. Notable features are the staircases to the roof, topped with the four-armed cross, and the chimneys, covered in ceramics and with shapes that suggest mediaeval helmets. The interior decoration was carried out by Josep Maria Jujol and the painters Iu Pascual, Xavier Nogus and Aleix Claps. The faade was to have been completed with a stone, metal and glass sculpture with Our lady of the Rosary accompanied by the archangels Michael and Gabriel, 4m in height. A sketch was made by the sculptor Carles Mani, but due to the events of the Tragic Week in 1909 the project was abandoned.[129]

Antoni Gaud

29 In 1907, to mark the seventh centenary of the birth of king James I, Gaud designed a monument in his memory. It would have been situated in the Plaa del Rei, and would have also meant the renovation of the adjacent buildings: new roof for the cathedral, as well as the completion of its towers and cupola; placement of three vases above the buttresses of the Chapel of Santa gada, dedicated to the Litany of the Blessed Virgin Mary, as well as the figure of an angel on top of the chapel's tower; finally, the opening of a large square next to the walls (now the Plaa Ramon Berenguer el Grand). The project was not executed because the city council disliked it.[130] In 1908 Gaud devised a project for a skyscraper hotel in New York, the Hotel Atraction, commissioned by two American entrepreneurs whose names are unknown. It would have been 360m high (taller than the Empire State Building), with a taller parabolic central section, topped with a star, and flanked by four volumes containing museums, art galleries and concert halls, with shapes similar to the Casa Mil. Inside it would have had five large rooms, one dedicated to every continent.[131] [132]

Sketch of the Hotel Atraccin, by Joan Matamala.

The last project for his great patron Eusebi Gell was the church for the Colnia Gell, an industrial village in Santa Coloma de Cervell, of which only the crypt was constructed (known today as Crypt of the Colnia Gell) (19081918). The project began in 1890, and the factory, service buildings and housing for the workers were constructed. What would have been the colonys church was designed by Gaud in 1898, though the first stone was not laid until 4 October 1908. Unfortunately only the crypt was built, as Gells sons abandoned the project after his death in 1918. Gaud designed an oval church with five aisles, one central aisle and two at either side. He conceived it as fully integrated into nature, reflecting his concept of architecture as organic structure. A porch of hyperbolic paraboloid vaults precedes the crypt, the first time that Gaud used this structure and the first use of paraboloid vaults in the history of architecture.[133] In the crypt the large hyperboloid stained glass windows stand out, with the shapes of flower petals and butterfly wings. Inside, circular brick pillars alternate with slanted basalt columns from Castellfollit de la Roca.

Original design of the church for the Colnia Gell.

Antoni Gaud

30

Final period: the culmination of his style


During the last years of his career, dedicated almost exclusively to la Sagrada Famlia, Gaud reached the culmination of this naturalistic style, creating a synthesis of all of the solutions and styles he had tried until then. Gaud achieved perfect harmony between structural and ornamental elements, between plastic and aesthetic, between function and form, between container and content, achieving the integration of all arts in one structured, logical work.[134] The first example of his final stage can be seen in a simple but very ingenious building, the Sagrada Famlia schools, a small school Sagrada Familia schools. for the workers children. Built in 1909, it has a rectangular ground plan of 10m x 20m, and contained three classrooms, a vestibule and a chapel. It was built of exposed brick, in three overlapping layers, following the traditional Catalan method. The walls and roof have an undulating shape, giving the structure a sense of lightness but also strength. The Sagrada Famlia schools have set an example of constructive genius and have served as a source of inspiration for many architects, such is their simplicity, strength, originality, functionality and geometric excellence.[135] In May 1910 Gaud paid a short visit to Vic, where he was tasked to design the lampposts for the citys Plaa Major, in commemoration of the first centenary of the birth of Jaume Balmes. They were obelisk-shaped lamps, with basalt rock bases from Castellfollit de la Roca and wrought iron arms, topped with the four-armed cross; they were decorated with vegetable themes and included the birth and death dates of Balmes. They were demolished in 1924 due to poor maintenance.[136] The same year, on the occasion of Eusebi Gell's obtaining the title of count, Gaud designed a coat of arms for his great patron: he devised a shield with the lower part in a catenary shape, typical of Gaud; he divided it into two parts with the lantern of the Palau Gell, placing a dove with a gear-wheel on the rightan allusion to the Colnia Gell in Santa Coloma de Cervell (coloma is Catalan for dove), with the words ahir pastor (yesterday Shepherd), and on the left an owl perched on a half-moonsymbol of prudence and wisdomwith the words avuy senyor (today Lord). The shield is surmounted by a helmet with the count's coronet and the dove symbol of the Holy Spirit.[137] In 1912 he built two pulpits for the church of Santa Maria in Blanes: the one on the Gospel side had a hexagonal base, decorated with the dove of the Holy Spirit and the names in Latin of the four evangelists and the seven Gifts of the Holy Spirit; the pulpit of the Epistle side had the names of the apostles who wrote epistles (Saint Peter, Saint Paul, Saint John the Evengelist, Saint Judas Thadeus and Saint James the Great), with the three theological virtues and the flames of Pentecost. These pulpits were burned in July 1936.[138]

