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CHAPTER 1

Introduction

Let Ω ⊂ RN (N ≤ 3) be a domain representing a region of the space. The domain Ω will be assumed bounded and suciently smooth (regular). The motion of an incompressible viscous homogeneous uid is described by the Navier-Stokes equations, where the unknowns are:

**u = u(x, t) the Eulerian velocity of the uid, p = p(x, t) the pressure of the uid,
**

with x = (x1 , · · · , xN ) ∈ Ω and t ∈ R+ the instant (time). The velocity eld is a vectorial function u = ( u1 , · · · , u N ) ∈ R N , with ui = ui (x1 , · · · , xN , t) and the pressure p = p(x1 , · · · , xN , t) is a scalar function. The classical Navier-Stokes equations are: (1.0.1) (1.0.2) where

ρ (ut + (u · ∇)u) − ν ∆u + ∇p

div u

= f = 0

in Ω × R+ , in Ω × R+ ,

• ρ > 0 is the density of the uid and is considered to be a constant (ρ > 0); • ν > 0 denotes the dynamic viscosity of the uid (ν > 0). Let us remark that, in the literature, instead of the notation ν could be nd the notation µ. • f = (f1 , · · · , fN ) is a density of body forces per unit mass (for example, the gravity).

The dierent operators appearing in the Navier-Stokes equations are dened as follows: ( ) N ∑ ∂ ∂ ∂u ∇= ,··· , , (u · ∇)u = ui ∈ RN , ∂x1 ∂xN ∂x i i=1 N N ∑ ∑ ∂2u ∂ui N ∆u = ∈ R. div u = 2 ∈R , ∂x ∂xi i i=1 i=1 The Navier-Stokes equations (3.0.1), (3.0.2) are completed with a Dirichlet type boundary condition on the boundary of the domain Ω denoted by ∂ Ω, that is, (1.0.3)

u(x, t) = g(x, t)

for x ∈ ∂ Ω, t > 0.

In the most cases, we choose the no-slip boundary condition

u = 0 on ∂ Ω.

3

4

1. INTRODUCTION

Moreover, we consider an initial condition for the velocity led: (1.0.4)

u(x, 0) = u0 (x)

for x ∈ ∂ Ω,

where u0 is a given function.

Non-dimensionalisation of the Navier-Stokes equations is the conversion of the Navier-Stokes equations to a form which is easier to use by reducing the number of parameters in the problem to be studied. Let us consider • L the characteristic length (for example, the diameter of Ω), • U ∈ R the characteristic velocity of the studied eld (for example, a velocity associated to the non-homogeneous boundary condition), L the characteristic time • τ= U and we denote x ˜= t = t , u ˜) = u(x, t) , p ˜) = p(x, t) . ˜ (˜ x, t ˜(˜ x, t (1.0.5) x ˜= , t L τ L/U U ρU 2

With these notations, we have the following identities: ( u(x, t) ) ˜ ∂u ∂ L ∂u L ˜t u = ( = 2 (x, t) = 2 ut ; ) ˜= t ˜ U U ∂t U ∂t ∂ L/U N N N ∑ ∂u ∑ ˜ L ∑ ∂u ui (x, t) ∂ ( u(x, t) ) ( ) ui (˜ u · ∇)˜ u= = = 2 u ˜i xi ∂x ˜i U U U i=1 ∂xi ∂ i=1 i=1 L L = 2 (u · ∇)u; U N N N 2 ∑ ∑ ∂ u ˜i ∂ 2 ( ui (x, t) ) L2 ∑ ∂ 2 ui L2 ∆˜ u= = = = ∆u ; ( x )2 2 2 ∂x ˜i U U i=1 ∂xi U i i=1 i=1 ∂ L ( ∂p ˜ ∂p ˜ ∂p ˜ ) ∇p ˜= , ,..., ∂x ˜ ∂x ˜2 ∂x ˜N ) ( 1 ) ( ( p(x, t) ) ∂ ( p(x, t) ) ∂ ∂ p(x, t) (x ) , (x ) , . . . , (x ) = 1 2 N ρU 2 ρU 2 ρU 2 ∂ ∂ ∂ L L L ( ) L ∂p ∂p ∂p L = , ,..., = ∇p; 2 ρU ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂xN ρU 2

N ∂ ( u (x, t) ) L ∑ ∂ui (x ) i = i ∂x ˜i U U i=1 ∂xi i=1 ∂ i=1 L Thus, we get that the new velocity and pressure elds following equations: ) ( 2 U2 U ρU 2 U ˜ ut (˜ u · ∇)˜ u − ν 2 ∆˜ u+ ∇p ˜ = f ρ ˜+ L L L L U ˜ = 0 div u L

