first published in 1891

Adding value to feed milling
with profit-oriented feed formulation

In this issue: •
Additives for flour standardisation
Part II: Additives other than enzymes

‘Kill step’ validation of low-moisture extrusion

High efficiency elevator buckets: modern vs traditional design Feed focus
Poultry

Pest control
across the supply chain

• •

Assessing nutritional value with NIR

A subscription magazine for the global flour & feed milling industries - first published in 1891

INCORPORATING PORTS, DISTRIBUTION AND FORMULATION

May - June 2013

GRAIN &

FEED
Published by Perendale Publishers Ltd 7 St George’s Terrace, St James’ Square Cheltenham, Glos, GL50 3PT United Kingdom Tel: +44 1242 267700 Fax: +44 1242 267701 info@perendale.co.uk Publisher Roger Gilbert Tel: +44 1242 267707 rogerg@perendale.co.uk Associate Editor Alice Neal Tel: +44 1242 267707 alicen@perendale.co.uk Design and Page Layout James Taylor Tel: +44 1242 267707 jamest@gfmt.co.uk

News:

MILLING
TECHNOLOGY

May - June 2013

Westeel acquires European grain handling systems manufacturer UK ‘super wheat’ could improve yields by up to 30 percent Roff R70 Maize Milling plant launch at Sardinia Milling AIC launches feed adviser register Perten launches dough mixer and analysis system Viterra invests more than US$20m to upgrade Saskatchewan elevators CHS and Aurora to build high-speed shuttle loading facility in Nebraska Fefana launches its virtual library and publishes a booklet on premixtures Integrated food supply chain to get integrated support Romer Labs complete solution to test for T-2 and HT-2 toxin North and South American maize growers form international alliance Smarter rules for safer food

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Features:

Adding value to feed milling with profit-oriented feed formulation High efficiency elevator buckets: modern vs traditional design ‘Kill step’ validation of low-moisture extrusion DDGS: cheap and nutritious food for poultry FOCUS POULTRY Pest control across the supply chain Assessing nutritional value with NIR Managing mill maintenance - Roller mill maintenance Turkish milling industry review - part 1 IDMA Event Review

16 20 22 26 26 32 40 44 46 49

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Commodities:
Raw material outlook, by John Buckley 52 58 59 59 59 59t

industry events
Livestock Philippines 2013 Registration available for USGC Ottawa meeting Seventh Food Proteins Course Flour Mill 2013

the gfmt interview
Ali Habaj - Secretary general and treasurer, IAOM MEA 60 64

industry faces
BFBi analyst award winner Yvan Dejaegher elected chairman of Ovocom IAOM elects new international officers New Director of Sales at Van Aarsen International
Cover image courtesy of Alpha Fumigation Services Ltd

Grain & Feed Milling Technology is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published.
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Copyright 2013 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by

any means without prior permission of the copyright owner.

Global Miller
THE

volume: 124 number 3

issn No: 1466-3872

Guest - EDITOR’S OBSERVATIONS

Guest editor - Isabel Maganto – Bühler Group
big Bühler hello to all the GFMT readers, having not long returned from IDMA in Turkey I feel very honored to have been asked to be the guest editor for this exciting edition of Grain & Feed Milling Technology Magazine.

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153 years of innovations for a better world
1891, this is the year this magazine was first published, its heritage as the oldest milling magazine in the world is a poignant thought as I think of all those who have gone before me. So, as I put pen to paper I am conscious of the 122 years of published magazine history I am about to join. Working for the renowned milling machine manufacturer I feel well equipped to rise to this challenge. 1860 till present, 153 years of innovations for a better world, that is what Bühler stands for. Writing for an International Magazine is a real pleasure when you work for a global company, with manufacturing plants in Uzwil, Braunschweig, Beilngries, Madrid, Minneapolis, Joinville, Johannesburg, Bangalore, Wuxi, Xian, Shenzhen, Changzhou and with sales offices in over 140 countries. At Bühler we are proud of bringing together what is best in the world from all of our 10,300 staff from each continent and turning these ideas into the global innovations of tomorrow. As a family business, Bühler has never strayed far from its roots, those strong family values that started over 150 years ago that have kept Bühler focused on what is important. For us, it is all about understanding the customer’s needs and their markets precisely as well as boosting out reputation via clever developments and solutions time and time again. Therefore, getting out and meeting our customers face to face is key to building long term relationships. This year we attended IDMA in Istanbul in Turkey for the first time, we have been watching closely over the years as it has slowly grown in size and popularity. Trade fairs are an important platform for Bühler, it allows us to go out with product innovations and meet our customers and also prospective new partners. IDMA, was a resounding success for us, although we have a very good functioning website, there is nothing like bringing our innovated technology to our customers. Our products are the kind you want to see and handle and this is where the right trade shows work very well for us.

We were surprised at the range of international exhibitors and visitors at IDMA and we were happy to welcome many groups of potential customers, again confirming what an important platform trade fairs are for presenting Bühler. Innovation is key to Bühlers success, with 60% of our production relating to grain milling, IDMA offered us access to a vast market, where competition is probably more challenging than in other locations. Nowhere else are there so many milling machine manufacturers, all located within one area. From a Isabel Maganto customers perspective it must Bühler Group be like entering a sweet shop with so many to choose from. When you work for a company that has been innovating for 153 years and your enter a country who is 90 years old and whose Milling Machinery has been in production for the last 50 years or so, you cant help but be a little amazed at how far they have come in the last 10 years. Credit where credit is due, however, we are confident that our technology is outstanding in comparison and we produce equipment across the board including handling, cleaning, grading, sorting, grinding, blending & mixing, and shaping processes, all for grain. We offer a far more inclusive solution than most. Because our innovation is second to none, we are proud of our outstanding developments in energy saving and cost control. It is not that our machines are cleaner, faster and more efficient, but they have the added bonuses of being good for the environment whilst reducing energy costs and being supported by, and backed up by a worldclass team of experts. As we expand our sales into the Middle East, Africa and former Soviet Union countries we are excited by the future potential in these developing markets. Bühler is set to continue for many generations to come as a family enterprise thus fulfilling the family’s social mission. Even though no one is perfect, we hope at Bühler, as a company, to make a small contribution to a better world. Isabel Maganto

NEWS If you have a news story that you would like to see in our pages please send your releases to: alicen@perendale.co.uk

DAILY UPDATES For more industry news, try our daily news service - The Global Miller. Find it at: www.gfmt.blogspot.com

www.gfmt.co.uk

2 | May - June 2013

Grain

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Anatomy of a Tapco Style CC-XD (Xtreme Duty) Elevator Bucket
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*Tapco style CC-XD elevator bucket is made with 35-50% more resin than Tapco classic style CC-HD. The color blue, when used in connection with elevator buckets, is a U.S. registered trademark owned by Tapco Inc. © 2013 Tapco Inc.® All rights reserved.

NEWS

May - June 2013

News

THE GLOBAL MILLER
A blog dedicated to professionals - including nutritionists - in the transportation, storage and milling of grains, feedstuffs, rice and cereals, globally. Hello Millers Here at the Global Miller, we like to celebrate the wonderful, funny and just plain weird world of grain and feed. Being that variety is the spice of life, here are some of the more off the wall stories that caught our attention recently. Silo sweet silo? - four years of planning, building and improvising, one Manitoba man has finally seen his dream of converting a grain silo into a livable home become a reality. Suruj Persault moved to Manitoba from Guyana more than 20 years ago, and in 2009 was inspired by his friends to build the unique home. “I thought it would be crazy, but once those guys kind of say it out to me, you know, I kind of said, ‘Yeah.’ It woke me up,” said Persault. But converting a grain bin into a home was easier said than done. One of the challenges was finding the contractors with the skills to convert the iconic Prairie structure into a livable home. http://bit.ly/11ft834 Candy for cows - Feeding candy to cows has become a more popular practice in tandem with the rising price of corn, which has doubled since 2009. While corn goes for about US$315 a ton, ice-cream sprinkles can be had for as little as US$160 a ton. Mike Yoder, a dairy farmer in Middlebury, Indiana, USA feeds his 400 cows bits of candy, hot chocolate mix, crumbled cookies, breakfast cereal, trail mix, dried cranberries, orange peelings and ice cream sprinkles, which are blended into more traditional forms of feed, like hay. http://bit.ly/14Zcid2 Marijuana fed pigs - William von Schneidau’s BB Ranch butcher shop, located in Seattle’s pike place market, is selling meat from marijuana-fed pigs. Von Schneidau has teamed with nearby Bucking Boar Farms for the pigs, which are given marijuana as part of their regular diet. The stems and leaves from marijuana plants add fiber to the pigs’ diets. Not all mammals can process THC, but most have cannabinoid receptors. Pigs have these receptors, and the four that ate this enhanced feed gained more weight and likely felt way more mellow than their non-marijuana feeding friends. http://bit.ly/11ixdcE Graziers shoot cattle they can't afford to feed - Drought, a much smaller live export trade, and low cattle prices at sale yards are being blamed for creating terrible farming conditions in the north of Australia. Sisters Chanelle and Debra run a cattle station in northern Australia and say they've shot weak and sick cattle that don't have food to eat. "It's very hard when you're counting down to the last cent and you're looking at it and saying 'I can't feed that cow because I can't afford it'," Chanelle said. "If they haven't got any food or no quality of water, are you just going to let it die a slow death for three or four days in a paddock, with the crows and the eagles picking their eyes out?" Debra said. "Or, do you take the bullet, put it in your gun and pull the trigger?" http://bit.ly/11ft834

Westeel acquires European grain handling systems manufacturer

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esteel has announced that it has gained important new capabilities to ser ve its global agricultural customers through the strategic acquisition of PTM Technology of Este, Italy. A proven private company founded in 1994, P TM Technolog y engineers, designs and manufactures a broad range of automated grain handling systems including chain, bucket and belt conveyors, grain sampling and dust collection equipment. PTM's highly engineered, value-added products complement Westeel's market-leading family of grain storage systems and enable Westeel to deliver a more comprehensive offering to its global customer base in over thirty countries. PTM has thirty skilled employees, including e x t e n s i ve e n g i n e e r i n g c a p a b i l i t y, a n d oper ates a 41,0 0 0 squ are foot f lexible manufacturing facility with a high degree of plant automation and integrated information and proprietary online quoting systems. Its current configuration provides a meaningful opportunity for volume expansion without significant capital investment. "Combining our grain storage systems with PTM's grain handling systems provides our customers in North America and globally with an unparalleled post-harvest solution," said André Granger, president, Westeel. "We have worked closely in the past with P TM on turn-key international projects and we know from those experiences that their technology, manufacturing quality and customer suppor t are second to none in the industry. We are particularly pleased to welcome Antonio Marchetti and Gigliola Zizioli and the entire PTM team to Westeel." With its sales and engineering capability in Madrid, new office in Mumbai, and now PTM, Westeel continues to build critical mass in key overseas markets, positioning itself as one of a handful of companies that will benefit from the secular trend for continued investment in post-harvest infrastructure on a global basis. " We s h are We s t e e l 's core p hil oso p hy when it comes to delivering ever-increasing customer value through product innovation and responsive manufacturing," said Antonio Marchetti, general manager, PTM Technology. "Now as one of just a handful of integrated agricultural infrastructure companies worldwide, we have a wonderful opportunity to grow by equipping our joint sales and engineering teams with a more powerful value proposition for our markets."
Grain

http://gfmt.blogspot.com
This month we have added our pictures from VIV Russia to our Facebook page - take a look at:
http://www.facebook.com/GrainFeedMillingTechnology

&feed milling technology

News

May - June 2013

NEWS

UK ‘super wheat’ could improve yields by up to 30 percent

strain of wheat developed near C a m b r id ge , U n i t e d Kingdom, could increase yields by up to 30 percent. The National Institute of Agricultural Botany (NIAB) recreated the original rare cross between an ancient wheat and wild grass species that happened in the Middle East 10,000 years ago. The result is a GM-free ‘synthetic’ wheat which, when crossed with modern UK varieties, could offer new sources of yield improvement, drought tolerance, disease resistance and input use efficiency. In the second part of the last century, wheat production grew steadily. However, in the last 15 years that yield growth has leveled out; the national average UK wheat yield on-farm has stalled at around 8 t/ha for the past 12 years.

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With a growing population and wheat providing 20 percent of global calorie consumption, the importance of improving yields is evident. In fact, experts estimate that in order to feed the world, we need to produce as much wheat in the next 50 years as we have done in the previous 10,000. Dr Tina Barsby, CEO, NIAB said, “The original ancient cross has, so far, provided the genetic basis for all today’s modern wheat varieties. Over the years, domestication of the wheat plant has increased yields, but recently those increases have slowed leading to concerns for future food security. This is partly because domestication has eroded w h e at d i ve r s i t y a n d t h e possibilities for improvement from within the current wheat germplasm pool are reaching their limit. “NIAB’s Synthetic Hexaploid

Wheat breeding programme rec apture s some of t h at variation from those ancient wild relatives lost during the domestication of wheat as agriculture evolved. Fully crossable with modern wheat, these synthetic wheats are an excellent bridge for transferring novel sources of genetic diversity from wild relatives into varieties already grown by farmers across the UK.” The synthetic wheat programme involves crossing durum pasta wheat with wild goat-grass using tr aditional crossing techniques in the glasshouse combined with tissue culture in the research laboratory to guarantee seed germination. The resulting hybrid plants produce the ‘synthetic’ seed which is then used in crossing programmes with current varieties. Early results on the wheat show improved yields by as much as 30

percent. However, with further tests and approvals needed, it will be five years before farmers can begin planting the wheat. The original pre-breeding work was funded by the BBSRC under their Crop Science Initiative, with additional industrial funding from three leading breeding companies, the HGCA and the NIAB Trust. A BBSRC Super Follow-On Fund award has just been granted in which the best of the original pre-breeding lines will be further tested and moved towards potential commercialisation and release as varieties on farm. This extension has considerable in-kind contributions from the three breeders involved in the project (KWS, Limagrain and RAGT), and any income arising from commercialisation will be shared to reflect this unique public/private breeding partnership.

NEWS IN BRIEF
Eight feed dealers and pig farmers in Taiwan have been found guilty of selling and using feed containing illegal additives. Investigators seized 23 kg of antipyretic and analgesic APIs (active pharmaceutical ingredients), along with more than 800 kg of unlabelled additives in Pingtung County and neighbouring Kaohsiung.

Farmers have resumed planting rice for market with the 20 kilometre ‘no-go’ around Japan's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station. The rice paddies are located in Miyakoji district where a few dozen farmers used to live before the 2011 earthquake and tsunami.

South Sudan has set up a team to conduct a criminal probe into the five-year-old 'dura saga', in which the government paid the equivalent of nearly one million dollars for cereals, which were never delivered. Dura is the South Sudanese name for sorghum, one of the grains involved in the scandal.

Win Resources has announced its plan to diversify its investments in Mozambique by focusing on grain production in the Chokwé district of Gaza province. The company plans initially to invest one million euros to explore an area of 100 hectares in the first year, with plans to increase to 1,000 hectares by 2018.

Grain

&feed milling technology

May - June 2013 | 5

NEWS

May - June 2013

News

Roff R70 Maize Milling plant launch at Sardinia Milling
off Industries of South Africa has launched its most cost- ef fec tive , compact four-ton per hour mill, the Roff R70. As the first R70 mill installed in South Africa, Roff has already installed two of these mills in Zimbabwe, ensuring more af fordable food staples for the public by reducing supply chain and distribution costs. Established in 1991, Roff has been dedicated to affordability, compact mills, value for money and quality from the outset. These values have not changed; Roff has only increased the

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size of its mills and operations. With three technical teams comprising four technicians each at clients’ disposal, Roff offers service and maintenance on the client’s premises. The farm’s mill, Sardinia Milling, was established thirteen years ago to add value to maize crops. A combined farming model ensures optimised efficiency and an increased profit margin. Maize is produced, stored in silos on site; with high quality endosperm extracted and marketed as top-notch meal. Maize bran is used as base for the animal feed provided to cattle feeding schemes. As such, maize only leaves the farm in the form of meal and livestock. This model shortens the supply chain to ensure maximum profitability. As a large percentage of the product is distributed within a small radius, the end-user also benef its, keeping distribution costs to a minimum. As South Africa’s primary crop, there is a move towards processing and distributing m aize in t he area in which it has been produced.

Entrepreneurs can still supply to other areas if it proves profitable, but by supplying more maize in the vicinity of the farm, transport costs are greatly reduced. The Roff R70 mill can play a significant role in the reduction of supply chain and distribution costs, as it provides a compact, all-in-one solution to farmers. The R70 enables the client to produce super or special maize meal at a capacity of 50 to 100 tons per day, depending on the configuration of the mill setup. The plant can be set up at 50 tons and easily upgraded to 100 tons per day, or installed at 100 tons per day from the outset. The Roff R70 comes standard with a surge bin for maize inlet, cleaning and conditioning equipment (with a conditioning bin), degermination, milling, sifting, conveyors, electrical panel, electrical cabling and all steel structures. Clients only need to provide the building, water point and electrical supply to the panel. • Compact to save floor space and reduce installation costs, the ROFF R70 has the capacity to produce 100 tons of maize per day. This equates to 30 000 tons per year, which is a potential annual turnover of R100 million • The R70 is one of the best value for money maize mills on the market, with the cost of the installed mill in South Africa between R2.5 million and R3.5 million for a 4 ton per hour plant, with smaller capacity options also available

• To reduce installation time on site, the mills are preassembled in the ROFF factory • Sheet metal parts are lasercut to ensure excellent quality • All operational equipment is installed across two levels, so that processes are visible from multiple angles. This enables the miller contact with the process and easy control of the plant • All components are easily reachable. The top floor is not an operational floor, but mainly used for maintenance purposes • The R70 is a proudly South African mill. With the exception of a few small parts, it is manufactured in ROFF’s Kroonstad factory • For the client’s peace of mind, the R70 is covered by an optional maintenance contract The R70 is suitable for: • Entrepreneurs who are starting a milling business and have the vision to grow it to a commercial level • Agricultural companies or farmer co-ops who would like to provide a marketing service for their members • Individuals or groups of farmers looking to add value to their product

6 | May - June 2013

Grain

&feed milling technology

News

May - June 2013

NEWS

he Agricultural Industries Confederation (AIC ) has launched the Feed Adviser Register ( FAR) to assure the standards of advice in livestock nutrition in the United Kingdom, particularly in terms of addressing the needs of the greenhouse gas action plan. While the production and safety of animal feed is assured by the various schemes operated by AIC Services (FEMAS, TASCC and UFAS), until now, there has been no corresponding standard to underpin the advice that accompanies feed onto the farm. As well as providing a means for livestock adviser s to de monst r ate profe ssion al

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AIC launches feed adviser register
competence, FAR will also actively address the challenges within the greenhouse gas action plan to reduce emissions from livestock. Initially, FAR aims to establish a common level of competence across various livestock classes by adopting a ‘manager-verified’ approach; employees will have their level of competence approved by their managers. “FAR will be largely web-based, through a dedicated website (www.feedadviserregister. org.uk) in order to minimise operating costs,” said John Kelley, managing director of AIC Services. “The Register has been devised by the industry for the industry and we aim to deliver a cost-effective service.” The annual cost has been set at £105 a year, but AIC members are eligible for a £45 discount to reflect the confederation’s investment in developing the register. In addition, further ‘early bird’ discounts are available for those who sign up early. The website will allow registration and provide a wealth of information training, relevant events and much more. Feed advisers and animal nutritionists with two years or more proven experience can join the register as full members. For new entrants and those with less experience, t here is a ‘developme nt ’ status registration. On-going membership will require verification of core competencies. “Training is an impor t ant element of the register and the website provides a wealth of resources to help develop skills and facilitate training,” said George Perrott, head of AIC’s feed sector. For established advisers, FAR provides a way to regularly u p d at e t h e ir k n ow l e d ge , especially in newer areas such as reducing emissions from livestock. It will also help new entrants and their employers devise training programmes for career advancement. FAR also offers qualification procedures for individuals working alone.

Perten launches dough mixer and analysis system
erten Instruments has launched a new dough testing instrument - the micro-doughLAB. A small scale (4 g) dough mixer and analysis system which determines the quality and processing characteristics of flour and dough, the microdoughLAB can be used to screen breeder lines, develop rapid and small scale methods and to establish the performance, specification, water and mixing requirements of flour. The small sample size is ideal for researchers, wheat breeders,

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grain handlers, millers and bakers with limited sample and/ or valuable samples. It enables users to save time and money by accurately and quickly identifying the best flour for their application. The new product uses d o u g h L A B f o r W i n d ow s (DLW) software. It is easy to use, compact, reproducible, accurate, and cleans up quickly. Micro-doughLAB now does the job of two traditional doughtesting instruments: evaluating both the viscous and elastic properties of dough in a single instrument.

A mixing stage develops the dough to measure absorption (amount of water required for a dough to reach a defined consistency), dough mixing profile (development time, stability, softening and other quality parameters) and two elasticity stages determine elasticity of dough at optimum and over mixed consistencies. Micro-doughLAB can also predict the processing characteristics and bread making potential of wheat flour for straight dough bulk fermentation, sponge and dough, rapid processing and Chorleywood Bread.

Integrated temperature control, variable temperature and energy input rates and high torque range make the micro-doughLAB versatile enough to test wheat meal, flour, semolina, rye, durum, triticale, other grains and flours, additives, and full formulations for milling, baking (bread, cake, pastry, pizza crust, biscuit, cookie and cracker), pasta and A sian products (steam bread, noodles and flat bread).

Viterra invests more than US$20m to upgrade Saskatchewan elevators
iterra Inc. is investing more than US $ 20 million to upgrade four of its Saskatchewan, Canada grain terminals at White Star, Humboldt, Waldron and Ituna. The upgrades will see increased rail capacity at the elevators and a significant increase in storage space at both White Star and Humboldt. "This significant reinvestment in our grain handling network demonstrates our on-going commitment to operational excellence and leadership in our industry. By improving our rail and storage capacities
Grain

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in t argeted areas, we are creating further value for our farm customers at the local level, as well as our suppliers and end use customers across North America and beyond,” said Kyle Jeworski, president and CEO for North America, Viterra. Storage capacity will increase threefold at White Star and double at Humboldt . Rail capacity will expand at White Star, which is situated on the Carlton Trail Railway. Further rail capacity expansions at Viterra's Humboldt, Waldron and Ituna facilities will also ensure a more efficient service

for the farming communities in those areas. The facility upgrades are consistent with Glencore's commitments to increase Viterra's projected capital expenditures in Canada. "Viterra has a strong history of maintaining high quality assets in the communities in which it operates. This project is the latest in a series of improvements designed to increase our level of service and, combined with the knowledge and expertise of our grain marketing specialists, further strengthen our partnership with local producers," Jeworski added.