Antoni Gaud

31

From 1915 Gaud devoted himself almost exclusively to his magnum opus, the Sagrada Famlia, a synthesis of his architectural evolution. After completion of the crypt and the apse, still in Gothic style, the rest of the church is conceived in an organic style, imitating natural shapes with their abundance of ruled surfaces. The interior is intended to resemble a forest, with inclined columns like branching trees, helicoidal in form, creating a simple but sturdy structure. Gaud applied all of his previous experimental findings in the Sagrada Famlia, from works such as the Parc Gell and the crypt of the Colnia Gell, creating a church that is at once structurally perfect, harmonious and aesthetically satisfying. The Sagrada Famlia has a cruciform plan, with a five-aisled nave, a transept of three aisles, and an apse with seven chapels. It has three faades dedicated to the birth, passion and glory of Jesus, and when completed it will have eighteen towers: four at each side making a total of twelve for the apostles, four on the transept Templo Expiatorio de la Sagrada Familia. invoking the evangelists and one on the apse dedicated to the Virgin, plus the central tower in honour of Jesus, which will reach 170m in height.[139] The church will have two sacristies adjacent to the apse, and three large chapels: one for the Assumption in the apse, and the Baptism and Penitence chapels at the west end; also, it will be surrounded by a cloister designed for processions and to isolate the building from the exterior. Gaud used highly symbolic content in the Sagrada Famlia, both in architecture and sculpture, dedicating each part of the church to a religious theme. During Gauds life only the crypt, apse and part of the Nativity faade were completed. On this death his assistant took over the construction, Domnec Sugraes; thereafter it was directed by various architects, with Jordi Bonet i Armengol being responsible from 1987. Artists such as Lloren and Joan Matamala, Carles Mani, Jaume Busquets, Joaquim Ros i Bofarull, Etsuro Sotoo and Josep Maria Subirachs (creator of the Passion faade) have worked on the sculptural decoration. During the last years of his life, apart from his devotion to the Sagrada Famlia, Gaud participated only in minor projects which were not completed: in 1916, on the death of his friend bishop Josep Torras i Bages, he designed a monument in his honour, which he wanted to place in front of the Passion faade of the Sagrada Famlia. He made a sketch of the project, which ultimately was not carried out, and made a plaster bust of the bishop, the work of Joan Matamala under the instruction of Gaud; it was put in the Sagrada Famliait would have formed part of the churchbut was destroyed in 1936.[140] Another commemorative monument project, also not carried out, was dedicated to Enric Prat de la Riba, which would have been situated in Castellterol, birthplace of this Catalan politician. The project dates from 1918, and would have consisted of a tall tower with two porticos and a spire topped with an iron structure flying the Catalan flag. The sketch of the project was done by Llus Bonet i Gar, Gauds assistant.[141] In 1922 Gaud was commissioned, by the Franciscan Padre Anglico Aranda, to construct a church dedicated to the Assumption in Rancagua (Chile).[142] Gaud apologised and said that he was occupied exclusively with the Sagrada Famlia, but sent some sketches of the Assumption chapel which he had designed for the apse of the Sagrada Famlia, which more or less coincided with what Padre Aranda had asked for. Unfortunately this project was not carried out, though there are currently plans to take it up againby the Chilean architect Christian Matznerand to

Antoni Gaud finally construct a work designed by Gaud on the New Continent.[143] The same year Gaud was consulted about the construction of a monumental train station for Barcelona (the future Estaci de Frana). Gaud suggested an iron structure in the form of a large suspended awning, a solution quite ahead of its time; perhaps for this reason, it put the head engineers off, and they declined Gauds offer. The last known projects by the architect are the chapel for the Colnia Calvet in Torell, of 1923, and a pulpit for Valencia (the exact location is unknown), of 1924. From then on, Gaud worked exclusively on the Sagrada Famlia, until the fateful day of the accident which caused his death.