˜= div u

N ∑ ∂u ˜i

=

N ∑

=

L div u. U

˜ and p u ˜ verify the ˜ × R+ , in Ω ˜ × R+ . in Ω

= νRe ˜ f. Re νRe νRe ˜t u u · ∇)˜ u− ˜ + (˜ . 1 1 ′ 1 ∆˜ u+ ∇p′ = f.0. on the other hand. on one hand. p′ f′ the equation (1. ˜ = 0 in Ω (1.1. we have • ν ˜ = 0. to the new variable x ρU 2 U Dividing by the rst equation from above and by the second one.0. 15 · 10−4 m2 /s for the air. we denote ν • ν ˜ = the kinematic viscosity. 25 · 107 sh (herring) 1. ν Moreover.0. • ν ˜ = 10−6 m2 /s for the water (both at 200 C).5 m/s 1m 1. The main diculties to study and solve the Navier-Stokes equations are.6) becomes Depending on whether the Reynolds number Re is large or small. the coupling velocity/pressure and. the eects due to viscosity are dominant. INTRODUCTION 5 Let us note that the new dierential operators from above ∇.6) ˜ + (˜ Re ˜ × R+ . If we consider = LU ρ p ˜ = νRe p ˜. Stokes equations reduce to Stokes or Euler equations.67 m/s 30 cm 5 · 105 pigeon 5 m/s 30 cm 105 buttery 1 m/s 5 cm 3333 wasp 2 cm/s 2 cm 26 protozoan 10−1 cm/s 10−2 cm 10−1 bacteria (in water) 100 µm/s 0. ∆ and div are related ˜. the presence of the nonlinear convection term (u · ∇)u. The following table shows some values of the Reynolds number: U L Re = LU/ν ˜ car 100 km/h 3m 5 · 106 aircraft (airbus A330) 860 km/h 60 m ≃ 109 sh (salmon) 12. it takes into account the viscosity term of the Laplacian of the velocity eld. the Navier- For Re ≪ 1. ˜t u u · ∇)˜ u− ∆˜ u + ∇p ˜ = ˜ f in Ω (1. ρ For example.1 µm 10−5 The Reynolds number characterizes the uid ow type.7) div u where L • ˜ f= f. we L L can write 1 ˜ × R+ . From mathematical point of view. ρU 2 LU • Re = ρ is the Reynolds number.

For Re ≫ 1. ξ(0) = ξ0 ∈ R2 . t)dx. T ].12) ρf ut + (u · ∇)u − ν ∆u + ∇p = ρf f in Ω(t) × [0. T ].e.0. we take Re −→ +∞ in equations (1. t ∈ [0.0. (1. As we have already said. we get the stationary Stokes equations (we omit ′ and ˜ symbols): (1.0.0.0. we are interested in the equations modeling the motion of a rigid body immersed in a uid (maybe we have enough time to study a deformable body with a known deformation and so on). For simplicity of analysis. Newton's law). ξ ′ (0) = ξ1 ∈ R2 .9) − ν ∆ u + ∇p div u = f = 0 in Ω. T ]. ∫ ∫ mξ ′′ (t) = − σ n dΓ + ρs f (x.0.0.0. ˜t νRe u u · ∇)˜ u − ν ∆˜ u + ∇p′ = f ′ . in Ω. T ]. = 0 in Ω × R+ .0. we will study a system coupling partial dierential and ordinary dierential equations.0.0. In the above system. u = ξ′ (t) + ω (t)(x − ξ (t))⊥ . on ∂ Ω × [0.0. we use the following notations: . The system (1.17) is completed the with initial conditions: (1. ∂B (t) B (t) Jω ′ (t) = − ∫ ∂B (t) (x − ξ (t))⊥ · σ n dΓ + ρs ∫ B (t) (x − ξ(t))⊥ · f (x. t)dx.6)(1. In this case. T ].2)) and we get the Euler equations (we omit ′ and ˜ symbols): (1. In other words.12)(1. Let us consider N = 2 and we suppose that the rigid solid occupies at each instant t a close connected subset B (t) ⊂ Ω. ω (0) = ω0 ∈ R.11) ut + (u · ∇)u + ∇p div u = f in Ω × R+ .18) (1. t ∈ [0. The system formed by the classical Navier-Stokes equations and the Newton's law is the following: ( ) (1.0. t ∈ [0. 0) = u0 (x). = = 0 0 in Ω(t) × [0.0.17) div u u Our aim in this course is to study the interaction between the incompressible viscous homogeneous uid and a structure.0. the nonlinear convection term (u · ∇)u is dominant.13) (1. whereas the motion of the rigid body is governed by the balance equations for linear and angular momentum (i. x ∈ ∂B (t).16) (1. the motion of the uid is described by the classical Navier-Stokes equations.15) (1. T ].7) (or take directly ν = 0 in (3. INTRODUCTION that is.0. x ∈ Ω(0).19) u(x. This body is surrounded by the uid lling the domain Ω(t) = Ω \ B (t).6 1.10) (1.0. ˜ + νRe (˜ Taking Re −→ 0.14) (1.0.1) (3.8) (1.

