2010 Interational Conference on Computer, Mechatronics, Control and Electronic Engineering (CMCE

Exerimental Study on Boiler Operating Conditions on the Efciency of Circulating Fluidiz
Bed Flue Gas Desulphuriztion
Li Shao-hua `: Dong Wen-hua ´ : Wag Hu
, Tang Gui-xia1, Du Li-mei 1
(1. Northeast Electric Power University, Jilin 132021, Jilin province, China;
2. North China Electric Power University, Changping District, Beijing 102206, China)
Abstract-In order to resolve the problem that changes in
boiler operating conditions affecting the efciency of circulating
fuidiz bed fue gas desulphurition, we desiged and built an
experiment table for the study of the operating parameters on
desulphuriztion efciency. The result is: the best
desulphurition tower entrance temperature range of the gas is
117 � 124 °C , and the best desulphuriztion tower exit
temperature range of the gas is 7 4 _75°C. Under this temperature,
the best water spray is 1.l7 -1.25m ¯ Ih. In this condition, the
desulphurition efciency can reach 901; the higher
desulphurition tower entrance S02 density is, the harder
desulphurition efficiency can be reached; when the inject
water is steady, the desulphurition efciency wil l decrease by
the boiler load increase.
Keywords- circulating fuidiz bed, operating parameters,
desulphuriztion efficiency
O. Introduction
Circulating fuidi2d bed fue gas desulphuri:tion
(CFB-FGD) technique is invnted by the German
comany Lurgi in the late 20th cetury, 80. Denmark's
FLS.miljo comany, Sweden's ABB comanies and
Japan's Hitachi comanies in research and developed this
technology. [1-2J The advantage of the technology is low
invstment, high desulphuriztion efciency, reliable
operation and easy maintenance. And the desulphuriztion
process occurs mainly in the desulphuriztion tower. [3J
Presently, our circulating fuidi2d bed boiler fue gas
desulphuri:tion efciency is unstable when the boiler
load changed, and ofen occur desulphuriztion wall
corosion, fouling, water jet blockage, not only affect the
desulphuri:tion rate, but also on the desulphuriztion
equipment damage, increased maintenance costs of
running. Paper focuses on the phenomenon above reach of
boiler operating conditions affect circulating fuidi2d bed
desulphuri:tion efciency .
. Experimental apparatus and experimental conditions
1.1 Experimental System
Experimental system shown in Figure 1, mainly by the
boilers, desulphuriztion towe, feeding and feeding back
device, dust, water supply devices and other comonents.
Desig load of the boiler is lOt I h, coal combustion in
sulfr (Sar) desige by Sar 0.21 %, use quicklime to be
desulfrizd, lime purity geater than 80%, particle siz
978-1-4244-7956-6/1 0/$26.00 ©20 1 0 IEEE
less than 0.2mm. The gas that comes fom the boiler goes
into a desulphuriztion tower from the bottom, i the
desulphuriztion tower, the fue gas, desulphuriztion
aget, humidifcation water mix together, and reaction
product is cacium sulfte and cacium sulfate. Afer the
desulphuriztion of the fue gas with a large number of
solid particles are discharged fom the desulphuriztion
tower's top, it then goes into the dust collector. Purifed
gas into the atmosphere goes directly, and the particles
that do not respond comletely are discharged at the
bottom of hoppe, tansported through the chute throug
the back entrance and exited back to the desulphuriztion
ges Lzoe
asb s1ozage
Fig.l Experimental system diagram
1.2 Desulphuriztion process description
-- 6
1. As bucket 2. Gas entrance 3. Venturi 4. Tower 5. Gas outlet 6.
Nozle 7. feeding inlet 8. (10) feeding back inlet 9. Venturi expanded
Fig 2. Desulhuriztion tower structure diagram
Figure 2 shows the structure for the desulphuriztion
tower. We can see that nozle, feeding inlet and feeding
back inlet are installed on the same side. Te Nozle was
installed on a horizntal 45 degees angle, and the feeding
inlet was installed by 20 degees with the horizntal,
feeding back inlet No.8 was installed by 12 degees with
the horizntal and feeding back inlet No. 10 was installed
by 8 degees with the horizntal.
The fue gas, which goes from the boiler through the
Venturi tube to accelerate, mixed with a desulphuriztion
aget, spray water in the Venturi expanded section, and
then reacted with eah other in the incremental portion.
Te reaction comletely had solid particles that were
placed into the bottom of the hopper due weight in, the
other particles that did not react comletely were caried
inside by accelerate gas into the dust. I the reator, the
water was pressured by a high-pressure pum afer the
foration of fog droplets through the nozle for cooling
and was not the original fue for gas desulphuriztion. I
the tower, the general chemical reation occurs as follows:
S02 + H20 H2S03
CaO + H2S03 CaS03 + H20
CaO + H20 Ca(OH)2
Ca(OH)2 + H2S03 CaS03 + 2H20
2CaS03 + 02 2CaS04
2. Experimental results and analysis
2.1 Te desulphurition tower inlet gas temperature and exit
fue gas temperature afect on the desulphuriztion rate
Figure 3 shows the relationship between the
desulphuriztion tower inlet gas temerature and the
desulphuriztion rate. From the fgure, we ca see very
clearly that when injected water was unchanged, the inlet
gas temerature was proportional to the desulphuriztion
rate. When the desulphuriztion tower entrance
temerature of the gas reahes 122 'C , the
desulphuriztion rate can reah 92.9%; and inlet gas
temerature of 102 'C when the desulphuriztion rate was
only 84.3%. From the therodynamic point of view that
the CaO with S02 reaction is endothermic reation,
increasing temerature is better for reaction. From the
dynamics point of view, as shown by the following
Arhenius equation:
k ¯ ko exp( ¯
�) (1)
The forula: k - the rate constant (s-I); R - molar gas
constant (J / mol· K); T - thermodynamic temerature (K);
Ea - activation energy (kJ / mol); k - pre-exponetial
fator (also caled the fequency factor) (s-I).
We can see fom Equation 1, when the temerature T
increases, the chemica reation rate k also increased.
Terefore, the temerature rise from the kinetic and
therodynamic point of view all can enhance the
efciency of desulphuriztion, but it cannot be too high. I
the inlet gas temerature is too hig it will reduce the
desulphuriztion agent residence time of surface water,
reduce the desulphuriztion reation time, and lead to a
decline in removal efciency. As the solid surface
adsortion is exotheric, so is the temerature which will
lead to reduced capacity of solid adsorbed gases, and
reduced adsortion of water vpor and S02 gas. We can
see fom Figure 3, the best temerature rage of
desulphuriztion tower inlet gas is 117 � 124 'C. Within
this context, the desulphuriztion rate can reah more than
90%, the desulphuriztion rate can reah the industry




