Hawhee, Debra Bodily Pedagogies: Rhetoric, Athletics, and the Sophists’ Three Rs College English, Vol 65, No 2 (Nov 2002

) pp 142-162 Accessed 26/03/2009 Three Rs: rhythm, repetition, response 142 Focusing on the connection between rhetorical training and athletic training 142-3 Many authors indicate that “Greek culture is highly agonistic…” 143 Hawhee cites Plato’s Lysis taking place as people move from one gymnasium to another Also, the private palaestra Hawhee describes palestras “where young boys were sent to learn wrestling and other sporting activities. But more than that, as this passage (in Plato) indicates, such schools were also the site of philosophical discussion the likes of those described by Hippothales… Such discussions were understood as a kind of informal training, as they fostered the production and demonstration of skills important for public discourse, and the working through of particular cultural and philosophical topics, like friendship…” (Hawhee Bodily 143). 144 Hawhee asserts “Evidence of sophistic activity in gymnasia and palaestae is scattered through the remains of Greek writings,” and then provides multiple examples (Bodily 143). Not only were these sites for the sophists, but also private houses as well as shops, the agora, and more formal academies. In Hawhee’s discussion of Susan Jarratt’s reading of Sophists as Athenian “public intellectuals,” the public spaces these intellectuals attended to were often public gymnasia “since the sites were already an integral part of the daily practices of most free Athenian men. But perhaps more importantly, these locations were frequented by youths seeking to cultivate a citzen ethos” (Hawhee 144). “As locations of physical training—young boys learned and practiced running, jumping, wrestling, and boxing, for starters—the gymnasia were already important sites for the production of citizen subjects, and moreover, the production took place in a decidedly corporeal style. From this spatial intermingling of practices there emerged a curious syncretism between athletics and rhetoric, a particular crossover in pedagogical practices and learning styles, a crossover that contributed to the development of rhetoric as a bodily art: an art learned, practiced, and performed by and with the body as well as the mind” (Hawhee Bodily 144) These are critical quotes, and the heart of the point of root links between the physical and the rhetorical, the holistic training—the training and production of citizens, not just speakers or athletes, but with a larger concern. 145 Hawhee claims that Isocrates “was the one to articulate most explicitly this fusion of teaching styles” (Bodily 145).

“Since athletic training and competition were already deeply politicized in Athenian culture (Kyle; Kurke), what better art to link to, strategically and methodologically, than the practices in the gymnasium, the place where the political, ethical body emerges?” (Bodily 145). She supports her point with Antidosis lines 180-83 (trans. Adapted) “not separating sharply the two kinds of education [body and mind—my note], but using similar methods of instruction, exercise, and other forms of discipline” (Bodily 145). “Athletic and rhetorical training were thus bound together, as Isocrates points out, in at least two ways: (1) together, training in athletics and oratory provide a program for shaping an entire self, and (2) the two arts draw from similar pedagogical strategies wherein the respective instructors impart to students bodily and discursive forms of expression: then, according to Isocrates, they “set them at exercises, habituate them to work, and require them to combine in practice the particular things which they have learned” (Antidosis 184). Furthermore, this passage describes a style of pedagogy based upon what I’m calling the three Rs of sophistic pedagogy: rhythm, repetition, and response” (Hawhee Bodily 145). 145-46 use of rhythms and pipes during athletic training 147 Music in education 148 Citation of Warry’s discussion of the Greek word rhythm which is derived from the verb meaning “to flow” and “invokes the movement of the rivers.” Then citation of Warry “…the Greek idea of rhythm is one of current combined with alternation, of continuity with vicissitude” (Warry 115). This fits in with Lanham’s idea of poles, oscillation and movement 149 Wrestling practiced with an opponent “The three Rs of athletic training—rhythm, repetition, response—lie at the very heart of Isocrates’s conception of training. “The word Isocrates uses for both athletic and rhetorical training—epimeleias—is worth consideration here. The word itself encapsulates several dimensions of an intense engagement: “diligent attention,” “care,” “and even, in plural form, “pains“ (Liddell and Scott 645). Its root, melete, means “practice,” “exercise,” and, when used in terms of rhetorical training, often means declamation (LS 1097). (italics hers, not mine) How do I cite this stuff? This is a critical idea, linking, and word. It connects to Lanham; it connects the training; it connects rhetoric. Lots of stuff. 150

Empedocles exhortation of Pausanias Hard work involved in thinking Pushing out busy thoughts and focusing on the teacher The teaching will cause things to happen/grow as to their nature Education as character sculpting Significant passage about the struggle of learning/ scholar warrior;; bodily production of knowledge Discipline of contemplation 150 In response to a passage by Aristotle about habit, nature, and melete, Hawhee states that “This passage is noteworthy because it suggests that practice produces the very habit of self-contrl necessary to make oneself capable of training. In other words, education is enabled through one’s habit of melete, of a belief in the transformative work of practice (Hawhee Bodily 150). Italics hers 151 “Training or epimeleias thus occurs through repeated, sustained engagement—a shared trait of athletic and rhetorical training as elaborated by Isocrates in Antidosis… In other words, these “twin arts” are, for Isocrates, the two fundamental arts for citizen training, because this particular training juncture, Isocrates contends, enables teachers to “advance their pupils to a point where they are better men and where they are strong in their thinking or in the use of their bodies” (185). This mode of teaching thus, in Isocrates’s logic, better equips young Athenians to become effective citizens” (Hawhee bodily 151). 152 “As Isocrates contends, no system of knowledge can teach kairotic response; rather such response emerges out of repeated encounters with difference: different opponents, different subject matter, different times and places” (Hawhee Bodliy 152). 152 Imitation 153 Observation and being associated with “What Isocrates articulates here is a pedagogy of association—a cultivation of habit and practices by placing oneself in close relation to those who practice the arts one is pursuing…” (153 Hawhee Bodily). 154 Imitation has a place—review this; could be interesting 155

An important aspect of Isocrates’s pedagogy is that of imitation— association with and working in the same place as the instructor. Among other things, this provides the student an opportunity to model from the instructor and for the instructor to correct their student. The end result of this, according to Hawhee is that “In other words, the “end result” of such pedagogy is not a finished product, but a dispositional capacity for iteration—the ability to continually repeat, transform, and respond” (Hawhee Bodily 154-155) Like Lanham, the result is a skill set and being able to adopt and adapt and perform on ones own. This implies that a significant part of success with the Isocratean model is linked to modeling or apprenticing under master teachers or instructors. Is this even possible through distance education. How does Lanham deal with this? This could also link to the 152 page quote about Kairos. If we are able to observe others properly \handling and developing their Kairotic skills, that provides the students with opportunities to learn from an expert. Similarly, if the students are able to perform and fail, having the expert right there to correct them enables them to maximize their learning from their mistakes instead of making the same errors over and over again. 156-157 Disposition, posture, hold the body 157 Quote of quintillian discussing oratory’s indebtedness to gymnastics 160 “Since ancient rhetorical performance and its concomitant training practices both took place at the level of the body, the focus lies on an attention to manner—to the way in which one acquires artistic expertise— over matter, here meaning subject matter, as in the modern notion of the three Rs. That is, rather than focusing on material learned—the sophists didn’t have a curriculum in the modern sense of a “subject matter” to be “covered”—sophistic pedagogy emphasized the materiality of learning, the corporeal acquisition of rhetorical movements through rhythm, repetition, and response. This manner of learning-doing entails “getting a feel for” the work—following and producing a rhythm” (Hawhee Bodily 160). Italics hers, not mine Fluff over stuff; being and practice over learning specific content This final passage is very important and it links into the overall piece.