The parish priest had his first suspicion of an impostor when be

saw that he [the old man] did not understand the language of
God or know how to greet his mmisters. Then he nOticed that
seen close up he was much tOO human: he had an unbearable
Supplements also play nn important role in Garda Marquez.'s tale
about "A Very Old Man with Enormous Wings;' which is. as we shall see,
part of the literary c::anon generated by the trope of £lying. This Story
differs from Rodriguez. Frcy!c's and Carpentier's versions in that its curious
protagonist, if he can be called that at all. is not black. In fact, there is a
great deal of confusion about who or what this strange winged creature
actually is: "The light was so weak at noon that when Pelayo was coming
back to the house after thrOWing away the crabs. it was hard for him to
see what it' was that was and groaning in the rear of the courtyard.
He had to get very dose to sce that it was an old man. a very old man.
lying face down in the mud. who. in spitl:: of his tremendous efforts,
couldn't get up, impeded by his enormous w;ings." While the huge buzzard
wings of this great-grandfather:' now "forever entangled in the
mud," substantially impede his own physical movements, they seem to
have exactiy the opposite effect on the inhabitants of this unidentified
town. which is another version of Macondo-but with a difference. Ma-
as we know from One Hundred Years 0/ Solitude, is located in the
mterior of Colombia, whereas the town we encounter in this story is
clearly situated on the Caribbean coast. This is not only evident from the
very beginning of the text. where we hear about Pelayo throwing the dead
crabs into the sea; Garda Marquez is careful throughout the story to
remind his readers of that specific location. Unfortunately, these more or
less subtle reminders-references to Martinique. the Caribbean. and Ja-
maica-have been, for some reason, either changed or completely removed
from the text of the translation. Furthermore. it should not be overlooked
that the old man speaks "an incomprehensible dialect with a strong sailor's
voice" {my italics'. At first glance. all these details may appear relatively
inSignificant to the actual narrative. On closer Jook. however, they indicate
the Importance Garda Marquez. attributes to the Caribbean as a cultural
context within which to cast the winged old man.
The "inconvenience" of the wings gives rise to aU kinds of speculation
about the stranger's identity: some regard him as the victim of a
wreck. others daim that he is angel knocked down by the raini
and Father Gonzaga almost predictably suspects that he IS one of the
devil's carnival tricks.
smell of the outdoors, the backside of his Wings was strewn
with parasites, and hiS main feathers had been mistreated by
terrestrial winds. and nothing about him measured up to the
proud dignity of angels. Then he came out of the chicken coop
and in a brief sermon warned the CUrtOUS against the risks of
being ingenuous [sic: simple-minded}.. _. He argued that if
wings were not the essential element in determining the differ-
ence between a hawk and an airplane, they were even less so in
the recognition of angels.
Yet these wings, parasite-infested as they may be. are of crucial importance
not so much for determining the actual identity of the fallen freak, but for
comprehending how and why Garda Marquez employs the trope flying
as a foundation for his own particular version of a more or less "marvel-
ous" American reality.
Described and examined in quite some detail in this Story, the wings
are the visible metaphOric extensions of the Afro-American myth of flying.
They almost literally grow out of that myth, which itself is an appendage,
a suppiement in the Derridean sense, to the body of Hispanic culture in the
Caribbean. It is qUlte telling in this regard that the doctor, who could not
resist the temptation of examining the "angel," should be struck by "the
logic of his wings"-"They seemed so natural in that completely human
organism that he couldn't understand why other men didn't have them
too." The logic of the wings, as it were, is the logic of the supplement,
which is at once complementary and additional; it IS both a part of as well
as apart from the cultural and textual context in which it appears. This
ambiguity is precisely what characterizes the position of the birdlman
within that community into which he has been accidentally thrown. He is
a stranger. yet he is familiar; he appears to be human. yet he is morc than
that; he is. in short, a being which cannot easily contained withlO
noncontradictory definitions. In this sense, the old man!s ambiguous anat-
omy is already sufficient to place him. much like Juana Garda and also
Macandal, in direct opposition to the kind of authority to which Father
Gonzaga appeals for tla final judgment on the nature of the captive:' The
priest 'lpromised to wette a letter to his bishop so that the latter would
write to his primate so that the laner would write to the Supreme Pontiff
in order to get the final verdiet from the highest courts:' Clearly,
Rodriguez Freyle's Juana Garcia, Carpentier's Macandal. and Garda Mar-
quez's old man with enonnous wings are all mythical figures which exist
outside and in defiance of the authomy of the law. which in all three cases
177 Gabriel Garda Marquez and Afro·Amcrican Literature VERA M. 176
attempts, rather unsuccessfully, to confine them within the limits of a fixed
definition or identity, to make them adhere to the conceptual categories
officially employed to define reaUry and truth.