f = f (x. but linear. the NavierStokes equations use many methods which solve the intermediate Stokes problem. ρs > 0 is the density of the solid. For this reason. ν > 0 denotes the dynamic viscosity of the uid. The main diculties of this problem are the following: the equations of the uid are coupled with those of the solid and on the other hand. t) is the velocity eld of the uid. ω (t) denotes the angular velocity of the rigid body. t) is the applied force per unit mass. x1 x2 • x · y stands for the inner product between x and y. the domain of the uid is variable (Ω(t)) and is one of the unknowns of the problem (we thus have a free boundary problem). that is. where ∫ 0 t · θ(t) = ω (s)ds. (D(u))kl = 2 ∂xl ∂xk D(u) = • B (t) denotes the solid and is given by { } B (t) = ξ(t) + R−θ(t) y | y ∈ B (0) .1. · Rθ(t) is the rotation matrix of angle θ(t). σ = −p Id + 2ν D(u) denotes the Cauchy stress tensor. . · D(u) given by the formula ∇u + ∇u T . 2 where ∇uT means the transpose of ∇u. t) represents the pressure of the uid. In addition. we will rst study the Stokes problem. INTRODUCTION 7 • • • • • • • • • • u = u(x. ξ (t) denotes the position of mass center of the rigid body. with · Id the identity matrix. From a numerical point of view. ρf > 0 is the density of the uid. which will be a signicant step to pass at studying numerical schemes for uid-structure interaction problems. m. the resolution of a uid-structure interaction problem requires rst solving the Navier-Stokes equations. then we develop and analyze numerical schemes for the Navier-Stokes equations. The Stokes problem is a coupled velocity/pressure problem. • x⊥ is given by the formula ( ) ( ) −x2 x1 ⊥ x = for all x = ∈ R2 . p = p(x. ( ) ∂ul 1 ∂uk + . • ∂B (t) denotes the boundary of the rigid body at instant t. J denotes the mass and the momentum of inertia of the solid. t) is the unit normal to ∂B (t) at the point x directed to the interior of the rigid body. • n = n(x.

.

0. Ω ∂Ω 9 . Ω Ω ∂Ω ∂n where n is the unitary exterior normal vector at Ω and ∂w ∑ ∂w = ni . w. 1. ∂xj ∂xj i=1 j =1 ∇w : ∇ v ∂w ·v ∂n = ∇wi · ∇vi = = N ∑ N ∑ ∂wi i=1 j =1 ∂xj nj vi .1. We consider the following Stokes problem: (2. The divergence formula: (2.1.6) For any vectorial smooth eld v. − ν ∆u + ∇ p = f div u u in Ω. w.2) (2. = 0 on ∂ Ω. ∂n ∂xi i=1 N b) For all vectorial smooth elds (functions) v.5) − ∆w · v dx = ∇w : ∇ v d x − · v dσ.1. we have ∫ ∫ − div v dx = v · n dσ.3) with ν > 0 the dynamic viscosity.4) a) For all scalar smooth elds v .1) (2. we have ∫ ∫ ∫ ∂w − ∆w v d x = ∇w · ∇ v d x − v dσ. Ω Ω ∂Ω ∂n with N ∑ i=1 N ∑ N ∑ ∂wi ∂vi .0. Some useful properties Let us rst recall some useful properties.CHAPTER 2 Stokes equations Let Ω ⊂ RN (N = 2 or 3) be a bounded and suciently smooth (regular) domain. we have ∫ ∫ ∫ ∂w (2.0. = 0 in Ω. Green formula: (2.

we get ∫ ∫ ∫ ν Ω ∇u : ∇v dx − Ω p div v dx = Ω f · v dx. we multiply the equation (2. i.2) by a test function q which has a zero mean value on Ω and we integrate on Ω. we multiply the equation (2. In the identity (2. To this end.2. In fact.e. integrating by parts the pressure term and taking into account that the test function v vanishes on the boundary of the domain. it is equivalent to take test function in L2 (Ω) (that is.0. we suppose ∫ that (2.2.5).10 2. 2 Proof..8) ν ∇u : ∇v dx − p div v dx = f · v d x ∀v ∈ H 0 (Ω) Ω Ω Ω ∫ (2.1. p) ∈ H0 0 (Ω) such that ∫ ∫ ∫ N 1 (2. Ω Ω Ω Using the Green formula (2. Ω ∂Ω . { } 1 (Ω) = v ∈ H 1 (Ω) | v = 0 on ∂ Ω . H0 Let us also to introduce the space ∫ { } 2 L2 (Ω) = q ∈ L (Ω) | q d x = 0 . r = |Ω | Ω ∫ ∫ ∫ (div u)r dx = (div u)(r − r) dx + r (div u) dx Ω ∫Ω ∫Ω = (div u)(r − r) dx + r u · n dx. we dene the following spaces: ∫ { } 2 L (Ω) = v : Ω → R | v measurable and |v (x)|2 dx < +∞ . On the other hand. (2. For r ∈ L (Ω).9).3).7) 0 Ω of functions in L (Ω) which have zero mean value over Ω.1) by a test function v which vanishes on the boundary ∂ Ω and we integrate in Ω: ∫ ∫ ∫ −ν ∆u · v dx + ∇p · v dx = f · v dx.0.9) (div u)q dx = 0 ∀q ∈ L2 0 (Ω). Ω N Remark 2. Ω { } 1 2 2 N H (Ω) = v ∈ L (Ω) | ∇v ∈ L (Ω) .1.9) is satised. Thus. not necessary of zero mean value). The mixed variational formulation of the Stokes problem We will nd a mixed variational formulation of the Stokes problem (2.1) (2. then ∫ (div u)q dx = 0.2.0. Ω In order to introduce the functional framework of our problem. we denote 1 r dx and we have r its mean value. the mixed variational formulation of Stokes problem can be written as follows: 2 1 (Ω) × L2 Find (u. STOKES EQUATIONS 2.0.2.2.