DAILY UPDATES For more industry news, try our daily news service The Global Miller. Find it at: www.gfmt.blogspot.com

&feed milling technology

May - June 2013 | 7

NEWS

May - June 2013

News

CHS and Aurora to build high-speed shuttle loading facility in Nebraska
H S Inc ., an energ y grains and foods company and the United States' leading farmerowned cooperative, and the Aurora Cooperative, a leading grain marketer and agricultural supplier throughout Nebraska and t he U. S ., announced formation of a limited liability company (LLC) to build and operate a high-speed shuttle loading facility near Superior, Nebraska. The new entit y, Superior East LLC, expects to begin const r uc tion immedi ate ly and be completed in about 12 months. With a storage capacity of 1,250,000 bushels,

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the new grain facility will include a 120-car capacity circle track on the BNSF line moving corn, soybeans and hard red winter wheat to markets west and south, including Mexico. Additionally, the location will provide a grain ground piling system, as well as 10,000-ton liquid fertiliser storage. The site has ample room to expand both grain and fertilizer capacity. S u p e r i o r E a s t L LC , w a s formed under the recently introduced CHS Par tnered Equity Program. This firstof-its-kind programme allows C H S ow ner s t o unlock a por tion of their equit y in CH S to provide capit al for an expansion projec t .

Cooperatives par ticipating i n t h e p ro g r a m m e u se a portion of their CHS equity as a contribution to a venture with CHS focused on helping t h e i r c o o p e r a t i v e g r o w. Eligible projects include shu t t le lo ader s , fer tiliser hub plants, energy assets and other growth opportunities. "By using a portion of our CHS equity along with additional CHS capital to build a nextgeneration ag multiplex, we will be able to provide the Aurora Cooperative farmer owners in southern Nebraska and northern Kansas additional access to world grain and fertiliser markets via the BNSF rail system," said George

Hohwieler, Aurora Cooperative president and CEO. "We are excited about the opportunity to come together with such a strong partner with the CHS Partnered Equity Program," said Lynden Johnson, Business Solutions executive vice president, CHS. "The goal of the programme is to help our owners grow by providing strong cooperatives like Aurora the opportunity to unlock a portion of their equity in CHS for projects that directly serve their farmer owners. We look forward to exploring other projects that would benefit our owners in Nebraska and other states in CHS trade area," said Johnson.

Fefana launches its virtual library and publishes a booklet on premixtures
efana is pleased to announce the launch of its new virtual library which coincides with the publication of a booklet on premixtures. Being the technical expert on specialty feed ingredients and their mixtures, Fefana aims at providing technical and

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scientifically sound information on the benefits and safety of the products of its industry. Fefana particularly foresees the release of a series of specific booklets related to different categories of products. The booklet on premixtures is the first of these intended publications.

The premixture sector has greatly developed over the last decades and is regarded as a key partner for the compound feed industry, farmers and other feed business operators. The Fefana working group on premixtures has designed and developed this booklet to draw an overall picture of the

European premixture industry. A description of the various types of premixtures is given first, followed by sourcing and procurement process of premixtures ingredients, their formulation, manufacturing, packaging and transport. The final focus is on the quality management and safety of premixtures.

NEWS IN BRIEF
The government in Zimbabwe has engaged private millers to import grain to complement its effort in ensuring food security in the country, says Tendai Biti, finance minister. Following erratic rainfall, farmers are this year expected to produce 800,000 metric tonnes of maize against 2.2 million metric tonnes needed to feed the nation annually. An innovative group of college students at Kwadaso Agricultural College, Ghana is recycling cassava peels into animal feed. Three students from wanted to use the peels to solve environmental challenges and cut the costs of animal feed, according to Ghana Business News.

More than 60 percent of grain bin engulfment cases occur in facilities that are exempt from occupational safety and health administration (OSHA) regulations. A significant number of those exempt cases involve children and the fatality rate of children involved in grain engulfment is a staggering 70 percent. More instances and more fatalities occur from engulfment than from grain bin explosions. Syria has managed to increase its grain imports in recent months after a period when it was less active on international markets, traders say, a development that suggests president Bashar al-Assad has found a way to feed his people despite war. Foodstuffs are not covered by international sanctions, but banking sanctions and war had created a climate that had made it difficult for some trading houses to do business with Damascus.

Large grain farms will be established for food safety in Azerbaijan, Garib Mammadov, chairman of State Land and Cartography Committee said. 200300 ha plots of land have been allotted for this purpose. As part of long-term marketing development activities, U.S. Wheat Associates brought a team of Japanese milling executives to North Dakota and Washington, D.C., May 1-7, 2013, for a firsthand look at this year’s crop. In addition to examining current crop conditions and quality, team members discussed market and trade policy developments with U.S. agricultural organisations.

China is expected to become a major grain importer by 2015. Sunny Verghese, CEO of Olam International Ltd, a Singaporebased grain trader, said because of diminishing resources of land and water, China is on the way to become a major importer of corn, wheat and rice by 2015, according to a report by Bloomberg. Soy meal produced from U.S. soybeans has been a favourite of Japanese poultry for fifty years. According to the USDA due to a shift in demand, soy meal imports are expected to grow. That may be good news for U.S. soybean farmers as US census figures show Japan is the second largest buyer of U.S. soy meal in Asia.

8 | May - June 2013

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&feed milling technology

News

May - June 2013

NEWS

Integrated food supply chain to get integrated support
harvest technology, food processing and preservation, packaging, and hygiene and safety assurance, the alliance will benefit small, medium and larger companies as well as initiatives from government and NGOs aimed at supporting food production. The food supply chain faces I t w i l l a l s o d r a w o n t h e i r enormous challenges in meeting extensive and long-established the needs of a growing and more skills in information, publishing, affluent population – all within the k n ow l e d g e m a n a g e m e n t a n d constraints imposed by sustainable t r a i n i n g t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e production of safe and wholesome latest research and innovation is identif ied and practically food. Combining the power of over six applied. hundred experts in key areas such “The days when agriculture and as sustainable agronomy, post- food processing were seen as separate activities are fast disappe aring. If we are to meet the challenges of tomorrow, we need t o t a ke a n i n t e g r a t e d Animal feed production approach to the integrated in Great Britain supply chain. “Combining our facilities, skills and exper tise in 5.9% increase in retail production of animal p ro ce s s i n g t e c h n o l o g y, feed between February 2012 and February 2013 preser vation, pack aging and safety assurance 6.5% increase in raw material usage in w i t h C A B I ’s i n a r e a s the retail production of animal feed between s u c h a s a g ro n o my, February 2012 and February 2013 b i o d i v e r s i t y, a n d f o o d securit y, makes us ideal 2.5% February 2013 decrease in integrated par tners to suppor t the feed production compared with February 2012 i n t e g r at e d fo o d su p p l y chain,” said Prof Steven Average animal feed prices (Oct– Dec 2012): Walker, director general, Campden BRI. Cattle and calf: £250 per tonne “CABI’s involvement with Pig: £282 per tonne industrial and governmental organisations, focussing on Poultry: £282 per tonne improving the incomes of smallholders in developed Sheep: £242 per tonne and emerging market s, allied to Campden BRI’s Retail feed production (Jul 2012 - Feb 2013): close linkages to the food Cattle and calf: 19,382,000 tonnes i n d u s t r y - f ro m s m a l l p ro d u c e r s t h ro u g h t o Pig: 10,231,000 tonnes global corporates - means t hat together we have Poultry: 21,254,000 tonnes unrivalled coverage of the complete supply chain and Sheep: 4,228,000 tonnes the ability to deliver the k nowledge , experience Raw materials usage (Jul 2012 - Feb 2013): and partnerships that will Wheat: 19,786,000 tonnes provide practical solutions to challenging problems,” Whole and flaked maize: 1,386,000 added Dr Trevor Nicholls, tonnes chief executive of f icer, CABI. Oilseed rape cake and meal: 5,013,000 tonnes The collaboration will be rolled out from late 2013 Minerals: 2,729,000 tonnes through specific initiatives and support packages. Oil and fat: 1,418,000 tonnes n light of the ever-increasing integration of farming and food manufacturing Campden BRI, United Kingdom, and CABI have developed a strategic alliance to provide technical support from ‘seed to shelf’.

I

NUMBER CRUNCHING

aves of Tom Blacker activity here at the International Milling Directory have resulted in real progress in our plans and changes for the upcoming publication since the last column. The team has been engaged in lots of talks and late-night meetings, even drawing late into the night and staying for an evening meal together all in the name of the International Milling Directory! Honestly, we prefer to work harder for the new edition and produce a good quality product that will last. Working with inspirational companies means we attempt to match the ethics and many ambitions of our members. We have been experimenting with rearranging the current edition to different functions, aesthetics and uses. This has been interesting and we are focusing on the delivery of the new edition in a newly improved guise. Some companies who have been renewing their registrations, equipment guides and advertising have already heard a little about this but we hope you are excited as we are about the new publication. Our online activity from new and current members is also encouraging and we wish them a successful time with their efforts of their coverage with us. Distribution of the current edition around the world to a great amount of industry professionals and exhibitions has been continuing with regular pace whilst the work for the new edition continues. With a host of new registrations recently from such companies as Jiangsu Myande Food Machinery Co. Ltd. from China, Unity Scientific from the USA, DanCorn AS from Denmark and countless companies from Turkey at IDMA and their subsidiaries who are in the middle of registration. We are hoping for more international companies to register - please get involved! If you are interested in placing free equipment guides, free company registration and free products & services listings, please get in touch for more information. My contact details are: Tel: +44 1242 267700 Email: tomb@perendale.co.uk Or you can view the directory online at www.internationalmilling.com

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Source: Animal Feed Statistics for Great Britain February 2013, Defra

May - June 2013 | 9

www.internationalmilling.com

NEWS

May - June 2013

News

Romer Labs complete solution to test for T-2 and HT-2 toxin
he European Commission has published a new commission recommendation on the presence of T-2 and HT-2 toxin in cereals and cereal products. T-2 and HT-2 toxins are mycot ox ins produced by various Fusarium species. They are found in grains and grain milling products, notably in oats and oat products. Grains and grain-based foods, in particular bread, fine bakery wares, grain milling products, and breakfast cereals, make up the majorit y of foods through which humans have exposure to t hese t ypes of mycotoxins, which have immuno-suppressive effects in both humans and animals. Pigs are amongst the most sensitive animals towards the effects of T-2 toxin. This new document recommends maximum levels for the sum of T-2 and HT-2 toxin in various food and feed matrices. Thus, it is essential to simultaneously detect both, T-2

T

"T-2 and HT-2 toxins are mycotoxins produced by various Fusarium species"

and HT-2 toxin, following this recommendation. Re ac t i n g q u i c k l y, Ro m e r Labs® has developed a new AgraQuant® Elisa test kit for T2 and HT2-toxin which has high cross reactivity between both toxins (>90%).

In addition, Romer Labs® offers MycoSep® and St ar line™ im muno af f init y cleanup columns together with Biopure™ reference materials for a complete T-2 and HT-2 toxin reference testing solution.

A state-of-the-art LC-MS/MS application, including Biopure™ 13C isotope labeled internal standards and a MycoSpin™ cleanup, was also developed by Romer Labs®, following the current trend of multimycotoxin testing.

he U.S. Grains Council (USGC), along with the National Corn Growers Association (NCGA), Maizar (representative of Argentina producers and the maize supply chain) and Abramilho (Brazilian Association of Corn Producers) have signed a memorandum of understanding to form a North and South American corn producer’s alliance. The collaboration will address key issues concerning food s e c u r i t y, b i o t e c h n o l o g y, stewardship, trade and producer image. The four companies will function under the name, Maizall - The International Maize Alliance. The M aiz all alli ance w a s launched as part of the Maizar 2013 congress meeting in B uenos Aires, Argentina . Signatories to the memorandum include: Don Fast, chairman, USGC; Pam Johnson, president,
10 | May - June 2013

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North and South American maize growers form international alliance
N CG A ; A l b e r t o M ore lli , chairman, Maizar; and Sergio Luiz Bor tolozzo, 2nd vice president, Abramilho. "As both populations and economies continue to grow, the global middle class in expanding r apidly. World population is expected to increase more than thir ty percent in the next forty years, from seven billion in 2012 to more than nine billion in 2050," said Fast. "The increase in population and buying power has led to an evergrowing demand for maize and other food and feed ingredients as diets are improving globally." "Food Security is a priority for every country," added Johnson. "Countries can be food secure without being self-sufficient by establishing relationships and building trust with exporting countries to be long-term, reliable suppliers of quality feed and food supplies.” "As the world's population increases, farmers in exporting countries are challenged to grow more with less while improving stewardship and sustainability," said Morelli. "In the three countries where it is embraced, biotechnology has boosted yields and grain quality, reduced the intensity of chemical and fer tilizer application, conserved soil, organic content and moisture, and enhanced returns to producers. Agricultural biotechnolog y is a critical component of the larger bioeconomy that is necessary to sustainably provide for the needs of the growing global population and mitigate the impacts of climate change." "We are at a time when the growth of the middle class is exerting sustained pressure on input and food prices," Bortollozo stated. "The lack of predictable, functional, practical and science-based regulatory and trade policies in reviewing and approving new crop technologies by governments worldwide are imposing a crippling burden on innovation. For growers, the delays in introducing new technologies mean lost opportunities for higher yields and lower input costs. For consumers facing ever-rising food prices, the consequences are more acute." The primary focus of the new alliance is to emphasise the need for better consumer understanding of production agriculture , including t he benef it s of biotechnolog y and ad v ancing t he glob al acceptance on the capacity to produce maize for feed, food and fuel. Maizall will also reach out to governments and stakeholders on the need for trade-enabling biotechnology policies and regulatory procedures.
Grain

&feed milling technology

News

May - June 2013

NEWS

Smarter rules for safer food
o e n s u r e c o n s u m e r s' confidence and sustainability of food production, food safety is essential. In light of this, the European Commission has adopted a package of measures to strengthen the enforcement of health and safety standards for the whole agri-food chain. The package provides a modernised and simplified, more risked-based approach to the protection of health and more efficient control tools to ensure the effective application of the rules guiding the operation of the food chain. The package also responds to the call for simplified legislation and smarter regulation, thus simplifying the regulatory environment and reducing administrative burden for operators. Special consideration is given to the impact of this legislation on SMEs and micro enterprises that are exempted from the most costly elements in the legislation. The current body of EU legislation covering the food chain consists of almost seventy pieces of legislation. The package of reforms will cut this down to five pieces and reduce the red tape on processes and procedures for farmers, breeders and food business operators, making it easier for them to carry out their profession.

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"The agri-food industry is the second largest economic sector in the EU, employing over 48 million people and is worth some €750 billion a year. Europe has the highest food safety standards in the world. However, the recent horsemeat scandal has shown that there is room for improvement, even if no health risk emerged. The package of reforms comes at an opportune moment as it shows that the system can respond to challenges; it also takes on board some of the lessons learned. In a nutshell, the package aims to provide smarter rules for safer food", said Tonio Borg, health and consumer commissioner. Businesses will benef it from simpler, science and risk-based r ule s in t e r m s of re d uce d administrative burden, more efficient processes and measures to finance and strengthen the cont rol and e r adic at ion of animal diseases and plant pests. Consumers will also benefit from safer products and a more effective and transparent system of controls along the chain. Other EU institutions, including the European Parliament and the Council will consider the commission's package of measures and will adopt their positions in due course. At this stage, it can be estimated that the package will enter into force in 2016.

Gerard Klein Essink director of Bridge2Food

New platform drives innovation: proofing the future
Recently Bridge2Food has established a brand new networking platform for food professionals throughout Europe. The main goal of the Food Technology Professionals Platform is to drive innovation by informing, inspiring and developing managerial and interpersonal skills of its members. Initiator Gerard Klein Essink, director of Bridge2Food, explains the reason for the new initiative. “Innovation has been and will be an important driver for growth, especially open innovation. However, the issue is: how do you facilitate open innovation? Often, food professionals struggle to find the right contacts or tend to lack inspirational input from other professionals who are not necessarily within their direct network.” According to Klein Essink, the Food Technology Professionals platform aims to fill this gap. The Platform is an exclusive international network of a maximum of 60 professionals who are working in various parts of the food value chain (food manufacturers, ingredient suppliers, processing equipment manufacturers, rese arch institutes). 


having a significant impact on the industry. Entrepreneurs from consumer products, ingredients and processing technology shared their views on the food themes: future nutrition and health, sustainability and future production technologies. Thought leaders from Eurogenetica, WRAP and Wageningen University pictured future trends and developments.

Hands-on creation
The ‘platformers’ will work in small groups with coaches with a background in financial investment, brand management, ingredients and partnerships on how the entrepreneurs can prepare their business for the future, based on perspectives of thought leaders. The great business model generation o f L a u s a n n e P ro f e s s o r Ostenwalder will be the starting point for the idea generation and business conversion for each future outlook. “These meetings are designed to feed the platform members with valuable insights on consumer and market trends, which in turn offer business opportunities,” says Klein Essink. “Furthermore, members will be able to extend and upgrade their professional network which will help them and their companies to be on top!” Join companies like: Friesland Campina, Nestle, Barilla, Fazer, Tine, VTT, United Bakeries, Hochland, DSM, Cargill, Dupont, Kerry, TNO and many more. More
information:

NEWS If you have a news story that you would like to see in our pages please send your releases to: alicen@gfmt.co.uk

DAILY UPDATES For more industry news, try our daily news service - The Global Miller. Find it at: www.gfmt.blogspot.com

Sourcing invaluable insights

ADVERTISE. For information about great promotional opportunities with GFMT please visit: These professionals will meet twice per year in two-day meeting s. During t he se meetings the ‘platformers’ will get an extensive update on current food themes that are

www.gfmt.co.uk
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www.bridge2food.com
May - June 2013 | 11

&feed milling technology

FEATURE

Additives for flour standardisation -

Part II:
Additives other than enzymes
by Lutz Popper, Mühlenchemie GmbH & Co. KG, Germany
he most commonly used material to strengthen gluten is ascorbic acid, also called vitamin C. The material itself is originally a reducing rather than an oxidizing agent, but it is converted into an oxidative substance, namely dehydroxy ascorbic acid (DHAA), through the action of flour enzymes during dough preparation. DHAA basically inactivates the glutathione molecules which break down the sulfur bonds between the gluten molecules (Grosch and Wieser, 1999). With this action, dough mixing results in sulfur bond protection without excessive breakdown, which in turn leads to dough with desired structure. Pure ascorbic acid is added to the flour in mills at rates of typically 0.5-3 grams per 100 kg of flour. This dosage may go up to 6-10 grams per 100 kg in very weak flours or for weakening applications like frozen dough. Ascorbic acid is mainly produced by complex biochemical processing of glucose and sold as powder with different granule sizes. There are also natural sources for ascorbic acid, for instance acerola fruit powder, but these are too expensive compared to the synthetic ones.

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of 45 ppm), but the dosage tolerance is low, so even a slight over dosage may result in bucky doughs and rough bread surfaces. It is a flammable material and its usage in foodstuff is not permitted in the EU and several other countries.

Cysteine
L-cysteine, a sulfur-containing amino acid found in diverse proteins, breaks down the disulfide bonds between and within gluten molecules and becomes attached to the bond forming regions. This prevents gluten from getting stiff, and a mobile, flexible but still coherent structure is secured. This effect seems to be the opposite of ascorbic acid’s, but actually they seem to complement each other in some processes. This synergy is especially used in frozen dough processes: Ascorbic acid provides the necessary fermentation stability whereas cysteine gives extensibility to gluten strands which have shorten because of freezing.

Others
Other than the ones stated above, there are many oxidative materials and oxidation processes utilized throughout the world. Chlorination, usage of peroxides, iodates, persulfates, cystine and oxidative enzymes are some of these. All of these methods differ by their effects on flour/dough, and their pace of action.

Dough relaxation, softening, reduction
Dough with ‘short gluten’ (low extensibility) is hard to process. In addition to this, gas produced during fermentation will not be able to expand the dough sufficiently and hence the volume of the end product will be small. Furthermore, for products like biscuits, crackers and wafers, the optimum processing conditions can be reached when gluten structure is weaker than normal. In these situations, reductive materials are used to break the disulfide bonds and provide gluten with more flexibility.

Others
Inactive yeast preparations are rich in reducing material, but their dosage (500 – 5,000 ppm) and price are relatively high, as compared to cysteine. Levels of other reducing agents like sodium metabisulfite and sulfur dioxide which are used as dough softening agents in biscuit and cracker production are limited to 50 ppm. This amount is not sufficient to observe a softening effect in strong flours. Furthermore, many countries require declaration if the concentration of residual sulfur dioxide exceeds 10 ppm

Potassium bromate
Potassium bromate as a strong oxidative is still used as flour improver in many countries in the world. The very long lasting effect of bromate starts later than the effect of ascorbic acid and allows easier processing of the dough. Bromate creates new disulfide bonds resulting in more resistant doughs but it also oxidizes glutathione and hence prevents gluten weakening, just like ascorbic acid but without the help of the flour’s enzymes. Usage of bromate in flour industry is prohibited in the EU and many other countries because of the health concerns and its unstable/fire-accelerating nature.