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r������� � � �o0

l1ne (h)
1Z 14 1b
Fig.3 Te relationshi between desulphuriztion tower entrance
temperature of the gas and desulphuriztion rate

Ü ¯b.Ô
� ¯b.0

� ¯Ô.Ô
.� ¯Ô.0

= ¯4.Ô
� ¯4.0

� ¯o.Ô � � o0
10 1Z 14 1b
l1ne (h)
FigA Te relationshi between desulphuriztion tower exit
temperature of the gas and desulphuriztion rate
Figure 4 shows the relationship between the
desulphuriztion tower exit temerature of the gas and the
desulphuriztion rate. From the fgure we ca see smoke
from the desulphuriztion towe exit temerature is
invrsely proportional relationship with the
desulphuriztion rate. When the desulphuriztion tower
exit fue gas temerature reahes to 74.1 'c ,the
desulphuriztion rate can reah to 92.9%; exit Flue Gas
Temperature 76.8 'c when the desulphuriztion rate was
only 84.3%. This is due to adiabatic saturation
temerature. I order to ensure the end product of
desulphuriztion as "dry" , exit fue gas temerature
should be higher than its adiabatic saturation temerature,
difference between the two as the adiabatic saturation
temerature. Exit fue gas temerature higer, the geater
the adiabatic saturation temerature is. The fue gas
moisture content is smler, the more difcult to cary out
chemica reactions in the desulphuriztion. Exit fue gas
temerature is lower, the smler the adiabatic saturation
temerature is, the more beneft the desulphuriztion
reaction, but is easy to dip wall corosion.l41. A analysis
of the experimental reord, the best exit fue gas
temerature should be controlled at about 74-75 °c. At
this point the desulphuri:tion rate will reach 90%. I ca
also ensure that the premise of desulphuri:tion efciency,
will reduce corosion on the desulphuri:tion tower wall.
2.2 Water spray on the desulphuriztion rate
� Ý0
� oo