we denote { } 1 V = u ∈ H0 (Ω)N | div u = 0 in Ω .2.2.2. Thus.2. Ω With the above notation. where C is an arbitrary constant. ·) denotes the L2 -inner product.12).12) (2. ∫ (f .0.13). then for u ∈ H0 (Ω) satisfying (2. p) ∈ H0 0 (Ω) such that (2.(2. Ω N N N (2. Ω Let us now introduce the following bilinear forms: (2. 3) There is also possible another functional framework for the Stokes problem.2. THE MIXED VARIATIONAL FORMULATION OF THE STOKES PROBLEM N 11 1 We have r − r ∈ L2 0 (Ω).2. This is the manner to prove the existence and uniqueness of a solution of the mixed problem (2.9). Using Lax-Milgram Lemma. v) + b(v. the space L2 0 (Ω) of functions with zero mean value assures the uniqueness of the pressure. v) = ν ∇u : ∇v dx. .14) admits a unique solution u ∈ V (the bilinear form a is continuous and coercive on V ).2. that is. in the above relation we obtain ∫ (div u)r dx = 0.12).2.2. v) = (f . Ω 1) It is important to look for the pressure p with zero mean value. (2. p) = 1 ( f .14) Remark 2. q ) = 0 ∀q ∈ L2 0 (Ω). if p veries the Stokes equation (2. v) ∀v ∈ V. where (·. the problem (2.11) 1 b : H0 (Ω) ∫ × L2 (Ω) → R b(u.2. q ) = − (div u)q dx.13) a(u.2. Find u ∈ V such that a(u. the mixed variational formulation of Stokes equation is written as follows: N 1 (Ω) × L2 Find (u. In fact. To this end. v) = f · vdx. As will be seen. 2) The term "mixed" refers to the velocity/pressure formulation.1). then p + C satises the same equation. v ) ∀v ∈ H 0 (Ω) N b(u.2. the problem (2.13) which gives us the velocity u is equivalent with the following problem: (2.2.10) 1 1 a : H0 (Ω) × ∫ H0 (Ω) → R a(u.

3.X represents the duality product. p) ∈ X × Y . Let us now verify 1 (Ω)]N . Ω i=1 Ω By using the Holder inequality.X b(u. Remark 2. An abstract result for the mixed problem. (2) The bilinear form b satises the "inf-sup" condition: There exists β > 0 such that sup v ∈X v ̸=0 ∀q ∈ Y. which gives us the continuity of a.15). (2. the Poincaré inequality 1 ∀u ∈ H 0 (Ω)N . v ) + b(v. v ) ≥ α∥v ∥2 X b(v. for all 1 N u and v in [H0 (Ω)] .10) and (2. The bilinear forms a and b are supposed to be continuous.16) a(u.3.1 in the case of Stokes problem with X = [H0 2 Y = L0 (Ω) and the forms a and b dened by (2. the hypothesis of Theorem 2.1.3. q ) ≥ β. Moreover.2.1. For a given f ∈ X ′ (X ′ represents the dual space of X ). ∀v ∈ X where < ·.11). Then the problem (2.3.2. The "inf-sup" condition 3. q ) = 0 ∀q ∈ Y.16) admits a unique solution (u. In fact.3. p) ∈ X × Y such that (2. we look for (u. . q ) ≥ β ∥q ∥Y ∥v ∥X ∀v ∈ X. Let consider the following hypothesis: (1) The bilinear form a is coercive on X : There exists α > 0 such that a(v. a:X ×X →R b : X × Y → R.12 2. The "inf-sup" condition for the Stokes problem. The condition (2) from the above theorem implies that inf q ∈Y q ̸=0 sup v ∈X v ̸=0 b(v. Let X and Y be two We denote ∥ · ∥X (respectively. · >X ′ . v ∈ [H0 (Ω)]N .2. v) ≤ ν N ∑ i=1 ∥∇ui ∥L2 (Ω)N ∥∇vi ∥L2 (Ω)N ≤ ν ∥∇u∥L2 (Ω)N 2 ∥∇v∥L2 (Ω)N 2 ≤ ν ∥u∥H 1 (Ω)N ∥v∥H 1 (Ω)N ∥u∥H 1 (Ω)N ≤ C ∥∇u∥L2 (Ω)N 2 1 ∀u. we have ∫ N ∫ ∑ a(u. 1 1 ⋆ The form a is continuous and coercive on [H0 (Ω)]N × [H0 (Ω)]N . Theorem 2. we get a(u. STOKES EQUATIONS Hilbert spaces and let consider two bilinear forms 3. v) = ν ∇u : ∇v dx = ν ∇ui · ∇vi dx. v >X ′ .15) (2. ∥v ∥X ∥q ∥Y 3. ∥ · ∥Y ) the norm on X (respectively on Y ). p) = < f.