Table 1: Suggested emulsifiers with potential use in baking applications Emulsifier Common abbreviation Acetyl esters of monoglycerides Calcium stearoyl lactate Diacetyl tartaric esters of monoglycerides Ethoxylated mono- and diglycerides (polyglycerates) Glycerol monostearate (non self-emulsifying) Glycerol monostearate (self-emulsifying) Lecithin Lactyl esters of monoglycerides Mono- and diglycerides Polyglycerol ester Propylene glycol monostearate Polysorbate 60 Succinyl monoglyceride Sorbitane monostearate (e.g. SPAN 60) Sodium stearoyl lactate Sucrose esters AMG CSL DATEM EMG GMS GMS LC LMG MDG PGE PGMS PS 60 SMG SMS SSL SUE HLB Application and benefit

2.5-3.5 7-9 9.2 12-13 3.7 5.5 3-4 3-4 2.8-3.8 12-13 1.8 14.4 5-7 4.7-5.9 18-21 7-13
Grain

Whipped cakes, volume Bread, shelf-life, volume Bread, shelf-life, volume High-fibre bread; shelf-life (combined with mono­ glycerides) Shelf-life Shelf-life Shelf-life, dough properties Whipped cakes, volume Bread, cakes, cookies, volume Whipped cakes, volume Whipped cakes, co-emulsifier Whipped cakes, co-emulsifier Yeast leavened baked goods; volume Whipped cakes, volume Bread, shelf-life, volume Bread, cake, volume

Azodicarbonamide
Azodicarbonamide (ADA) is utilized in flour industry because of its oxidative action. Its dosage is similar to ascorbic acid (with a recommended maximum
12 | May - June 2013

&feed milling technology

FEATURE confirm this perception. Other emulsifiers strongly interact with the starch delaying retrogradation and staling and thus provide bread with improved and prolonged softness and freshness. Some have potent foaming ability because of their surface-active nature and Figure 1: Effect of reducing agents on the dough consistency are used as whipping agents for sponge cake in the final product. Figure 1 compares the and the like. They ease the mixing of water effect of cysteine and inactive yeast on the and fat and hence improve fat dispersion in extensibility and resistance towards exten- bakery products that contain larger amounts of fat, such as biscuits, or in liquid systems such as sion in a standard wheat flour dough. wafer batters. They also decrease the amount of necessary fat, contributing to cholesterol, Emulsifiers Emulsifiers are polar molecules that can calorie and cost reduction. interact with many constituents of Emulsifiers that interact with gluten during mixing process Lecithin strengthen the bonds between protein chains, Lecithin is an emulsifier which has been but they also provide a lubricating effect that used in bakery products for a long time. Once allows the chains to slide over each other eas- egg yolk was used as the source of lecithin, ily. They are involved in the stabilisation of the but nowadays concentrated lecithin obtained gas bubbles in dough by binding to the bound- from soy beans, canola or sunflower seeds ary layers. As a result, dough elasticity, oven is used. The most obvious benefit of lecithin rise and volume increase, and the crumb pore is to lower the stickiness of the dough and size reduces. The bakers will note an increase improve its machinability. Other than this, in the practical water absorption, although the lecithin softens the crumb due to its interacdough rheological measurements may not tion with starch. But its effect on volume is less than that of its synthetic counterparts. The dosage of lecithin is about 30-150 g per 100 kg of flour (0.03 – 0.15 %). Low dosages increase the processing quality of the dough, whereas high dosages increase dough stability and fermentation tolerance, improve crumb structure and prolong shelf life.

Mono- and diglycerides
These molecules are formed by breakingoff fatty acids from edible fats and oils. The forms that are preferred as flour improver are the ones that prevent staling best. This property is found in linear saturated fatty acids that interact best with starch, and the most effective of them all is glycerol monostearate. The dosage starts at 0.05 percent and may go up to one percent, especially in high-fat products.

Diacetyl tartaric esters of monoand diglycerides (DATEM)
DATEMs currently are the most effective emulsifiers for bread volume. They are various molecules formed by esterification of monoand diglycerides (obtained from edible oils) with mono- and diacetyl tartaric acid. Some of these molecules are more active than the others (Köhler, 1999), but the effect of the mixture is better than any single type of pure emulsifier. DATEM is rather used in bread improvers. The optimum dosage is about 400 g per 100 kg,

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Aqua-Inject_210x148_GB.indd 1

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29.05.2013 12:02:25

FEATURE but much lower dosages are used actually because of the high prices. We mentioned that the effect of lipolytic enzymes is comparable to emulsifiers. Recent studies are focused on producing carboxyl esteerases that may reduce DATEM usage, or replace it completely.

Bleachers
Even though customers are getting more and more aware of the fact that darker milled flours are richer in vitamin and mineral content, bread with a crumb as white as possible is preferred in many regions. Bleaching of the carotenoids which give the flour a dark colour, namely lutein, can be achieved with oxidative materials.

Sodium and calcium stearoyl lactylate (SSL and CSL)
These emulsifiers are formed by the esterification of stearic acid with lactic acid. They act like DATEM, with a slightly weaker effect on dough stability and baking volume. On the other hand, they are more effective in preserving the crumb softness. Furthermore, they are more suitable for bakery products that require a softer crust.

Soy Flour
The best-known legal material for this application is enzyme-active soy flour. A clearly visible effect can be achieved at dosages around 0.5 percent. There are two types of enzyme-active soy flour in the market: deoiled and untreated. The bleaching effect is related to the lipoxygenase enzyme in soybeans. Deoiled soy flour may have lost some or all enzyme activity during the process and hence may not be suitable for this purpose, but nevertheless there are enzyme-active, deoiled soy flours available. On the other hand, untreated soy flour may cause an unwanted bitter taste because of the enzyme urease. Because the soy flour’s bleaching effect is due to an enzymatic reaction, the bleaching only starts after contact with water, that is, during dough mixing.

Other emulsifiers
Other than the ones stated above, there are many more to be used in high-fiber products, cake bases etc. The distinctive property among them is the HLB value (HydophilicLipohilic Balance). This value shows if the emulsifier displays a more hydrophilic or lipophilic character. Emulsifiers for high bread volume yield rather have an HLB of 7 or higher, while emulsifiers that improve the shelf life of the crumb softness exert a lower HLB, probably because they have to be able to interfere with the non-polar interior of starch helices. Table 1 provides a list of common emulsifiers used in baking applications.

Powerful oxidatives
Benzoyl peroxide, potassium bromate and their derivatives cause bleaching because of their powerful oxidative effects. Added at dosages of 5-10 g per 100 kg, the effect of benzoyl peroxide starts during storage of flour and the process is completed in about 1-3 days. These chemicals pose health risks by undesired residues and reaction products remaining in the final food or at least because of their inflammable, fire-accelerating or even explosive nature. Furthermore, their usage in food is not permitted in the EU and in several other countries.

The properties of gluten added from outside are different from those of native gluten. The difference that can be observed by determining the water absorption and rheological properties, resulting from partial denaturation of the protein during the drying process. Because of this, a proper drying practice is the most important factor in preserving the function of vital gluten. Some manufacturers do not worry about keeping the quality of the protein, because vital gluten is sometimes still considered as a byproduct of starch production. Using this low quality vital gluten increases the protein content of the flour, but does not improve the gluten properties. The water absorption capacity of added vital gluten is lower than that of native gluten. A ratio of 1.3-1.5 parts of water per one part of vital gluten can often be observed, while this ratio goes up to 2.5-3 parts of water per one part of native gluten in flour. Also the structure of vital gluten becomes shorter because of the drying process. Because of this, softer wheat varieties are more suitable for producing valuable vital gluten. The colour of gluten is also an important criterion in the market. Vital gluten mostly has a grayish tone that will also contribute to colour of flour. This is not a desired quality though; bright white or yellowish tones are preferred in flour industry. The colour is affected by the wheat variety, extraction and drying methods.

Services
Mühlenchemie’s mission and practical knowledge lie in selecting and combining the individual raw materials described. The optimum composition brings about synergistic effects. Since wheat qualities fluctuate, Mühlenchemie helps mills to produce flours with consistent baking qualities. The samples of flour sent in by the mills are subjected to a rheological analysis in the company, and the results are used to develop specific compounds for each customer. Baking trials are then carried out to test the flour improvers for functionality before they are offered to the mill as Alphamalt. Besides customized products, Mühlenchemie offers whole systems. The EMCEbest WA series increases the water absorption capacity of doughs, and thus the yield, and results in a more succulent crumb and a longer shelf life. The EMCEgluten Enhancers can save on vital wheat gluten at 1/10 of its usage level, strengthen weak flours and make it possible to use composite flours. Mühlenchemie offers mills further support in their daily work in the form of seminars, laboratory equipment and technical training courses and helps with the quality control and improvement of flours on the spot.

Acidifiers and acidity regulators
With germination, high amounts of amylase are formed in grain. This enzyme works like amylase added to the flour, but has a stronger impact on lowering the Falling Number (FN). If there is too much cereal amylase, the baking properties are negatively affected and the FN is too low. To restore good baking properties, the dough may be acidified by natural lactic acid fermentation, resulting in a sour dough. This prevents the cereal enzymes from finding the optimum conditions and hence their activity decreases. But the taste and aroma developed during acidification of the dough may not be well received by everyone. Moreover, this process takes a long time. Other than natural acidification, agents that are allowed in foodstuff, like fruit acids, salts of these acids, carbonates and phosphates may be used. By careful adjustment of these, the pH range (acidity) of the dough may be altered to a level where the enzymes cannot work optimally. Most preferred of these additives are the ones that keep the pH value at a desired level regardless of the chemical changes in the dough, called buffering agents. A typical dosage is 50-200 grams per 100 kg of flour. It should be kept in mind that phosphates and carbonates add to the ash content of flour. For sprout-damaged wheat, it is advisable to lower the extraction of enzyme-rich outer layers of the kernels (that is, to decrease the milling yield) and produce a whiter flour that allows addition of ash-increasing improvers.
14 | May - June 2013

Other agents
The colour lightening effect on crumb experienced with the usage of ascorbic acid, emulsifiers and some enzymes is mostly a physical illusion. Using these improvers, one can have smaller and more evenly distributed pores which cast less shadow and therefore the crumb seems whiter. Using lipases also may contribute to a bleaching effect provided that there is enough of oxygen in the dough. The unsaturated fatty acids produced by lipase are converted to hydroperoxides by the flour’s own lipoxygenase, and these molecules in turn bleach carotenoids.

Vital wheat gluten
Vital wheat gluten is produced by separating the water-insoluble proteins of wheat flour from the starch and soluble materials by a thorough washing process with water and drying of the resulting wet gluten. The material obtained via this process consists of around 80 percent gluten plus some remaining starch, lipids and nonstarch carbohydrates (Pomeranz, 1988). When added to the flour, vital wheat gluten increases the protein strength. This effect is easily detected with the help of flour analysis equipment like the Alveograph or the Extensograph.

More Information:
Website: www.muehlenchemie.de The first part of this article, which discusses enzymes and flour standardisation, is in the March/April 2013 issue of Grain and Feed Milling Technology. It is also online at www.gfmt.co.uk

Grain

&feed milling technology

FEATURE

Adding value to feed milling with profit-oriented feed formulation
by Bea van Deynse, marketing manager, Adifo, Belgium
ormulation software has become a commonly used tool in the feed industry. Almost all feed mills use some application or other to calculate their least-cost formulas. But can such a formulation software tool mean more for a feed producer? We asked Karel Vervaet, BESTMIX® product owner, Adifo, Belgium, what to expect from a feed formulation tool and how it can really add value to a feed mill’s business process.

F

“The BESTMIX® feed formulation system for example, exploits the computer power to the highest degree. This software can handle an unlimited number of mathematical solving algorithms.”

Multiblend is making a big difference
When you have lots of data to manage, optimising recipe per recipe is no longer feasible in this demanding business. Having a powerful tool like Multiblend allows you to manage and optimise hundreds or even thousands of recipes in one go. This is a real time and money saver. An example to illustrate the power of multiblend feed formulation: it takes less than seven seconds for a Multiblend with 1,500 products and a total of 400 ingredients to reach a new optimisation result. These powerful processes enable the user to have real-time ‘what-if?’ scenarios. The break down functionality is enormous and the user is guided smoothly from the global view to the smallest detail.

The Multiblend functionality in feed formulation software enables formulators to change things on the fly in their products and work very productively in an interactive way. So the real value of using multiblend lies in an optimal raw material allocation.

Integration with central administration software: a direct impact on profit
The feed formulation department is the heart of the feed mill. Being in the centre of the organisation, a close connection with the central administration software (ERP) is of the highest importance to get the best results. Being able to link up your feed formulation software with your ERP offers enormous advantages. Let’s take BESTMIX as an example here. A Multiblend run will add the highest value, when working with the most accurate, up to date figures from ERP. Price information, stock amounts and forecast figures are managed in ERP. Using web services, these figures are automatically processed and made available to the BESTMIX® user.
Grain

Always more data to manage and to use
Better performance, handling large quantities of data and controlling it in one central database are the key challenges for every feed formulation and optimisation software. “That is why your formulation software needs to be constantly updated to meet the fast growing market demands”, says Vervaet. “Make sure to ask your supplier how the formulation software is adapted to today’s technical capabilities.
16 | May - June 2013

&feed milling technology

FEATURE But it goes further than that. Risk management, which means having the right raw materials available at the right moment in the correct production location, has become the key challenge for every purchase manager. Today’s techniques allow a Multiblend based upon live raw material contract figures from the ERP. The full ingredient position from ERP is downloaded into the BESTMIX® feed formulation database and using Multiblend, the most optimal allocation of these contracts in time and place is calculated. These allocations are then sent back to the ERP where the position monitor for raw materials is instantly updated and purchase decisions can be made or changed with these updated figures. designer tool, the graphical labels are created during the formulation, allowing for a last minute change on the label when needed. In most cases however, the formulation software cannot create the label completely, as information such as batch number or production date is not available at the moment of the creation. Software designer Adifo has created an add-on solution on top of Dynamics AX. The content of the labels is supplied by BESTMIX® and the Dynamics AX add-on generates the labels, combining relevant formulation and production information on the label. As such, the business content stays the responsibility of the formulation department, where it should be, whilst the complete label can still be created in an automated process. plement feeds matching their homegrown or local ingredients. Only the best end result is good enough and the modern feed plants nowadays are equipped for these quick changes. Vervaet says, “More complex ‘multilevel-level’ compounds can be defined with more detailed constraints at all levels. This leads to direct profits,

Advanced labeling essential
In the last couple of years, labeling legislation has changed constantly. Having a flexible labeling solution that allows users to anticipate these changes is of the highest importance. Any modern feed formulation software is expected to offer a labeling solution. In BESTMIX® for instance, all European and US legislation on declaration is implemented in a user friendly way. All components of the label; composition, guaranteed analysis values, conditional texts, health and safety information, barcodes and so on, are set up separately. With an easy to use

Software as a service and cloud computing are today’s buzzwords. And the feed industry is not left behind.
as all includes are optimised. The price of the mean compound is kept as low as possible. This also means that the included compounds can be changed more often. “This increased functionality enables the management of a larger number of specifications, compounds and products. BESTMIX® Feed Formulation Software stores all data in powerful databases, where they can be organised, managed, secured and archived for many years.”

Best end result needed for a demanding market
Farmers have a growing understanding of nutrient requirements and digestibility systems and always require the best feed. They ask for special concentrates or com-

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4:42 PM May - June 5/30/13 2013 | 17

FEATURE ity is a major success factor in professional least cost formulation. End (and half) product nutritional content is computed by the formulation tool. Once approved, the content of formulated recipes is delivered to the quality platform and used as reference value. Products are sampled in production and analysis results are compared to the reference values and evaluated against outliers. Sample data is used to generate the Certificates of Analysis. One of the key factors for success in managing quality data is the amount of resources required for running the operations. That is why BESTMIX® LIMS comes with multiple connectors and data workflow automation, minimizing the manual handling of data and results, like: importing intake transactions from ERP or production software, updating the ingredient matrix of BESTMIX® Formulation, importing analysis results from NIR instruments and from external laboratories. functions like ’Audit Trail’ make it easy for the user to track all modifications. The controller disposes of all data from a single source and no longer needs to search for native files spread around,” says Vervaet.

What about formulation in the cloud?
Software as a service, cloud computing are today’s buzzwords. And the feed industry is not left behind. Adifo recently launched its ‘formulation as a service’ platform, enabling all parties in feed formulation including nutritionists, advisors, formulators, and farmers to share their knowledge via the cloud. This way, feed formulation is entering the collaborative era.

Use full potential of quality data
A feed mill should also consider the quality data and turn them into real value. Quality Control (QC) is the result of the implementation of the quality monitoring plan. QC is not a goal in itself; it is a service to multiple processes and departments. This vision is the blueprint for BESTMIX® LIMS, the platform developed by Adifo for collecting quality data and transforming the data into value for the company. BESTMIX® LIMS is used for monitoring internal and external processes. The quality of raw materials is used for updating the ingredient matrix. BESTMIX® LIMS facilitates this process, leading to an increased frequency of updating. In the end, mastering the variation of raw material qual-

Dare to ask more
“If you are a specialist in feed production, make sure to work with a partner who understands your business. Dare to ask more from your software. Especially in terms of technical performance, integration with ERP, data and service sharing with customers, labeling, lab data usage, tracking and tracing possibilities,” concludes Vervaet. More Information:
Website: www.adifo.com www.formulation-as-a-service.com

Tracking and tracing: how to go about it?
All feed mills feel the increasing pressure of feed and food safety audits. No one can take the risk of not being able to track and trace the entire production. So all available data must be easily retrievable. Databases not only store lots of data but also make sure that these data are available for auditing. “In Adifo’s software, each and every change is triggered and made visible. New

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FEATURE
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May - June 2013 | 19

FEATURE

High efficiency elevator buckets:
modern vs traditional design
by Carl Swisher, sales manager - material handling products, 4B Components Ltd, USA

JUMBO CC-S High Efficiency Bucket A high efficiency elevator bucket has all of the following characteristics:

Modern

Traditional

A

n elevator bucket is an elevator bucket, right? Not anymore. Recent advances in design technology have brought the advent of the modern high efficiency centrifugal discharge elevator bucket. High efficiency elevator buckets push the traditional limits of carrying capacity, input flow and discharge, construction materials and diminished shipping space.

Smooth interior front faces, with no breaks, that provide an efficient discharge over higher speeds

They can be mounted closely together to deliver the greatest, and thereby, most efficient throughput

A tapered bottom that allows the buckets to fill and discharge efficiently

No ‘angles’
The ‘breaks’ or ‘angles’ seen in the interior front face of some traditional grain handling elevator buckets serve no determinable function. They neither improve material flow nor discharge efficiency. They simply mimic the design employed by the original fabricated steel buckets of the 1920s, where a break press was used on
20 | May - June 2013

The tapered bottom allows the buckets to nest inside one another, for more efficient shipping and storage

Wing-less sidewalls, making the design more cost efficient and thereby reducing material costs

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FEATURE sheet steel to gradually bend the metal into a curve. High efficiency elevator buckets have a smooth interior front face with employing compound curve geometry. This delivers an efficient discharge with no impediments and no crevices where product can collect. Clean out is efficient and cross contamination is minimized. ciency elevator buckets to nest inside one another. This makes shipping and storage more efficient. Traditional buckets do not nest and even when packaged to minimize space, it is mostly air that is being transported. A stack of high efficiency buckets is denser, and as such, qualifies for the most economical freight rates. Additionally, they use less space in the motor trailer or ocean-shipping container, thereby reducing costs even further. Once at the job site, they occupy less floor space for storage. with the removal of this physical feature. In some cases, weight savings are realized as well. The advent of the modern high efficiency centrifugal discharge elevator bucket has brought industry greater throughputs and cost savings. Now popular in agricultural applications, they are becoming more widely accepted for industrial use as well, where over-sized slower moving elevator buckets have been utilized. A true high efficiency elevator bucket has a smooth interior front face, can be

Tapered bottoms
High efficiency elevator buckets feature a tapered bottom. This tapered

"Recent advances in design technology have brought the advent of the modern high efficiency centrifugal discharge elevator bucket"

bottom is key to the performance of the high efficiency design and is leveraged for several advantages. It allows the buckets to be mounted closely together with a minimum of vertical spacing. This creates a ‘column’ of input material and generates the greatest amount throughput possible in the elevator leg system. Close vertical spacing requires the efficient entry and exit of input materials into the elevator bucket string. The tapered bottom allows the buckets to fill and discharge not just from the front, but from the sides as well. This style of bucket feeds more efficiently on the up-leg, but also in the boot section as well. The tapered bottom allows high effi-

Wing free
The ‘wings’ or ‘ears’ found on traditional grain handling elevator buckets do not serve a determinable function either. The origin of the feature is unclear but appears to originate with the first fabricated sheet steel buckets of the 1920s. It may have served as a handle for shop welders to safely grab with their fingers and they tack welded the inside of the buckets together. There is no evidence that the wing provides extra guidance for material during fill or discharge. Buckets cannot nest for shipping and storage if they have this feature. High efficiency elevator buckets do not have wings or ears. Material cost efficiencies are realized

mounted closely together, has a tapered bottom, nests inside one another and has no wings on the sidewalls.

More Information: UK office
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USA office
Tel: +1 309 6985611 Email: 4b-usa@go4b.com Website: www.go4b.com

Grain

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May - June 2013 | 21

FEATURE

‘Kill step’
validation of low-moisture extrusion
by Will Henry, research & development, Extru-Tech Inc., USA
Figure: 3 E525 extrusion system

I

n the USA, the Food and Drug Administration has had a zero tolerance policy for Salmonella since 2010, which is why various extrusion industries have experienced a dramatic increase in recalls over the past two years.

In many of these recalls, Salmonella was found in the plant (commonly found in raw materials) and even though very few cases led to sickness, the manufacturer decided to recall all batches produced at that time. It’s better to be safe than sorry, but these recalls undermine consumer confidence, damage brands and impact the entire industry. While every manufacturer strives for products that are 100 percent pathogen free, applicable and validated scientific studies to support properly designed extrusion food safety systems weren’t possible…until now.

Kill step validation
To mimic how products are contaminated under real-world production facility conditions, Extru-Tech built a BSL (BioSafety Level) 2 pilot plant outfitted with a

production scale Extru-Tech E525 extrusion system. As a result, Extru-Tech now offers the industry’s first scientific validation study of a food/feed extrusion system that kills Salmonella at levels higher than normally found in most facilities. In an effort to target an industry with the highest exposure, Extru-Tech chose to first address specific issues within the pet food industry by tailoring their validation protocol to an adult canine specification. However, due to the equipment design duplicity, this same architecture and protocol provides credibility to multiple extrusion markets. “Extru-tech is using actual equipment that you would find in most pet food plants in a bio-hazard laboratory or a pilot plant,” says Dr Jim Marsden, regents distinguished professor, Kansas State University. “Raw materials can be inoculated with Salmonella or other pathogens and the effect of the extrusion process can be exactly quantified. This process is a breakthrough for the pet food industry.”

Key considerations used in the study
For the development stage of this process, key operational parameters were analyzed to scientifically validate a typical extruded pet food process. Equipment scale - production rates Impartial and internal studies have proven the agnostic relationship between laboratory scale equipment and production scale equipment Equipment configuration - barrel screw stack-up, preconditioner paddle configuration Impartial and internal studies have shown that even the slightest change in equipment setup will impact the process’s pathogenic efficacy Formulation Impartial and internal studies provide excellent insight into the variations inherent within individual ingredient components and how they interact differently within a processing environment (i.e. thermal energy efficiency, water absorption, energy of gelatinization) Product specification Parameters such as: size, shape, density, cell structure, moisture and water activity Impartial and internal studies reflect that specific changes in product characteristics via process management, equipment configuration or formulation, will directly affect the efficiency of microbiological control.