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Major works
Work Dates Location

Cooperativa Obrera Mataronense 18781882 Matar El Capricho Casa Vicens Sagrada Famlia Gell Pavilions Palau Gell Colegio de las Teresianas Episcopal Palace of Astorga Casa Botines Bodegas Gell Casa Calvet Bellesguard Parc Gell Casa Batll Artigas Gardens Casa Mil Church of Colnia Gell 18831885 Comillas 18831888 Barcelona 18831926 Barcelona 18841887 Barcelona 18861890 Barcelona 18881889 Barcelona 18891915 Astorga 18911894 Len 18951897 Sitges 18981900 Barcelona 19001909 Barcelona 19001914 Barcelona 19041906 Barcelona 19051906 La Pobla de Lillet 19061910 Barcelona 19081915 Colnia Gell (Santa Coloma de Cervell)

World Heritage
Several of Gaudis works have been granted World Heritage status by UNESCO: in 1984[144] the Parc Gell, the Palau Gell and the Casa Mil; and in 2005[145] the Nativity faade, the crypt and the apse of the Sagrada Famlia, the Casa Vicens and the Casa Batll in Barcelona, together with the crypt of the Colnia Gell in Santa Coloma de Cervell. The declaration of Gauds works as World Heritage aims to recognise his outstanding universal value. According to the citation:[146] The work of Antoni Gaud represents an exceptional and outstanding creative contribution to the development of architecture and building technology in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Gauds work exhibits an important interchange of values closely associated with the cultural and artistic currents of his time, as represented in el Modernisme [sic] of Catalonia. It anticipated and influenced many of the forms and techniques that were relevant to the development of modern construction in the 20th century.

Antoni Gaud Gauds work represents a series of outstanding examples of the building typology in the architecture of the early 20th century, residential as well as public, to the development of which he made a significant and creative contribution.

33

References
Footnotes
[1] See, in Catalan, Juan Bergs Mass, Gaud, l'home i la obra ("Gaud: The Man and his Work"), Universitat Politcnica de Barcelona (Ctedra Gaud), 1974 ISBN 84-600-6248-1, section "Naixament" (Birth), pp. 1718. [2] "Biography at Gaud and Barcelona Club, page 1" (http:/ / www. gaudiclub. com/ ingles/ i_vida/ i_vida. asp). . Retrieved 2005-11-05. [3] There is a certain controversy about whether he was born in Reus or Riudoms, a place near Reus where his paternal family was from. However, most specialists tend towards Reus: Gaud was born in Carrer Sant Joan, close to the Plaa Prim in Reus, according to most versions () Nonetheless, Gaud later on mischievously left these doors open when suggesting he might have been born in his fathers workshop, just across the municipal border of Riudoms. Gijs Van Hensbergen, Antoni Gaud, p. 33-35. [4] Eduardo Daniel Quiroga y Eduardo Alberto Salomn. "Gaud: Mecnica y forma de la naturaleza" (http:/ / www. arquitectuba. com. ar/ monografias-de-arquitectura/ gaudi-mecanica-y-forma-de-la-naturaleza/ ). . Retrieved 29-08-2008. [5] I. lvarez