v). p) ∈ 1 (Ω)N × L2 H0 0 (Ω). THE "INF-SUP" CONDITION 13 implies the coercivity of a because a(u. Ω To prove the "inf-sup" condition for the Stokes problem. there exists v ∈ [H 1 (Ω)]N such that div v = p and ∥v∥H 1 (Ω)N ≤ C ∥p∥L2 (Ω) . we need the following result: Lemma 2. b(w. which is equivalent with the problem 1 min a(v. ∀q ∈ L2 (Ω). (2. .1. q ) 1 b(w.12). 1 Using Lemma 2.2. (2. then can take v ∈ [H0 (Ω)]N . ⋆ The "inf-sup" condition for b.1.13) admits a unique solution (u.2.2.4. where C is the constant from Lemma 2. If u is the solution of Stokes problem (2. q ) = − Ω ∫ (div w)q dx = Ω |q |2 dx = ∥q ∥2 L2 (Ω) and. q ) = − (div v)q dx ≤ ∥v∥H 1 (Ω)N ∥q ∥L2 (Ω) Ω ∀v ∈ H 1 (Ω)N . u) = ν ∥∇u∥2 ≥ L2 (Ω)N 2 ν ∥u∥2 H 1 (Ω)N C2 1 ∀u ∈ H0 (Ω)N . if p veries p dx = 0. there exists w ∈ [H0 (Ω)]N such that q = −div w and ∥w∥H 1 (Ω)N ≤ C ∥q ∥L2 (Ω) . The Stokes problem (2. q ) − (f . There exists a constant C > 0 such that for all p ∈ L2 (Ω).1. v ∈V 2 The mixed formulation of the Stokes problem corresponds to the following saddle point problem: 1 min max a(v. let consider q ∈ L2 0 (Ω). by consequence. q ) 1 ≥ = ∥q ∥L2 (Ω) . v) = (f .12). v ∈X q ∈Y 2 Thus. v). v) + b(v. the pressure can be seen as a Lagrange multiplier of the free divergence constraint. ∫ 1 Moreover.13).3. we have ∫ b(w. then it satises a(u. b satises the "inf-sup" condition with β = 1/C > 0. Conclusion. 2 ∥w∥H 1 (Ω)N C ∥q ∥L (Ω) C Therefore. Remark 2. 1 ⋆ The form b is continuous on [H0 (Ω)]N × L2 (Ω): ∫ b(v. v) for all v ∈ V . Then.2. In order to prove that the bilinear form b associated with the Stokes problem veries the "inf-sup" condition. v) − (f .

k ≥ 0. The triangulation Th of Ω is called regular if there exists σ > 0 independent of h and K such that σK := hK ≤σ ρK ∀K ∈ T h .1. we consider N = 2 (unless we explicitly consider other case) and we use triangular Lagrange nite element. therefore Ω can be accurately triangulated by: ∪ Ω= Ki . √ The ratio σK measures the attening of the triangle K (σK = 3 for K a equilateral triangle). Some usefull properties on nite elements. the diameter of the circumcircle of the triangle K . hK can be dened as the diameter of triangle K . where ρK is the roundness of the triangle K dened by ρK = sup{diameter of B | B ball contained in K }. More precisely. we denote Th the triangulation made by the triangles {Ki }i . for We denote by {ai } the vertices of the triangles. 4. if hK denotes the length of the longest side of the triangle K and if θK is the smallest angle of K . Moreover. the we can show that K 1 + sin θ2 hK 1 ≤ ≤ . K sin θK ρK tan θ2 The triangulation Th is called uniformly regular (or quasi-uniform) if there exist σ > 0 and σ ′ > 0 independent of h and K such that σ ′ h ≤ hK ≤ σρK 1a tetrahedron in the case N = 3 2face or edge in dimension N = 3 ∀K ∈ Th . portant properties on nite elements.e. and this hypothesis is mainly imposed to obtain regularity for the solution of the elliptic problem in Ω. K where hK is the size of triangle K dened by hK = max |ai − aj |. i where Ki is a i ̸= j .14 2. denotes space of polynomials with N variables and of degree less or equal than k . . by triangle1 (closed) such that Ki ∩ Kj = ∅ or 1 vertex or 1 edge2. Pk . Assume also that the domain Ω is convex. STOKES EQUATIONS 4. Let us recall some im- ⋆ Regular triangulations.aj ∈K Equivalently. Approximation by nite elements and discrete "inf-sup" condition From now on. The mesh size is characterized h = max hK . i. ai . We suppose that Ω is a polygonal domain. Then.

