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Design of DC Machine Choice of average gap density:Flux density in teeth: If a high value of flux density is assumed for the

air gap, the flux density in armature teeth also becomes high. The value of the air gap density should be so chosen that the flux density at the root of the teeth where the tooth section is minimum does not exceed a value of 2.2 Wb/ m2 as otherwise the mmf required for the teeth would become excessively large which would mean that the field mmf will have to be made large which in turn results in higher field copper loss and higher cost of copper. The iron loss in the teeth are determined by the flux density and consequently they would increase if a higher flux density is used in the teeth. Frequency: When the machine rotates, the armature magnetic circuit alternately comes under the influence of north and south poles. The frequency of reversal is f=np/2. If the frequency of reversals is high, iron losses in armature core and teeth would be high. Therefore we should not use a high value of flux density in the air gap of machines which have a high frequency. Size of machine: It is possible to use increased values of flux density as the size of the machine increases. As the diameter D of the machine increases, the width of the tooth also increases, permitting a increased value of gap flux density without causing saturation in the machine. Choice of ampere conductors per metre: Temperature Rise: A higher value of ac results in high temperature rise of windings. A high value ac can be used for machine using insulating material which can withstand high temperature rises. A totally enclosed machine has poor ventilation as compared with that of a semi-enclosed machines. Therefore, it is possible to use a higher value of ac in a semi enclosed as compared to that in a totally enclosed machine. Speed of Machine: If the speed of machine is high, the ventilation of the machine is better and therefore, greater losses can be dissipated, thus a higher value of ac can be used for machine having high speed. Size of Machine: In large size machine it is easier to find space for accommodating conductors. For a given geometry of armature core, the slot area which can be provided to accommodate armature winding is proportional to the square of armature diameter. Therefore, for a given current density in armature conductors, the current is proportional to D 2 and specific electrical loading ac to D.

Armature Reaction: If we use a high value of ac, the armature mmf become high or in other words the armature become magnetically stronger. This means that under load condition there will be greater distortion of field form resulting in a large reduction in the value of flux. In order to prevent this the field will have to be made stronger, therefore the mmf required for the field will have to be increased in order to prevent decrease in flux. This means that the cost of conductors used in the machine would go up. Selection of number of poles: Advantage of having large no.of poles: There is a reduction in : (i) weight of armature core and yoke (ii) cost of armature and field conductors (iii) overall length and diameter of machine (iv) length of commutator, and (v) Distortion of field form under load conditions. Disadvantage of having large no. of poles: There is and increase in: (i) frequency of flux reversals (ii) labour charges (iii) possibilities of flash over between brush arms Guiding factors for choice of number of poles: (i) (ii) (iii) the frequency of flux reversals in the armature core generally lies between 25 to 50 Hz. Lower values of frequency are used for large machine. The value of current per parallel path is limited to about 200 A. thus current per brush arm should not be more than 400 A. The armature mmf should not be excessively large. The normal values of armature mmf per pole are as follows Output kW Up to 100 100 to 500 500 to 1500 Over 1500 Core Length: Following factors should be consider when selecting a suitable value of core length (i) Cost: The manufacturing costs of a machine with large core length are less. This is because the proportion of inactive copper to active copper is smaller, greater the Armature mmf per pole A 5000 or less 5000 to 7500 7500 to 10000 Up to 12,500

length of core. Thus from the point of view of cost, it is desirable to have a large core length. (ii)Ventilation: The ventilation of machines with large core lengths is difficult because the central portion of the core tends to attain a high temperature rise. The length of core cannot be increased beyond a certain value on account of ventilation problems. If long armature is necessary, as in high speed machines, special means for ventilation of core must be provided. Armature Diameter: Following factors should be considered when selecting a suitable value for armature diameter:(i) Peripheral speed: The peripheral speed is sometimes a limiting factor for the diameter. The peripheral speed lies between 15 to 50 m/s, the lower values correspond to low speed machines. The value of peripheral speed should not, normally, exceed 30 m/s. this speed because if this speed is exceeded, the bands of winding wire for the overhang will have to be made extra strong or it may be necessary to provide special method to prevent the overhang from flying due to excessive centrifugal force. (ii) Pole pitch: The pole pitch obtained after selecting a suitable diameter, may be used as a check for the number of poles. Table gives the usual value of pole pitch. Poles 2 4 6 Above 6 Pole Pitch mm Upto 240 Between 240 to 350-400 Between 350 to 400-450 450-500

Number of ventilating ducts: Radial ventilating ducts, for cooling the armature, are used if the length of core exceeds about 0.12 m. a radial duct is provided for approximately every 70mm of core length. The width of ducts is usually 10 mm. Length of air gap: The length of air gap may be fixed by considering the following: (i) Armature reaction: In order to prevent excessive distortion of field form by the armature reaction, the field mm must be made large in comparison with the armature mmf. A machine designed with a long air gap requires large field mmf. Thus the distorting effect of armature reaction can be reduced if the length of air gap is made large.

(ii) Pole face losses: If the length of air gap is made large the variation in air gap flux density due to slotting is small. Therefore, the pulsation loss in the pole faces decreases if the length of air gap is increased. (iii) Noise: The operation of machine with largeair gap lengths is comparatively quiet. (iv) Cooling: Machines designed with a large alue of air gap lengthy have better ventilation. Usually the value of air gap length lies between 0.01 to 0.015 of pole pitch. Guiding factors for choice of number of armature slots: (i) Slot pitch: The value of slot pitch lies between 20 to 40 mm as extreme limits. The usual limit is between 25 to 35 mm except in the case of very small machines, where it may be 20 mm and even less. (ii) Slot loading: The slot loading i.e. number of ampere conductors per slot should not exceed about 15000 A. (iii) Flux pulsations: Number of slots per pole pair should be and odd integer in order to minimize pulsation losses.

(iv)Commutation: The slots per pole should be at least 9 in order to prevent sparking. The number of slots per pole usually lies between 9 to 16.in very small machines the number may go down to 8. The number of slots per pole should not be less than that given in table Rating Slots per pole Upto 5 kW 8 5 kW to 50 kW 10 50 kW and over 12 and over