Gharrajedaghi, Jamshid Systems thinking: a case for second-order-learning The learning organization Vol 14, no 6, 2007 473

-479 This is an incredible article; it needs to be rerea several times 473 In order for change to take place, unlearning must occur Gharrajedaghi 473 Def. of systems thinking and analytical thinking “...analytical thinking, the science of dealing with independent sets of variables, to systems thinking, the art, and science of handling independent set of variables.” Gharrajedaghi 473 the same core system of values produces the same problems and the same nonsolutions change requires second order learning and huge cultural change consider the potential of systems thinking with classical rhetorical training was it systems thinking? especially since it incorporated physical training? 474 review/locate Living systems theories (open systems are self-organizing and show a tendency to move toward a predefined order) Ghara has argued in 2006 article that something must know in order to selforganize “The shared image of the desired future provides default values for all decisions and stands at the center of the process of change. That is why experience with social transformation is fraught with frustration. The triumphant resurgence of old patterns of behavior despite the concerted efforts of change agents is an uninterrupted saga of despair. What seems to make this stubborn insurgency so overpowering is the fact that the set of organizing principles (cultural codes) that make the system to behave the way it does are implicit and in most cases are considered sacred. The set of implicit, sacred cultural codes or organizing principles responsible for regenerating the existing order is what I metaphorically refer to as “secondorder-machine.” Second-order-machine is equivalent to the notion of attractor in Chaos Theory. To produce a change in behavioral pattern of a social system its second order machine need to be dismantled and the attractor in action to be redesigned (sic). Otherwise, the existing order will outlive the temporary effects of any interventions.” Def. of systems thinking and analytical thinking “...analytical thinking, the science of dealing with independent sets of variables, to systems thinking, the art, and science of handling independent set of variables.” Gharrajedaghi 474 Self-reference is an obstruction to development; existing images don't allow the evolving process to fully take place.

475 “In a more familiar context, consider education and/or healthcare system where peer evaluations and strong self-referential values have produced a dominant closed culture that keep (sic) reproducing the existing order despite numerous calls for reform.” analytical thinking centered on independent variables 476 Ackoff's systems methodology/ Interactive design—find it “Analytical thinking assumes that understanding structure is sufficient to understand a system. For synthetic thinking function is the key for seeing the whole. The dynamic thinkers on the other hand, looks (sic) to the process, the how question, for the necessary answer to define the whole. It is my contention that structure, function, process represent three apects of the same thing and with the containing environment form a complementary set. Together they define the whole or make the understanding of the whole possible. Structure defines components and their relationships; function defines the outcomes; and finally, process explicitly defines the sequence and dynamic interactinos of activities that produce the outcome.” Gharrajedaghi 476 477 the spiral process of context function structure process context GRAPHIC