APPROXIMATION BY FINITE ELEMENTS AND DISCRETE "INF-SUP" CONDITION 15 FK (0. ρK ρK ˆ Due to the change of variables in the integrals and using the above properties. Reference triangle . (2 + k1 + k2 + k3 )! ⋆ The reference element.4. we can prove the following result. k2 . We recall the following property: 2|K | = |det BK |. { 0 if i ̸= j. y3 − y1 ( bK = ) x1 . . where δij denotes the Kronecker delta. hˆ hK −1 ∥BK ∥2 ≤ . ⋆ Barycentric coordinates.Ane map. For all k1 . Let FK be an ane map which transform the reference ˆ into a triangle K .0) a3 K a2 Figure 1. p= 3 ∑ i=1 p(ai )λi Integration formula. ∫ 1 k2 k3 (2. FK (K ˆ ) = K (see Figure 1). ∥BK ∥2 ≤ K .e.e. j ≤ 3. The barycentric coordinates have the following properties: 3 ∑ i=1 λi = 1 . δij = 1 if i = j.17) λk 1 λ2 λ3 dx = 2|K | K k1 !k2 !k3 ! . The barycentric coordinates of a point x ∈ R2 with respect to the 3 vertices a1 .1) a1 K (0. ∀p ∈ P1 .0) (1. triangle K The map FK is dened as follows: ˆ + bK FK (ˆ x) = BK x with BK = ( x2 − x1 y2 − y1 ) x3 − x1 . a2 . a3 of a triangle K are the functions λi = λi (x) such that λi ∈ P1 . λi (aj ) = δij for 1 ≤ i.4. yi ) are the coordinates of the vertices ai . i. y1 where (xi . k3 ≥ 0. i.

Proposition 2.16 2.K denotes the seminorm in H m (K ). such that |v |m.1. λi ∈ 0. Examples of lattices of order 2 and 3. there exists a constant C > 0 independent of h and K such that ∥v ∥H l (K ) ≤ Chm−l ∥v ∥H m (K ) v ∈ P. 1 /2 ∑ . · · · . a3 . STOKES EQUATIONS k=2 k=3 Figure 2. For m ≥ 0 entire. |v |m. Let K ∈ Th and P a nite dimensional subspace of H l (K ) ∩ H m (K ) with 0 ≤ m ≤ l. . Then.19) Wh Xh = { } v ∈ C 0 (Ω) | v|K ∈ Pk .K ˆ ≤ C2 hK |v ˆ|m.K = ∥Dα v ∥2 L2 ( K ) |α|=m that Th is a uniformly regular triangulation. k k k i=1 i=1 Let us denote (2. a2 . ΣK = x = λ i ai | λi = 1. the map v → v ˆ = v ◦ FK is an isomorphism ˆ ) and there exist the constants C1 . i.K ≤ C1 |v ˆ|m. ∀v ˆ ∈ H m (K ∀v ∈ H m (K ).2. Proposition 2. Inverse inequalities. . C2 > 0 independent of from H m (K ) to H m (K m.K ρK ˆ ). ∀K ∈ Th 1 = W h ∩ H0 (Ω) . We suppose ⋆ ⋆ Interpolation.e.K ˆ ρm K hm K |v |m.18) (2. } where { H m (K ) = v ∈ L2 (K ) | Dα v ∈ L2 (K ) ∀α such that |α| ≤ m and | · |m.1 .4.4. We call lattice of order k of the triangle K of vertices a1 . the set (see Figure 2) } { 3 3 { 1 2 ∑ ∑ k−1 } .

vh ) + b(vh . there exists an ) ) ( ( 1 Ih ∈ L H 2 (Ω). Under the discrete "inf-sup" condition (2.4. to build a free divergence base. ∃vh ∈ Xh . ph ) ∈ Xh × Yh (see Theorem 2. The approximated mixed formulation. We assume that the spaces Xh and Yh are such that the bilinear form b veries the following discrete "inf-sup" condition on Xh × Yh : There exists β ∗ > 0 independent of h such that ∀qh ∈ Yh . ∀v ∈ H s (Ω).1).e. Let 1 Xh ⊂ X = [H0 (Ω)]2 and Yh ⊂ Y = L2 0 (Ω) two nite dimensional subspaces.3 are continuous because H 2 (Ω) → C 0 (Ω) for N ≤ 3 (i. there exists an ( 1 ) R h ∈ L H0 (Ω). vh ) = 0 ∀vh ∈ Xh ∀qh ∈ Yh . Ih v (x) = v (x) ∀x ∈ ΣK .4.4.4.20).21). we have the following result: Proposition 2. Xh dened on each element K as follows: (2. ph ∈ Yh such that (2.3.4.22) admits a unique solution (uh .2. (2. The approximated mixed formulation can be written as follows: Find uh ∈ Xh . Xh and a constant C > 0 independent of h such that ∥v − Rh v ∥L2 (Ω) + h∥∇(v − Rh v )∥L2 (Ω) ≤ Ch|v |H 1 (Ω) 1 (Ω). we will use the mixed formulation because it is generally dicult to discretize the space V . Then. The functions v from Proposition 2. i. Then.23) b(vh .21) (2. qh ) = (fh . such that for 2 ≤ s ≤ k + 1 : ∥v − Ih v ∥L2 (Ω) + h∥∇(v − Ih v )∥L2 (Ω) ≤ Chs |v |H s (Ω) where C > 0 is a constant independent of h and v . operator We assume that Th is regular and k ≥ 1. the approximated mixed formulation (2. qh ) ≥ β ∗ ∥vh ∥X ∥qh ∥Y .4. For non-regular functions. H 2 (Ω) is compactly injected in C 0 (Ω) for N ≤ 3). We recall that we choose the dimension N = 2. Wh ∩ L H 2 (Ω) ∩ H0 (Ω).20) Ih v |K ∈ Pk .4.4. for continuous functions) in order to give a meaning to (2.22) a(uh . APPROXIMATION BY FINITE ELEMENTS AND DISCRETE "INF-SUP" CONDITION 17 Proposition 2. The above result is an interpolation result for regular functions (precisely.23). operator We assume that Th is regular and k ≥ 1..4. In order to discretize the Stokes problem by using nite elements. .4. ∀v ∈ H 0 4. vh ̸= 0 such that (2. ph ) b(uh .e.

