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Applying Battery Energy Storage to Enhance the Benefits of Photovoltaics
Feng Cheng, Steve Willard, Jonathan Hawkins, Member, IEEE, Brian Arellano, Olga Lavrova, Member, IEEE, Andrea Mammoli

Abstract—Renewable resources are becoming more and more obtainable and affordable due to the development of technology and the enactment of government policies. Electric utilities are required to deliver reliable power to customers and must operate utility grids within strict voltage limits. As renewable energy becomes a larger player amongst the resources supplying energy to these grids, issues begin arising due to the intermittent nature of these resources. The output from solar power aligns reasonably well daytime consumption on the electricity grid, reducing the need for new coal power stations. However, high penetration photovoltaic (PV), can lead to voltage instability due to intermittencies related to cloud cover. If the PV power is injected into a power system directly on a large scale, it may produce issues related to dispatchability, reliability and stability. It is desirable to select a smoothing storage algorithm that would filter out the highest rate transitions, but would still be fast enough to avoid significant lag with respect to current power production. For traditional testing, a moving average algorithm was used. For comparison, the author has tested two other algorithms. The results are being compared, showing that the dual moving average smoothing algorithm has merits in improving smoothness. Index Terms—Battery storage system,peak smoothing, Renewable Energy, Photovoltaics, Smart Grid, power , energy.

Fig. 1.

Energy storage system

I. I NTRODUCTION ARIOUS storage solutions are becoming a much needed component in recent Smart Grid demonstration projects. Public Service Company of New Mexico (PNM), in collaboration with other partners, is spearheading a Smart Grid Demonstration project that will couple an advanced lead acid battery with the output of a 500 kW substation-cited PV installation [1]. The main objectives of this demonstration project are two-fold: (1) simultaneous smoothing of the Photovoltaic plant output by fast-response counter-action from the battery (2) demonstration of power peak shifting from the typical midday peak by planned (“slow”) action from the battery [2]. Within this paper, we focus on the first objective: smoothing. During smoothing, a battery is charged or discharged in order to compensate for the intermittencies of the PV output. The battery makes the output smooth through fast charging and discharging to the feeder every second. When the battery is connected with a PV power in parallel, the resulting power penetrating into the grid is controlled. Many similar energy
This work was supported in part by the following grants: EPRI P.A. EP P32412/C15054 and DOE -PNM DE-OE000230. O. Lavrova and F. Cheng are with Department of Electrical Engineering, University of New Mexico, USA (e-mail: olavrova@ece.unm.edu). A. Mammoli is with Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of New Mexico, USA. S. Willard, J. Hawkinsand, and B. Arellano are with the Public Utility Service Company of New Mexico (PNM), Albuquerque, NM, 87106 USA

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storage systems are proposed on this subject [3], [4]. However, how to set the parameters of smoothing is not covered.In this paper, we focus on the relationship between the parameters of smoothing and smoothing outputs. There are a lot of parameters influencing the results of smoothing. The capacity, the charging and discharging rates and the ramping rate of the battery power output are needed to be studied in order to have an optimization of smoothing. The moving average algorithm is designed to calculate the rate of charging and discharging based on the real time PV output. For the alternative methods, the author has tested two other algorithms: dual moving average algorithm and moving median algorithm. A dual sliding window algorithm is found to further improve the smoothness. The system is being rigorously modeled (using GridLAB-D and Matlab) in order to derive the optimal control algorithms and operating parameters that then will be tested in various configurations to validate or correct predicted models. This paper describes the results of the modeling so far. II. T HE E NERGY STORAGE S YSTEM The energy storage system includes a PV array and a battery storage system(BESS). The BESS was manufatured by East Penn Manufacturing Company, and is composed of 3 parts: the battery system, power conversion system (PCS) and a controller system. Figure 1 shows the schematic of this system.

A. Photovoltaic Array The solar PV array produces 500 kW as its peak power output. Five irradiance sensors collect solar flux information in different position of the array. This information can be used to correlate with the weather patterns and/or to provide realtime date for smoothing algorithms.