Torres. "La Sagrada Familia de Barcelona ultima los preparativos para su apertura al culto" (http:/ / www. lavozdigital. es/ cadiz/ prensa/ 20070102/ cultura/ sagrada-familia-barcelona-ultima_20070102. html). . Retrieved 03-08-2008. [6] Tremlett, Giles (11 July 2003). "God's architect on road to sainthood" (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ world/ 2003/ jul/ 11/ arts. spain). guardian.co.uk. . Retrieved 21 April 2011. [7] ""God's architect" on the path to sainthood" (http:/ / www. timesonline. co. uk/ tol/ comment/ faith/ article6909659. ece). timesonline.co.uk. 9 November 2009. . Retrieved 20 April 2011. [8] Klettner, Andrea (4 November 2010). "Pope's visit could fast-track Gaudi sainthood" (http:/ / www. bdonline. co. uk/ news/ popes-visit-could-fast-track-gaudi-sainthood/ 5008461. article). bdonline.co.uk. . Retrieved 21 April 2011. [9] Joan Castellar-Gassol, Gaud, la vida d'un visionari, p. 13. [10] Until 1915, Gaud indicated in all his identity documents Reus as his birthplace, but from then on he declared himself Riudoms-born. The reason for this could be that he was upset about his restoration project for the Misericordia sanctuary of Reus being rejected. Joan Bassegoda, El gran Gaud, p. 552. [11] Ana M Frrin, Gaud, de piedra y fuego, p. 61. [12] Joan Bassegoda, El gran Gaud, p. 26. [13] Joan Bergs, Gaud, l'home i l'obra, p. 31. [14] Gijs Van Hensbergen, Antoni Gaud, p. 36. [15] Frommer's Barcelona, 2nd Edition. Peter Stone (2007). ISBN 978-0-470-09692-5 [16] History of Vegetarianism - Antoni Gaudi (1852-1926) (http:/ / www. ivu. org/ history/ europe20a/ gaudi. html) [17] Gijs Van Hensbergen, Antoni Gaud, p. 162. [18] Joan Castellar-Gassol, Gaud, la vida d'un visionari, p. 95. [19] Josep M. Tarragona. "El Arlequn" (http:/ / www. antonigaudi. org/ antonigaudi. php?idioma=Esp& menu=200& mostrar=200& opcion=1). . Retrieved 03-08-2008. [20] Joan Bassegoda, Gaud o espacio, luz y equilibrio, p. 35. [21] Joan Bassegoda, El gran Gaud, p. 24-25. [22] Joan Bassegoda, Gaud o espacio, luz y equilibrio, p. 14-15. [23] Judith Rodrguez Vargas. "Antoni Gaud, la visin de un genio" (http:/ / www. arts-history. mx/ semanario/ especial. php?id_nota=22062007173805). . Retrieved 03-08-2008. [24] Joan Bassegoda, Gaud o espacio, luz y equilibrio, p. 36. [25] Josep M. Tarragona, Gaud, biografia de lartista, p. 11. [26] Josep M. Tarragona, Gaud, biografia de lartista, p. 22. [27] M Antonietta Crippa, Gaud, p. 92. [28] Santi Barjau. "El complejo mundo de un creador obstinado" (http:/ / www. bcn. es/ publicacions/ b_mm/ ebmm58/ bmm58_qc28. htm). . Retrieved 03-08-2008. [29] Csar Martinell, Gaud. Su vida, su teora, su obra, p. 48. [30] Josep M. Tarragona, Gaud, biografia de lartista, p. 235. [31] Josep M. Tarragona, Gaud, biografia de lartista, p. 236. [32] Gijs Van Hensbergen, Antoni Gaud, p. 250. [33] Joan Bassegoda, El gran Gaud, p. 551. [34] Isidre Puig i Boada, El temple de la Sagrada Famlia, p.166 [35] Josep M. Tarragona, Gaud, biografia de lartista, p. 239. [36] Gijs Van Hensbergen, Antoni Gaud, p. 291.