4. 1 Ω Ω Ω By consequence. Wh Xh Yh = {vh ∈ C 0 (Ω) | vh |K ∈ P1 . We also show that the discrete "inf-sup" condition is not satised for this example.4. we obtain vh (P ) = 0 and then vh ≡ 0. ∀K ∈ Th }. Example P1 /P1 : verrouillage numérique of the velocity.25). in general.23) is satised. Indeed. We consider the following approximated spaces. qh ) = vh (P ) · (∇φh )qh dx. we have Vh = {0}. In this example.25) φ dx ̸= 0. 1 = W h × W h ∩ H0 (Ω)2 . Let now consider vh ∈ Vh . For example. qh ) = 0. Ω We choose qh = x1 + x2 ∈ Wh . Then. we can also show that there is no uniqueness for the pressure ph .21). we get ( )∫ ∫ ∫ 1 (∇φh )qh dx = − φ h ∇q h d x = − (2. φh (Q) = 0 elsewhere. Each vh ∈ Xh is written as vh (x) = vh (P )φh (x) and we have div vh = vh (P ) ·∇φh . choose the domain Ω as in the Figure 3 with the indicated triangulation. Integrating by parts and using the fact that φh = 0 on ∂ Ω. we consider Vh = {vh ∈ Xh | (div vh . (2. In the following example. We need to carefully choose the approximated spaces Xh and Yh for the velocity and pressure elds. ii) "Inf-sup" condition is not satised.4. In fact. = Wh ∩ L2 0 (Ω). They must be chosen such that the discrete "inf-sup" condition (2.4. i) Numerical locking. Let φh ∈ Wh such that { 1 if Q = P. We can show in this example that the problem (2. assume for the moment the existence . with (2.24) 0 = (div vh . STOKES EQUATIONS 0 0 0 0 P 0 0 0 Figure 3.4.4.4. This is the numerical locking phenomenon of the velocity eld.24) and (2. Example P1 /P1 (counterexample).22) is ill-posed.18 2. ∀qh ∈ Yh }. We have ∫ (2. we consider the approximation P1 /P1 and we show that the associated problem is ill-posed because of the locking phenomenon on the velocity eld.

1 and −1 on the vertices. we take the example where the domain Ω is a square with a uniform triangulation as shown in the Figure 4.23) is not veried by the elements P1 /P1 .4. APPROXIMATION BY FINITE ELEMENTS AND DISCRETE "INF-SUP" CONDITION 19 1 0 −1 1 0 −1 1 0 −1 1 0 −1 1 0 −1 1 Figure 4.26) is satised. However. we have ∑∫ K K Ω ∫ Ω p∗ h dx = p∗ h dx = 3 ∑ |K | ∑ K 3 K p∗ h (ai ). Example P1 /P0 (counterexample). In fact.4. then (div vh . ∀c ∈ R. By construction of p∗ h . Thus.26). qh + c p∗ h ) = (div vh . In a similar way we can show that the discrete "inf-sup" condition is not satised by the elements P1 /P0 . we have (div vh . (div vh . Hence. To prove that there exists p∗ h ∈ Yh verifying (2.4. we do not have uniqueness of the pressure. we have 3 ∑ K p∗ h (ai ) = 0. ∫ then we get Ω i=1 p∗ h dx = 0. it follows that the relation (2. the existence of p∗ h verifying (2. each triangle must have exactly these three values to the vertices (see Figure 4). then ph + c p∗ h is also a solution. by construction of ph .26) shows that the discrete "inf-sup" condition (2.4. Example P1 /P1 : non uniqueness of the pressure. By consequence. ∗ p∗ h dx = 0. ∑∫ K K (div vh . In addition. Let p∗ h ∈ Wh be the function which is alternatively equal to 0. i=1 ∗ where aK i denotes the vertices of the triangle K . ∫ We have p∗ h ∈ Yh because p∗ h dx = 0. p∗ h) = (div vh )p∗ h dx = ∫ K ∑ K ∫ (div vh )|K K p∗ h dx. qh ) ∀vh ∈ Xh . of a function p∗ h ∈ Yh such that (2. where the approximated space Xh of the velocity eld is the same as above and the approximated . ph ) = 0.26) In this case. Then.4. ∀qh ∈ Yh .4. p∗ h ) = 0 ∀vh ∈ Xh . if ph is solution.

