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68 Gabriel Garcia Marquez The Short Stories 69

nonexperienced readers of Garda Marquez. Time passes chron01ogically the name with which she will be recogruzed the world over. Wltil the
and the use of flashbacks is minimal. "The cage was finished" (138) an- day of her death, at the age of ninety-two. Her life. explains the narrative
nounces the oII1I1iscient narrator from the start; the same voice reports voice. is the center of gravity of Macondo. Her death, like her actions
that it took Balthazar two weeks to accomplish the work. The duration while she lived, affects everyone. "She seemed, ill truth, Infinitely rich
of time in the narrative. as the title armounces. is less than one day in and powerful, the richest and most powerful matron 1Il the world" (186).
the life of Balthazar. a thirty-year-old carpenter. There appears to be less She was indeed powerful, but she was also corrupt, like her maternal
subjectivity in the telling of this story than in the other four. Not only grandmother. who fought in the War of 1885 against none other than
are actions recounted chronologIcally, the dialogue itself is overheard by the legendary (fictitious) Colonel Aureliano Buendia of Olle Hundred
witnesses and reported in a straightforward manner. To the crowd that Years of Solitude, "Tuesday Siesta." and Leaf Storm.
comes to the carpenter's shop, this is tIthe most beautiful cage in the If the reader moves from the textual leveJ to an interpretative one. the
world" (138). Nobody in the town appreciates the cage more than the difference behveen myth and history may become even more apparent.
doctor. Octavia Giraldo. To him. the cage Is "a flight of the imagination" Seen in this way, "Big Mama.'s Funeral" portrays both history as fiction
(140). A corresponding absence of interior monologue diminishes the (the myth of Big Mama and her family) and fiction as history. The War
reader's feeling of subiectivity. To Ursula. Balthazar's comparuon, the of 1885 IS a documented fact. but the legendary colonel and Big Mama'·s
cage 15 sunply the biggest she has ever seen. but she fails to comment grandmother do not exist outside fiction.
on the beauty of it. The funeral in "Big Mama's Funeral" aIUlounces both the end of -an
When the time comes to put a price on the cage, its creator hopes to era and the beginning of another. without taking a position as to whether
, get twenty pesos but Ursula hopes to get three times as much. Ironically, the next era will be a better one. Instead. the significance of the death is

at the end of story, Balthazar gives it away for free. When Balthazar left to literature, to future storytellers of the world. VVhile the story can
started making the cage, he had had one goal in ntind: to give it to Pepe be seen as the awakerung of Macondo from "an oppressive social sys-

j: (a nickname for Jose), a hvelve--year-old cltild and the son of the richest
family in town. Jose Montiel. the child's miserly father. is a violent and
tem" (Foster 1979. 57), it js also about telling a story-about the art of
'I heartless man who decides to pay nothing to Balthazar because he be-
.~ lieves an adult should not contract with a child.
~ ~'
UA Very Old Man with Enormous Wings"

ie "Big Mama's Funeral" The setting of "A Very Old Man with Enormous Wings" is remiruscent
r" of the setting in "Isabel's Monologue." The narration opens with an om-
i{ "Big Mama's Funeral," like most of Garda Marquez's stories. 15 com- niSCIent narrator and a torrential ram: "On the third day of ra1Il they
plex. After the Ulitial reading, a first reaction might be that one 15 reading had killed so many crabs inside the house ..." (2031. Where the heavy
"-i- the sunple story of a woman, Big Mama. who is getting ready to die. rains of "Isabel's Monologue" disinter the dead, in "A Very Old Man
l! surrounded by relatives, a prIest. and a notary. Thereafter, however. one with Enormous Wings," the rains bring with them "an old man, a very
fi.: realizes that the story is more complex, going back 200 years in the life old man, Jying face down In the mud, who. in spite of his tremendous
1, of Macondo, and particularly its institutions of state and Church. efforts. couldn't get up, impeded by Ius enonnous wings" (203). To Pe-
"Big Mama's Funeral," which is partly humorous. partly satirical, layo and his wife, Elisenda, the first townspeople to see the man (who
r , partly ironic, and most definitely full of hyperbole (extravagant exag- IS in their own backyard), he is Just an old man who speaks in an in-
.~ !
I comprehensible dialect. To their neighbor. he is "an angel" who is com-
t; I gerations on the part of the narrator to emphasize the verbal account),
I describes the exercise of a limitless power by a matriarch who has been ing for·Pelayo's sick child but has been knocked down by the ram (204).
. ,::
I,: christened with the name of MarIa del Rosario Castaneda y Montero. Tust as the angel becomes immobilized the child seems to recover, and
Maria del Rosario, after attending her father's funeral mass at age so the neighbor woman's words seem to confirm the supernarurai; a
:;:l twenty-two. comes back to her house in Macondo as Big Mama. is Visible angel really has come to protect the souls of dying children.
70 Gabriel Garda Marquez The Short Stories 71