DC current of the two batteries. The only parameter for moving average algorithm is time interval over which the average is calculated. Controller system gets the information from PCS and monitoring. Decisions on the charging and discharging rates will depend heavily on the weather conditions during a particular day. SMOOTHING ALGORITHM Our goal is to use the battery to compensate for the difference between the power reference and real-time PV output or the irradiance values. as opposed to smoothing. The battery will output power according to how much power is needed in order to get the best smoothing result.e. For this battery storage system project performance is based upon . such as DC voltage. and sends the control signal to the PCS. larger window size leads to a smoother battery output. The moving average algorithm is commonly used to calculate the power reference. One typical cloudy day is used to illustrate our findings.5 MW. Different window size will lead to different power reference with different smoothness. B. Controller System The controller system is dedicated to derive the active and reactive power references for the battery systems. The maximum power happens when the sliding window size equals 80 minutes. The power reference derived goes to the PCS. Independently of the weather pattern. Different window sizes lead to the compensated power output with different smoothness. At the same time. which is a VRLA battery exhibiting ultra-capacitor features for rapid discharge applications.and more data points will result in smoother output as well. Figure 3 shows that maximum power ranges around from 50 % to 70 % of the rated power when the sliding window sizes are from 10 minutes to 120 minutes. the window size. The maximum smoothing power needed size is an important parameter to get a smooth output. and AC current. In this system.2 B. we study how much power is needed in reality. Standard Valve Regulated Lead-Acid (VRLA) battery can not meet the need in such situation. D. and shift power generation to times of high power demand. Maximum Charging Rate and Discharging Rate The power needed from the battery is equal and less than the maximum generated PV power. We need to track the PV output or the irradiance values while making the power reference as close as possible with the real PV output. The window size can be chosen based on the requirement of the smoothness. Then the two converters are connected with one inverter which inverts DC into AC. The two converters are separately connected with shifting and smoothing battery systems in order to convert the DC of battery into a DC voltage of 600 Volts. Power Conversion System(PCS) PCS consists of two converters and one inverter. The PCS collects and logs the data. The irradiance of a cloudy day Fig. So the 500kW battery is enough for this system. which is a VRLA battery exhibiting significantly longer cycle-life than standard VRLA technology and is used in a shifting application. the PV plant capacity is 500 kW. 2. Hence. The combination of these two battery technologies enables long-life VRLA batteries to be deployed with Solar PV power plants to both smooth power generation that is interrupted by variable clouds. The first technology used in the smoothing battery is the UltraBattery. The convertors of PCS use the active power reference to regulate the power output of battery. which means the power needed will not exceed the rating of PV power. C. a large window Fig. The second used is the Advanced Carbon Battery. the power of the smoothing battery system is 0. Two technologies can address this problem. the controller system collects all of the information of the battery systems. The information includes power output and status of charging for both shifting battery and smoothing battery. i. In this system. III. The day is shown in figure 2 . the status of charging and the ramping rate needed. 3. the battery in the storage system needs to be charged and discharged at high rates. while making it as smooth as possible. So it influences the battery behavior in following aspects: the maximum charging rate and discharging rate needed. Next. Status of Charging Figure 4 shows that the status of charging (SoC) varies with the sliding window size appropriate for this weather. voltage of inverted battery output power. A. Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) To smooth variations in the output of solar power.

The ramping rate is established to prevent undesirable damaging due to rapid changes in charging or discharge of a battery. T HE C OMPARISION OF T HREE S MOOTHING A LGORITHMS The author has analyzed three smoothing algorithms. the dual moving average algorithm use the moving average algorithm twice over the 300 seconds subset. The comparison of smoothing results between with and without restoring power Fig. dual moving average and moving median. 5. Ramping Rate Another important concern with the control of BESS is the charge/discharge rates (or “ramp”rates). for this project the maximum charging rate and discharging rate is large enough for any subset sizes between 10 and 120 minutes. but the SoC of battery using restoring power is much closer to 50 % of rating than not using restoring power. SoC needs to be maintained between 10 % and 90 % of the rating 250 kWhrs. Since the restoring power is not smooth. The result will be smoother than that from using moving average algorithm once. the moving average algorithm can be used twice. D. According to this constraint. C. but does not affect the smoothness of PV output. In this paper. The ramping rates for a sliding window size between 600s and 7200s are almost the same. Restoring power maintaining SoC within a +/. Moving average algorithm calculates the average of a subset and is well known. which needs to be kept under the manufacturer’s specified values.3 Fig. 4. and. The ramping rate is in the range of +/-60kw (except for one point). So the battery output is the sum of two parts. The ramping rate does not increase as the sliding window size increases. State of charge for different window sizes Fig. The restoring power will change every second with the change of SoC. In summary. It is the rate of change in the instantaneous output from a battery. we use a new method to solve this problem. Figure 5 shows the calculated restoring power. Since the restoring power is constant for each half hour instead of every second. The ramping rates of battery are almost same for any subset size. Figure 6 shows the smoothing results are almost same smooth for both cases. namely: moving average. For example the moving average algorithm uses the 600 seconds as the size of subset. Restoring Power Restoring power is used to restore the battery to the nominal SoC.100 kWhrs while maintaining an average SoC over a 1 hour period equal to the nominal SoC. The restoring power is calculated each half hour according to SoC. we do not set a limit to the ramping rate. The only significant difference is the change of SoC. In summary. which is used to make the PV output smooth. 6. One is the difference between power reference and real time PV output. The larger subset size will make the SoC deviate from nominal SoC fast than the smaller subset size do. These two algorithms can have same lag. Another is restoring power. In order to make the output smoother. From a statistical point of view. Most of ramping rates vary between +40kw/s and -40kw/s. From figure 7. it will not influence the smoothing result. IV. is typically inversely proportional to the SoC at the moment [3]. Storing power is needed in addition to the smoothing in order to offset the battery losses. the moving median can track the trend of the PV outputs better than moving average . The ramping rate limit of battery is 100 kW/sec. In the above case. it will result in multiple smaller spikes within the smoothing output. A restoring power is needed to maintain the SoC. But the subset is half of size which is used for moving average algorithm. which is used to maintain the SoC. the restoring power can help restore the capacity of battery. we can see the result from dual moving average algorithm is smoother than moving average algorithm.