Production scale vs traditional testing methods
Food/feed manufacturers have relied on traditional lab studies based on testing equipment ranging from beakers and pressure pots to table-top model extruders. Most testing has been completed on a lab table at very low production rates of 30 g to a 1 kg per hour - not exactly real world conditions. Typically for a pilot scale extrusion lab, the Extru-Tech model E325 would be used. However, the smallest change, from the lab E325 (3.25 in

Figure 1: Collection of equipment architecture that represent models for existing validations

22 | May - June 2013

Grain

&feed milling technology

FEATURE

bore) to a production E525 (5.25 in bore), translates to a production rate of 200 to 600 pounds per hour for the E325 and upwards of 8,000 pounds per hour for the E525 (in terms of typical pet food). The process data translation is cumbersome at best and filled with non-linearity. With all this in consideration the BSL-2 pilot plant was outfitted with a E525 production scale extruder system and the equipment was configured for the production of an industry generic low-moisture dry-expanded pet food.

A significant point of discovery is how a raw material is contaminated or inoculated in a factory. Various preemptive trials, discovered that many of the readily available and scientific methods of inoculation are not truly representative of a typical contamination event that our clients deal with on a daily basis. For example, some studies have developed thermal survivability profiles (charts that show death of various microbes against time or temperature). However, these data sets were created with the microbes suspended in a largely aqueous solution. If Salmonella is in a liquid, heat will transfer quickly and kill it quickly. However, this is not a representation of what happens in a pet food plant and creates a false set of operational parameters that do not control Salmonella. For pet food, food, and feed manufacturers, Salmonella is usually introduced through dry ingredients. For this reason, we developed a dry inoculant. A dry inoculant

Figure: 2 E925 high capacity extrusion system (13 to 15 t/hr pet food)

Creating a dry inoculant test

introduced into the ingredient stream better represents how the pathogens are usually present within contaminated raw ingredients. The obvious pathogen choice was a 3-serotype cocktail of Salmonella as it is the most opportunistic organism that is prevalent in the pet food industry and the media. The selected industry generic pet food formula was charged with a tailored inoculant that represents typical contamination events in the manufacturing process. Ultimately all three replications of the challenge study resulted in a log reduction of Salmonella that exceeded the 5-log reduction requirement of a CCP allocation.

Validation 101
As any food safety auditor may tell you, the ability to correlate the assignment of critical control points (CCPs) to scientifically validated proof of their effectiveness in the control of targeted pathogens is ultimate confirmation of effectiveness. “All food manufactures are required under the Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) to develop written food safety plans,” says Dr Marsden. “For example, if Salmonella is a hazard that is reasonably likely to occur in the process or product, then a series of interventions are required and they must be scientifically proven.” Validation is the process of demonstrating that a food safety system (HACCP, CCPs, CLs) as designed can adequately

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May - June 2013 | 23

FEATURE

Study parameters
Possible paths for validation of a typical pet food process were reviewed in order of preference and viability: Pilot plant - most accepted and least risk Configure a pilot plant with representative production-scale equipment models and perform a tailored challenge study with specific formulations, equipment configuration, product specifications and targeted pathogens Pros - correlation becomes moot, no risk Cons – none In-plant surrogate Select non-pathogenic surrogate and inoculate actual production process flow Pros - matched equipment and process model Cons - lack of applicable (correlation) challenge study data In-plant pathogenic Inoculate actual production process flow with pathogenic microbe Pros - correlation becomes moot. Cons - risk of future events and liability thereof Laboratory validation Secure a BSL-2 laboratory to perform ‘bench-top validation Pros - specific pathogen, surrogate correlation, tailored formulation Cons - does not replicate equipment scale, configuration or the manufacturing process Scientific literature - least accepted and most risk Search for existing scientific data that best represents your manufacturing model Pros - least cost Cons - difficult to find a single study that will be even minimally representative of a pet food extrusion process

Figure 4: Summary data of extrusion validation for all three repetitions

Figure 5: XX Extru-Tech Inc. pilot plant control system screenshot depicting CCP verification

control (5-log reduction) the identified hazards to produce a safe product. As the United States Department of Agriculture indicates there are two distinct elements of validation: • The scientific justification or documented basis for the system design requires scientific and technical documentation that demonstrates the designed process can control the identified hazard. The practical and scientific demonstration must prove the system can perform as expected. This consists of keeping records to demonstrate the plan in operation and that the HACCP plan achieves expectations. • Conducting multiple repetitions in a real-time processing environment using full- scale production equipment and actual production formulations that have been inoculated with designated high levels of specific (non-man made) microorganisms. The process also must prove that high levels of microorganisms
24 | May - June 2013

are reduced or killed through the lethality conditions of the CCP. “The best way to see how effective an intervention is against certain pathogens is to actually inoculate a food product with Salmonella,” says Dr Marsden. “We then apply that intervention under conditions that ideally replicate a real-world food plant to measure the reductions associated with that treatment. As a result, we know exactly how effective an intervention is in controlling specific pathogens.” Basing a food safety system on impractical data is not safe! By selecting a sub-standard food safety model, you forfeit all leverage to mitigate the risk of a food safety event.

eters that are required to deactivate Salmonella in the extrusion process,” says Dr Marsden. “There are other production steps that follow where Salmonella could re-contaminate the product. Extru-tech is looking at those additional steps to identify interventions that could be applied downstream to prevent recontamination.”

Validating your extrusion food safety system
Until now, an extrusion kill step validation has not been available in the food industry. Extru-Tech now offers scientific validation focused on the extruded foods that exceed FSMA requirements. “Extru-tech is documenting the param-

More Information:
Tel: +1 785 284 4133 Website: www.extru-techinc.com Newsletter: http://eforms.kmpsgroup. com/wattpub/forms/extr_subscribe.htm

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POULTRY
DDGS:
T
cheap and nutritious food for poultry
by Hossan MD Salim PhD, Upazila livestock officer, DLS, Bangladesh and University of Manitoba, Canada
he world grain price is increasing day by day and the industry is facing several challenges to produce good quality animal products with a reasonable price for consumers. Similarly, the poultry industry in Bangladesh is also fighting with high grain prices to maintain its production with marginal profit. Small and medium poultry farm owners are mainly affected and losing their capital investment in this sector. The increased cost and the limited supply of conventional grains have made it necessary to focus research and extend efforts towards the potential utilization of energy and proteins from several grain by-products which are cheaper with high nutritive values. Corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) can
26 | May - June 2013

Feed focus

play a vital role in this high grain price situation to formulate the least cost diets for poultry. DDGS is a co-product of ethanol production plants that use corn for manufacturing. During the yeast fermentation in ethanol plants, corn is ground, mixed with water, cooked and the liquefied starch from this process is hydrolyzed and fermented to produce ethanol and CO2. As a result, the non-fermentable components of this process which are rich in essential nutrients such as protein, fat, fibre, vitamins and minerals are recovered in a highly concentrated form as distillers dried grains with solubles. Although distillers dried grains have been used by the poultry industry for some time, recently a renaissance in the use of DDGS has been observed in the USA and also around the world. This is due to the rapid escalation in its production as well as its improved quality when derived from the new generation ethanol plants. Therefore, in the light of the large production of corn DDGS entering the USA, and other overseas markets, the aim of this topic is to provide a compendium of information to the people involved with the industry regarding nutritional value of corn DDGS for poultry.

Metabolizable energy content
Several studies provide estimates of the metabolizable energy (ME) content of DDGS for poultry. Lumpkins et al. (2004) reported that the TMEn content of a single DDGS sample was 2,905 kcal/kg. In a later study, the same group determined the TMEn content of 17 different DDGS samples representing products from six different ethanol plants. They determined that the TMEn contents ranged from 2,490 to 3,190 kcal/kg with a mean value of 2,820 kcal/kg and an associated coefficient of variation of 6.4% (Batal and Dale, 2006). Fastinger et al. (2006) concluded that the TMEn content of DDGS averaged 2,871 kcal/ kg and had considerable variation among the samples. Furthermore, a large variation in TMEn values of DDGS were also reported by Parsons et al. (2006), who determined the mean TMEn value of 20 DDGS at 2,863 kcal/kg ± 224 kcal/kg. It was hypothesized that energy in corn DDGS would not vary if samples were derived from ethanol plants using similar production technologies and corn that is grown in a proximate geographical location. Therefore, nutritionists should be cautious of the fiber content and sources of data for DDGS ME values, as well as energy variability when formulating diets for poultry.

Nutrient contents and availability of DDGS for poultry
Corn DDGS contain all the nutrients from grain in a concentrated form except for the majority of the starch, which has been utilized in the fermentation process. Therefore, it can be a rich source of crude protein (CP), amino acids, P and other nutrients in poultry diets. Reliable values for the nutrient content of feed constituents are essential to create more precise diet formulations for poultry.

Amino acid content
Dale and Batal (2005) reported that CP content of corn DDGS can vary from 24 percent to 29 percent. In our laboratory we assessed CP content on 395 corn DDGS samples imported to Korea from the USA, and the average CP content was 27.15% (23.87-30.41) with 3.72% coefficient of variation. Batal and Dale (2006) found that CP
Grain

&feed milling technology

POULTRY content of DDGS ranged between 23 percent and 32 percent. Spiehs et al. (2002) have evaluated nutrient level of DDGS originating from ten new ethanol plants in Minnesota and South Dakota, and also found that the CP accounted for 30.2%, and lysine and methionine for 0.85% and 0.55%, respectively. The high variability among DDGS sources was found mainly for the two limiting amino acids for poultry, lysine and methionine. Reese and Lewis (1989) showed that corn produced in Nebraska in 1988 varied in CP from 7.8 to 10%, and 0.22 to 0.32% in lysine content. Differences in production technology provide almost as much variation within one source of corn as there is between different plants. Parsons et al. (1983) conducted five trials that aimed to evaluate the protein quality of DDGS and concluded that when DDGS is fed to growing chicks as the sole source of dietary protein, tryptophan closely followed by arginine are the second and third limiting amino acids respectively, after lysine. Although DDGS was limiting in tryptophan and arginine it was found that the overall protein quality of DDGS could be improved greatly by lysine supplementation for growing chicks. concentration of carotene and xanthophylls was 8.58 and 36.72 ppm, respectively. Since the typical corn and soybean-based commercial poultry diet does not supply the necessary amount and type of xanthophylls to produce the deep yellow color in the egg yolk and skin, DDGS can be a good source of these pigments as long as they have not been overheated during the production process.

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Other nutrients
DDGS is not only a good source of energy, amino acids and minerals but also, can be a rich source of water soluble vitamins and other nutrients that are present in the corn used for the ethanol production. D’Ercole et al. (1939) reported that DDGS is a good source of riboflavin and thiamine. DDGS also contain some biologically active substances such as nucleotides, mannan oligosacharides, β-1, 3 or 1, 6 glucan, inositol, glutamine and nucleic acids, which have a beneficial effect on immune responses and the health of animals. Therefore, to reduce the feed cost and to make a balanced diet for poultry, DDGS would be a viable alternative energy grain source for the feed industry in Bangladesh.

Mineral composition
A laboratory analysis of corn DDGS from the US showed that DDGS can be a good source of P (0.76 %), Zn (57.26 ppm), K (0.91 ppm), and other minerals. Phosphorus content in DDGS has been reported at 0.72% and varies widely from 0.48 to 0.91%. Similarly, Spiehs et al. (2002) reported the P variation in DDGS ranged from 0.59 to 0.95 %. This large difference in P content derives partially from its variation in corn grain and amount of starch residue in DDGS. However, the technological process of ethanol production can also significantly contribute to its content and variation. It has been suggested that the total P content may be even higher than 0.72% in some sources of DDGS if produced in new ethanol plants. Moreover, the rate of addition of solubles to the wet grains prior to drying affects the P content, because the solubles contain more than three times as much P as do the wet grains.

Our sensors are successfully used in many applications to ensure product quality, maximise yield and save energy. Typical uses include:

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Pigment content

Corn grain contains about 20 ppm of xanthophylls and it is expected that corn DDGS may by a good source of xanthophylls pigment, due to the concentration of the pigment during the production process. However, the actual xanthophylls content may be lower in DDGS because of heat destruction during drying. Roberson et al. (2005) analysed two DDGS samples and observed 29.75 ppm of xanthophylls in one of the samples, but only 3.48 ppm in another, dark colored sample which was considered to be This article was originally published on heat damaged. By analysing 16 samples of DDGS deriving from US in our laboratory, we showed that the average
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&feed milling technology

May - June 2013 | 27

30/11/2012 13:44:07

sparing for efficiency and the environment
by Murray Hyden CBiol, MSB director of biosecurity, Anpario plc, United Kingdom

Amino acid

nimals do not have a crude protein requirement, they have a requirement for amino acids and it is the responsibility of the nutritionist to get the ratios correct. Amino acids from feed are the building blocks of proteins and there are twenty-two of them used in the building of animal protein. Although poultry can synthesise some, there are some serious ‘essential’ amino acids that can become limiting. Supplementation with these ‘essential’ amino acids is now common place and incorrect supplementation will result in either a shortfall of one, or a surplus of several. This problem has become more acute since the reduction of animal protein in diets and a reliance on soya and other vegetable protein sources with a poorer match to animal amino acid requirements. While soya is a good source of protein when combined with corn, this combination is limiting in the essential amino acids such as lysine, methionine, threonine and tryptophan. However, there is often a lack of data on the precise amino acid composition of the raw materials being used. It is unrealistic to analyse every batch of raw material. Yet raw material amino acid content is a big issue this year, especially with wheat and soya, due to variations in weather, location, variety and fertiliser use. We can only use the algorithms we have and try to ensure that the amino acid profiles of complete feeds are optimised. Indeed, it is often better to reduce protein levels and increase fibre levels if in doubt. Dr Peter Scott, senior research fellow at the University of Melbourne, Australia, calls for more attention on nutrition and gut health, such as fibre levels in feed. “It’s there in black and white: If you maintain adequate fibre levels in your feed, you’ll achieve better coccidiosis control and by default, better necrotic enteritis control,” he argues. If a correct balance of amino acids is not achieved there will be performance implications. Simply adding more supplementary amino acids can lead to other problems, as surplus amino acids in the gut are a threat to health and the environment.

A

Non-nutritional problems associated with amino acids
Surplus amino acids can result in two different problems: 1. When energy levels are limiting, bacterial growth in the hindgut by commensal microflora will stop allowing proteolitic pathogens such as Clostridium to flourish. Clostridia exist in all chickens. The growth of Clostridia is however only a problem following coccidial or bacterial infection where blood and damaged tissue prevail in the intestine. The faster growth rates in modern poultry may exaccerbate the problem further because the rate of proteolyis in the stomach may be insufficient to release all the amino acids from the proteins resulting in more protein in the hindgut. 2. If proteins are not deaminated in the gut then they are excreted and will contribute to the ‘greenhouse gas’ load associated with livestock production. The problem of hindgut deamination is the release of ammonia or nitrous oxide (N2O) in the faeces with the the FAO stating that atmospheric emissions of ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) associated with animal waste are a worldwide problem and may contribute to a detrimental impact on the environment. High
Grain

Adding one tonne of lysine allows a reduction in soya and slightly increase in maize without affecting the nutritional balance.
28 | May - June 2013

&feed milling technology

POULTRY than adults. Males utilise amino acids more efficiently than females and extraneous dietary factors such as fibre and phytase induce digestive stress, hampering protein utilisation.

The effect of weather
When all these points are taken into consideration there are other factors that impact on performance. Adverse weather conditions both pre and post-harvest result in higher than normal levels of mycotoxins. Mould activity during storage depletes amino acids in both raw materials and finished feeds. In artificially moistened feeds between 1-3 percent lysine and 19-26 percent methionine could be lost to fungal activity alone (Dr Olayinka Akine 2012). Indeed, Kiotechagil Mycostat can effectively stop mould growth in raw materials and feeds. In storage, moulds like Aspergillus produce mycotoxins that alter amino acid utilisation at the intestinal and cellular level, especially the sulphur containing amino acids. Birds fed 2-4 ppm Aflatoxin or Ochratoxin A had a 51-133 percent reduction in protein efficiency but when both toxins were present at 1-4 ppm, protein efficiency was depressed by 79-127 percent. These effects are due to suppression of enzymatic activity, disruption to intestinal transport, attenuation of cellular protein synthesis and modification to gut functionalities. Amino acids, including tryptophan and arginine, are required to feed into the

ammonia levels in poultry housing also directly impacts performance.

Saving the environment
Both these problems could be resolved by careful adjustment of the amino acid balance. Such attention to detail would have considerable cost benefits by reducing land usage requirements. Ajinomoto, the Japanese food and chemical corporation, has determined that correct supplementation of lysine to maize/soya based rations could mean that for every tonne of lysine used there could be a saving of 12 hectares of land that could be rechanneled to alternative production.

Other protein sources are also being used such as rapeseed and rapeseed meal, sunflower meal, cottonseed meal and more exotic ingredients such as palm kernel meal and copra meal. Each of these protein sources has a different amino acid profile, different digestibility and would require different supplementation. Amino acids such as methionine, lysine and threonine are among the most expensive nutrients in the feed ration and wasting them has economic costs and biological consequences. Also remember that young animals metabolise amino acids at higher efficiency

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FEATURE acid production will result in less pepsin activity, leading to protein escape to the hind gut. Clostridia can utilise unused protein in the hind gut in the absence of fermentable carbohydrate by deamination leading to necrotic enteritis. 40 kg/t. - Molecular weight of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) = 100.09 - 1 mole = 100.09 g so 40 kg = 399.64 moles. - If we then use formic acid to neutralise this - Molecular weight of formic acid (HCOOH) = 46.03 - 1 mole = 46.03 g therefore to supply 399.64 moles you would need: - 399.64 x 46.03 = 18395 g or 18.395 kg/t of 100% formic acid It is clear that we must rely on a combination of natural acid secretions in the stomach and a fully supportive feed acidifier, like Kiotechagil Salkil, to boost the bacterial contribution from carbohydrate fermentation in the gut.

Balancing the gut microflora can help
There are several aspects of digestive function to consider that can help resolve the effects of dysbiosis but it is obvious that a multifunctional approach is essential. Direct incorporation of acids in the ration and into the foregut will help overcome the effects of highly Effect of pH on the specific growth rate of B. buffered feeds, but that is fibrisolvens Ce51 at 38.5°C with glucose as the substrate. (O) chemostat culture. (●) batch culture not enough. This will be especially important when the feed is highly buffered, typically with something like calcium carbonate as used in poultry breeder and layer diets. The added calcium carbonate neutralises stomach acid, increasing the risk of pathogens passing through proventriculus. By reducing free acid in the proventriculus the conversion of pepsinogen to pepsin will be reduced. This will result in reduced protein digestion in the stomach and a greater reliance of the proteolytic trypsin found in the duodenum and Lactic acid bacteria colonising the acidified the peptidases. However silica platform in Kiotechagil Salkil pepsin works best at the N-terminal of aromatic immune system and mycotoxins will disturb amino acids such as phenylalanine and tyrotheir metabolism where they help generate sine. It will not cleave at bonds containing cytokines. An increase in cytokine production valine, alanine or glycine. Pepsin digests 10 - 15% of dietary protein before it is inactican unbalance amino acids levels in the gut. The use of an effective and broad spec- vated in the small intestine. Whilst trypsin trum toxin binder like Kiotechagil Neutox predominantly cleaves peptide chains at the to absorb mycotoxins without hindering gut carboxyl side of the amino acids lysine and performance is essential. Mineral binders arginine, except when either is followed with high cation exchange capacities (CEC) by proline. Therefore the loss of activity of will trap cations and disrupt mineral nutri- pepsin cannot be fully compensated for by tion, or reduce phytase activity in formulated other proteolytic enzymes further down feeds. Selection of the correct toxin binder the gut. By adding an acidified carrier matrix it is will benefit amino acid utilisation. possible to overcome some of the buffering power of the feed, however this will require Unbalanced rations Surplus amino acids in the hind gut, espe- free acid and not a salt such as the calcium cially in an energy limited diet, can result in a and sodium salts of organic acids, as they Clostridial infection because this proteolytic have no net acid contribution. Even with pure acids it is not possible to organism, unlike the commensal microflora, is capable of obtaining energy from deamina- provide sufficient acid to directly alter feed pH and you can work this out easily because tion of amino acids, peptides and proteins. The use of highly buffered feed or stress we know that 1 mole calcium carbonate will conditions can lead to a reduced produc- require 1 mole of acid to neutralise it. - Add calcium carbonate (limestone) at tion of acid in the proventriculus. Reduced
30 | May - June 2013

Natural fermentation in the intestine is vital
Gastric bacterial fermentation contributes significantly to maintaining a low gastric pH. This can be supported by the use Salkil to provide suitable ‘platforms’ for bacterial colonisation allowing acidophilic species to predominate in the gut. In older animals lactic acid represents only 50 percent of the total organic acid content in the gut. The remaining acids will be produced by cellulolytic species such as Butyrivibrio and Roseburia that ferment cellulose to acetic and butyric acids provided the environment remains acidic. Butyric acid is a vital component of the hindgut. It is a colonocyte nutrient that will assist in villus development in young animals and will help regrowth after disease. This is especially important after coccidia or enteric pathogens such as Salmonella or Escherichia that damage the gut lining, erode villi and result in bleeding from the intestinal wall. Blood in the intestine from pathogen attack is the perfect nutrient for proteolytic species like Clostridia. For the gut to recover faster it requires a readily available energy source, butyric acid, produced by cellulose digestion in the hindgut. Butyric acid has been reported to increase the density and length of villi, enlarging the adsorption surface of the intestine (Galfi and Bokori 1990). The bacteria responsible for butyric acid production in the gut, Butyrivibrio and Roseburia for example, have narrow ranges of pH tolerance and if their activity decreases, so does the butyric acid production in the gut. Adding a protected butyric acid source is an effective means of helping villus structure to recover, whilst supporting the acidophilic microflora such as the cellulose digesters and members of the Lactobacillaceae family (Galfi 1990).

Feeding the commensals
Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), such as inulin, have a direct effect on the gut microflora. Inulin is a complex sugar. Most
Grain

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POULTRY gut bacteria preferentially metabolise simple sugars allowing the inulin to reach the hindgut. Inulin in the hind gut allows bacteria, typically fibre digesters like Butyrivibrio and Roseburia, as well as the bacteriocin producing Bifidobacteria, to grow and exclude Clostridia. The inclusion of a FOS in a ration formulation will therefore have a direct effect on the microbial colonisation of the hind gut. By restricting Clostridial activity with butyric acid and by providing the commensal microflora with a valuable energy source that is unavailable to Clostridia, any surplus amino acids can be incorporated into the microbial biomass in the gut rather wasteful deamination. Products like Kiotechagil Prefect are designed to optimise gut performance to help prevent the effects of amino acid imbalance. Prefect supplies: 1. Organic acids to maintain acidity in the proventriculus thereby maximising protein utilisation in the foregut. 2. Fructo-oligosaccharides (inulin) to inhibit clostridia and other enteropathogens whilst promoting a strong cellulolytic gut microflora to maintain healthy butyric acid levels. 3. Additional butyric acid to provide an instant energy source for villi mucosa to help overcome irritation and necrosis resulting from Clostridial or coccidial attack. 4. A unique carrier that promotes colonisation by lactic acid bacteria to establish the necessary healthy gut microflora to achieve genetic potential.