As in most of Garda Mi1rquez's stories. the ordinary folk of the town

provides one of the central focuses. thus taking center stage. In "A Very GENRE AND NARRATIVE STRUCTURE
Old Man with Enormous Wings/' the literal stage is that of MO canuvals.
the first centering on the activity surrounding the reputed presence of In Western literature. the short story has its roots in anctent Greek
an angel and the second, a more traditional, but no less mercenary affair. fables, in tales like those of Tlie r1lollsand and One Nigllts. and in the
with sideshows and feats of strength. Like Pelayo and his wife, the collections of stories of the English poet Geoffrey Chaucer and the Italian
townspeople do not really consider the very old man an angel, yet their poet and scholar Giovanni Boccacc1o. The short story, as we know it
curiosity leads them to come and gawk as if he were a rare circus animal. today in Spanish American literature, emerged in the nineteenth century.
The contradiction is that the townsfolk wish the old man were an angel, The short story as genre can be differentiated from the novel and the
a superior being, which, among other possibilities. I'could be put to stud novella because it is normally shorter. In fact, the short story encourages
in order to implant on earth a race of winged Wise men that could take concise narration and economy of words. Often the main focus of the
charge of the unh~erse" (205). This dual attitude of skeptiCism and hope short story is the telling of the story, as opposed to character develop-
continues, even after the town's priest, Father Gonzaga, assures them ment. The number of charaders can be few. and frequently they are not
that the old man IS an impostor. The priest, as did the townspeople fully developed. At times. the number of characters can be reduced to
before him, notices that the angel does not conform to thetr idea of what one or two.
an angel should be; "nothing about him measured up to the proud dig~ Of the five short stories chosen for this chapter, "A Very Old Man
nity of angels" (205). Despite the priest's observations and his insistence with Enormous Wings" is the 'one that best connects the mundane details
that the old man might be an evil figure, the news of a "captive angel" of everyday life with what many critics agree to call magic realism. Mngic
spreads throughout the town and surrounding communities, and the realism is a term not fully defined nor always understood; yet it is often
people come to see it. Taking advantage of the fact, Elisenda fences her used to describe unique Latin American narratives that mix magic and
backyard and starts charging admission to see the angel. Unlike Ursula's myths with reality, predominantly the myths of the indigenous and the
doomed ambition to make money in "Balthazar's Aftemoon/' Elisenda .black communities of the Americas. All five stories, however. are rep-
and Pelayo "crammed their rooms with money" (206). The couple con- resentative of Garda Marquez's short-story writing, and they all dep.tct
tinue to make money by exploiting the people's curiosity and "faith" three salient characteristics associated with modem short-story writing:
until the arrival of another out-of-the~ordinarybeing: "the woman who
had been changed into a spider for having disobeyed her parents" (207). • Fragmentation of narrative time: the emphasis on the uses
TIle crowd's appetite for supernatural or grotesque spectacles is now met of time is such that time becomes a theme:
by the spider woman rather than by the angel. However, the crowd's
shift in interest does not interfere with the fact that Pelayo's family has • Subjectivity of plot. normally detennlned by the difference
already improved their economic status by exploiting the angel. of the character's viewpoint;
The angel, meanwhile. becomes the pet of Pelayo's son. lust as a hu- • Ambiguity of plot. mainly because the main theme is left
man would, the angel contracts chicken pox, suffers from rugh temper~ open-ended.
atutes, and makes both Pelayo and Elisenda fear that he nught die. One
morning, as Elisenda is cutting onions in preparation for lunch, the old The action of all five stories takes place in a small, rural town. In two
man truly flies away, like a "senile vulture" would, to her relief and that stories it is named Macondo, and in the other stories it remains un-
of the old man himself (210). named. This does not mean the stories are limited in meaning by being
There are few indications of time in the story. One comes when the placed in a rural tavro. Instead, these short stories may be distinguished
narrative voice announces. "at the begi.nning of December some large. from works labeled regionalist, which emphasize the description of a local
stiff feathers began to grow on [the old man'sl wings" (210). Readers will area and suggest that the problems of the characters are only peculiar to
also note that some time has passed as the newborn son, in the course the people of that area. In the short stories of Garda Marquez. the phys-
of the story, becomes old enough to go to school. Ical settings are identifiably Latin American in general and Colombian
The Short Stories 73
72 Gabriel Garcia Marquez