F. ramping rate are in same range. it will bring big battery energy consumption. Weather forecasts can be used to adjust window size based on weather conditions and current energy priorities. S. we use the variation of two consecutive points in smoothed output. Wang. It is more robust in respect to the variations brought by the clouds. and C. Dreisigmayer. van Zeyl. along with a description of the detailed analysis of the parameters.4 V. and C. Barrett. and K. The two differences among these three algorithms are smoothness and SoC. Consequently. Mammoli. If the subset includes a lot of outlying points. but also means larger lag. 1 –6. 2012 IEEE PES. Now she is pursuing her PH. H. Hund. Willard. Jul. 2011. Her research interests are in the area of smart grid and renewable energy. R EFERENCES [1] “EPRI smart grid demonstration initiative . This will be part of our future research. 2012 IEEE PES. In order to measure the smoothness. The variation of smoothed PV output since it underplays a lot of rapid transitions. 7. the amount of rapid changes that is not representative for the trend will be taken into account with the other good data. From figure 8. Gonzalez.3-year update. “A new battery energy storage system control method based on SOC and variable filter time constant. and the rapid changes are ignored by it. If a day is sunny. Considering it has same SoC with other two algorithms. [3] T. we can see that the dual smoothing average algorithm has the lowest variation. for a cloudy day. 8. She graduated from Beijing Jiaotong University in 2007 with the major of power system and automation. However. But moving median tracks the median for a time series of results. The lag between the original figure and smoothed figure is half of the window size. 2010. [4] L. Zhang. pp. Tech. Guo.” in Innovative Smart Grid Technologies (ISGT). The dual moving average algorithm can get the smoothest result since it uses the average algorithm twice. Y. For these two algorithms. Therefore. the window size should be selected based on the severity of cloud cover. Future work encompasses a complete combination of smoothing and load shifting with battery as well as comparing these results with the actual test results from the site. pp.D in electrical and computer engineering in UNM. larger window size means shorter lifetime of battery. Rep. Jan. choosing an appropriate window size is a key issue for the smoothing algorithm Window size needs to be selected depending on current weather conditions. 2012. VI.. B. SUMMARY A description of a smoothing algorithm is presented. Fig. The relationship between the window size and smoothness improvement needs to be explored further. “Analysis of battery storage utilization for load shifting and peak smoothing on a distribution feeder in new mexico. without any cloud cover. HOW TO CHOOSE THE WINDOW SIZE There is a tradeoff between the smoothness and lifetime of a battery. The moving median algorithm is the most robust since it ignores the rapid changes. Arellano. 1 –7. 2010 35th IEEE. pp. Modeling results are presented showing smoothing of the PV power output. The larger window size means smoother result. D.” in Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC). Jun. The lifetime of a battery is determined by the cumulative energy used. S. 2012. “Grid-Tied PV system energy smoothing.” Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). Jan.” in Innovative Smart Grid Technologies (ISGT). [2] O. the charging and discharging rate. The larger lag will bring great change of SoC. Feng Cheng was born in Shanxi. S. China. . it may not be necessary to use the battery smoothing system at all. it is the best algorithm among these three algorithms. Lavrova. The comparison of smoothing results Fig. S. 002 762 –002 766. Abdollahy. Therefore. Barsun. A. Cheng.