Antoni Gaud
[37] Jordi Bonet, L'ltim Gaud, p.21. [38] "Gaud: El arquitecto de Dios" (http:/ / www. aciprensa. com/ arte/ gaudi/ gaudi. htm). . Retrieved 03-08-2008. [39] Josep M. Tarragona, Gaud, biografia de lartista, p. 164. [40] "El gran amor inalcanzado de Gaud" (http:/ / www. ctv. es/ USERS/ ags/ Pepeta_Moreu. htm). . Retrieved 03-08-2008. [41] "Amigos de Gaud" (http:/ / www. gaudiallgaudi. com/ EA002 G Amics. htm). . Retrieved 03-08-2008. [42] Rainer Zerbst, Antoni Gaud, p. 13. [43] Joan Bassegoda, El gran Gaud, p. 29. [44] Josep M. Tarragona, Gaud, biografia de lartista, p. 240. [45] Gijs Van Hensbergen, Antoni Gaud, p. 304-305. [46] Ana M Frrin, Gaud, de piedra y fuego , p. 415. [47] Joan Bassegoda, Gaud o espacio, luz y equilibrio, p. 263. [48] Isidre Puig i Boada, El temple de la Sagrada Famlia, p.18. [49] Joan Bergs, Gaud, l'home i l'obra, p. 9. [50] Joan Bassegoda. "Antoni Gaud Cornet (1852-1926)" (http:/ / cvc. cervantes. es/ actcult/ gaudi/ bassegoda. htm). . Retrieved 03-08-2008. [51] "Beatificacin de Gaud" (http:/ / www. ctv. es/ USERS/ ags/ Gaudi-SF. htm). . Retrieved 03-08-2008. [52] "El Musical de Gaud" (http:/ / www. ctv. es/ USERS/ ags/ Gaudi-SF. htm). . Retrieved 03-08-2008. [53] "Nacen los Premios Gaud, que librar anualmente la Academia del Cine Cataln" (http:/ / www. cultura21. cat/ textecomplet. asp?id_texte=3226). . Retrieved 31-01-2009. [54] Gijs Van Hensbergen, Antoni Gaud, p. 114. [55] Carlos Flores, Les llions de Gaud, p. 58. [56] Pere Hereu, Els anys d'aprenentatge de Gaud, en Gaud 2002. Miscelnia, p. 44. [57] Carlos Flores, Les llions de Gaud, p. 89. [58] Francesc Fontbona. "El vanguardismo de un tradicionalista" (http:/ / www. bcn. es/ publicacions/ b_mm/ ebmm58/ bmm58_qc42. htm). . Retrieved 03-08-2008. [59] Carlos Flores, Les llions de Gaud, p. 38-39. [60] Joan Bassegoda, Gaud o espacio, luz y equilibrio, p. 198. [61] Joan Bassegoda, Gaud o espacio, luz y equilibrio, p. 266. [62] Isidre Puig i Boada, El pensament de Gaud, p. 238. [63] Jorge Wagensberg, Apunts sobre la intuci cientfica de Gaud, in Gaud 2002. Miscelnia, p. 168. [64] M Antonietta Crippa, Gaud, p. 12. [65] Claudi Alsina y Josep Gmez, Gaud: geometria, estructura i construcci, en Gaud 2002. Miscelnia, p. 144. [66] Carlos Flores, Les llions de Gaud, p. 91-92. [67] "Tcnica arquitectnica de Gaud" (http:/ / www. gaudiallgaudi. com/ EA002 G Tecnica arq. htm). . Retrieved 03-08-2008. [68] Joan Bassegoda, El gran Gaud, p. 16. [69] Joan Bassegoda, El gran Gaud, p. 366-367. [70] Oriol Pibernat. "Diseo: entre el legado y la invencin de la tradicin" (http:/ / www. bcn. es/ publicacions/ b_mm/ ebmm58/ bmm58_qc65. htm). . Retrieved 03-08-2008. [71] Ana M Frrin, Gaud, la huella del genio, p. 74. [72] Joan Bassegoda, El gran Gaud, p. 12. [73] Joan Bergs, Gaud, l'home i l'obra, p. 40. [74] M Jos Gmez Gimeno, La Sagrada Familia, p.76-77. [75] "El mobiliario de Gaud" (http:/ / www. gaudiclub. com/ esp/ e_vida/ mobiliario. asp). . Retrieved 03-08-2008. [76] Daniel Giralt-Miracle, Art, oficis i disseny en Gaud, en Gaud 2002. Miscelnia, p. 250. [77] Joan Bergs, Gaud, l'home i l'obra , p. 51-68. [78] Joan Bergs, Gaud, l'home i l'obra , p. 51. [79] Joan Bassegoda, Gaud o espacio, luz y equilibrio, p. 24-29. [80] Joan Bassegoda, El gran Gaud, p. 111. [81] Joan Bassegoda, El gran Gaud, p. 129. [82] Joan Bassegoda, El gran Gaud, p. 119. [83] Carlos Flores, Les llions de Gaud, p. 26. [84] Joan Bassegoda, El gran Gaud, p. 139. [85] Joan Bassegoda, Gaud o espacio, luz y equilibrio, p. 57. [86] Joan Bassegoda, El gran Gaud, p. 156. [87] Joan Bassegoda, El gran Gaud, p. 161. [88] Joan Bassegoda, El gran Gaud, p. 181. [89] Gijs Van Hensbergen, Antoni Gaud, p. 93. [90] Joan Bassegoda, El gran Gaud, p. 183. [91] Joan Bassegoda, El gran Gaud, p. 187-194. [92] Joan Bassegoda, Gaud o espacio, luz y equilibrio, p.113.