in particular; however. the themes of violence, economic disparity, and The follOWing is a brief synopsis of the five stories based on their
the absence of social}ustice are WliversaL narrative technique.
In all five stories the reader finds a character-an individual-dealing
I, either with reality, dreams, or illusions. but always operating within a
society and affected by its demands. All five stories show a strife-ridden
"Monologue of Isabel Watcbing It Rain iu
society, but the focus IS on the characters and the way they deal with
the problems that face them, for instance. the role of women in a patn- In "Isabel's Monologue," events do not unfold m chronological order: "Isabel's Monologue"; an individual's pride and dignity mstead, the story follows Isabel's thoughts using a technique known as
in "Tuesday Siesta"; the role of the artist m "Balthazar's Marvelous Ai· stream of consdousness, wluch describes the flow. ill any given order.
ternoon"; the role of power In a corrupt oligarchic sodety in "Big Marna"s of actions, thoughts, and feelings as they come to nund. Although. she
Funeral"; and the exploitation of the individual in "A Very Old Man frequently narrates in the first person singular and the title says thIs IS
with Enonnous Wings." a "monologue." implying a single person speaking alone, the narration
Many of Gabriel Garcfa~ Marquez's short stories open in media res, leaves room for ambiguity. In Macondo. the weather is hot, but three
apparently m the middle of a series of actions. and use leaps of time. days of consecutive rain have made a change In the temperature. To
either forward or backward. to inform the reader of the complete story. Isabel it is the temperature of a fever chill. She says. "feet sweated tnside
nus use of time IS typical of a narrative techruque that measures time the shoes" (92). It IS unclear whose feet and whose shoes were sweating.
in at least two ways. The .first way corresponds to the way in which the If they were Isabel's feet, she would say, "my feet. Inside my Shoes.,"
events are narrated; it disrupts chronological order in presenting events However. ambiguity is a technique frequently used in Garda Marquez's
to the reader. The second corresponds to the sequence in which the narrative, even in a monologue. The ambiguity, however. intentionally
events acrually occur. Until a story has been read through to the end, interferes with the understanding of the story, which seems to consist of
only the omniSCIent narrator knows the actual sequence of eventS. The juxtaposed thoughts that come and go as Isabel quotes the words of her
reader, little by little, is able to fit together the pieces of the "time puz- stepmother. her father. and her husband.
zle." Concerrung the use of time as a narrative technique.."Isabel's
The element that is central to the short story is present at the very Monologue" depends on the stream of consciousness, a technique that
beglflIling. In "Isabel's Monologue.." a pregnant woman, Isabel. seems to places great importance on time and often makes time a theme m Itself.
be talking to herself. In "Balthazar's Marvelous Afternoon" a carpenter In tlus short story, time is fragmented and most definitely ambiguous.
has just finished his masterpiece. a birdcage. An outside narrator inter- The reader must decide whether the events actually occur or whether
ested in reporting to the "world's unbelievers" that Big Mama has died the reader is reading about a dream. The mam character.. Isabel, is not
is introduced in "Big Mama's FuneraL" "A Very Old Man with Enor- sure whether she is acrually dreaming. As she says. she is "confused by
mous Wings" commences with the arrival in town of a flesh-and-blood the mix-up in time." She then adds, "Good Lord, wouidn't,swpris;
old man with WIngs. However. as is typical of Garcia Marquez's tech- me now if they were conung to call me to go to last Sunday ,s ~ass
ruque. as the story unfolds it demands the reader's active participation. (96). The sentence construction of the ending confirms the ambIguity of
The narrative text presents a labyrmthine structure that pays little or no the story: it starts m the present tense. then moves to a subjunctive form
attention to the chronological sequence of events. m the past. and then goes back to the present, only to mention an event
The stories. at first impreSSion, seem to make no sense at all. It is often that obviously has already taken place.
unclear whose voice the readers hear or whose viewpoint they are read-
ing. Many of the stories incorporate the absurd. the unreal, the super-
natural.. elements of the undenvorld, and magic realism.. combining the UTuesday Siesta"
fantastic and the mythIc with the ordinary activities of daily life. (The
Cuban novelist Alejo Carpentier first applied the term magic realism to According to Harley D. Oberhelman, Garda Marquez has been ~uoted
saymg that "Tuesday Siesta" is his best short story, and he (GarCia Mar-
literature In the late 19405.)