It is important to note that intimate connection between the law,
whJch assures permanence and identity, and the kind of wridng which may
be caJJed "legal" in the sense that it does not tolerate contradictions and
ambiguities. This writing is used as a means of social control in mar it
seeks to impose indelible marks of the official authority vested in it by the
bureaucratic apparatus of either Church or State. In Garda Marquez.'s
Story, this link is moSt evident in a passage that emphasizes the inherently
violent nature of such inscriptions of authority. The particular act of
violence we witness significantly assumes another, very specific, cultural
dimension once we consider that it was a common flractice among
holders in all parts of the New World to brand their slaves as punishment
for certain offenses. This form of punishment was most frequently
istered to recaptured runaways, so that they could easily be identified by
their mark of possession.
The only rime they {the curious gathered in from of the chicken
coop] succeeded in arousing him [the old manl was when they
burned his side with an iron for branding steers, for he had
been motionless for so many hours that they thought he was
dead. He awoke with a start, ranting in his hermetic language
and with tears in hiS eyes, and he flapped his Wings a couple of
times, which brought on a whirlwind of chicken dung and
nar dust and a gale of pank that did not seem to be of this
world. Although many thought that his reaction had been one
nOt of rage but of pain. from then on they were careful not to
annoy him. because the majority underStood that his passlvity
was not that of a hero taking his ease but that of a cataclysm in
repose.
Again! this scene is somewhat remmiscent of Macandal's execution in The
Kingdom of This World, which I have mentioned earlier in connection
with the end of the stacy of Juana Garda. There is a remarkable figurative
analogy here between Macandal's moving the stump of his arm in a
"threatening gesture which waS none the less terrible for being partial" at
the very moment that the flames were beginning to lick his legs and the old
man's flapping his wings when touched by the hot branding iron. Both
gestures cause a panic among the crowd of spectators, who are instantly
178 VEIV. M. KUTZ1NSKI Gabriel Garcia Marquez and Afro-American Literature 179
reminded of the destructive powers latent in the kind of magic ascribed in
similar ways to these two characters as well as to Juana Garcia. This
invites us to consider in more detail an important quality shared by these
three figures: They are all believed to be sorcerers and as such invested
with speCial curative powers. It is not an exaggeration, then, to describe
each as what Derrida Aas called a phannakos (healer. wizard. magician,
sorcerer). The term is particularly appropriate because of its ambiguity,
which results from the continuous vaciIlation of its meanings between all
kinds of positive and negative connotations.
The characteristic ambigUity of the pharmakos is perhaps most
ent in the case of MacandaI, whose acquired knowledge of plants and
herbs enables him to orchestrate a large-scale poisoning of the white slave-
holders and theu- families) thus "curing" the blacks from the pains of their
bondage. In contrast, Juana Garda's poison is much more subtle: By
ing the promiscuous young wife of a Spanish merchant concrete evidence
of his husband's own infidelity in the form of a sleeve from his mistress's
dress, she enables the woman to conceal, and even legitimize by way of
blackmail, the accidental result of her adultery (the child who is born and
disowned during her husband's long absence). Juana Garda's services im-
plicitly sanction such marital transgressions and thus pose a threat to the
moral order as well as to the public image of the colony. Her magic
sons nat the bodies. but the minds of the residents of Bogotli. The
ous powers of Garcia Marquez's mysterious old man ate suggested in a
variety of ways. Both the fact that the sick infant of Pelayo and Elisenda
recovers almost immediately after the "angel's" appearance in their
yard as well as the arrival of pilgrims from all over the Caribbean In hope
of miraculous relief from their illnesses and deformities indicate that he
might possess the positive qualities of a healer. liThe most unfortunate
invalids on earth [sic: of the Caribbean] came in search
K
of health: a poor
woman who since childhood had been coundng her heartbeats and had
run out of numbers. a Portuguese man [sic: a JamaicanJ who couldn't sleep
because the noise of the stars disturbed a sleepwalker who got up at
night to undo the things he had done while awake; and many others with
less serious ailments." But all the winged sage offers those invalids. whose
unusual. if not absurd. afflictions cannot but strike us as somewhat
Borgesian, are "consolation miracles, which were more like mocking fun"
than serious remedies: "the few mirades attributed to the angel showed a
certain mental disorder, like the blind man who didn't recover his sight but
grew three new teeth; or the paralytic who didn't get to walk but almost
180 VERA M. KUTZTNSKI
Gabrid Garda Marquez. and Afro-American Literature 181
won the lonery) and the Jeper whose sores sprouted sunflowers". (my
italics).
