LA VOZ PASIVA

http://webs.ono.com/lallena/PassiveVoice.html Voz activa En las oraciones activas estamos interesados en quien realiza la acción, en el sujeto: Peter will finish his new book in three months. Voz Pasiva En la voz pasiva estamos más interesados en la acción que en quien la realiza: His new book will be finished in three months. Forma BE + PARTICIPIO PASADO (del verbo principal activo) Cómo transformar una oración activa en pasiva: 1. Ponemos como sujeto de la oración pasiva el complemento directo de la oración activa. 2. Añadimos el verbo BE en el mismo tiempo en que está el verbo principal de la oración activa. 3. Pasamos el sujeto de la oración activa al final de la oración pasiva, precedido por BY. Voz activa Your little boy Sujeto has broken Verbo activo Voz pasiva The window Sujeto has been broken Verbo pasivo by your little boy. Complemento Agente the window C. Directo

Uso ‐ Cuando no conocemos el agente o no es muy importante: Cotton is grown in Andújar. ‐ Cuando estamos interesados en la acción y no en el sujeto: Four people were killed in an accident. ‐ Los verbos intransitivos (que no tienen complemento directo), tales como like, die, live, exist, sleep, occur, happen, go, come, o arrive no tienen forma pasiva, ya que no hay nada que se pueda convertir en sujeto de una oración pasiva.

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utilizamos otras preposiciones para introducir el agente: ‐ We were worried ABOUT (by) her attitude. ACTIVA: Modal + HAVE + Past participle PASIVA: Modal + HAVE BEEN + Past participle ‐ They may have given him the car. ‐> It can't be found. a veces se usa 'get' en vez de 'be' para formar la pasiva: ‐ Our car gets cleaned every weekend. ‐ We were stopped by a policeman. ‐ Penicillin was discovered by Fleming. ‐ He made us work ‐> We were made to work. Verbos con preposición ‐ They laughed at him ‐> He was laughed at. en vez de BY. En inglés informal. (He was killed in a plane crash) 2 .Utilizamos BY + AGENTE sólo cuando nos interesa quién o qué realiza la acción o para añadir nueva información. ‐ A new supermarket’s just been opened. (Our car is cleaned every weekend) ‐ He got killed in a plane crash. ‐ They must publish it ‐> It must be published. Oraciones interrogativas Cuando preguntamos quién ha hecho algo (complemento agente) hay que poner la preposición BY detrás del participio pasado: ‐ Who was the Spanish football league won by last year? Para hablar del instrumento con el que se realiza la acción utilizamos WITH: ‐ He was shot (by the robbers) WITH a revolver. ‐ He was frightened OF snakes. el verbo LET va siempre seguido de infinitivo sin ‘to’: ‐ They let us go ‐> We were let go. ‐ You can play with these cubs safely ‐> These cubs can be played with safely. Los verbos seguidos de infinitivo sin ‘to’ en voz activa llevan infinitivo con ‘to’ en la voz pasiva: ‐ We saw them go out ‐> They were seen to go out. ‐ I was excited AT (by) the idea. ‐ > He may have been given the car. ‐ They were waiting for you ‐> You were being waited for. Detrás de algunos participios que se usan como adjetivos. Pasiva con Modales ACTIVA: Modal + V PASIVA: Modal + BE + Past participle ‐ He can't find it. En la mayoría de las oraciones pasivas no hay complemento agente. ‐ He should have typed the letter ‐> The letter should have been typed. Sin embargo.

show.Verbos con dos complementos Con los verbos que llevan dos complementos (indirecto + directo). expect. tell. find. suppose. claim. feel. know. etc. guess. se pueden utilizar dos construcciones de pasiva impersonal: ‐ Sujeto + is / are + participio pasado + TO + infinitive ‐ IT + is + participio pasado + THAT + oración Ejemplo 1 ACTIVA: People consider (that) he is dangerous. promise. PASIVA2: The car was given to his sister. 2. PASIVA1: He is believed to live alone. rumour. lend. offer. PASIVA1: He is thought to have broken his leg. utilizamos un infinitivo perfecto (to have + participio pasado): ACTIVA: They think (that) he broke his leg. understand. allege. report. report. send. consider. Pasivas impersonales 1. believe. De ellos. Ejemplo 2 ACTIVA: People believe he lives alone. tales como give. say. estimate. etc. Cuando nos referimos a acciones que ocurrieron en el pasado. PASIVA2: It is believed that he lives alone. pay. se pueden utilizar dos tipos de oración pasiva. PASIVA1: He is considered to be dangerous. PASIVA1: His sister was given the car. presume. el más habitual es aquel en el que el complemento indirecto se convierte en el sujeto de la oración pasiva: ACTIVA: He gave his sister the car. think. PASIVA2: It is thought that he broke his leg. PASIVA2: It is considered that he is dangerous. Con verbos como acknowledge. 3 . refuse. know.

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