Critical Companions to Popular Contemporary Writers
Second Series GABRIEL
Julia Alvarez by Silvio Sirilis
Rudolfo A. Anaya by MarglirUe Femlillda Olmos MARQUEZ
Maya Angelou by Mlinj [liue Lupton
Ray Bradbury by Robin Aline ~Reid
Louise Erdrich by Lorena L. Stookey A Critical Companion
Ernest J. Gaines by Knren Carllleli/l
John Irving by Josie P. Cfllupbefl
Garrison Keillor by Marcia SOllger Ruben Pelayo
Jamaica Kincaid by LiZilOetll Paravisini-Gebert
Barbara Kingsolver by Mary [eall DeMarr
Maxine Hong Kingston by E. D. HmJlle1j
Terry McMillan by Paulette Richards
Larry McMurtry by [aim M. Reilly
Toni MorrIson by Missy Dom Kubilsdltk
Chaim Potok by Sanford Sfendicllf
Amy Tan by E. D. Hl1Idlt!y
Anne Tyler by Pmd Bail
Leon Uris by Knlll/cen Sl1iue Cain
Gloria Naylor by C/larles E. Wilsall, Jr.


Kathleen Gregory Klein, Series Editor

Greenwood Press
Westport, Connecticut· London
Libra.ry of Congress Cataloging·in-Publlcation Data

Pelayo, Rub!!n, 1954-

I dedicate fhis book both to
Gabriel Garda Milrquez ; a critical companion I Rub!!n Pelayo. Gerald A. Lamb~ my adoptive father.
p. crn.-{CrHical comparuons to popular contemporary writers. ISSN 10B2-4979} and to the memory of my mother.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 0-313-31260-5 (alk. paper)
1. Gardi1 Marquez. Gabriel, 192B- -CritiCism and interpretation. i. Title.
U. Senes
PQ81BO.17.A73Z665 2001
863'.64-dc21 2001023337
British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data IS a\'aiJable.
Copyright 0 2001 by Rub!!n Pelayo
All rights reserved. No portion of this book may be
reproduced, by any process or lecluuque, without the
express written consent of the publisher.
Library of Congress Catalog Cilrd Number: 2001023337
ISBN: 0-313-31260-5
ISSN: 10B2.-4979
First published in 2001
Greenwood Press, a8 Post Road West, Westport, cr 06881
An impnnt of Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc.
Printed in the UnHed States of America

The paper used in this book complies with the

Permanent Paper Standard issued by the National
Lnformation Standards Organization (Z39AB-1984).

., ..-:t'1I'll:I'·......._ _~•••"mn~"m_mm~FCU'l-',...... iJl ... CU.i .... _.·'..,..J:J'_"UW._:I>Gi\iH!&£ilZI