Those exn'aordinary "consolation miracles" are, of course, fUrther
manifestations of the same kinds of supplementarity which, as we have
seen, determines the logic of the old man's wings. This logic in its charac-
teristic ambiguity .15 akin to the inherently comradicrory nature of the
pharmakos; in fact, the wings are a synecdochial representation of the
pharmakon. which IS the magic power of transformation earlier described
as "volateda." What we are dealing with, In short, is not a conclidon of
mental disorder. but a method capable of both enriching and at the same
time endangering the stability of the accepted. official version of an historw
ieal reality and an historical process which. m each of the three texts. is
represented by a figure of public authority: th,:: Governor of Santo
Dommgo In The Kingdom of This World; the Chief Inquisitor in El
camero; and Father Gonzaga m "A Very Old Man with Enormous Wings."
This conceptual method, which avails Itself of the paradoxical logic of the
supplement or pharmako71 in order to disrupt and destabilize conventional
Western ideas of order as well as the formulaic language m which these
ideas are cast, Significantly Jinks Macandal's poison, Juana Garda's sleeve,
the Wings of the old man and his consolation miracles.
Although it might be argued that the PlatomdDerridean concepts of
the phamtakos and the phannakotf as applied to these texts lift them out
of their specific cultural and literary context by reducing their figurative
properties to universals, it ought to be noted that the inseparable bond
bet\veen phamtakos/pharmakOIl and flight already preempts such a read-
mg. The phannakos as "volateria" is endowed with irreducible culture-
specific meanings, and as such verifies the continued existence of distinct
Afro-Amencanisms in twentlethwcenrury Latin Amencan literature. These
AfrowAmericamsms are pronounced enough to generate a separate canon,
but at the same time it has to be emphaSized that this canon, unlike its
North American counterpart, does not Simply consist of texts produced by
a dearly defined "minorl1:Y." Rather. it IS composed of texts which add
Afro-American myth and history to Latin America's repertoire of founding
fables. Afro-America thus becomes an integral part of the literature of the
Hispamc Caribbean, but It is integrated into this larger cuitural and liter-
ary context without losing its distinctiveness or authenticitY. Viewed from
this perspective. it is not all that surprising that even a writer like Garcia
Marquez. should. among other things, lay claim to the same cultural h e r l ~
tage as a black writer from the Umted Sates. Afro.Amenca constitutes a
bridge between Latin America and the Umted States, and it is certainly no
coincidence that the relationship benveen those groups which compdse the
culturalfliterary establishment in the United Scates and particularly the
Hispanic Caribbean is quae similar to that between so-called white Amer-
ica and its black community. This has been historically true approximately
since the turn of the century.
Such generalizations of course require at Jeast some evidence. Without
leaving the Immediate realm of our diSCUSSion. which has been predomi-
nantly but not exclusively literary so far. I would thus like to call attention
to a poem by the late Robert Hayden entitled ''For a Young ArtiSt," which.
as indicated by the author himself. is a tribute to Garda Marqueis "A
Very Old Man with Enormous Wings." That an Afro-American poet like
Hayden should smgle out this particular short story as the basis for one of
his best-known poems at a time when literary cdtics and historians were
for the most part very much preoccupied with cutting the American liter-
ary canon mto thin ethnic slices, is a statement of some importance which.
if nOthing else, indicates the existence of a substantial lag between Ameri-
can literature and its critidsm. Without overstating the importance of
Hayden's symbolic gesture, it is safe to say that the relationship between
his poem and Garda Marquez's story is, in many ways, representative of a
larger pattern of cross-cultural interpenetration in modern American litera-
ture. Hayden is by no means an exception in this regard, and it is worth
noting that the work of other contemporary black writers from the Umted
States-among them the poets Jay Wright and Michael Harper as well as
the novelist Gayl Jones-reflects a similar interest in Latin America.