About the author
Murray Hyden trained at Imperial College London in Food and Dairy Microbiology and Industrial Microbiology. He worked for ICI Plc, Agricultural Division as a Research Microbiologist for 16 years specialising in ruminant nutrition and poultry health. During his time there he worked on the interactions of intestinal microflora in relation to the diet specification. In 1985 he joined Agil Ltd, a privately owned British company manufacturing and distributing feed additive products to several European countries. Murray has been involved in all stages of product development and has overseen the launch of the entire range of feed additives since 1987. His microbiological approach to find alternatives to antibiotics in animal feeding has lead to the launch of a unique range of products that are now used around the world. In 2004 Murray was promoted to managing director of Agil and then Kiotechagil after an acquisition. He has presented his work at international conferences in countries such as Sweden, Mexico, Argentina, Brazil, France, Philippines, Thailand, Japan, China and Australia. He has helped in the development of biosecurity control programmes for poultry and pig breeding companies around the world. Following more recent acquisitions by the company, Murray has returned to his primary interest and is now director of biosecurity for Anpario Group.

References
The XXIII Worlds Poultry Congress offered new insights for managing necrotic enteritis and coccidiosis. www. thepoultrysite.com Ammonia Emissions from Animal Waste FAO 2012 Lysine and other amino acids for feed: production and contribution to protein utilisation in animal feeding – Yasuhiko Toride in Protein Sources for the animal feed industry FAO document repository. Dr Olayinka Akine All About Feed. net Vol 20 No7 2012 p18 - 20 Galfi P and Bokori J Acta Vet Hung 1990: 38(12):3-17

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Website: www.anpario.com

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Grain

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May - June 2013 | 31

Pest control
in storage
Pest control

across the supply chain

1
P
32 | May - June 2013

Following last year’s poor harvest experience in the United Kingdom, there’s a clear recognition that every grain counts. A planned approach is proving key in maximising output from the supply chain

rotecting grain and silos from insect infection is an important factor to be aware of. “Clearly millers want high quality, consistent grain,” says Martin Savage, trade policy manager, National Association for British and Irish Millers (nabim), United Kingdom, but this is not always acknowledged by farmers. “There are some perceptions amongst farmers that millers carry out a degree of physical cleaning of the grain after it leaves the

farm. We do process it, by removing dust and foreign bodies, but the grain itself is basically in the same condition as when it arrives,” says Savage. Ken Black, national account manager for rural hygiene, Bayer, United Kingdom, advocates a pro-active, preventative approach when protecting grain. “This is nothing new and should be the case every year, however the need is emphasised this year given the lateness of the agricultural calendar this spring. “Predictions are that 70-80 percent of farmers still won’t have done their fabric of

the building treatment by June,” says Black. “For this reason, we are actively promoting the benefits of ensuring treatments are made up to two months prior to harvest, ahead of what could be another challenging year.”

Good grain store practices
With this in mind, Savage says that promoting good grain store practices amongst suppliers is very important; a factor that offers pay back on a number of levels. “Primarily there’s the management of the
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FEATURE

Thoroughly modern treatments
Black explains that the Maximum Residue Level (MRL) for deltamethrin - the active contained in Bayer’s grain store treatment, K-Obiol® is 2 mg/kg. “A significant advantage of K-Obiol® is that when either of its formulations are applied at their recommended rate, the residue level is only 0.25 mg/kg - 8 times lower than the MRL. “This is something we’re keen to communicate to millers, because we understand the legitimate concerns they and their customers have regarding pesticide residues, which is why, K-Obiol® has been formulated to have such a low MRL,” says Black. K-Obiol® is formulated to control a wide range of stored crop insects, including grain weevils, flour beetles, grain borers, saw-toothed grain beetles, and flying insects too. It’s available in two modern pyrethroid formulations, both containing the active ingredient, deltamethrin. K-Obiol® EC25 has been formulated to treat the fabric of grain silos and storage facilities prior to the introduction of grain. K-Obiol® EC25 can also be used as an admixture, post-harvest and will offer up to 12 months protection. The second formulation, K-Obiol® ULV6, is also designed to be used as an admixture, post-harvest. Black explains that this treatment offers a number of key benefits. “As well as having an incredibly low MRL, K-Obiol® also offers no with-holding period. Other similar treatments commonly have a withholding period of at least 90 days, meaning that the grain can’t be processed until three months after the application. Grain treated by K-Obiol® can be processed straight away.” K-Obiol’s other key advantage lies within its active ingredient deltamethrin. “Competitor products often contain actives from the organophospate chemical family,” says Black. “This is old chemistry now and has been heavily used over the past years. Some strains of beetles and weevils are now resistant to this and require a further application of a pyrethroid insecticide or fumigation to achieve full control, heightening the amount of chemical applied to the grain and therefore increasing the residue risk.” Peter Crowden is a specialist pest controller at Rutland Pest Control and sits on the NPTA (National Pest Technicians Association) board. Peter specialises in pest control on arable farms and explains that K-Obiol® is his product of choice. “We’re confident in using both K-Obiol® EC25 as a treatment to the fabric of the
Grain

store to keep moisture and temperature levels down; they themselves can damage the grain, but they can also lead to other problems such as moulds and secondary insect infestation.” The process for controlling this starts at a very early stage and begins with thorough store cleaning and ensuring that any residues of grain from the previous year are removed and treatments are applied where necessary. Black echoes Savage’s comments, noting that in a late cereals season when there are many other farm work pressures, there is a risk that good store hygiene will slip down the priority list, yet it must not be forgotten. “An early application of a grain treatment product to the fabric of the building will ensure that the store is protected against any previous insect infestations or reinfestations later on in the season,” says Black. “It offers the peace of mind that
34 | May - June 2013

everything is being done to protect their valuable stored crops.” Savage explains that working closely with farmers to strongly advocate the cleaning of the store and the measures carried out to rid them of any insects, prior to the grain being introduced at harvest is key. “The penalties at stake are really too high not to prioritise these measures because our customers are very sensitive about pesticide residues, so we really encourage thorough store preparation in the first instance.” He appreciates that in order to fully protect the grain, a treatment will need to be applied to the product once it’s in store and he’s aware of customer concerns surrounding this. That said, Savage acknowledges that if insecticide treatments are carried out properly and in accordance with the labels then it’s a reasonable and necessary approach.

Image courtesy of Alpha Fumigation Services Ltd

&feed milling technology

FEATURE building and K-Obiol® ULV6 as a grain ad-mixture,” says Crowden. “Deltamethrin does not significantly penetrate the grain, therefore providing confidence that the MRL will not be exceeded.” a practical level, mills receiving grain with insect infestations would report the rejection to either of those assurance schemes and they would either carry out an immediate audit or it would be flagged up for the next annual audit.”

Supply chain strategy
With this in mind, it would appear that the key for success in these challenging times is strategy. It begins with an early, proactive response to preparing the grain store, well in advance of the harvest. It then continues into how farmers treat the grain once it’s in the store. The strategy then extends into how the growers decide to market their product. In the United Kingdom, such a strategic marketing approach is advocated by the cereals and oilseed rape levy board, the HGCA. “They encourage farmers to market their cereal proactively and according to a plan,” says Savage. “This may involve selling some of the grain early in the season, a further quantity mid-way through the year and some at the end of the season. Essentially this means producers will be able to spread their price risk where they have the confidence that grain is protected for the full 12-month cycle. This is a win-win situation as, from a milling point of view, it helps to ensure a continuous supply of high-quality, insect free grain throughout the season.

Financial implications
While flour millers do hold some weight when advising on methods of best practice, Crowden believes that the biggest incentive for growers to protect their grain is the financial implications associated with having their wheat rejected due to insect infestations. “The mere presence of insects at mills is unacceptable because they will make it through the cleaning and sieving processes and can turn up in the final products. Generally speaking, the presence of any insect leads to rejection.” Savage says that in the event of insects being present, the grain is likely to be returned to the farmer. Not only will he not get paid for that delivery, he’ll also have to cover the haulage cost. Failing that, it might get used for animal feed and therefore attract a far lower price.” Savage adds that understandably, farmers are aware of this, and mills do make it very clear. “nabim and MAGB represent processors on the boards of Red Tractor and the Scottish Quality Crops (SQC) so we can ensure that the standards focus on good store management and pest control. On

New infestations
Crowden highlights another financial implication related to insect infestation. “In the event of new insect infestations occurring in the stored grain, it will be necessary to consider the use of ad-mixed insecticide such as, K-Obiol® EC25, or K-Obiol® ULV6. Another approach is aluminium phosphide fumigation, but use of this method is reliant on whether or not it is permitted by the end markets. Fumigation is a very expensive option, it can often cost anything up to £5 per tonne. “In contrast, treatment with K-Obiol® EC25 is around 62-65 p per tonne and will provide up to 12 months protection when used as an ad-mixture,” he says. From a pest controller’s point of view, Crowden is in agreement with Black and Savage. He warns that growers need to deal with any pest issues before the 2013 crop is harvested, or face severe impairment to grain quality. “This will result in the loss of grain, lost quality premiums and the possibility of a load being rejected due to insect infestation.”

More Information:
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&feed milling technology

May - June 2013 | 35

FEATURE Image 2: Hatch cover resting where it landed

in transit
Grains on the move are not immune from pest problems. Transportation time can be effectively used to solve this issue, but does come with its own set of challenges

Pest control

2
W

by Mike Kelly, Acheta, United Kingdom

e have around 100 years of experience in fumigating to disinfest ships and their cargoes. These days the use of phosphine gas in bulk grain shipments, or consignments, is not unusual, and is often seen as an efficient use of the ship and time, arranging the fumigation to take place during a cargo’s voyage, using the vessel itself as a mobile, floating fumigation chamber. However, as with on-land bulk grain fumigations, certain safety precautions must be observed to maintain a satisfactory level of safety for all involved - the pest control contractor (fumigator), the ship’s crew during the voyage, and the staff involved in discharging the fumigated cargo at the final destination port. The legal and safety requirements are detailed in several official documents, which are available to everyone involved in this process:

contained in the IMO’s Recommendations on the Safe Use of Pesticides in Ships, Applicable to the Fumigation of Cargo Holds

What are the risks with phosphine fumigation?
These two documents together are extensive and comprehensive. Everyone involved in the fumigation of bulk grain and other cargoes, from the loading of the vessel to be fumigated, to the handling of the grain/ commodity being discharged from the vessel after in-transit fumigation, should be aware of their responsibilities to ensure it is as safe an activity as possible. Responsibilities vary with the activity during the fumigation procedure, but everyone must take the subject and their part in it seriously. Perhaps because phosphine has been in use for several decades, and in general is a less equipmentheavy application method, many people involved tend to take it for granted and assume that safety is built-in to the activity. It is worth reminding everyone involved in phosphine fumigation, of the lethal potential of these ‘easy-to-use little tablets’ and the other formulations: Phosphine gas (PH3) is never kept under pressure in cylinders, as methyl bromide used to be, because it will explode. It is generated on-site by water vapour reacting with the solid metal phosphides. So you will see tablets similar in size to Alka Selzer. This is the only similarity to the effervescent antacid, which we all know because PH3 is a deadly poisonous gas. This is a major problem. When methyl bromide was in use, everyone knew it was a deadly gas, with lots of stories of

workers being off work with foot or chest problems when the gas seeped into boots and wellingtons, or it was breathed in, undetected, damaging and sometimes lethal lung problems. With methyl bromide, we were never allowed to sail a vessel ‘under gas’. The fumigation was completed at the quayside, with all but a few vital crew, on-shore in local hotels. But times have changed (not necessarily for the better). I suspect it is due to considerable pressure from all ends of the grain trade, but we now regularly see grain cargoes travelling the oceans under phosphine fumigation. This situation would be OK if everyone involved understood and followed all the safety rules. But this is clearly not the case, as several mistakes and accidents have shown in recent months.

Government safey services
Over recent years the Health & Safety Executive (HSE) has greatly reduced its interest in and involvement with inland fumigations. During the annual BPCA Fumigation Diploma Course, HSE always explained the standards and expectations in fumigation. This has gradually ceased coinciding with the phasing out of methyl bromide. The normal grain trade has not seen any problems in fumigating grain stocks in silos and flat storages across the land, but we no longer see an HSE overview, or any HSE presence at all, realising finally last year that HSE no longer has a single specialist to advise on fumigations issues. They have, in association with the BPCA, produced and revised their Guidance Notes, and this is now available as a downloadable free publication (ISBN 978 0
Grain

Fumigation
Health and safety guidance for employers and technicians carrying out fumigation operations, HSE’s document ISBN 978 0 7176 2999 2 - HSG251

Recommendations on the safe use of pesticides in ships
The United Nations International Maritime Organisation (IMO) Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) Convention places an obligation on all governments to ensure all shipping activities are carried out safely. The use of pesticides includes the fumigation of cargo spaces and of cargo, in port, or in-transit, and any part of the ship so affected by their use, as
36 | May - June 2013

&feed milling technology

FEATURE

7176 2999 2 - HSG251), very useful, but the physical staff are no longer there – retired and not replaced. The recent accident in Northern Ireland, involving the vessel Arklow Meadow, occurred when some phosphine ‘sleeves’ were mishandled, by being left on the wet deck still generating phosphine gas that resulted in a large-scale hospitalisation of those who inhaled the phosphine. The investigation and brief report, was by the Marine Accident Investigation Branch of Southampton (see the accident overview). A few years ago HSE would have been the major safety service to be involved in situations of this nature, but in recent years they have lost their fumigation specialists through retirements. But what is the relevance of these changes? Is fumigation at sea any different in 2013 to what was the case in 2005? The answer unfortunately is yes, less safe, and why is as follows:

Image 1: Bulk grain loading

Changes in perception
With the phasing out of methyl bromide, there is also a reduced level of understanding of the risks and hazards of cargo fumigations. The relevant legislation is still in place, and the strongly-worded advisory documents covering the activities involving fumigation at sea remain,

but somehow grain handlers, silo operators, shippers and exporters/importers and other traders seem to have forgotten the main issues. Fumigation is the use of a potentially deadly gas, which is usually significantly more dangerous to humans than to insects. Let me explain this last statement so there is no confusion; Methyl bromide would kill insects and humans easily, within a space of a few hours;

the legal human safe limit was always 5 parts per million (ppm) for an exposure of a normal working day, and exceptionally 15 ppm for up to 15 minutes. This was for a gas everyone knew and understood to be dangerous, and which was to be treated with great care and caution. Cargoes to be fumigated with methyl bromide were done either on land before loading, or in a ship with the crew taken off to a nearby hotel. No questions and no objections, and safety was paramount, with the

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May - June 2013 | 37

FEATURE days with all crew safe on shore, than to allow the ship to sail with a much more hazardous gas in use, but utilizing the voyage time as an important component to get the best fumigation done at the same time. Through most of the world, we have almost or actually, lost methyl bromide for sound environmental reasons, but the simple tablet or sachet or plate generating phosphine gas is generating a gas more lethal to humans than many people realise. Not quite completed fumigation sleeves left on a wet deck could easily kill people. Working in a hold before all gas has been vented and a genuine clearance certificate issued by a technically knowledgeable fumigator, could be the last work a person does. Phosphine really is a more dangerous gas than methyl bromide was, though all fumigants are hazardous to man. The human safe limit of 0.1 ppm compared to 5 ppm tells it all, and is not just a silly over-reaction. It is agreed Image 4: Lightly toasted wheat!’ after throughout the explosion and surface flame in the hold western world, and the United States that this Image 3: Testing for very low level gas, after the event is the only safe level to work to. My concern is to see workers not taking the tablets, sachets and sleeves and plates seriously, just because they look innocuous. We don’t need a lot of scientific detail, about the differences destroys the ozone layer, has never had a between these formulations - they all proproblem of resistance, and is ‘safe’ up to 5 duce Phosphine - sometimes quicker, sometimes slower, but it is always a toxic hazard ppm, and was done in-port. Phosphine takes days, sometimes weeks to man, and correct actions are needed to depending on species and temperature, has keep everyone involved safe. Gas detecting and measuring equipment quite a range of species showing serious resistance, and is ‘safe’ only up to 0.1 ppm must be available on board, and those who (or 0.2 ppm for 15 minutes) and is usually need to use it must have received suitable training. Gas testing must take place during done at-sea. Remember: Methyl bromide should the voyage to ensure that areas where crew never be used for fumigation in-transit (IMO members will work or sleep are free from dangerous levels of the gas. The ventilation Recommendations, Annex 1D). system and procedures must provide a safe to handle cargo at the port of discharge, Weighing up the dangers It is very easy to look at this and say that and usually this is managed by the profeshere is money talking. It is far too costly to sional fumigator contracted to service the hold a vessel in port whilst the fumigation is fumigated cargo. Just before I close, please also rememconducted and completed, over maybe 15 HSE, IMO and Coastguard Agency all working to the same standard and expectation. Methyl bromide requires about 24 hours to work, occasionally up to 48 hours, then the cargo can be ventilated and off-loaded or otherwise handled. Phosphine is a much slower-acting fumigant, not just in its generation from solid metal phosphides, but also in its action on the target pests, particularly insects and mites. Despite the much higher concentrations in most cargo fumigations, insects and mites take days to succumb. To work effectively the fumigation usually extends at least 5-10 days. This is not just to make life more difficult for the grain trade, but it is a biological fact of insect life. Insects can often survive more than a week at concentrations which would kill humans in minutes. So methyl bromide works quickly,
38 | May - June 2013

Accident overview

Release of phosphine gas alongside Warrenpoint, Northern Ireland
On December 5, 2012, the general cargo vessel Arklow Meadow was discharging her cargo of maize alongside the timber berth at Warrenpoint, Northern Ireland. Fumigation retainers (socks) had been placed on top of her cargo before the vessel had sailed from Nikatera, Ukraine. Although the vessel had been certified to commence cargo operations by a shoreside tank inspector after he had tested the atmosphere in the upper parts of the holds, the fumigant retainers were not removed from the holds when discharge operations commenced.

Fumigation specialist on vessel Arklow Meadow during the emergency As a result, some of the fumigant retainers were removed by the crew and some were shipped into the shore hoppers. The retainers removed by the crew started to smoke profusely, and a retainer burst, spilling its contents when it was removed from the hopper. The smoking retainers triggered a major emergency response situation within the port and nine people were taken to hospital for treatment for the exposure to ‘poison’.
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ber that phosphine gas can self-ignite at higher concentrations, another reason to handle it with care and technical understanding. A cargo of bulk wheat loaded in the south of France for Iran, when the cargo was very warm and the ambient humidity was high, blew the 20-tonne hatch covers off by exploding and breaking the cleats. Only the derricks stopped the hatch falling into the sea, which was fortunately calm so no more damage was incurred and the vessel could return to a port for repairs (Images 2, 3, 4).

More Information: Website: www.acheta.co.uk

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FEATURE

Results of a survey on the nutritional value of soybean and rapeseed meals and cereals for animal nutrition
by Claire Relandeau, solution development manager, Europe Africa Middle East Adisseo, France

Assessing nutritional value with NIR

survey on the nutritional value of soybean and rapeseed meals and wheat and corn for monogastric feeds has been conducted by Adisseo. Results show great variations in the nutrient value depending on year of harvest, cultivar, geographical origin, and processing conditions. The survey included analysis of the digestible amino acid and apparent metabolizable energy (AME) values using Adisseo’s NIR predictive equations which have been calculated in reference to in vivo digestibility tests. In 2012, Adisseo conducted a large survey of the nutritional content of soybean and rapeseed meals in Europe over a 6-week period. Great heterogeneity was observed, with variation coefficients ranging from 3 percent to 8 percent for the main components: crude protein, total and digestible lysine, total and phytic phosphorus and AME. Highest variations were observed for AME of soybean meals, and digestible amino acid contents of rapeseed meals (Table 1).

A

from Argentina contained the most, followed by those from the USA, then those from Brazil and finally, with the least, those from India (Figure 1).

An important influence of the country of origin
In 170 samples of soybean meals collected over a 6-week period from 13 countries in Europe and America, crude protein content ranged from 44 percent to 51 percent and total lysine from 2.54% to 3.01%. The lysine to crude protein ratio depended on the country of origin. Is this a botanical or cultural effect? It is difficult to say without further investigation, but observations are clear; for similar crude protein contents, samples coming from Argentina had higher lysine levels than samples coming from Brazil and the USA. Interestingly, lysine digestibility was higher in US samples, as reported by Mateos et al. (2010). Consequently regarding the total content of digestible lysine, soybean meals
40 | May - June 2013

Figure 1: Digestible lysine contents of soybean meal depend Even for a on crude protein and country of origin well-characterised product, great variations in nutritional content were observed. Soybean meal 48 ProFat is supposed to contain 48 percent crude protein + fat, with comparable digestible amino acid and energy contents. In fact, the Adisseo study showed that crude protein content varied by 1-2 percentage points Figure 2: Apparent metabolisable energy content of soybean and digestible meal 48 ProFat is highly variable amino acid content by 4-5 percent. The most variable nutrient was AME extent they perceive is necessary to create a protein + fat content of 48 percent. The with variations between 80 to 120 kcal/kg. The oil content is not the main cause of higher the initial protein content of the bean, the variation in AME. Crude fibre explains a the higher the amount of hulls to be added, part of it. Let’s explain why. To manufacture and the higher the crude fibre content as soybean meal 48 ProFat, the crushers can well. We achieve a paradox where better decide to dehull the beans before extracting seeds may result in meals of lower nutrient the oil. They then add back the hulls to an interest.
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Are you sure about the value of your soybean meal?

&feed milling technology

FEATURE contents for monogastrics should be the first Rapeseed meals reflex, but privileging (n=118) the raw materials with the lowest levels of fibre is not a guarantee of high nutritional 31 < 35 < 39 value. 1.53 < 1.81 < 2.03 Aurélie Preynat, enzyme research 0.97 < 1.03 < 1.11 manager, Adisseo 0.77 < 0.85 < 0.93 and author of several 0.08 < 0.18 < 0.23 reports on the efficacy of multi enzyme Rovabio in soybean meal, says, “Indeed fibres do not act only 72 < 75 < 80 as nutrient diluent. 1.10 < 1.36 < 1.59 Their complex conn.d. stituents, such as mannans, pectins, xylans, and cellulose, also specifically decrease energy and amino acid digestibility. Our NIRs service is an efficient tool to rapidly and efficiently monitor the nutrients really available to the poultry.” “The commercial nomination 48 ProFat is not sufficient for precise nutrition and optimised feed production. More efficient characterisation and selection of the ingredients, based on their nutritional values, can result in savings as high as 10 €/t of feed,” calculates Elisabeth Bourgueil, technical manager France, Iberia and Italy, Adisseo.