80 Gabriel Garda Marquez The Short Stories 81

each other. However, like the old colonel in No Dlle Writes to the Cojoue/,
Balthazar makes the final decision for the couple when he decides to "A Very Old Man with Enormons Wings"
gIve away the birdcage.
All the characters in this story, with the exception of the angel, share
a common characteristic: they all believe In winged angels, but in a pre-
conceived fashion. Angels cannot be old, ugly, or sickly. Everyone-from
"Big Mama's Funeral" the priest, Elisenda, Pelayo, and the neighbor to the town in general-
seems to react in the same way, within the same parameters. The towns-
The number of characters in "Big Mama's Funeral" is large and varied. people, as character, can, therefore, be viewed equally well through Eli-
There IS one, nevertheless, who outshines all the rest: Marfa del Rosario senda, Pelayo, and Father Gonzaga.
Castaneda y Morales. Elisenda and Pelayo are simple people. They live tulder very poor
Possessing the characteristics of a rigId matriarch, this woman's Chris- economic circumstances and their only child is sick. When Pelayo comes
tian name means little or nothing to the townsfolk, who think of her as upon the winged old man he does not know what to think of him. Nei-
Big Mama. Her mighty power has been passed down to her and her ther does his wife. Their frame of reference has no concept for such a
predecessors, from generation to generation, for a total of 200 years. Her reality. Their first response to it is awe, but after a short while they start
power is omnipresent (is present everywhere at all times). It penneates to find the winged old man familiar, even human-like. Their neighbor,
all aspects of life U\ Macondo: the social, political, economic, and moral an elderly woman who supposedly understands all matters of life and
systems all obey her rule. Nothing escapes her power, supervision, in~ death, calls the winged aid man an angei. The townspeople, however,
fluence, and right to approve; above her IS only God, and beneath her crowd into Elisenda and Pelayo's house. Their curiosity brings them to
is everybody else. Her power is absolute: she has power over people, see this winged old man, whom they treat like a circus animal. Although
places, and both material and immaterial things. To the people of Ma- the narrative voice never describes the winged old man as an angel, the
\: .n.;:,
condo, her rule is untouchable, undeniable, and indivisible. Her power characters do, and decide to put it to a test. Elisenda and Pelayo capi-
over them is second nature, and they cannot think of her as a mortal talize on the townspeople's doubt and start to charge everyone who I
IiII; being. wants to see him. Indirectly, the angel does perform the miracles he IS I.
However, as is the case in Greek mythology, where heroes often have supposed to. The skk child of Elisenda and Pelayo gets well, and theIr I
II'I' a fatal flaw, this tropical goddess suffers from a lack of love and from
infertility. Her kingdom is one of abundance, but her personal life is
poor economic status changes. The angel, nonetheless, does not get any
better treatment. He continues, until the end, to be treated as a circus
:1,. i one of solitude and she dies a childless virgin. As a consequence, her animal. I
ancestral line comes to an end. There will be no more Big Mamas to in~ Elisenda and Pelayo do not behave any differently than the rest of the I
herit the absolute power her family had enjoyed for 200 years. Ironi- townspeople. They, like the people who come from afar to see the
cally, after her death, no one remembers her rule. On the contrary, winged old man, seem conditioned by their ignorance and superstition.
everyone-the Pope, the president, the beauty queens, the crowds- They all want the old man to perform miracles as proof of his super-
now feels free to exercise free will. The only one who might have ob- natural powers. They want to use the winged old man as a civil, military,
Jected is gone. and cultural figure. Some people even think of him as a stud for a new
Beyond the literal meaning of the story, there 1s a clear analogy be- super-race. In the end, the entire furor over the angel shifts to a newer
i tw"een Big Mama and the Spanish rule in the Sparush Americas. It is not
difficult to see the parallels between what goes on in the short story and
arrival-another freak-like spectacle, the spider woman. The townspeo-
ple move on to another object of amusement, and the angel is left behind.
,\ the feudal authorities, the loss of the Spanish prestige in Europe, and the Only then, when no one is paymg attention, does the very old man with
decline of the Spanish power in Latin America. A feeling of emancipation enormous wings flyaway.
!, '
is reflected in the collective character of the tOW'Tlsfolk. Father Gonzaga, as a clerical figure, IS called upon by the townspeople

_________ ~""'1lI"o:a

:li ,
~ I\ 82 Gabriel Garcia Marquez The Short StorIes 83
t' ;" ~ to clarify whether the old man 15 indeed an angel. However, Father Gon-
I to death. The tension experienced by 'the reader IS similar to the tensIOn
"I : ~
zaga is only a simple and ordinary man who was a lumbexjack before
he was ordained. He consults a catechism book but finds no answers.
I in Len! Storm (Chapter 3), and for the same reason-a stranger who has
been rejected by the community. In "A Very Old Man with Enormous
,I I'
- I'
Father Gonzaga then turns to the Church's bureaucracy: the bishop and I Wings." the old man plays the same role. The townsfolk do not interact