But let us look more closely at the textual relationship between "For a
Young Artist" and "A Very Old Man with Enormous Wings." ObViously,
what attracted Hayden most to this story was Garda Marquez's peculiar
practice of the traditional Afro-Amencan flight metaphor. For Hayden. as
for Garda Marquez, the gift of flying is intimately associated with the
poetic power to unsettle and transform language by making it referentially
and representationally ambiguous, by freeing it from the constraints of
smgular, fixed meamngs. Like the old man in both the poem and the story,
this language "twists away/from the cattle-prod" (my italics), and, In doing
so, assumes a semantic multiplicity or plunvalence that is as elusive as the
"angel:' who, after finally dragging himself out of the chicken coop,
"seemed to be in so many places at the same time that they grew to think
that he'd been duplicated, that he was reprodudng himself all through the
house." This eiusiveness, which IS Significantly figured as a process of
182 VERA M. KUTZINSKI
multiplication, of endless supplementation. already
mate achievement of flight at the end of both texts.
He strains. an
ward patsy, sweating strains
leaping falling. Then -
anticipates the; ulti-
HUMBERTO E. ROBLES
silken rustling in the air
the angle of ascent
achieved.
The preparatory intensity of movement created by the verbal cluster
"sweating strains/leaping falling" builds up toward a similar kind of elu-
siveness, which is prefigured by the hyphen ("Then-") and culminates in
the complete disappearance of the persona in the poem's fmal stanza. It is
inreresring that in neither one of the tWO texts do we actually wItness the
moment of flying. We only hear the "silken rusding" of the wings and
Elisenda's "sigh of relief, for herself and for him
J
when she saw him [the
old manl pass over the last houses." The moment of flight is clearly a
moment of depersonalization: The wmged old man ceases to be a
ence, in Elisenda's life as well as in the texts themselves, and becomes an
Uimaginary dot on the horizon of the sea." What remains in rhe text, as
text, is the "angle of ascent" which, as a metaphor for the textual
tation of flight, significantly replaces what we may call the "ascent of the
angel." Hayden's seemingly playful pun, the turning of "angel" into "an-
gie:' is the key event in the poem: It signals the transformation of charac-
ter into trope, and thus comments on Garda Marquez's text-and by
extenSIon on the execution of Macandal and the story of Juana Garda-in
a most profound way. The trope is what supplements mere representation
by adding to it an allegorical dimension, so that representation can be-
come a vehicle for allegory. This! in and by itself, is nothing new or
unusual. But Hayden's realization that certain texts in Ladn American
literature are vehicles for specific Afro-American myths and allegories IS an
insight that opens many new possibilities for studying processes of canon·
formation in American literature(s).
The First Voyage around the World:
From Pigafetta to Garcia Marquez
vet/lellt annis
saeClI/a seris, quiblts Oceanm
vineJl!a rcrum [axd et ingclls
pateat tel/lis Tethysqlle nOllos
detegat orbus nee sit terrls
II/tima Thule.
-Seneca, Medea. 2.374-79
Antonio Pigafetta's account of the first voyage around the world (1519-
22) IS of manifold significance. On the one hand, it is an allusive
dium of cartographic, historical, political, religious and economic
nents. On the other, it transcends its time and establishes itsdf as a
primordial text that directly or indirectly has affected the interpretation of
the New World by such varied authors as Peter Martyr. Montaigne, Shake·
speare, Vico. De Pauw and others. Moreover, Pigafetta's relation of
Magellan's voyage is equally germane to the understanding of apposite
cultural and aesthetic concerns and practices evident among some distin-
guished contemporary Latin American writers, not the least of whom IS
Gabriel Garda Marquez. Thus enVisaged, Pigafetta's text IS not merely a
document where one can examine the hIstorical contact of early sixteenth-
century Europe and a "wider world:' but also- one where the "seeds of
modern literary praCtices and conventions of Spanish America can be dis-
cerned.