Table 1: variations in nutrient values of oilseed meals* Min < Mean < Max Chemical components Crude protein (%) Total lysine (%) Total phosphorus (%) Phytic phosphorus (%) Non phytic phosphorus (%) Nutrients Lysine digestibility (%) Digestible lysine (%) 85 < 88 < 91 2.24 < 2.49 < 2.66 44 < 48 < 51 2.54 < 2.83 < 3.01 0.48 < 0.64 < 0.73 0.31 < 0.42 < 0.51 0.14 < 0.22 < 0.30 Soybean meals (n=170)

Rapeseed meal quality affected by crushing process
Rapeseed meal quality also depends on the country of production and crushing plants. In this 2012 survey, rapeseed meals produced in Germany appeared to have higher non-phytic to phytic phosphorus ratios than those produced in France, suggesting higher available phosphorus values. On average, digestible lysine contents are also higher. Differences within a country are however as high as between countries. Repeated sampling of six French rapeseed meal factories over a one-month period showed for example that lysine digestibility ranges between 72 and 80 percent and is very plant specific (Figure 3). This analysis shows an important effect of suppliers, especially for digestible amino acid contents. The method using regressions to predict digestible amino acid content based on crude protein content is unable to reflect these differences. Introducing NIR calibrations for digestible amino acids in quality control plans at raw material reception is therefore a step forward to optimise ingredient purchases and proper use in feed formulations.

Metabolisable energy (kcal/kg) 2055 < 2363 < 2517 * All analyses performed with NIR 

Energy value is somewhat correlated with fibre content, but the linear regression from fibre to energy content is not precise enough to be used in formulation: with 5 percent crude fibre content, a soybean meal can contain 2300 or 2450 kcal AME/ Kg (Figure 2). This 150 Kcal difference, picked up by PNE, Adisseo NIRs Service, would correspond to a soybean meal shadow price difference of 45 €/ T. In practice, excluding high crude fibre

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FEATURE should be a concern shared by all functions: quality manager, nutritionist and buyer. Especially when feedstuffs are so expensive, it is important to ensure you are purchasing the right feedstuff for the right objective at the right price.

PNE for wheat and corn
Nutritionists also need Precise Nutrition Evaluation for wheat and corn. In 2009 and 2010, Adisseo also carried out a large survey of 300 samples of wheat and corn collected from 19 countries from Europe and Africa. The aim was to measure the nutritional profile of cereals according to harvest and country. All samples were analysed for their nutrient content, digestible amino acid concentrations and AME using NIR. The concentrations of digestible lysine in wheats ranged from 0.23 to 0.32 g/100 g, with a significant effect of

Figure 3: Rapeseed meal digestibility is pretty much affected by the manufacturing process. Different symbols represent rapeseed meals from crushing plants (29 samples from 6 crushing plants)

Figure 4: NIR analysis as shortcuts for in vivo nutrient value measurements

Apparent Metabolisable Energy
“Digestible lysine content is a key marker of quality of rapeseed meals. We have similar findings in DDGS, the by products of ethanol production, and this observation may be applied to a larger range of processed feedstuffs”, says Cécile Gady, Adisseo NIRs and feedstuff manager, Adisseo.

400 equations provide precise values
This large-scale study illustrates that classical laboratory analyses and knowledge of the origin of the raw material are a first steps in feedstuff characterisations, but they are not sufficient to get a good prediction of nutritional contents. Precise Nutrition Evaluation (PNE), the Adisseo NIR service,
42 | May - June 2013

gives the possibility to go one step further, with the measurement of the real digestible amino acid and AME values. For 15 years, Adisseo has been working on the correlations existing between feedstuff NIR spectra and in vivo data, obtained in vivo digestibility trials conducted at their research facility CERN in France. The outcome? 400 equations providing the most precise values on total and digestible amino acids, AME, total and phytic phosphorus and the possibility to estimate, on a routine basis, those most costly nutrients in monogastric diets (Figure 4). These NIRs analyses are useful to ensure that diets provide the expected nutrients at the lowest cost. Knowing one’s raw materials

geographical origin. For AME, Eastern countries exhibited the lowest content (from 2,786 to 2,860 Kcal/kg) whereas the highest concentrations were found in the northern countries (2,880 to 2,923 Kcal/kg). Amino acids and AME contents of corn showed a similar level of variability, with a significant country effect. AME ranged from 3367 Kcal/ kg in Romania and Spain to 3,441 Kcal/kg in Germany and Argentina. This observation may be due to the interaction of many factors, including grain growing and drying conditions. More Information:
Website: www.adisseo.com

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FEATURE

Managing mill maintenance
by Alice Neal, associate editor, Grain and Feed Milling Technology, United Kingdom
key concern for all millers is getting maximum life and efficiency out of equipment while maintaining a high standard of product. Roller mills play a key part in the milling process and have a direct influence on subsequent processes and eventually on the yield and quality of the end product. Roller mills are a very flexible piece of equipment as they can perform a variety of tasks, be it crumbling pellets, cracking, flaking grain or grinding. They can also handle many different products including corn, wheat, soybean, pellets, and canola. However, despite the diverse range of applications, the operation and maintenance of roller mills generally follows a standard procedure.

Roller mill maintenance

A

outer layer. These rolls are typically made by centrifugal casting. In this process, a hard-metal alloy is fed into a die that spins at high speed. Then the softer gray iron is added. This technique produces rolls with a high density and homogeneity which are crucial for high wear and resistance. The centrifugal process forces impurities up to the surface of the roll during manufacturing. Any impurities can be easily removed before the roll is finished. These features mean that centrifugal cast rolls last longer than static cast rolls. Another option is titanium, these rolls are harder and more resistant to abrasions than other materials. Titanium rolls are usually made of cast iron with steel added as an

Longer rolls will last longer than a shorter roll handling the same volume of material. Similarly, rolls with a bigger diameter will have a longer working life. The flutes or corrugations will also affect roll expectancy. Coarse flutes will last longer but will produce a chunkier end product whereas fine flutes, which produce a finer end product, will need refurbishment sooner.

Effective operating
The life expectancy of a roll depends on several variables. First, the products put through the machine will have an impact on the wear. Large and hard products such as canola or rapeseed will pose more of a challenge to the roller

Image courtesy of Ugur Makina

The manufacturing process
The main wear parts in roller mills are the rolls. They are set up in pairs and one machine can contain different numbers of rolls depending on the application. A high-quality roll represents real value for a miller. A good roll will produce a consistent product and help minimise costly plant downtime and maintenance efforts. Getting the maximum life and efficiency out of a roller starts with the choice of metal. A popular option is a two-component chilled iron compound roll with a cast iron inner core with a harder, chilled iron
44 | May - June 2013

alloying element to increase strength and wear resistance.

Flexibility in design
Most manufacturers offer different rolls of different hardnesses depending on the application. The hardness is important: too hard and the roll will lose its grip on the product; too soft and the rolls will wear out more easily. Just as there are material choices to consider, there are other areas of roller design which can be altered depending on the application. All of these will have an effect on wear and lifetime.

mill than smaller, softer materials such as corn or wheat. Cleanliness of the raw materials is also a key consideration. Stones or tramp metal can get stuck in the flutes, causing uneven wear. In addition, higher volumes of product will make a roller mill work harder and rolls will therefore wear out faster. No matter how much product a roller mill has to handle, it is important to ensure an even flow of material through the machine as inconsistent feeding will lead to one part of the roll wearing at a disproportionate rate.
Grain

&feed milling technology

FEATURE Installing a hopper between the conveyor or elevator will stop surges in material entering the roller mill. Taking time over roller setup will pay dividends in terms of roller life. The key considerations are making sure the rolls are parallel and level in relation to each other. Top rolls will wear quicker than bottom rolls so switching top and bottom rolls will ensure that the set wears evenly. This is a good move, as it is more convenient to replace a full set of rolls than pairs and will result in less downtime. flutes are ground smooth before refluting while rolls with coarse corrugations can be refluted using the exisiting flutes as a guide. However, deeper corrugations will limit the number of times a roll can be refurbished.

Recorrugation/refluting
Rolls can be refluted (or recorrugated) when they are worn out. Manufacturers will be able to provide the best advice but once again there are roll-specific factors to take into consideration. Rolls with larger diameters can also be refurbished a greater number of times than a roll with a smaller diameter. Rolls with fine

Other factors to consider
Bearings need regular greasing and this task should be built into a maintenance schedule. Drives, especially belt drives need to be aligned, properly tensioned, and the load limitations need to be adhered to.

Maintenance case study
Satisfying highest demands with TITAN rolls Bühler’s FERAN rolls have proven their worth in the milling industry worldwide over the last decades. They build the basis of the milling roll portfolio. Within the past years a need for even longer living rolls has been emerging. To satisfy this need Bühler’s casting experts have conducted extensive research efforts based on their long lasting experience. They came up with a further developed mixing ratio between the hard and the soft iron components in the chilled iron alloy based on a new metallurgical recipe. Especially for corrugated rolls that are subjected to particularly high stressing TITAN rolls offer great value: they considerably minimize the maintenance costs and the undesired downtime in the grinding process. This is due to an increase of 30 percent and more in service life compared to Bühler’s standard FERAN roll. It is obvious that this leads to a higher availability of the milling plant since less roll changes are required. Therefore maintenance costs are significantly reduced. Apart from that the cost of working capital decreases since less rolls need to be stocked. Additionally – and nowadays more and more important in the milling industry – energy costs are reduced thanks to the lasting sharpness of the corrugation. Summing up, TITAN rolls stand for lowest total cost of ownership for the miller. The value that was added by TITAN rolls has been proven in numerous milling companies all over the world. “We are very satisfied with the TITAN rolls. Their service life is 60 percent longer compared to local rolls”, confirms a Japanese flour milling company who stands representatively for the large number of TITAN roll users. Because of their high durability the TITAN rolls are also very much appreciated by the oilseed processing and ethanol industry. More
information:

www.Bühlergroup.com

Grain

&feed milling technology

May - June 2013 | 45

Images courtsey of Bühler AG

FEATURE

Turkish

milling
industry review
by Tom Blacker, directories coordinator, Perendale Publishers Ltd, United Kingdom

G

PART 1
Turkey is developing quickly and its grain milling industry is a part of it. The OECD's assessments backing up these viewpoints are interesting, see www.oecd.org/turkey for more information. interests but both Obial and Alapala meet a core value of meeting customers’ needs too. There is trade to be done in Turkey but exploring the exports together can be a real team effort with plain success.

rain & Feed Milling Technology magazine is keenly aware of the rise of Turkey. In modern times, especially since the start of the 21st century, Turkey has become more and more important to the region and beyond. Turkey is a remarkable centre of milling located in a region best called Eurasia. It has a rich collection of people, cultures and ambitions for milling across all sectors of skills. Turkish manufacturing has been commonly viewed as secondary to the larger and better known brands for reliability, quality and trust can be found in Europe.

Core competences
The markets Turkish milling manufacturers enter into are impressively diverse. In order of importance customers are based across the Middle East, North Africa, South America, Central Asia, India and Europe. In this spread of markets, many American and European products are not as well established as in their own domestic regions. Turkish companies have recently stolen a march in other milling markets like Iran but we heard that recent international financial sanctions on Iran have shelved projects already. Also, reports from the United Nations’ FAO show that Turkish purchase prices of wheat, barley, rye and corn have all risen recently. The price per tonne has increased many times over since the last decade compared to the figures ending in 2010. This tallies with the large growth in the recent decade whilst western economies have suffered from the global financial crisis; Turkey’s prices have expanded with the growth in the market and its grain has become a more costly commodity. From our point of view, it comes down to simple economics as well as a flexible amount of collaboration in a competitive market. The market has had to help itself collectively as well as in competition. Certain firms like Alapala will work with firms like Obial for a mutual interest in distribution load and for serving customers in a productive way. This style of competition mixed with collaboration is effective for all. There is seemingly no conflict of business

Eastern/Western
There are many more surprises about Turkish milling manufacturing. Another is that there are long-term investments taking place for future growth. Genc Digirmen and GDM of Konya have brand-new factories and are planning further development to meet large demands in the future. They value these investments as tools that enable their products to compete with the market at large and suit customers needs better than ever before. Some companies in Turkey privately acknowledge that they were influenced by leading European companies in the past but can now engineer new and effective solutions for themselves. The emphasis on research, development and customers has rightly earned a top priority for all of the largest manufacturers we spoke to. It comes down the simple business practice that Turkish firms want to earn loyalty themselves and that their products will deliver.

Development in the last decade
We know that the last 10 years have been some of the most crucial in Turkeys development. For example, Binali Yildririm, Turkish minister of transport, maritime affairs and communication, says, "before 2003, the total length of divided roads in Turkey was 6,101 km and we increased this figure to 22,300 km". As you may know, GFMT exhibited at IDMA, Turkey's largest milling exhibition but we also looked to hear about the markets, developments and innovations from the leading companies at this event and arrange visits and meetings after the show.We hit the road, 2,000 km of it in fact, to visit a range of offices, factories and laboratories and saw many mills, farms and grain cooperatives. We met with leading Turkish organisations in all these fields and even the TMO (Toprak Mahsulleri Ofisi/Turkish government grain board). TMO help by acting as a company that supports machinery manufacturers domestic customers. Throughout the time in Turkey, we heard how Turkey has been a largely self-made miracle from many sides of the industry.
46 | May - June 2013

A uniquely Turkish story?
Other factors relate to some Turkeyspecific background reasons. Costs are relatively low for employment, raw materials and transportation. The new road network, mentioned at the beginning of this article, has improved links between factories, laboratories and mills. Mersin is a southern Turkish port that is used by milling manufacturers to connect Turkey to the west and east from a single port. Other contributing factors such as the size and geography of Turkey matter to the
Grain

&feed milling technology

FEATURE

milling and feed industry. Developed cities such as Istanbul and Ankara take the business limelight for many other industries, and so it

with milling companies and model mills where they test and experiment for all sorts of purposes. Some firms are still family owned in Konya, which differs from the common model of many similar western firms. Trends have caught on quickly and Konyas millers were seen by others in a growing market and others joined. This means there is healthy rivalry in this town but others are playing a game of catch-up. Konya has opened many doors for local engineers, electricians, labourers and millers to join forces. Skills such as trade labourers, marketing and sales, project management and degree qualifications from local universities in courses such as Food Engineering have combined well in the industry. Konya has drawn these people together like no other city in Turkey. There is great activity in the milling industry here and there were genuinely inspiring moments, such as seeing Molino’s scale model mill, archives and lusciously green and tropical offices; the ancient mosques and sights of Konya’s town centre and the high levels of hospitality afforded to us by the locals of Konya.

nations are less confident. Good technology enables millers to become more effective and better overall at their jobs. Customers looking at Turkish products have a larger amount of choice than ever before and this is why we really believe that the future is bright for Turkish milling.

Milling machines made by millers
On April 8, 2013, Eng Munir Yousif ElHakim, Islamic Development Co. Ltd, Sudan and Mr. Ismail Alapala, Alapala, Turkey met to finalise a business deal of 21 roller milling machines to be produced by Alapala for the Islamic Development Co. Ltd. The deal is part of a longer-term partnership between the Khartoum-based flour miller and the Corum-based manufacturer. Eng Munir Yousif ElHakim said that Alapala are one of the top three companies in this field in the world making these kind of machines. He chose Alapala because, "milling machines have to be made by millers. If not, you cannot succeed". “Alapala also have a good technical team for the machinery upkeep and running," he added. Staff will receive training for using these new machines. Capacity is vital to his company as well as the biggest flour miller in Sudan. Ismail Alapala added that, "Alapala leads where others follow with innovation and practicability. Machinery has to be a holistic solution. Others have no idea for spare parts whereas Alapala produce their own machines with their own supply chain."

Conclusions
This feature aimed to have joined the dots on the understated and quiet nature of Turkey’s growth in milling. As any far-fetched conclusion can be made for the future, it may be simpler to be certain that we believe at the next event, IDMA, Turkey will look not just to the Middle East and Africa but further afield. There will be firms looking to embed themselves more fully into Europe and competing with mills, laboratories and factories in Europe and beyond. The great number of advantages including TMO assistance, boldness in business to sell milling machinery to countries across the Middle East, Africa, Russia and others where other

turns to cities like Konya to be a magnetising location for this industry. TMO has a large grain storage facility on the side of the highway as you enter the outskirts of Konya that really strikes an impressive chord. The industrial parks teem

Alapala
Living a world of fluctuations
On our visit to Alapala's Çorum office, Görkem Alapala, stategy director, gave us the lowdown on how the company responds to a changing world We are living in a world of fluctations. Old technologies are replaced by the new ones and such changes and fluctuations in the market naturally lead you to continuously create fresh ideas. As Alapala Group, we are working in sustainability and development-oriented manner. In this process, we never
48 | May - June 2013

sacrifice quality and customer satisfaction. Our devoted and effective human resource, powerful technological infrastructure and passion for work have enabled Alapala Group to become one of the two largest firms of the world in this sector.

For 59 years we have kept our aims high which we will continue to hold. We will continue providing the best products and services to our customers thanks to our personnel who have adopted creativity, cooperation and perfectionism as their prin-

ciples. We will also continue introducing different markets to Alapala quality by adding new references to the present ones over 75 countries along with our international associates. Strategy director Görkem Alapala

Görkem Alapala
Grain

&feed milling technology

FEATURE

IDMA Event Review
A showcase for the Turkish industry on the international stage

I

DMA took place at Istanbul's Expo Center across three halls from April 4-7, 2013. The organisers have reported there were 8,052 visitors from 94 different countries and 236 exhibitors came together over 21,000 square metres. The exhibition had extra side conferences, presentations and meetings that were very well attended. Grain & Feed Milling Technology exhibited again at

immensely with Turkish visitors to our exhibition stand. On the opening morning, we sat behind the Turkish Grain Board on the second row at the opening reception with many speeches bringing the corporate nature of milling today to the fore. The ribbon cutting exercise was simultaneously completed by around a dozen dignitaries resulting in a moment of fun

from the heat! Other exhibitors came from far and wide but the heart of the event was proudly Turkish. We enjoyed hearing about the aims, hopes and concerns of local companies exhibit-

ing and discussing our magazine whether they were regular readers, writers or advertisers. Some stands were large and impressive and had had much work put into them - Bühler, Alapala and

this biannual event that really is acknowledged as the premier milling industry event in Turkey and the region. Darren Parris and Tom Blacker from the sales department were excited to participate, along with our event helper, Selin, who had a native level of Turkish which aided us

with a severely severed red ribbon. From this moment on, IDMA had begun. From the moment of arrival the day before the event started to the final moments, the atmosphere was sociable, upbeat and exciting. We were glad that our stand was in the coolest hall away

Molino
Molino's historical beginnings

Molino's amazing beginnings started with a 10 franc note in France in 1981. Dr Omer, then operating independently, met a buyer for a selfinvented, designed and manufactured milling machine called 'Valex'. This milling machine is still a product of Molino's and he requested to place an order. Dr Omer did not have Dr Omer an order form or any

official documentation and, acting on impulse, produced a 10 franc note. This was signed by the customer to seal the deal. A year later, another order for more Valex machines from the same customer resulted in

another signature on a bank note but this time it was a formality. A larger order followed and from this moment on Dr Omer was sure of the success of Valex. He now is president of Molino and is based back

in Turkey. He has taught in academia and been a real father of the Turkish milling industry. At IDMA Molino’s large stand showed the progress Molino have made since these first orders for Valex in 1981.

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May - June 2013 | 49

FEATURE

Bühler
The talk of IDMA
It was no secret that Buhler had arrived! From the moment the shell of their stand was erected over 338 square metres of exhibition hall space and the security guards took up their positions, it was as if this was The Return of the King.   Often referred to as the King of Innovation, the Buhler Group is proud of its innovative heritage and as such, likes to keep the inner workings of their leading technology secret. Hence the 24-hour security presence. Marcus Aurilious in 1708 said, “Imitation is the sincerest form of flattery” and never was there a more apt statement to sum up the effect Buhler has had on the milling industry in Turkey. So much so that no one is ashamed to admit they have taken ideas from Buhler. Although 20 years on, the Turkish industry is starting to innovate and develop and research in their own right. Their quality and technology has improved which

has only raised the standards yet further of Buhler's equipment, if ever that was possible.   Staying ahead of innovation is what keeps the Buhler Group at the top of innovation in milling. With leading technology such as 50 percent energy savings over comparable machines in its Vega Performance Grain Classifier, and their Antares Roller Mill providing 100 percent product safety and state of the art service management systems with WinCos Care, Buhler is truly Innovating for a better world. IDMA welcomed Buhler with open arms and as if to honour its arrival many paid tribute by using the distinctive Buhler colours to decorate their own stands and machines. All joking aside Buhler rolled out an awesome display of quality machinery. With global standards recognising

their reliability, highest sanitation standards for guaranteed product safety, superior design, maximum capacity for high product requirements, high system availability and high flow rate, it was no great surprise that Buhler were the talk of this year's show. In the current global economic downturn, no better message can be sent to an industry than saving money through energy saving applications. Buhler offers new ways of improving energy efficiency – without replacing existing

machinery. In three simple steps, Buhler process and energy experts show how its customers can save money and reduce their environmental footprint. Then after a complete plant audit, Buhler will calculate a customers ROI and if accepted will implement on site. Customers often say, quality costs money, Buhler customers says quality saves money. It was great to have Buhler at IDMA 2013, we look forward to their presence at the 2015 event. Long live the King.

Molino were especially dominant in size and Alapala were exhibiting in two out of the three halls! The most interesting comments about the show were about how focused on milling it has stayed but also how international it has become over the last few years. International companies are exhibiting in Turkey to boost their presence in this newer market. Turkish companies are expanding from a domestic market and we know several companies

exhibiting at IDMA were due to exhibit the following week at a grain event in Ukraine. We saw a difference with IDMA compared to other exhibitions in the new exhibitors who came to IDMA for the first time from across Turkey to gain customers. The established companies were gaining repeat custom and would often serve copious amounts of Turkish tea and coffee to all customers wishing to meet in the large stands that were like small buildings with different floors and rooms constructed within.