Ij the Pope. However, instead of an answer, Father Gonzaga receives more

questions from the Church authorities. The problem, however, solves
j with him; instead, they treat him as a circus animal whose only value is

p itself when the townspeople's fascination with the angel shifts to the
spider woman. Since the Vatican does not respond any further to Father II The theme of greed versus generosity is dearly seen in "Balthazar's
Marvelous Afternoon." Balthazar, a poor carpenter who seems to playa

Gonzaga, he loses interest as well. messianic (savior) role, is represented as haVing a heart of gold and a
Thus, the town as character is portrayed as mdifferent, not firm in its
beliefs, .frivolous, superstitious, and superficial. This is a town that moves j love for children. His concubine, however, can be VIewed as the human
representation of greed. While Balthazar is content to give his work, a
back and forth, Jackin9" firm convictions. masterfully built birdcage, to Jose Montiel's boy for free, Ursula incites
" Balthazar to charge a large amoWlt. It is due to her greed that Balthazar
j1 It: \ ends up having to give the birdcage away. She wants sixty pesos for the

i1 Illi THEMATIC ISSUES birdcage, which Jose Montiel, the boy's father, refuses to pay. Jose Mon-
tiel argues that adults should not negotiate with children (143),Jos. Mon-

",~ . . up·
The interpretation of thematic issues may vary from reader to reader.
For example, the role of the Church, a rather stable and influential power
in Latin Amedca, seems to pass unnoticed. The role played by the priest
tiel plays the role of the heartless rich man .in town, like that played by
Sabas in the novella No One Writes to the Colonel.
Another theme that seems to appear in several of the short stories
r. .
I ~::
q in "Tuesday Siesta" is irrelevant, and therefore it goes unnoticed. In itA of this chapter is the lack of love between a couple. In "Isabel's Mono~
Very Old Man with Enormous Wings/' the priest not only has a minor logue/' Martfn, Isabel's husband, does not love her, even though she is
,/ III role in the story. but the townsfolk seem to ignore him. The five short
stories discussed in this chapter are individual portraits that can be better
pregnant with his child, In the story, he speaks badly of her, In Lenf
Stonn, where the pair is more fully developed, Martfn abandons Isa·

'I' ,
, ~ f
. seen by thematic issues that tie them together. These are themes that can
be perceived throughout Garda Mi!rquez's works because they are either
personal or universal themes. These are themes that appeal to everyone
bel and their ten-yeaI""old son. In "Balthazar's Man'elous Afternoon,"
Ursula and Balthazar are not married but have lived together for four
years. In a small town such as theirs, Ursula can thus be seen as a woman
i~ di and that stand the test of time. The themes examined here are: the Wlworiliy of marriage. Likewise, in "A Very Old Man with Enormous
~ if 1
~' stranger in town, greed versus generosity, lack of love between a couple, Wings," Elisenda and Pelayo do not seem to enjoy a loving relationship.
li i 1I' ,
and solitude.
The theme of a strnnger in town, an outsider who does not fit into the
They seem more interested in benefiting from the old Winged man than
even in taking care of their sick son.
", .Iii community, is an important one in both "Tuesday Siesta" and itA Very The one theme that envelopes all five stories, as might be expected by
tl• 1111 .'
Old Man with Enormous Wings." In both short stories the outsider fails readers of Garcia Marquez, 15 the theme of solitude. One of the most
Ii \:~ I to fit into the social structure of the town. In "Tuesday Siesta," the out·
sider 1s an older woman who may be known to the community. She
promlnent themes in Gabriel Garda Marquezis work, it interests many

'~ 1 ! ~
readers perhaps because it is a natural condition for humankind. Iroru-
walks the streets as someone who knows exactly where she is cally, to be alone, in solitude, the individual needs the presence of others.
, "
Everyone in town watches her arrival and departure, but no one talks Only when the individual is aware of others can he or she experience
ill"; to her, perhaps out of fear. The woman has come to visit her son's grave.
The townsfolk, as if to watch a parade, come out to see her. There
The setting in all five stories is an Isolated town that seems to have
,fl ,:
appears to be no pity for her loss. She comes and leaves without human been forgotten by civilization. The main characters in each story also
~. I contact, except for the priest. The reader feels the tension building and suffer from physical Isolation, another form of solitude. In "Tuesday Si·

r wonders whether she and her twelve-yeaI""old daughter may be stoned esta/' the entire town rejects the thief's mother. No one seems to know

!I Ih