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[93] Joan Bassegoda, Gaud o espacio, luz y equilibrio, p.117. [94] Joan Bergs, Gaud, l'home i l'obra , p. 52. [95] Joan Bassegoda, Gaud o espacio, luz y equilibrio, p. 107. [96] M Antonietta Crippa, Gaud, p. 15. [97] Joan Bassegoda, Gaud o espacio, luz y equilibrio, p. 125-126. [98] Joan Bassegoda, El gran Gaud, p. 281. [99] Joan Bassegoda, Gaud o espacio, luz y equilibrio, p. 128. [100] Joan Bassegoda, El gran Gaud, p. 290. [101] Joan Bassegoda, El gran Gaud, p. 313. [102] Joan Bergs, Gaud, l'home i l'obra , p. 56. [103] M Antonietta Crippa, Gaud, p. 33. [104] Rainer Zerbst, Antoni Gaud, p. 94. [105] Joan Bassegoda, Gaud o espacio, luz y equilibrio, p. 150. [106] M Antonietta Crippa, Gaud, p. 37. [107] Joan Bassegoda, Gaud o espacio, luz y equilibrio, p. 155. [108] Joan Bassegoda, El gran Gaud, p. 333. [109] Joan Bassegoda, Gaud o espacio, luz y equilibrio, p. 165. [110] M Antonietta Crippa, Gaud, p. 49. [111] Joan Bergs, Gaud, l'home i l'obra , p. 60. [112] Ana M Frrin, Gaud, de piedra y fuego, p. 241. [113] Joan Bassegoda, El gran Gaud, p. 375. [114] Gijs Van Hensbergen, Antoni Gaud, p. 272. [115] Joan Bassegoda, El gran Gaud, p. 425. [116] Joan Bassegoda, Gaud o espacio, luz y equilibrio, p. 176. [117] Rainer Zerbst, Antoni Gaud, p. 150. [118] Joan Bergs, Gaud, l'home i l'obra, p. 79. [119] Joan Bassegoda, El gran Gaud, p. 435. [120] Rainer Zerbst, Antoni Gaud, p. 221. [121] Joan Bassegoda, Gaud o espacio, luz y equilibrio, p. 184. [122] Joan Bassegoda, Gaud o espacio, luz y equilibrio, p. 187. [123] Joan Bassegoda, El gran Gaud, p. 471. [124] Rossend Casanova, Gaud i els seus colaboradors: artistes i industrials a lentorn del 1900, in Gaud 2002. Miscelnia, p. 271. [125] Joan Bassegoda, El gran Gaud, p. 469. [126] Joan Bassegoda, Gaud o espacio, luz y equilibrio, p. 214. [127] Joan Bassegoda, El gran Gaud, p. 507. [128] Joan Bassegoda, El gran Gaud, p. 509. [129] Ana M Frrin, Gaud, de piedra y fuego, p. 296. [130] Joan Bassegoda, El gran Gaud, p. 529. [131] Joan Bassegoda, El gran Gaud, p. 531. [132] Javi Pelez, El proyecto de hotel gigante de Gaud en Nueva York (1908) (http:/ / aldea-irreductible. blogspot. com/ 2009/ 07/ el-proyecto-de-hotel-gigante-de-gaudi. html), La aldea irreductible, viernes, 24 de julio de 2009. Consultado 24-7-2009. [133] Joan Bassegoda, El gran Gaud, p. 370. [134] Joan Bergs, Gaud, l'home i l'obra , p. 68. [135] M Antonietta Crippa, Gaud, p. 79. [136] Joan Bassegoda, El gran Gaud, p. 555. [137] Joan Bergs, Gaud, l'home i l'obra , p. 49. [138] Joan Bassegoda, El gran Gaud, p. 495. [139] Rainer Zerbst, Antoni Gaud, p. 198. [140] Joan Bassegoda, El gran Gaud, p. 563. [141] Joan Bassegoda, El gran Gaud, p. 565. [142] Joan Bassegoda, El gran Gaud, p. 581. [143] Ana M Frrin, Gaud, la huella del genio, p. 47. [144] "Sesin 8 del Comit del Patrimonio de la Humanidad de la UNESCO" (http:/ / whc. unesco. org/ archive/ repcom84. htm#320). . Retrieved 03-08-2008. [145] "Sesin 29 del Comit del Patrimonio de la Humanidad de la UNESCO, p.222" (http:/ / whc. unesco. org/ archive/ 2005/ whc05-29com-22e. pdf#decision. 8B. 47). . Retrieved 2008-08-03. [146] "Patrimonio Mundial: Obras de Antoni Gaud" (http:/ / whc. unesco. org/ en/ list/ 320/ ). . Retrieved 2008-08-25.