on August22. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof Olga Lavrova was born in St. product. Steve holds 2 US Patents. apparatus. . Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof. 1974. After graduation. Project partners of this project include the University of New Mexico. He is currently working on an Energy Storage Research and Development Project supported by the DOE. including product development and support. or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy. Santa Fe Division in Northern New Mexico. process. currently serves as the Principal Investigator for PNM’s Smart Grid Storage Demonstration Project with the Department of Energy. Generators. She joined University of New Mexico in 2007 as a Research Professor. He graduated from the University of New Mexico in 2006 with a Bachelors of Science in Electrical Engineering. 1968. His employment experience includes Geographic Information Systems Technical Supervisor with Public Service Company of New Mexico (PNM). or process disclosed. energy system engineering and analysis as well as energy industry market research. as well as working in the areas of optoelectronic devices at two start-up companies and a major corporation (Emcore Corp). and is a licensed engineer in the State of New Mexico. and continuing as an Advanced Technology Project Manager with PNM Resources. or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. distribution and storage technologies. Jonathan’s team is responsible providing research and development of new technologies and the proposal of possible business applications of emerging technologies in support of PNM Resources strategic objectives. and Storage Domain Expert Working Group. BSME and MBA degrees. including the Association of Energy Engineers Region 4 Renewable Energy Project of the Year in 2009 and the GridWise Architecture Council’s GridWise Applied Award in 2008. as well as Sandia National Laboratories providing support for data modeling and analysis. integration of distributed energy resources.E. Lecturer in the US Peace Corps and Computer Applications Engineer at Bridgers and Paxton Consulting Engineers Inc. Russia in 1974. which provides material specifications and model standards for design and construction of utility infrastructure. he went to work for Sumitomo Sitix Silicon. He graduated with a Bachelor of Engineering in 1991. recommendation. She received her B. This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. and is now Associate Professor in Mechanical Engineering. express or implied. Reference herein to any specific commercial product. nor any of their employees. or usefulness of any information. was a Director Funded Postdoctoral Fellow at Los Alamos National Laboratory from 1995 to 1997. manufacturer. trademark. the Smart Grid Interoperability Panel (SGIP) as PNMR’s voting member and member of the Distributed Renewable. and with a Ph. Jonathan Hawkins is the Manager of Advanced Technology and Strategy at PNM Resources. Her current work and areas of interest include photovoltaics and nano-scale semiconductor structures for photovoltaic applications. Andrea Mammoli was born in Ancona. New Mexico. in 1995. He subsequently joined the University of New Mexico as a research faculty member. both from the University of New Mexico. or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Jonathan Hawkins received his Bachelor of Science degree in Electrical Engineering from the University of New Mexico in 1994. completeness. Jonathan currently sits on the Electric Power Research Institute’s (EPRI) Research Advisory Committee as well as research program advisor roles for EPRI.Petersburg State Electrical Engineering University. Brian Arrelano was born in Farmington. Areas of responsibility include ”smart grid” technologies and strategy. plug in hybrid electric vehicles.D. as an engineer responsible for semiconductor pre and post production material characterization. In 2010 he became the Manager of the Advanced Technology group. and is now Assistant Professor at the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department.Sc. Smart Grids and emerging energy generation.D. or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement. or service by trade name. from the Department of Mechanical & Materials Engineering at the University of Western Australia.Sc degree in Physics and M.Petersburg. makes any warranty. and co-Director of the Center for Emerging Energy Technologies. degree in EE from the St. His special fields of interest include smart grid technology in the utility industry along with process improvements using Lean and Six Sigma Methodology.5 Steve Willard P. Inc. Product Support Manager for Honeywell Power Systems. His projects received several awards. degree from UCSB in 2001. an energy holding company based in Albuquerque New Mexico. Previous positions include Manager of the Center for Innovation and Technology at PNM. particularly as applied to energy storage and distributed systems management. His current research deals with the integration of building-scale energy systems with the electricity grid. Mammoli is Regents’ Lecturer and Halliburton Professor at the University of New Mexico. Her employment experience includes post-doctorate research at UCSB. Jonathan joined PNM Resources in 2002 where he managed PNM’s Distribution Standards organization. Distribution Engineer with PNM. and storage technologies. and her Ph. Italy on April 18. and is a member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). He has more than 25 years experience in the energy industry in regulated and unregulated markets.

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