2009 GEOLOGIC TIME SCALE

CENOZOIC
CHRON. ANOM. ANOM. HIST. HIST.

MESOZOIC
CHRON.

PALEOZOIC
PICKS (Ma)
65.5 70.6

PRECAMBRIAN
PICKS (Ma)
251 254 260 266 268 271 276 284 297 299.0 304 306 312 318 326 1500 750

AGE (Ma)

MAGNETIC POLARITY

PERIOD
QUATERNARY

EPOCH
HOLOCENE

AGE
CALABRIAN

PICKS (Ma)
0.01 1.8 2.6 3.6 5.3 7.2

AGE (Ma)
70

MAGNETIC POLARITY

PERIOD EPOCH

AGE

AGE PERIOD EPOCH (Ma)

AGE

AGE (Ma)

EON

ERA

PERIOD

BDY. AGES (Ma)
542 630

1 2

C1 C2

PLEISTOCENE PLIOCENE

2A C2A

GELASIAN PIACENZIAN

30 C30 31 C31 32 C32

MAASTRICHTIAN CAMPANIAN
LATE

L

CRETACEOUS

5

3

C3

33

PERMIAN

ZANCLEAN MESSINIAN

260
83.5 85.8 89.3 93.5 99.6

CHANGHSINGIAN WUCHIAPINGIAN

EDIACARAN NEOPROTEROZOIC CRYOGENIAN

3A C3A 4 4A
C4

80

C33

M

CAPITANIAN
WORDIAN ROADIAN KUNGURIAN

NEOGENE

10

C4A C5

L

TORTONIAN
11.6

SANTONIAN CONIACIAN TURONIAN

850

90

280

ARTINSKIAN E SAKMARIAN
ASSELIAN GZELIAN KASIMOVIAN MOSCOVIAN

TONIAN
1000 1000

MIOCENE

5

PROTEROZOIC

CENOMANIAN ALBIAN

CARBONIFEROUS

5A

C5A

SERRAVALLIAN M LANGHIAN

13.8 16.0

100

34 C34

STENIAN
1200

300

15

5B C5B 5C C5C 5D C5D 5E 6
C5E C6

110

PENNSYLVANIAN

1250

112

320

BASHKIRIAN SERPUKHOVIAN

MESOPROTEROZOIC

ECTASIAN
1400

BURDIGALIAN E AQUITANIAN
23.0
130

20

6A C6A 6B C6B 6C C6C

20.4

120
M0r M1 M3 M5 M10

APTIAN
EARLY

CALYMMIAN
1600

125

BARREMIAN HAUTERIVIAN VALANGINIAN BERRIASIAN TITHONIAN

340

MISSISSIPPIAN

VISEAN TOURNAISIAN
345 359 1750

TERTIARY

25

7 C7 7A C7A 8 C8 9 11 12
C9

OLIGOCENE

130 136 140 145.5 151 156 161 165 168 172 176 183

STATHERIAN
1800

L

CHATTIAN
28.4

140

10 C10

DEVONIAN

30

C11 C12

M12 M14 M16 M18 M20 M22

360

L

FAMENNIAN FRASNIAN
374 385 392 398 407 411 416 419 421 423 426 428 436 439 444 446 455 461 468 472 479 488 492 496 501 503 507 510 517 521 535 542 3250 3000 2250 2000

OROSIRIAN PALEOPROTEROZOIC RHYACIAN
2300 2050

E

RUPELIAN
33.9

150

380

13

M29

JURASSIC

M25

LATE

KIMMERIDGIAN OXFORDIAN CALLOVIAN BATHONIAN BAJOCIAN AALENIAN TOARCIAN

C13

160

M E

GIVETIAN EIFELIAN EMSIAN PRAGHIAN

35

RAPID POLARITY CHANGES

15 C15 16 C16 17 18
C17

L

PRIABONIAN
37.2
170

400

MIDDLE

ORDOVICIAN SILURIAN

PALEOGENE

40

BARTONIAN
C18

LOCKHOVIAN
420

SIDERIAN
2500 2500

20

EOCENE

19 C19

40.4

L M E L M E Furongian Series 3 Series 2 Terreneuvian

180

C20

45
21
C21

M

LUTETIAN

190

EARLY

PLIENSBACHIAN SINEMURIAN HETTANGIAN RHAETIAN
190 197 201.6 204

440

PRIDOLIAN LUDFORDIAN GORSTIAN HOMERIAN SHEINWOODIAN TELYCHIAN AERONIAN RHUDDANIAN

NEOARCHEAN
2750 2800

HIRNANTIAN

ARCHEAN

48.6

200

460

KATIAN SANDBIAN DARRIWILIAN
DAPINGIAN

50

22 23 24

C22 C23

MESOARCHEAN
3200

E

YPRESIAN
55.8

210

TRIASSIC

480
LATE

FLOIAN

C24

55
25 26

NORIAN
500
228

TREMADOCIAN
STAGE 10 STAGE 9 PAIBIAN GUZHANGIAN DRUMIAN STAGE 5 STAGE 4 STAGE 3 STAGE 2 FORTUNIAN

220

PALEOCENE

C25

L M E

CAMBRIAN*

THANETIAN
58.7
230

PALEOARCHEAN
3600

3500

60
27 28

C26

SELANDIAN
61.7
240

CARNIAN
MIDDLE

C27 C28 C29

LADINIAN ANISIAN
OLENEKIAN
INDUAN

235 241 245
250 251.0

520

65

29

DANIAN
65.5
250

3750

EOARCHEAN
3850

EARLY

30 C30

540

HADEAN

*International ages have not been fully established. These are current names as reported by the International Commission on Stratigraphy. Walker, J.D., and Geissman, J.W., compilers, 2009, Geologic Time Scale: Geological Society of America, doi: 10.1130/2009.CTS004R2C. ©2009 The Geological Society of America. Sources for nomenclature and ages are primarily from Gradstein, F., Ogg, J., Smith, A., et al., 2004, A Geologic Time Scale 2004: Cambridge University Press, 589 p. Modifications to the Triassic after: Furin, S., Preto, N., Rigo, M., Roghi, G., Gianolla, P., Crowley, J.L., and Bowring, S.A., 2006, High-precision U-Pb zircon age from the Triassic of Italy: Implications for the Triassic time scale and the Carnian origin of calcareous nannoplankton and dinosaurs: Geology, v. 34, p. 1009–1012, doi: 10.1130/G22967A.1; and Kent, D.V., and Olsen, P.E., 2008, Early Jurassic magnetostratigraphy and paleolatitudes from the Hartford continental rift basin (eastern North America): Testing for polarity bias and abrupt polar wander in association with the central Atlantic magmatic province: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 113, B06105, doi: 10.1029/2007JB005407.