From History of Ewopeall Ideas 6, no. 4 (19851. 0 1985 by Pergamon Press Ltd.
183
Modern Crittcai Views
Gabriel Garcia Marque!:
Andrew l'.1arvell
Carson McCullers
Herman Melville
George Meredith
James Meuill
John Smart Mill
Arthur Miller
Henry Miller
John Milton
Yukio Mishima
Molii!:re
Michel de Montaigne
Eugenio Montale
Marianne Moote
Alberto Moravia
Toni Morrison
Alice Munro
Iris Mutdoch
Robert Musil
Vladimir Nilbokov
V. 5. Naipaul
R. K. Narayan
Pablo Neruda
John Henry, Cardinal
Newman
Friedrich Niensche
Frank NOH1S
Joyce Carol Oates
Seiln O'Ca.sey
Flannery O'Connor
Christopher Okigbo
Charles Olson
Eugme O'Neill
Jose Ortega I' Gasset
joe Orton
George Orwell
Ovid
Wilfred Owen
Amos 0 ..
Cynthia Ozick
Grace Paley
Blaise Pasta.!
Walter Pater
Oeta

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Modern Critical Views
GABRIEL GARCIA MARQUEZ
Edited and with an introduction by
Harold Bloom
Sterling Professor of the Humanitles
Yale Universiry
CHELSEA HOUSE PUBLISHERS
New York 0 Philadelphia
Contents
Editor's Note vii
Introduction 1
Harold Bloom
Garda Marquez: From Aracataca to Macondo 5
Marta Vargas Llosa
jose Arcadia Buendia's Scientific Paradigms:
Man in Search of Himself 21
Floyd Merrell
The Faulkner Relation 33
William Plummer
The Myth of Apocalypse and Human Temporality
in Garda Marquez's Cien anos de soledad
and El otono del patriarca 49
Lois Parkinson Zamora
The Development of Faulkner's Influence
in the Work of Garda Marquez 65
Harley D. Oberhelman
The Logic of Wings: Garda Marquez! Todorov.
and the Endless Resources of Fantasy 81
John Gerlach
Beware of Gift8Bearing Tales: Reading Garda Marquez
According to Mauss 91
Eduardo GonvHez
Cien atios de soledad: The Novel as Myth
and Archive 107
Roberto Gouzalez Echevarria
p. em. - (Modem critical views)
Bibliography {'.
Includes index.
Summary: A collectiOn of eighteen critical essays on the Colombian
writer, arranged chronologIcally in the order of their original
publication.
ISBN 1_55546_297_9
1. Garcia Marquez:. Gabriel, 1928- _CritiCism and
interpretation. I!. Garda Marquez:. Gabriel, 1928- _CritiCism
and interpretation. 2. Colombian literature-Historv and
ctitidsm:I 1. Bloom. Harold. II. Series. - 87-22774
PQ8180.17.A73Z6734 1988 CIP
863-dc19 AC
() 1989 by Chelsea House Publishers, a division
of Main Line Book Co.
Introduction C) 1988 by Harold Bloom
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be
reproduced or transmined in any form or by any means
without the written permission of the publisher.
Printed and bound in the United States of Amenca.
10 9 8 7 6
eo The paper used in this publication meets the mmimum
requirements of the American National Standard for Permanence of
Paper for Printed Library Materials, Z39.48-1984.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Gabriel Garda Marquez. , edited and with an introduction by Harold
Bloom.

Related Interests

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W ~ k e r Percy
Peuarch
Pindar
Harold Pinter
Luigi Pirandello
SylVia Plath
Plato
Plaums
Edgar Allan Poe
Foets of Sensibility & the
Sublime
Poers of the Nineties
Alexander Pope
K:nhenne Anne POrlet
Eua Pound
Anrhony Powell
Pre·Raphaelite Poets
Marcel Proust
lvianuel Puig
Alexander Pushkin
Thomas [lynchen
Francisco de Quevedo
Franliols RabeialS
Jean Racine
Ishmael Reed
Adrienne Rich
Samuel Richardson
Mordecai Richler
Rainer lvlaria Rilke
Arthur Rimbaud
Edwin Arlington Robinson
Theodore Roerhke
Philip Roth
Jean.Jilcques Rousseau
john Ruskin
J. D. Salinger
Jean·Paul Same
Gershom SchoJem
Sir Walter Scort
William Shakespt'are
(3 vob.)