The other great feature of IDMA was the array of machinery, feed products and amount of information many of the exhibitors had brought with them. There were many colours of course in each hall but we noticed a certain turquoise colour dominant amongst all companies. We all know it began with Bühler, but does this now mean that the industry standard colour for milling machines is a bright turquoise, like construction industry vehicles, which are painted in a standard yellow? IDMA was a well-run event which went quickly considering it was four days long - Saturday seemed the longest and busiest day but we enjoyed meeting a wide variety of people, their languages (German, Russian and French were adopted to complement English with some exhibitors). If you were there, we hope you took one of the thousands of copies of our publications and had a successful show as well. You can also take a look at our photos on the GFMT Facebook page. See PART 2 of this feature in the next edition of GFMT

50 | May - June 2013

Grain

&feed milling technology

STEEL SILOS
Symaga, a Spanish company specializing in the design, manufacture and supply of steel silos for storing seeds, cereals, malts, oilseeds, grains and pellets, rice and, in general, for the agriculture, agro-industry, biofuels and biomass, and with more than 30 years’ experience and over 15 million m³ of storage space worldwide, ensuring our capacity to tackle any project. Symaga supplies a wide range of silos, flat bottom up to 25.000 m³ and hopper silos, reaching 12 m. diameter with 45° hopper and 2.649 m³ capacity, completely galvanized and the double welded compression ring. We provide Z600 gr/m² galvanization ensuring the highest service life of the market, we continue investing in research and development, allowing us to develop new products as ventilated cones and fully perforated floor, to reach customer needs.

PRODUCT

SHOWCASE

2013

www.symaga.com

VIGAN manufactures dry agribulk materials handling systems:

Silos Cordoba has developed a new model of silo with 41.25m of diameter and 35.774 m3 of capacity. Each silo has 34,70m of total height. These are the biggest silos that has ever been assembled by Silos Cordoba and the biggest silos assembled in Europe.

• Portable Pneumatic Conveyors or Grain Pumps (150 - 250 tph); • Pneumatic Continuous Barge & Ship Unloaders (160 - 800 tph); • Mechanical Continuous Ship Unloaders (up to 1,500 tph); • Mechanical Loaders (up to 1,200 tph). as well as complete storage systems in ports and the agricultural industries. From project design to complete turnkey bulk handling solutions and port terminals with mechanical and/or pneumatic reliable and cost effective equipment.

www.siloscordoba.com

www.vigan.com

Single screw extruder - Leading extrusion technology and intelligent
control; by-pass for avoiding blockage; simple operation, precise and reliable. High efficiency - DDC conditioner and optimal extruder screw & chamber, minimum SME input; recoverable energy, maximum energy utilization; unique suspending cutter, replacement and adjustment without downtime. Wide production range - Controllable temperature, pressure and density thanks to modularized design and many add-ons, minimizing reconfiguration acquired. Satisfying product quality - Uniform extruded pellets with high fat absorption, unique visual appearance, environment friendly and sustainable. Perendale Publishers app The Perendale Publishers Limited application - or PPLAPP, is evrything the milling industry professional could want while on the go. Find the entire International Milling Directory, as well as content from Grain & Feed Milling Technology magazine, a complete industry event listing and much more - all from your smart phone.

www.muyang.com

www.perendale.com

GLOBAL
GRAIN & FEED MARKETS
Every issue GFMT’s market analyst John Buckley reviews world trading conditions which are impacting the full range of commodities used in food and feed production. His observations will influence your decision-making.
So why have prices – which are still relatively high compared with their past ten or twenty year averages – stayed more or less ‘rangebound’ rather than collapsed since these ample supply outlooks were touted in mid-May?

New crop forecasts keep on growing

H

UGE, record crops of wheat, maize and soyabean are on their way according to the keenly awaited first view of the new 2013/14 season from the US Department of Agriculture. USDA’s big supply numbers have surprised many in the trade, implying more than enough of all the major grain and feed raw materials to meet considerable growth in world demand during the year ahead. Moreover, if USDA is right, the low coarse grain and oilseed stocks that have characterized the world market for the past season can be rebuilt to more comfortable levels while already adequate wheat stocks will also get a useful top-up. So why have prices – which are still relatively high compared with their past ten or twenty year averages – stayed more or less ‘range-bound’ rather than collapsed since these ample supply outlooks were touted in mid-May? The answer may be, ‘give it time – and favourable weather.’ Certainly at this early stage there are various reasons to be cautious toward these bearish supply numbers. Wheat output, for example, has been forecast to rebound from last year’s disappointing 655.6m to 701m tonnes – 21m more than the International Grains Council’s preliminary forecast issued in late April and 6m more than the UN Food & Agriculture Organization predicted two days before the USDA forecasts. Of the lat ter ’s 45.5m tonne global year-on year increase, a full 30m tonnes is down to expected wheat crop recoveries in the former Soviet Union, where yields were devastated in some regions last year by prolonged drought and heatwaves. Yet Russian and Ukrainian crops have had numerous problems during the winter and spring from frosts to

lack of rain and it remains quite feasible that their combined output could be over rated by USDA by as much as 6m to 8m tonnes. Some analysts also have their reservations toward USDA’s EU crop forecast of 138.8m tonnes (+6.7m on year) amid too much rain in northwestern member states and some heat and dryness issues already being reported in some eastern/southern countries. Australia (seen +2.5m) has also had some problems with lack of rain in key states and could yet end up with a similar or smaller crop that last year’s.The USA also continues to suffer problems with drought in its key hard red winter wheat belt, normally the largest source of wheat for this the world’s largest exporter - although the USDA’s 56m tonne total US wheat crop forecast has probably already been fully factored in by the market in recent months. On the other hand, Canada and Argentina should have bigger crops on larger sown areas while India seems to be heading for at least its second largest crop ever. Even if world wheat output only rises by, say, 30m tonnes, the concentration of extra supplies in exporting countries suggests a more competitive market ahead in the search for import custom. Wheat trade may decline slightly in 2013/14 due to bigger domestic crops in some importing countries like Turkey and Morocco and ‘swing’ importers of feedwheat turning back to more abundant maize.

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&feed milling technology

COMMODITIES

World consumption of wheat is seen 20m tonnes higher next season but increases will be concentrated within big producing countries – especially Europe, India and Russia. Overall, world stocks are still expected to increase by about 6m tonnes to 186m, equal to about 26.8% of consumption or 14 weeks’ supply – a far looser ratio than that expected for maize, for which both USDA and the futures markets forecast prices far lower than those of wheat in the season ahead (an anomaly that will probably be resolved by wheat prices falling

r ather than those of maize rising). Despite the better supply outlook, as we go to press CBOT wheat futures are showing price premiums on the forward months ranging up to 7% more for March 2014. The price situation is reversed in Europe, however, where new crop bread wheat prices are shown about 14% cheaper than spot delivery on the Paris milling wheat

futures market. London feedwheat futures – which have actually been running close to parity with better quality French milling wheat on some positions – look rather over-priced, especially given the discounts being quoted on new crop wheat and maize from the Black Sea region.

Annual Feed Conference 25 th 26 th June 2013
The following papers have already been confirmed: RUMINANT S Low protein diets for dairy cows -­‐ Kevin Sinclair, University of Nottingham Nutrition, health and fertility in dairy cows -­‐ John Mee, Teagasc Mineral requirements and supply on dairy farms -­‐ Liam Sinclair, Harper Adams University College -­‐ Nigel Kendall, University of Nottingham Global milk and feed price trends and influences -­‐ John Allen, Kite Consulting NON-RUM INANT S Environmental impact from poultry operations: influence of nutritional inputs -­‐ Ilias Kyriazakis, Newcastle University Home grown proteins in pig and poultry diets -­‐ Jos Houdijk, SRuC Nutritional quality of soya products for non-ruminants. -­‐ Julian Wiseman, University of Nottingham; Mick Hazzledine, Premier Nutrition

For further details visit: www.nottingham.ac.uk/feedconf

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May - June 2013 | 53

One concern, especially for the UK, remains the adequacy of quality wheat supplies. If this year’s UK crop drops again as feared after a tough winter (USDA says 13% down at 11.55m but some in the trade have been talking 20% losses) then clearly more imports will be needed. How costly that may be depends on European and other crop weather in coming weeks and months. If Germany and France get enough sunshine to generate good proteins, Hagbergs etc in their wheat and if Canadian and Australian crops perform as planned, this need not necessarily add up to soaring bread prices ahead. For maize, USDA has taken a fairly optimistic view of US 2013 crop prospects which it puts at 359m tonnes, near the top end of the range within which most trade forecasts fall (340/360m with a few 370 outriders). Some caution is required for this figure as rains and cold weather have put sowing weeks behind normal across the US Corn Belt. That may result in some designated maize land being sown to soybeans instead and it may also – if these delays continue into June – start to have a significant impact in lower yield potential. No-one wants to take a 360m tonne or higher crop for granted after what happened last year when drought cut over 100m tonnes off USDA’s early 376m tonnes prediction. The US forecast accounts for no less than 78.5% of USDA’s foreseen increase in global production (+109m to a new record 966m tonnes). The remaining increases are

mainly down to the EU crop recovering by 7.1m tonnes, CIS crops up by a combined 7m tonnes, China’s rising 4m and Serbia’s by 3.5m tonnes. Interestingly, USDA has Brazil’s crop retreating from this year’s record 76m to 72m tonnes – the only major decline. This supposes more Brazilian emphasis on soybeans

nex t year. I t may we ll b e too pessimistic, bearing in mind that USDA forecast Brazil’s 2012 /13 cr op at 67m and has now raised that to 76m (whereas Brazil’s government and at least one private estimate suggests 78m tonnes. Consumption of maize is expected to increase in 2013/14 by almost 73m tonnes of which 31.4m will be within the US itself as the feed and ethanol industries (+23.5m and 6.4m tonnes usage respectively) respond to much looser supplies and much cheaper prices. USDA forecasts a seasonal ex-farm price range of $4.30/5.10 per bushel compared with this season’s $6.70/7.15, the median point down by almost 32% (new crop Chicago maize futures suggest p r i ce s a b o u t 2 5 % cheaper than current old crop deliveries). Following the pattern of recent years, the next biggest increase in global maize consumption is expected within C hina w he r e demand goes up by 17m tonnes, mainly in its feed industry to a new record 224m. Other country increases in maize use are mainly one million tonnes or less. European maize consumption is not expected to rise because of the bigger wheat crop taking more feed demand. This situation should also allow Europe to reduce maize imports from this season’s record 10.5m to 7m tonnes. A bigger Mexican crop will also reduce that country’s import needs by 1m tonnes but USDA still expects overall world maize trade to increase by about 4m tonnes as China increases impor ts by that amount and some other maize importers, largely in Asia, avail themselves of cheaper export supplies. The bottom line for maize – if USDA’s crop estimates hold good – is for substantial surplus, pushing US seasonal ending stocks back to a nine-year high of 50.9m tonnes and world carryover to a 13-year peak of 154.6m – about

16.5% of consumption or just over 8½-week’s supply. Among the other coarse grains, consumers are promised a better balanced barley market if crops increase as expected by 8m to a total 138m tonnes, mainly in Russia (up almost 4m and the EU (plus 1m). Although barley starting stocks for the new season will be lower, a limited increase in demand (mainly within Russia) is expected to allow these to recover somewhat during 2013/14. Along with the bigger competing supplies of wheat and maize this should held keep prices down for feed barley users. Sorghum supplies are also seen substantially higher in 2013/14 – plus about 5m, largely due to much bigger sowings in the USA. Although a lot of this will go to its domestic feed consumption, there will be more available for export too. A big jump in world soyabean output in the coming season is expected to result in much

cheaper prices for oilmeal proteins across the board. This year has already seen record crops in South America, where production has increased by 32m tonnes or almost 29%. The new season is expected to see more beans sown in the USA which could also produce its biggest ever crop. USDA’s first forecast is 92.3m tonnes – up 10m on the year, if normal weather allows trend yields. USDA also expects Brazil and Argentina to keep increasing output, resulting in world production increasing by another 16.4m tonnes. This would put world supply in surplus for two successive seasons and, on current estimates, add about 20m tonnes to the stock carried over from one season to the next – also a record level. Currently, USDA is forecasting new season’s US producer prices of soyabeans will average in a range of $9.50/10.50 per bushel – the mean being about 26.5% below the average for the past season. Soya meal ex-US crushing mill is seen averaging in a range of $280/320 per short tonne (2,000 lb), the mean representing a drop of 29% on the current season. The Chicago soya meal futures market also sees prices dropping by about 26% from current levels by the end of the year.

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COMMODITIES
World oilseed production is also expected to get a top up from larger sunflower and rapeseed crops, adding about 5.5m tonnes more to total supplies and expanding total world oilseed carryover stocks to a record 82.6m tonnes. The EU should see a modest uptick in its rapeseed crop but may be able to avail itself of more imports from larger crops in Ukraine, Russia and Australia. The CIS countries also expect a big hike in their sunflower seed crops. Soya markets have actually been stronger over the past two months for several reasons. Brazil’s harvest has been delayed by weather and transport/port infrastructure problems handling record crops, not only of soybeas but of maize and sugarcane too. Argentine suppliers have also been slower to move their crop than the markets expected due to high inflation encouraging hoarding and a poor exchange rate reducing the real income from exports sold in dollars. Although South American exports of both beans and meal have now begun to pick up, the earlier delays drive a lot of unexpected import demand to US shores and the resultant strong exports of both beans and meal resulted in crushers and shippers competing for a supply that had already fallen shor t of expectations after last year’s somewhat disappointing US crop. Much of that extra demand for US soya came from the top impor ter China although this pressure is slackening as, like other buyers, it starts to focus instead on cheaper new crop offers. Soya will get cheaper as the year rolls on, demanding prices of other less-valuable oilmeals like rape and sunflower meal follow suit. This glowing picture for forward supply must of course be hedged with the obvious caveat. It is only May as this review goes to press and the weather could yet spoil things by the time northern hemisphere wheat and barley is harvested in Jun, July and August and maize and soybeans from late August onward. However, at this stage, the ‘outside’ interests that have helped exaggerate price strength in recent years don’t appear to be interested in weather risk and seem to be taking USDA’s vaunted season of plenty at face value. Hedge funds, pension funds, banks and other investors are also reported to be taking a fairly negative view of commodities in general amid the better outlook for world

food supply (rice as well as grains and oilseeds) and stubbornly weak crude oil and metal prices ensuing from macro-economic issues including sluggish economic growth in the US, China and the Euro zone. That all suggests lower raw material costs on the way, especially for the feed industry.

KEY FACTORS AHEAD –
WHEAT
• Those big Black Sea crop estimates are looking more likely by the week, implying a surge in export competition during the next few months. It is hard not to see this helping to bring down wheat prices on world and EU markets.

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May - June 2013 | 55

EXPERIENCE EDUCATIONAL SESSION RECORDINGS
FROM IAOM’S 2013 ANNUAL CONFERENCE THROUGH THE IAOM LIVE LEARNING CENTER
Recordings are complimentary for all 2013 Annual Conference attendees as well as IAOM members.

• Plenty of sunny days are now needed to bring late European, US, Canadian and CIS crops on and good har vest weather to maintain breadmaking quality. There are some qualms about late sowing of spring wheat in the USA – one of the major sources of these high quali t y breadwheats. However, Canada, a much larger supplier, does now seem to be getting its sowing done under adequate moisture conditions on a much larger area and will probably have one of its largest crops ever. Australia – with its impor tant ‘prime hard’ wheat production – is also getting some much needed rains to plant after some nail-biting dr y days in recent weeks. • India faces storage problems as another near record crop nears with warehouses already overflowing. The solution – to drop export price ambitions rather than watch quality spoil under open storage – could mean downward pressure on world wheat export prices – just as the traditional cheap sellers – the CIS countries - gear up to sell their large crops abroad • World wheat trade might be depressed by larger than usual crops in Morocco, Turkey, Egypt and other Nor th African/Middle eastern countries. Also, Iran now seems to have completed a massive stockbuilding programme and may import 5m tonnes less next season. This is all likely to weigh further on prices. • The extent to which wheat use in feeds is reduced if maize crops recover as planned. That also depends on price. Wheat cannot possibly sustain the big price premiums over maize signaled on the forward CBOT futures markets and still compete with maize in feeds – either in the US or in global markets.

crop the US ends up with, there will be less need for US maize exports than usual. • India may continue to contribute more to world export supplies of maize • If Europe’s own maize crop rebounds as expected, import requirements will decline • US corn consumption for ethanol is forecast higher in 2013/14 but that can be comfortably accommodated if the forecast US crop comes through. US maize ethanol use may also be restrained by larger imports of cheap ethanol from a record Brazilian sugarcane crop • China continues manage its constantly growing feed demand with larger crops of its own but it is expected to impor t more in 2013/14. It has been buying recently and larger than expected amounts going in this direction could make US markets frisky as purchases are anounced • Speculators’ enthusiasm to buy into any crop weather problems. This is becoming less of a factor as the big crop numbers mentioned above start to look attainable while the ‘managed money' community becomes increasingly disillusioned with diminishing returns from commodity investments in general – from gold to oil. As we go to press the regular report of US fund investments in the top 11 commodity futures markets there shows a 15% drop to its lowest level in six weeks.

OILMEALS/PROTEINS
• Will the US get its soyabean crop planted on time and may it pick up some extra acreage from delayed maize planting? If it does, soya prices will be under fur ther downward pressure into the last quar ter of 2013 • Planting and growing weather in the USA. A later sown crop has plenty of moisture at this stage. It looks likely to be a big one • South America’s delayed marketing of record crops means more competition well into the USA’s peak, post-harvest marketing period. That suggests more downward pressure on soya costs. • Chinese demand for soya meal is expected to grow below its long term trend in 2013/14 but its demand for beans could rocket as its domestic crop continues to shrink. It remains far and away the largest destination for US and global soyabean expor ts • Final EU/CIS rapeseed & sunflower seed and Canadian canola plantings - and their crop weather. Af ter a delayed star t, Canada’s rapeseed crop could go either way while Australia’s may decline after rapid growth in recent years. The EU’s crop may be slightly bigger. At the end of the day, though, rapeseed, sunseed and other oilmeal costs will have to follow market leader soya’s probable downward path.

softconference.com/IAOM

MAIZE
• Will the US manage to plant all its planned area on time to avoid ceding land to latersown soybeans or some yield penalty? Current pointers suggest it could fall 1m to 1.5m acres short. Yet all the moisture holding up sowing of the last 25% is a wonderful start for the young crop, an early pointer to bumper yields. • Will US farmers get a ‘normal’ summer? The first, possibly most important hurdle is mild/ warm rather than hot weather during the key pollination period. With later sowings, the ‘reproductive’ phase may be a few weeks later in many areas, deeper into the period of summer heat risk. • Delayed marketing of Latin American maize crops means these will be competing with the US into the latter’s new season, starting September 1 – later than usual. • CIS countries have a much larger maize crop on the way and will be cheap sellers. Whatever

56 | May - June 2013

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INTERNATIONAL MILLING AND CEREAL INDUSTRIES MEETING
The Global Miller blog is an online offshoot of Grain & Feed Milling Technology magazine. While the bi-monthly magazine covers milling issues in-depth, the Global Miller takes a lighter approach. The columnists dig out the best daily industry stories, show and event news and highlights from the print magazine and bring them to you every day ...

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Events
4th June 13
Segregation, Degradation and Caking, The Wolfson Centre for Bulk Solids Handling Technology, University of Greenwich Central Avenue, Chatham Maritime, Kent, ME4 4TB, UK Contact: Caroline Chapman, The Wolfson Centre for Bulk Solids Handling Technology, University of Greenwich, Central Avenue, Chatham Maritime, Kent, ME4 4TB, UK Tel: +44 20 8331 8646 Email: Wolfson-enquiries@gre.ac.uk Web: www.bulksolids.com

*

12th - 14th June 13

3rd International Symposium on Gluten Free Cereal Products and Beverages, Flemings Hotel Wien Westbahnhof, Neubaugürtel 26-28, A-1070 Vienna Austria Contact: Roland Poms, ICC, Marxergasse 2, A-1030 Vienna, Austria Tel: +43 1 707 72020 Fax: +43 1 707 72040 Email: Roland.poms@icc.or.at Web: http://gf2013.icc.or.at/

*

24th - 26th September 13

Livestock Asia 2013 - Asia's International Feed, Livestock & Meat Industry Show, Kuala Lumpur Convention Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Contact: Ms Michelle Ha / Ms Rita, Suite 1710, 17th Floor, Plaza Permata, 6 Jalan Kampar, Off Jalan Tun Razak, 50400 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Tel: +603 40 454993 Fax: +603 40 454989 Email: Livestockasia-my@ubm.com Web: www.livestockasia.com

*

5th - 8th November 13

* XIV International Grain Round Grain mar4th - 7th June 13
ket- yesterday, today, tomorrow, Kempinski Hotel, Gelendzhik, Krasnodar, Russia Contact: Ms. Anna Gerasimova, Deputy Director, Business Events Department,International Relations,Russian Grain Union, 107139, Moscow, Orlikov lane 1/11 Tel: +7 4956 078285 Fax: +7 4956 078285124 Email: gaa@grun.ru Web: www.grun.ru

12th - 13th June 13

Cereals Event, Boothby Graffoe, UK Contact: Rebecca Dawson, Haymarket Exhibitions, Wroxton Business Centre, Bragborough Farm, Welton Road, Braunston, Daventry, Northants, NN11 7JG, UK Tel: +44 1788 892039 Fax: +44 1788 892038 Email: Rebecca.dawson @haymarket.com Web: www.cerealsevent.co.uk

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24th - 26th September 13
7th International Conference, Flour Mill – 2013, 20, Pervy Shchipkovsky pereulok, Moscow, 115093, Russia Contact: Dr. Vladimir I. Dashevsky, 20, Pervy Shchipkovsky pereulok, Moscow, 115093, Russia Tel: +7 4959 596669 Fax: +7 4992 354281 Email: dashevsky@grainfood.ru Web: www.grainfood.ru

24th Annual IAOM Mideast and Africa District Conference and Expo, Mövenpick Resort & Marine Spa Sousse, Sousse, Tunisia Contact: Ms. Eva Mulyana, Conference Manager or Ms. Shannon Henson, Director of Meetings and Exhibits, IAOM MEA District, PO Box 566, P.C. 112 Ruwi, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman IAOM, International Association of Operative Millers, 10100 West 87th Street, Suite 306 Overland Park, KS 66212, USA Tel: +968 24 712338 Fax: +968 24 711340 Email: info@iaom-mea.com Web: http://iaom-mea.com /iaom-tunisia2013/