¯ ob
t1re (h)
10 1Z 14 1b

1Z �w
Fig.5 Te relationshi between injected water and the
desulphurition rate
Figure 5 shows the relationship between water spray
and desulphuri:tion efciency. I ca be seen from the
fgure, when the water spray was 1.17 -1.25m3 Ih, the
desulphuri:tion rate can reach 90% or more, to meet the
reuirements of industrial desulphuri:tion. Too much or
too little water spray is not conducive to the smooth
progess of desulphuri:tion process, this is because, and
when the absorbent particles surface liquid water or stock
does not exist or very few. The desulphuri:tion reaction
is mainly a gas-solid absortion reation, the
desulphuri:tion effciency is very low. The injected
spray of water absorbent surface layer of water flm,
extension of the paricle surface liquid water exists time,
and helps to imrove the desulphuri:tion efciency.
With the humidity increase in the proportion of water, the
desulphuri:tion tower or the entire system will increase
the desulphuri:tion rate. However, when the humidity
ratio reaches 30%, then it will increase the humidity of
water and will lead to desulphuri:tion rates become
lower. The reason is excessive humidifcation water
reduced drying time, and also reducing the unifority of
particle surface humidity[S-61. On the othe hand, too much
spray of water will make absorbent ganules easily adhere
to the wall, partial or comlete wall deposition
phenomenon. Not only will it corode the wall, and when
the thickness of sedimentary or hang large, the collapse
phenomenon occurs, making the tower bottom residue,
desulphuri:tion spray mouth and the entrance had bee
blocked, the desulphuri:tion system ca not work[71.
Experiment by monitoring the exit temerature of
the smoke desulphuri:tion tower to control and regulate
water spray, fgure 6 shows the relationship between
desulphuri:tion tower exit fue gas temerature and
injected water. When the monitor to the desulphuri:tion
tower exit fue gas temerature is too high, the show that
the injected water is too sml. The desulphuri:tion
reaction is mainly a gas-solid absortion reaction; the
desulphuri:tion rate low, and then increase the amount of
water spray should be appropriately. Conversely, if the
monitoring of exports to the desulphuri:tion tower
smoke temerature is too low, it indicates that too much
water is injected. I will not only reduce the
desulphuri:tion rate, but also the foration of corosion
on the towe wall, spray volume should be reduced at this
` ¯bÔ
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� ¯ÔÔ

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� ¯40
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~'| Í8W8Í6I t-'/-:
A 1o �:

1Z :. =
:. ¯oÔ ��� ���11

10 1Z 14 1b
l+re (h)
Fig.6 Te relationshi between desulphuriztion tower exit
temperature of the gas and injected water
We can see from the chart, spray volume 1.13 m3/h
when the exit temerature of the smoke desulphuri:tion
tower was 76.7°C; spray volume 1.34 m3/h when the exit
temerature of the smoke desulphuri:tion tower was 74
°C According to the foregoing anaysis, the
desulphuri:tion towe exit fue gas temerature rage of
optimum temerature 74-75 °C, can be consideed in this
temerature rage, the appropriate amount of water spray
for the 1.17-1.25 m3/h, desulphuri:tion rate ca reah
90% or more, to meet the reuirements of industrial
2.3 Desulhuriztion tower inlet S02 concentration on the
desulphurition rate