Histories & Poems
Comedies & Romances
Tragedies
George Bernard Shaw
fl&ry Wollstonecraft
Shelley
Percy Bysshe Shelley
Sam Shepard
Richard Brimley Sheridan
Sir Philip Sidney
Isaac Bashevls Singer
Tobias Smollert
Alexander Solzhenitsyn
Sophodts
Wole Soyinka
Edmund· Spenser
Gertrude Stein
Jolm Slembeck
Stendhal
Laurence Sterne
Wallace Stevens
Robert Louis Stevenson
Tom 5roppard
August Srn'ndberg
Jonathan Swift
john Millingron Synge
Alfred. Lord Tennvson
William Makepeace
Thackeray
Dvlan Thomas
Henry David Thoreau
James Thurber and S. J.
Perelman
J. R. R. Tolkien
i.eo Tolsroy
Je;!O Toomer
Lionel Trilling
Anthony Trollope
Inn Turgenev
Mark Twain
Miguel de Unamuno
John Updike
Paul Valery
Cesar Valleio
Lope de Vega
Gore Vidal
Virgil
Voltaire
Kurr Vonnegut
Derek WalCOtt
Alice Walker
Robert Penn Warren
Evelyn Waugh
H. G. Wells
Eudora Welt)'
Na.thanael West
Edith Wharton
Patrick Whitt'
Walt Whitman
Oscar Wilde
Tennessee Willia.ffis
William Carlos Williams
Thomas Wolfe
Virginia Woolf
William Wordsworth
lay Wright
Richard Wright
William Butler Yeats
A. B. Ydioshua
Emile Zola
Modern Critical Views
GABRIEL GARCIA MARQUEZ
Edited and with an introduction by
Harold Bloom
Sterling Professor of the Humanitles
Yale Universiry
CHELSEA HOUSE PUBLISHERS
New York 0 Philadelphia
Contents
Editor's Note vii
Introduction 1
Harold Bloom
Garda Marquez: From Aracataca to Macondo 5
Marta Vargas Llosa
jose Arcadia Buendia's Scientific Paradigms:
Man in Search of Himself 21
Floyd Merrell
The Faulkner Relation 33
William Plummer
The Myth of Apocalypse and Human Temporality
in Garda Marquez's Cien anos de soledad
and El otono del patriarca 49
Lois Parkinson Zamora
The Development of Faulkner's Influence
in the Work of Garda Marquez 65
Harley D. Oberhelman
The Logic of Wings: Garda Marquez! Todorov.
and the Endless Resources of Fantasy 81
John Gerlach
Beware of Gift8Bearing Tales: Reading Garda Marquez
According to Mauss 91
Eduardo GonvHez
Cien atios de soledad: The Novel as Myth
and Archive 107
Roberto Gouzalez Echevarria
p. em. - (Modem critical views)
Bibliography {'.
Includes index.
Summary: A collectiOn of eighteen critical essays on the Colombian
writer, arranged chronologIcally in the order of their original
publication.
ISBN 1_55546_297_9
1. Garcia Marquez:. Gabriel, 1928- _CritiCism and
interpretation. I!. Garda Marquez:. Gabriel, 1928- _CritiCism
and interpretation. 2. Colombian literature-Historv and
ctitidsm:I 1. Bloom. Harold. II. Series. - 87-22774
PQ8180.17.A73Z6734 1988 CIP
863-dc19 AC
() 1989 by Chelsea House Publishers, a division
of Main Line Book Co.
Introduction C) 1988 by Harold Bloom
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be
reproduced or transmined in any form or by any means
without the written permission of the publisher.
Printed and bound in the United States of Amenca.
10 9 8 7 6
eo The paper used in this publication meets the mmimum
requirements of the American National Standard for Permanence of
Paper for Printed Library Materials, Z39.48-1984.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Gabriel Garda Marquez. , edited and with an introduction by Harold
Bloom.

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