*

7th - 9th November 13
8th Food Engineering Congress, Ankara, Turkey Contact: Chamber of Food Engineers, Meşrutiyet Cad. No: 22/13 Kızılay, Çankaya, Ankara, Turkey Tel: +90 3124 182826 Fax: +90 3124 182843 Email: kongre@gidamuhendisligikongresi.org Web: www.gidamo.org.tr/

13th - 15th June 13

5th - 7th June 13

INDO LIVESTOCK 2013 EXPO & FORUM, Bali Nusa Dua Convention Center, Bali Indonesia Contact: Didit Siswodwiatmoko / Devi Ardiatne, Jl. Kelapa Sawit XIV Blok M1 No. 10, Kompleks Billy & Moon, Pondok Kelapa Jakarta 13450, Indonesia Tel: +62-21 864 4756 ext: 118 & 123 Fax: +62-21 865 0963 Email: info@indolivestock.com Web: www.indolivestock.com

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VIV Turkey 2013, Istanbul Expo Center, Istanbul, Turkey Contact: Hande Bieber, HKF Trade Fairs, Barbaros Bulvari 163/2, 34349 Besiktas, Istanbul - Turkey Tel: +90 2122 164010 Fax: +90 2122 163360 Email: hande@hkf-fairs.com Web: www.viv.net

*

1st - 3rd October 13

25th - 26th June 13

7th - 9th June 13

8th International Rice Milling and Machinery Expo 2013, Ludhiana,Punjab - INDIA Contact: Bhupesh Gupta, #D-56, First Floor, Rose Garden Market, Patiala – 147001, Punjab, India Tel: +91 9216 299124 Email: info@businessempiregroup.in indiariceexpo@gmail.com Web: www.indiariceexpo.com

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University of Nottingham Annual Feed Conference, School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus, LE12 5RD, UK Contact: Sheila Northover, School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus, LE12 5RD, UK Tel: +44 1159 516100 Fax: +44 1159 516099 Email: sheila.northover@nottingham.ac.uk Web: www.nottingham.ac.uk/feedconf

*

Overview of Particulate Handling Technology, The Wolfson Centre for Bulk Solids Handling Technology, University of Greenwich, Central Avenue, Chatham Maritime, Kent, ME4 4TB, UK Contact: Caroline Chapman, The Wolfson Centre for Bulk Solids Handling Technology, University of Greenwich, Central Avenue, Chatham Maritime, Kent, ME4 4TB, UK Tel: +44 20 83 3 8646 Email: Wolfson-enquiries@gre.ac.uk Web: www.bulksolids.com

*

12th - 14th November 13
"TGDF Food Congress, 2011 - 10 to 100th Year", Sueno Otel. Side, Antalya, Turkey Contact: Mr. Ali Reşat Yılmazbilen, Comart Kurumsal İletişim Hizmetleri Ltd. Şti. Ceyhun Atıf Kansu Cad. 1386. Sok. No: 8 Kat: 2 Balgat, Ankara, Turkey Tel: +90 312 284 7778 Fax: +90 312 284 7779 Email: aliresat@comart.com.tr Web: http://gidakongresi.com/

24th - 26th October 13
2nd International Symposium on Traditional Foods from Adriatic to Caucasus, Ohrid, Struga, Macedonia Email: traditionalfoods2013@nku.edu.tr Web: http://traditionalfoods2013.nku.edu.tr/

13th - 14th November 13

24th - 25th October 13
3rd Healthy Ageing Platform 2013, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Contact: Mr. Gerard Klein Essink Tel: + 31 302 252060 Fax: g.kleinessink@bridge2food.com Web: www.cvent.com/events/bridge2foodhealthy-ageing-platform-2013/ event-summary-8346fd56d3294fd6a402b358672b6138.aspx

* Livestock Philippines 2013 – International
7th - 9th August 13
Livestock Nutrition, Health And Production & Meat Industry Show, SMX Convention Centre, Pasay City, Manila, Philippines Contact: Ms Michelle Ha, Mr Michael Blancas, Suite 1710, 17th Floor, Plaza Permata, 6 Jalan Kampar, Off Jalan Tun Razak, 50400 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Tel: +603 40 454993 Fax: +603 40 454989 Email: Lvphilippines-my@ubm.com Web: www.livestockphilippines.com

64th JTIC International meeting, Reims Congress Center, 12 boulevard du Général Leclerc, 51722 Reims Cedex, France Contact: Nelly Duprat, 268 rue du Faubourg St Antoine, 75012 Paris, France Tel: +33 147 072069 Fax: +33 144 245625 Email: aemic@wanadoo.fr Web: www.jtic.eu

*

11th June 13

IGC Grains Conference 2013, Queen Elizabeth II Conference Centre, London, UK Contact: Ann Knowles, 1 Canada Square, Canary Wharf, London E14 5AE, UK Tel: +44 20 7513 1122 Fax: +44 20 7513 0630 Email: conf@igc.int Web: www.igc.int/en/conference/confhome.aspx

*

26th - 28th November 13
8th Food Proteins Course, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Contact: Mr. Gerard Klein Essink, Jan van Eijcklaan 2 - 4, 3723 BC Bilthoven, The Netherlands Tel: + 31 302 252060 Email: g.kleinessink@bridge2food.com Web: www.cvent.com/events/bridge2food8th-food-proteins-course-2013/eventsummary-f3b0e5aa36194e71bce2fea9238b9e99.aspx

29th - 31st October 13

For more event information, try our Event Register at www.perendale.com
la Av a i b l e H
ER
58 | May - June 2013

25th - 28th August 13
ICC Conference 2013, Fremantle, Perth, Western Australia Contact: ICC - International Association for Cereal Science and Technology, Marxergasse 2 A-1030, Vienna, Austria Tel: +43 170 772020 Fax: +43 170 772040 Email: office@icc.or.at Web: www.icc.or.at

Animal Farming Ukraine 2013, International Exhibition Center (IEC), Kiev, Ukraine Contact: Jan van de Bunt, Amalialaan 126D, 3743 KJ Baarn, The Netherlands Tel: +31 355 448981 Fax: +31 355 448984 Email: info@bto-exhibitions.nl Web: www.bto-exhibitions.nl

*

* See our magazine at this show • More information available
Grain

E

&feed milling technology

Events
Livestock Philippines 2013
August 7-9, 2013, Manila, the Philippines faced by the industry in relation to using safe feeds to help produce quality sources of protein.

Seventh Food Proteins Course
July 17-19, 2013, Chicago, USA hicago is set to host t h e 7t h F o o d a n d Proteins Course : Proper ties, Functionalities a n d A p p l i c a t i o n s ’. T h e three-day course, which will take place July 17-19, 2013, aims to give a theoretical and pr ac tic al over view of the plant and animal-based proteins currently available for food applications. The course, par t of the Protein Innovation Network

Preview

ith the population of the Philippines a p p r o a c h i n g 10 0 million, the feed and livestock industry must transform to meet increasing consumption. Like the rest of Asia, the need to improve biosecurity, hygiene standards, farm productivity and efficiency will spur the demand for feed, livestock and meat processing supplies and equipment. These needs are the reasoning behind Livestock Philippines 2013, which takes place at the SMX Conference Center, Manila, the Philippines.

W

4 5

The Feed Philippines 2013 industry awards will take place on August 7, 2013. These awards recognise the companies, establishments and organisations, which have made a significant contribution to the development of the feed industry in the Philippines.

Five reasons to visit Livestock Philippines 2013

2

This years show takes the theme of ‘food security through feed safety’ which will be addressed through a series of conferences. These meetings will focus on providing solutions to the continuing challenges

www.livestockphilippines.com

Registration available for USGC Ottawa meeting
July 29-31, 2013, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

News

1

The show is the biggest event in the Philippines and showcases the latest technolog y, equipment and machineries related to animal husbandry and the meat industry. The three-day event covers the whole supply chain from animal nutrition and health to production and meat processing.

Although the show is targeted at the Philippine and Asian market , the show has attracted exhibitors from across the globe. Over 5,000 products will be on display from countries including China, Holland, Italy, Malaysia, Spain and Taiwan. In addition, interest in the show from Korean companies has been so strong that the country has its own pavilion, in which more than 10 companies will be exhibiting. Whether you want to get up to date on the latest international trends, issues and challenges or network with key decision makers, Livestock Philippines 2013 is an ideal platform to do business.

News

3

Livestock Philippines 2013 is co-located with Feed E xpo Philippines 2013. This international feed industry show puts the spotlight on feed ingredients, additives, supplements and premixes, quality control and feed processing.

C

(PIN) in partnership w it h B ridge2Food , of fer s a unique combination of lectures by industr y experts on the properties, processing, functionalities and applications of ten different plant and animalbased proteins: soy, wheat, p e a , p o t at o, c a n o l a , e g g a l b u m i n , c a s e i n , w h e y, gelatin and bio-active protein hydrolysates. A f t e r t h e se l e c t ure s a ll delegates will have seen, touched, felt and smelled the different proteins as such, in model systems and in the final applications. www.bridge2food.com

Flour Mill 2013
September 24-26, 2013, Moscow, Russia

T

he 7th International Conference, Flour Mill 2013 will take place September 24 -26, 2013 in Moscow, Russia. The Ministry of Agriculture of the Russian Federation, Russian Union of Flour Mills and Cereal Plants and the International Industrial Academy are the main conference organisers. The event will examine a wide r ange of questions, including forecasts for the grain, f lour and cereals market s, modernisation

o f Ru s s i a n f l o u r m i l l i n g and cereals industr y until 2020, development of the technical base (equipment) of enterprises, expansion of the assortment of grain products taking into account demand of consumers, the system of ensuring products qualit y and safet y on f lour mills and cereals plants, rules and principles of WTO activity, protective measures for flour mills and cereals plants, etc. With the tabletop exhibition component of Russian and foreign companies, it will also allow for an additional exchange of information and ideas. www.grainfood.ru

T

h e w o r l d ’s l o n g e s t undefended border won’t be the only thing shared between the United States and Canada this summer. Join more than 20 0 U. S. corn, barley, sorghum farmers and agribusiness representatives as they discuss trading insights and perspectives

with their Canadian counterparts in Ottawa, Ontario, for the U.S. Grains Council’s 53rd Annual Board of Delegates Meeting July 29-31, 2013. “This year, the Council’s there is ‘Smaller World, Bigger Markets,” said Don Fast, USGC chairman, “and U.S. markets don’t come much bigger than Canada.” For centuries, these two nations have weathered trade disputes, environmental concerns and market competition. Nevertheless, trade continues to expand, furthering each other’s economic stability. According

to the U.S. Embassy in Ottawa, bilateral trade between the United States and Canada is the equivalent of $1.6 billion a day in goods. Canada is the secondlargest export market for U.S. agricultural, fish and forestry products, reaching a record $23.8 billion in 2012, 15 percent of total U.S. exports. “Canada, in fact, is the top export market for 35 of the states. Our meeting in Ottawa is a great chance to get better acquainted with our neighbor to the north, a great customer, great partner, great competitor and a great place

to visit this July,” said Fast. “We will take time to explore the dynamics of Canadian agriculture and U.S.-Canadian agricultural trade. We will review the latest developments on key issues, like the Trans-Pacific Partnership and Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership, and the international acceptance of biotechnology. We will take time for a farmerto-farmer dialogue with our Canadian cousins. Last, but not least, advisory teams will meet to review the Council’s strategies and priorities for the year ahead.” http://grains.org

News

Grain

&feed milling technology

May - June 2013 | 59

The GFMT interview
International Association of Operatives Millers Mideast & Africa District (IAOM MEA) was formed in 1989 and represents flour and feed millers across the Middle East and Africa. Initially, the district was managed by rotating host countries, meaning the head office changed from one country to another. Since 2006, however, there has been a permanent head office in Muscat, Oman. This has helped to standardise operations and allow the association to offer more services to both members and the region. GFMT spoke to Ali Habaj, secretary general and treasurer, IAOM MEA, about the association and milling in the Middle East and Africa. Habaj is a well suited for a role within IAOM. He has 14 years experience in the milling industry and is the full time CEO of the Atyab Investments Group which manages many firms in the food industries. The portfolio includes Oman Flour Mills, one of the biggest bakeries in the Middle East, Sohor Poultry and a modern poultry farm. Habaj’s current projects include setting up a new pasta factory and a new flour mill in Oman.

Ali Habaj Secretary general and treasurer, IAOM MEA

What makes IOAM MEA unique? IAOM MEA has 800 consistent members, making it one of the biggest districts in terms of members. We have quite a diverse group of food and feed industries becoming part of the organisation. The IAOM MEA conference and expo is different from IAOM meetings in the USA. The USA focuses on technical and operational issues. But at the IAOM MEA expo, the focus is on grain trading and markets. The three-day programme will have two main themes: a technical focus including operations, innovations and management and marketing. Who will be at the IAOM MEA conference and expo? We have different kinds of delegates depending on the region targeted. This year the conference and expo will be held in Tunisia to attract the northern African region. We will also have some South African and central African attendees. Having a different location helps attract new millers from different regions. The expo caters more for senior manager and owners. So the attendees are decision makers mostly. This profile makes IAOM MEA quite different from other IAOM expos. We try to have a 50/50 split between buyers and suppliers. Authors Paul Roberts (The End of Oil and The End of Food) and Mike Walsh (who writes on future food trends) will be speaking at the IAOM conference in Tunisia. How has the milling industry developed since IAOM MEA was founded in 1989? IAOM MEA has had a major impact on milling. The expo is the only place where people can meet every year. It provides a place to get to know the traders, understand the problems in milling and learn which machines to use. We are ready to go beyond the annual conference by providing continuous education throughout the year and are considering running IAOM courses in local languages. What are the biggest challenges for your members? It is the largest region in terms of food imports so food security is a big issue for flour millers. There are a lot of countries, each at different levels, trying to achieve food security. In Africa, access to land to ensure a continuous food supply is an issue. There are many different solutions and multinationals are involved as well as local companies. Increasing the storage capacity for grains is also a challenge but countries are working on this issue. In recent years, Kuwait and Oman will add an additional 300,000 tonnes of storage and Qatar is improving its grain storage capacity too.
60 | May - June 2013

What have been the biggest successes in the region? In the last five years there has been a move in the kind of finished products. There is a lot more food processing for example poultry, pasta and goods for bakeries. This trend is going to east Africa. In the feed and flour mills we see a strong focus on food processing and companies that can help finance these projects. Flour milling is well established throughout the region. It is mostly filling the markets. There are some exports but it is only really Somalia, with its political problems, which needs to import flour. Imports are more on the specialised side for example, a blend with different types of flours or quality of grain. Where do products milled in MEA go? In Africa and the Gulf flour is mainly consumed domestically. In Turkey, government incentives have given Turkish flour a competitive edge. The country exports its flour to Africa, Cambodia, Vietnam, the Philippines and Indonesia. One of the reasons why Turkish flour is popular in these countries is because of the low protein content which makes the flour suitable for noodles. What predictions do you have for the milling industry over the next 10 years? In the flour market there are three major factors: eating habits, baking and the market. Eating habits and expectation are changing; people are more into carbohydrates. Bakeries are demanding higher quality and different kind of flours for different breads and pastries. Coffee shops, hotels and airlines are expanding, requiring different flour mixtures. Mills need to cater for different customers and respond to market demand. Thirty years ago the region produced two flours (brown and white). Today there are 25 kinds of flours. For the feed industry, there needs to be support for farmers to increase the number of farms. More farmers equals more milling east Africa. Food security is also affecting feed mills but it needs to be organised. Proper farms (particularly poultry farms) need the feed milling industries standing by them.

The 24th Annual IAOM Mideast & Africa District Conference and Expo will be held in Sousse, Tunisia, from November 5-8, 2013 at the Movenpick Hotel. More information: www.iaom-mea.com
Grain

&feed milling technology

Classified section
Analysis
• Automation Products, Inc.
Specialists since 1976 in the Design, Supply, Installation and Commissioning of: • Bulk Storage and Handling Systems • Pneumatic and Mechanical Conveying • Weighing and Batching • Screening and Magnetic Protection • Bag Filling and Discharge • Aspiration and Dust Control • Turnkey Projects Tarvin Mill, Barrow Lane, Tarvin Chester CH3 8JF Tel: 01829 741119 Fax : 01829 741169 E-mail: admin@croston-engineering.co.uk Web: www.croston-engineering.co.uk

Bulk Storage

Elevator & Conveyor Components
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Equipment for sale

Competence in Food and Feed Analysis

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AgraStrip + AgraVision
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Conveyors
• Anderson International Corp • Amandus Kahl
www. .com

• Systech Instruments Ltd

www.sce.be
+32(0)51 723128

Animal Health & Nutrition
• Alicorp SA

CENZONE TECH INC.
2110 Low Chaparral Drive San Marcos CA92069 USA Tel: 760 736 9901 Fax: 760 736 9958 Web: www.cenzone.com
E-mail: cenzone.tech@worldnet.att.net

“Turner” Flaking Rolls
30 ins complete with drive.

complete with two x 30kw motors,rollers 24 ins diameter x50 ins wide very heavy duty
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agriculture

silos

• Danisco Animal Nutrition • Papillon Agricultural Products, Inc

Bags

steel

livestock

• Blo-Tech Ltd Extruders • Cargotec Sweden AB CL_Handling_techniques.indd 1 22/09/2011 class_vigan.indd 1 30/11/2012 10:51 • Schenck Process UK Limited www.extruder.nl / www.expander.nl • Dynamic Air Inc
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ELEVATOR BUCKETS & BOLTS

Bulk Handling
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19.03.13 12:51

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St. Louis, Missouri USA

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62 | May - June 2013

Classified section
Mill Design & Installation Pipe systems
Buhler AG CH – 9240 Uzwil, Switzerland T: +41 71 955 11 11 F: +41 71 955 66 11 E: milling@buhlergroup.com

Used around all industrial sectors.
Fr. Jacob Söhne GmbH & Co. KG, Germany Tel. + 49 (0) 571 95580 | www. jacob-pipesystems.eu

Feed processing

www.buhlergroup.com

Visit us! www.pipe-systems.eu

Silos
Yingchun Group

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Process control

• Converteam UK Ltd • RED-BERG s.r.l.

www.ottevanger.com
Ottevanger Milling Engineers
Moerkapelle and Aalten - Holland Tel.: +31 79 593 22 21 E-mail: mkp@ottevanger.com

Analysis & Control
Intake and Inline measurement of moisture, protein, temperature, structure, ash, fat, fibre, starch and colour. Recipe management and traceability records.

Grain Silo Manufacturing
www.silo86.com
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Mill Design & Installation

Valves
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Recruitment
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• AGRI-Associates

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Versatility in feed processing

Packaging
• Arodo BVBA
A Clondalkin Company

Other

Level measurement

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• Millson Engineering Limited • Muench-Edelstahl GmbH

Grain

&feed milling technology

May - June 2013 | 63

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INDUSTRY FACES
BFBi analyst award winner
Namrata Chowdhury, an analytical chemist at Campden BRI, United Kingdom has won the Brewing, Food and Beverage Industry Suppliers’ Association (BFBi) new ‘Up & Coming Analyst Award’, sponsored by Thermo- Fisher Scientific. Chowdhury won the award for her work in developing an analytical method for 4 Methyl Imidazole (4MeI) a substance that can be found in caramel colouring or can result from the caramelisation and browning reactions during brewing and which has been shown to have adverse effects on health. Chowdhury said, “I have always been passionate about the application of chemistry in diverse fields, and about working with and developing the complex chemistry involved in brewing, from grain to finished product. Entering this competition has helped me develop as an analytical scientist as well as make others aware about the interesting and important science we practice at Campden BRI”. As part of her award, Chowdhury will receive a delegate place at the European Congress convention in Luxembourg in May 2013, plus a contribution towards travel and accommodation costs. www.campdenbri.co.uk

PEOPLE

Pictured left to right: David Spackman, general manager UK, IRL, NL, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Namrata Chowdhury, Campden BRI and Alistair McInnes, national chairman, BFBi

Yvan Dejaegher elected chairman of Ovocom
Yvan Dejaegher, general director of Bemefa, has been elected as new president of Ovocom, the consultation platform for the feed chain. Since its establishment in 2001, Bemefa, has been heavily involved in Ovocom and Dejaegher has also been a member of the executive committee since 2001. For the past three years Dejaegher has been vice-president. Dejaegher is also general director chairman of the Feed Design Lab (FDL) and a member of the board of directors of AMCRA, Center of Expertise on Antimicrobial Consumption and Resistance in Animals. In 2010 he won the De Molenaar Award. He also received a reward for his many efforts in the sector, both in Belgium and at international level. “For the next three years, I intend to work primarily on strengthening the national and international cooperation between the GMP standard and other existing quality systems,” said Dejaegher. www.ovocom.be

IAOM elects new international officers
IOAM elected its new board of international officers at its 117th annual conference and expo on May 2, 2013, in Niagara Falls, Ontario. Joel Hoffa, corporate milling engineer at The Mennel Milling Company, in Fostoria, Ohio, became the 109th president of the International Association of Operative Millers (IAOM). Sharing advice given to him over 30 years ago by then-president Fred Honeywell, Hoffa announced the theme for his presidency: Input, Engage and Excel with the IAOM. Hoffa has been an active member of the IAOM since 1981. He has served as a director, representing the Gateway, Ohio Valley and Flour City Districts at different points in his career. He served as treasurer of the association from 2011-12; and vice president from 2012-13, during which time he was also president of the International Milling Education Foundation (IMEF), a philanthropic partner of IAOM. Damon Sidles was elected vice president and Roy Loepp becomes treasurer. www.iaom.info

Photo and caption: front row left-right: Damon Sidles, vice president; Melinda Farris, executive vice president; Joel Hoffa, president; back row l-r: Aaron Black, immediate past president; and Roy Loepp, treasurer

New Director of Sales at Van Aarsen International
Van Aarsen in Panheel has appointed Hans van der Weijden as sales director. An internationally active specialist in the compound feed industry, Van Aarsen has a vast amount of knowledge and experience in the design and construction of animal feed production systems. Prior to his new appointment, van der Weijden has had diverse commercial and technical functions in other branches and shall now concentrate his efforts on the international growth of Van Aarsen. www.aarsen.com

INDUSTRY FACES

by Marnie Snell

Innovative extrusion processes without limits. Bühler is the global technology partner for companies producing breakfast cereals, snack foods, or food ingredients on a commercial scale. With its extensive extrusion know-how and its passion for customized solutions, Bühler is always in a position to generate added value and success for any product idea. Bühler offers an integral range of products and services for all process stages – from correct raw material handling, cooking and shaping through extrusion to drying of the extruded products. And this for all market segments – from breakfast cereals and snack foods to modified flours and starches, texturized proteins, or vitaminized rice. In short: extrusion processes without limits.
extrusion@buhlergroup.com, www.buhlergroup.com/extrusion

Innovations for a better world.

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