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36

Bibliography
Csar Martinell - Antoni Gaud, Barcelona, 1975 (English edition). Frederike Mller, Lars Wendt: The Architect Antoni Gaud. Myth and Reality, DVD 70 mins., wendtfilm & Cin Canard, Germany 2006 Rainer Zerbst - Antoni Gaud, Taschen, 2002.

External links
Gallery of Gaudi's works (http://itiscreation.com/2010/08/25/antoni-gaudi/) Casa Batll (http://www.casabatllo.es/) (multilingual; requires Adobe Flash) Sagrada Famlia (http://www.sagradafamilia.org/) (multilingual) La Pedrera (http://www.lapedreraeducacio.org/) (multilingual; requires Adobe Flash) Other Gaudi works (http://www.gaudisagradafamilia.com/lesser-known-gaudi-works/) Gaudi: Designer (http://www.gaudidesigner.com/uk/index.html) (English), (French), (Spanish) Hyperboloid structures by Gaud (http://www.business.otago.ac.nz/SIRC05/conferences/2001/05_burry. pdf)PDF(420KB)

Antoni Plcid Gaud i Cornet (http://en.structurae.de/persons/data/index.cfm?ID=d000014) information at Structurae Antoni Gaud (http://www.dmoz.org/Arts/Architecture/History/Architects/G/Gaud,_Antoni//) at the Open Directory Project Antoni Gaud i Cornet (http://www.gaudiallgaudi.com/AA002.htm) Gaud's arrest (http://webs.racocatala.cat/cat1714/d/gaudi.pdf)PDF(142KB) (Catalan) Guell Palace Site (http://www.palauguell.cat) (multilingual) Church of Colnia Gell virtual visit (http://guell.vrama.net) (multilingual; requires Adobe Flash) Gaud Tours (http://www.barcelonaguidebureau.com/index.php) (English) Gaud Center Reus (http://www.gaudicentre.cat/eng/index.html) Gaudi and Mallorca's Cathedral (http://www.northsouthguides.com/mallorca_cathedral.html)

Article Sources and Contributors

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Article Sources and Contributors


Antoni Gaud Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=426787068 Contributors: -xox-goodey-xox-, 0, 1984, 205.188.199.xxx, 21655, 24.45.94.xxx, 777sms, 842U, A-research, A. Parrot, ABF, AMe, Abeg92, Absecon 59, Absolwent, Academic Challenger, Acroterion, AdeMiami, Adleos, Adrian.benko, AdrianCo, Aecis, Aeusoes1, Afernand74, Ahoerstemeier, Aitias, Aka042, Akacharlie, Al-bayda, Alansohn, Ale jrb, AlexanderWinston, Alexkin, Alfadog, Algebra, Alsandro, AmiDaniel, Amorymeltzer, Anacon, Anderitos135, Andonic, Andre Engels, Andrewpmk, Andycjp, Andytuba, Anetode, Anna Lincoln, AnonMoos, Anticipation of a New Lover's Arrival, The, Apocock, ArchMaps, Ard1037, Arnoutf, Arthena, Asasa64, Ashitaka96, Attilios, AuburnPilot, Aude, Auric, B.murph27, Baiji, Barnabypage, Basuraeuropea, Ben-Zin, Bettia, Bhadani, Big Bird, BillFlis, Biruitorul, Bjankuloski06en, Bjones, Bkenison, BlueDevil, Bobo192, Boehm, Bongwarrior, Bookofjude, BorgHunter, Bradv, Brazzouk, Bren Cook, Brian R Hunter, Bricktop, Bronyraur1970, Browno10177, Bryan Derksen, Buck Mulligan, Burntsauce, Buxbaum666, CPAScott, Cailil, Calor, Caltas, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, CapitalR, Capricorn42, Captain Infinity, Casaforra, Casmith 789, Caspian blue, Catgut, CharlieCLC, Cheesus01, Cherry blossom tree, CheshireKatz, Chick Bowen, Claidheamhmor, Clubmarx, Cnoguera, Cobaltcigs, Conversion script, Conversum, Conversum1, Corti, Crackpotmark, DARTH SIDIOUS 2, DVD R W, DVdm, Da monster under your bed, Dale Arnett, Dan D. 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S. 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Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors


File:Antoni Gaudi 1878.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Antoni_Gaudi_1878.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Docu, Lupo File:Mas calderera.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mas_calderera.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Jordi G, 3 anonymous edits File:Gaud en Montserrat (1904).jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Gaud_en_Montserrat_(1904).jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: 1997, Canaan, Docu, 3 anonymous edits File:Gaud i Gell a la Colnia Gell (1910).jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Gaud_i_Gell_a_la_Colnia_Gell_(1910).jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Canaan, Docu, Granotabellugadissa, Jordi Roqu, 1 anonymous edits File:Carnet Gaud (1888).jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Carnet_Gaud_(1888).jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Canaan, Docu File:Joan Llimona - San Felipe Neri en la consagracin de la Santa Misa.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Joan_Llimona_-_San_Felipe_Neri_en_la_consagracin_de_la_Santa_Misa.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Canaan, Zarateman, 1 anonymous edits File:Gaud (1910).jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Gaud_(1910).jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Canaan, Docu File:Gaud-Ragonesi (1915).jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Gaud-Ragonesi_(1915).jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Canaan, Docu, 2 anonymous edits File:Gaud en procesin Corpus Christi.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Gaud_en_procesin_Corpus_Christi.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Canaan, Docu, Granotabellugadissa, 2 anonymous edits File:Funeral Gaud.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Funeral_Gaud.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: 1997, Canaan, 2 anonymous edits File:Subirachs - Gaud.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Subirachs_-_Gaud.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: User:Canaan File:Matamala - Gaud.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Matamala_-_Gaud.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: User:Canaan File:Cruz cuatro brazos.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Cruz_cuatro_brazos.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: User:Canaan File:Reptil Parc Guell Barcelona.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Reptil_Parc_Guell_Barcelona.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0 Contributors: Ardfern, Baikonur, Cookie, Docu, Friviere, Sparkit, 3 anonymous edits File:SF - interior.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:SF_-_interior.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: User:Canaan File:Sagrada Familia Interior.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Sagrada_Familia_Interior.jpg License: Free Art License Contributors: User:Heimo66 File:Maqueta funicular.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Maqueta_funicular.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: User:Canaan File:Finca Guell.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Finca_Guell.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: 555-Nase, Friviere, Gepardenforellenfischer, Wst File:Gaud-Orfe (1922).jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Gaud-Orfe_(1922).jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Antoni Gaud File:Interior Casa Vicens.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Interior_Casa_Vicens.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: 1997, Canaan, Docu, 1 anonymous edits File:Sagrada Familia (maqueta).jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Sagrada_Familia_(maqueta).jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Canaan, Jordiferrer, Zarateman, 2 anonymous edits File:Puerta cementerio (1875).jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Puerta_cementerio_(1875).jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Antoni Gaud File:Embarcadero.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Embarcadero.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Antoni Gaud File:Fuente Plaza Catalua.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Fuente_Plaza_Catalua.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Antoni Gaud File:Paraninfo.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Paraninfo.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Antoni Gaud File:Plaa Reial02.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Plaa_Reial02.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: User:Canaan

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors


File:Kiosco Girossi.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Kiosco_Girossi.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Antoni Gaud File:Vitrina Comella.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Vitrina_Comella.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Canaan, 1 anonymous edits File:Farmacia Gibert.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Farmacia_Gibert.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Canaan, Granotabellugadissa, 2 anonymous edits File:Gaud- Martorell- Catedral BCN (1887).jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Gaud-_Martorell-_Catedral_BCN_(1887).jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Antoni Gaud File:Vicens03.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Vicens03.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: User:Canaan File:El Capricho JPG.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:El_Capricho_JPG.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: 555-Nase, Balbo, Jordiferrer, Tony Rotondas, 2 anonymous edits File:Pavellons Gell01.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Pavellons_Gell01.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: User:Canaan File:Palau Gell - Forjats entrada.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Palau_Gell_-_Forjats_entrada.JPG License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: Josep Renalias File:Trasatlntica (1888).jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Trasatlntica_(1888).jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Amadalvarez, Canaan, Xufanc File:Teresianas01.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Teresianas01.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: User:Canaan File:Palacio episcopal de Astorga.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Palacio_episcopal_de_Astorga.JPG License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5 Contributors: User:Lironcareto File:Casabotines1.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Casabotines1.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Dantadd File:Misiones Franciscanas (Tnger).jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Misiones_Franciscanas_(Tnger).jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: User:Canaan File:Celler Gell01.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Celler_Gell01.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: User:Canaan File:Bellesguard04.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bellesguard04.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: User:Canaan File:Casa Calvet.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Casa_Calvet.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: User:Canaan File:Porta Miralles.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Porta_Miralles.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: User:Canaan File:Park Gell - Pabellones.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Park_Gell_-_Pabellones.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: User:Canaan File:Gaud-Rosario Monumental de Montserrat.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Gaud-Rosario_Monumental_de_Montserrat.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: User:Canaan File:Casabatllo2.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Casabatllo2.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: User:Rapomon File:Chalet Catllars (1905)B2.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Chalet_Catllars_(1905)B2.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: AnRo0002, Canaan, Granotabellugadissa, Jordiferrer, 1 anonymous edits File:Lillet21.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Lillet21.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: User:Canaan File:Casa mila ag1.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Casa_mila_ag1.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Docu, Friviere, Loveless File:Hotel Attraction.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Hotel_Attraction.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Antoni Gaud i Cornet (1852-1926) File:Proyecto original Colonia Gell.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Proyecto_original_Colonia_Gell.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Canaan, Jordi Roqu, Wolfgang-Wien File:SF - Escuelas.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:SF_-_Escuelas.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: User:Canaan File:SF - lago.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:SF_-_lago.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: User:Canaan

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