`7 L
1400 d
Ý0 � ¯
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¬ü65u I28ÍOnl8Í6 \
L o00 o0
10 1Z 14 1b
l1re (h)
Fig.? Te relationshi between desulphuriztion tower entrance
S02 densities and the desulphuriztion rate
Desulphuriztion tower inlet S02 concentration has
geat infuece on the desulphuriztion rate, as shown in
Figure 7. Desulphuriztion tower entrance S02
concentration is 901. 7mg/m3, the desulphuriztion rate
reach to 92.7%; when the entrance of S02 concetration is
1591.4mg/m3, the desulphuriztion rate was 83.2%.
Shows that the higher absortion towe inlet S02
concentration, the difcult to achieve a high
desulphuriztion rate. Te reason is: the higher
concentrations of S02 into the air, the more
desulphuriztion agent addition. Spray volume in the
same situation; have increased the concentration of lime
slur. Slur droplets in the case of the same siz, drying
time is reduced, liquid reaction time is reduced, thus
reducing the efciency of desulphuriztion.
2.4 Te boiler load on the desulphurition rate
_ 1.25

� 1.20

-90% raled |Oad
-80% raled |Oad
-70% raled |Oad
B B B � � B B 9O �
deSu|phur1zal1 On rale(%)
Fig.S Te relationshi between the injected water under diferent
boiler load and the desulphuriztion rate
We can see fom the chart amount of water spray
1.20m3 / h, when 90% of the rated load coresponding to
the desulphuriztion rate was 86.6%;80% of the rated load
coresponding to the desulphuriztion rate was 88.6%;
70% of the rate load coresponding to the
desulphuriztion rate was 89.5%. When the
desulphuriztion rate was 89%, the boiler load is 90% of
spray volume used 1.3m3 / h; boiler loads of 80% of the
water spray was used 1.2m3 / h; boiler loads of 70% of the
water spray was used 115 m3 / h.
With the changes in boiler load, sulfr dioxide
content in fue gas desulphuriztion tower, inlet gas
temerature, water spray and othe factors also changed.
Desulphuriztion tower in the entrance area of the same
circumstances, the boiler load the geater the
concentration of sulfr dioxide in fue gas the more the
coresponding inputs to increase the amount of sorbent. I
the amount of water injected into the same, will result in
solid particles in the towe too many, cut down the drying
time, and not even a good flm fored at the particle
surface is not conducive to desulphuriztion to reduce the
desulphuriztion rate. Desulphuriztion tower inlet gas
temerature with the boiler load increases. I the injected
water remains unchanged, will lead to increased boiler
load inlet gas desulphuriztion tower higher temerature,
accelerated the speed of the particle surface evaporation
of water flm, makes the liquid-solid two-phase reaction
time is reduced, resulting in a large number of particulars
that reacted incomletely and reduce the desulphuriztion
rate. To sum up, when sprayed water is unchanged, the
boiler load the bigger the geater the sulfr dioxide in fue
gas, the reuired amount of sorbent to enter the geater,
the highe the desulphuriztion tower inlet gas
temerature, leading to increase the amount of solid
particles, cut the liquid reaction time, reduced
desulphuriztion rate. I you want to maintain a hig
desulphuriztion rate, then as the boiler load increases, the
water spray also will increase.
3. Conclusion
(1) When the boiler load chages, the operating
parameters have taken place, and subsequently affect the
desulphuriztion rate of change. Among them, the
desulphuriztion rate of inlet gas desulphuriztion tower
with the rise of temerature increae, the best rage of
desulphuriztion towe inlet gas temerature is 117 � 124
'C, the desulphuriztion rate at this temerature ca reach
90%; desulphuriztion rate increased with temerature
desulphuriztion tower rising exports of cigarettes
deceased, the best exit fue gas temerature
desulphuriztion towe range is 74-75 'C g in this
temerature, the appropriate amount of water spray for the
1.17-1.25m / h, the desulphuriztion rate can reach 90%.
(2) When injected water steady, the geater the
boiler load, the more sulfr dioxide in fue gas, the
required amount of sorbent to enter is geater, the highe
inlet gas temerature, the desulphuriztion rate is lower. I
you want to maintain a high desulphuriztion rate of
chage along with the boiler loa, water spray should also
chage with.
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