∀K ∈ Th ∩ L2 0 (Ω).30) b(u. ∀K ∈ Th and vh = 0 on ∂ Ω . ∀K ∈ Th }.29) b(uh . since Yh ⊂ H 1 (Ω). with β > 0 independent of qh (on the other hand u depend on qh ). We suppose that the triangulation Th is uniformly regular. For the pressure. qh ). ∃uh ∈ Xh . ∥uh ∥H 1 (Ω)2 ≤ C ∥u∥H 1 (Ω)2 . K K Let λK 1 . Ω Ω .4. qh ) ≥ β ∥u∥H 1 (Ω)2 ∥qh ∥L2 (Ω) . Verication of the discrete "inf-sup" condition for P1 -bubble /P1 . We have dim Xh = 2(Nv + Nt ). then 1 there exists u ∈ Y = [H0 (Ω)]2 such that (2. STOKES EQUATIONS space for the pressure is given by Yh = {qh ∈ L2 0 (Ω) | qh |K ∈ P0 .20 2.4.32) are satised. The space Xh contains continuous functions on Ω which are equal to zero on the boundary of Ω and which are the sum a piecewise ane function and a linear combination of "bubbles" functions (the function µK is zero outside of K ). we choose the following space: { } (2.32) b(uh . where Nv is the number of vertices of the triangulation and Nt the number of triangles. λ2 . Since Yh ⊂ Y and b veries the continue "inf-sup" condition on X × Y . µK = (2. K ≡ 0 on the boundary ∂K . We K denote µ the "bubble" function associated with the triangle K and dened by { K K K λ1 λ2 λ3 on K. To establish (2. qh ) ≥ β ∗ ∥uh ∥H 1 (Ω)2 ∥qh ∥L2 (Ω) .27) 0 elsewhere.4.4. it is sucient to prove the existence of uh ∈ Xh such that (2. Finite element for the Stokes problem. We get that dim Yh = Nv − 1.4. where C > 0 is independent of qh and h. if (2.28) Yh = qh ∈ C 0 (Ω) | qh |K ∈ P1 . We need to prove that there exists β ∗ > 0 such that ∀qh ∈ Yh .31) is equivalent ∫ ∫ uh · ∇qh dx = u · ∇qh dx.29) with β ∗ = β/C > 0.4. In fact. Let qh ∈ Yh be xed. i) Finite element P1 -bubble/P1 . then we obtain (2.4.3. λ3 be the barycentric coordinates with respect to the triangle K . ∀x ∈ K.31) and (2. qh ) = b(u. We have µK |K ∈ P3 (hence the term "bubble") and µ K The "bubble" function µ is continuous on Ω.4.31) (2. Moreover. 4.4.4. Let us consider the subspace Xh of 1 [H 0 (Ω)]2 dened by 3 { ∑ K K Xh = vh ∈ C 0 (Ω)2 | vh (x) = αi λi (x) + β K µK (x) i=1 with K K αi . uh ̸= 0 such that (2. βi } ∈ R2 .4.29). the relation (2.

4).4.34). In fact.35) (2. It remains to prove the estimate (2. for vh ∈ Xh . uh |K = Rh u|K + β K µK . ∫ uh d x = u dx ∀K ∈ Th . for all K ∈ Th we get: vh (x) = 3 ∑ i=1 K K vh (aK i )λi (x) + β µ (x) ∀x ∈ K and β K is given by the relation ∫ ∫ ∫ 3 ∑ K K d x + β µK dx.37) Therefore. the values / ∂ Ω) ∫ vh (ai ).36) ∫ uh (ai ) = Rh u(ai ) ∀ai vertex of Th . where C > 0 is independent of h. APPROXIMATION BY FINITE ELEMENTS AND DISCRETE "INF-SUP" CONDITION 21 Since ∇qh is constant on each triangle. ) λ vh dx = vh (aK i i K i=1 K K We then choose uh ∈ Xh such that (2. ∑ |β K |2 ∥µK ∥2 H 1 (K ) K ∈Th .4.4. We need the 1 (Ω)]2 is not necessarily continuous and it would not projector Rh because u ∈ [H0 make sense to talk about u(ai ).34) ∥uh ∥H 1 (Ω)2 ≤ C ∥u∥H 1 (Ω)2 . K K (2.4.e. then it is enough to nd uh ∈ Xh such that ∫ ∫ (2. we have 3 ∑ i=1 K K K Rh u(aK i ) λi + β µ .4. ∀ai vertex ∈ • and its mean values K vh dx on the triangles K . (2. we look for uh ∈ Xh verifying (2.4.33) uh d x = u dx ∀K ∈ Th . K K where Rh u ∈ Xh and the operator Rh is dened in Proposition 2.34).33). Therefore.4.4.4.4. All function vh ∈ Xh are uniquely determined by: • its values at the vertices of the triangles which do not belong to the boundary ∂ Ω (i. We have uh |K = or (2. ∑ ∥uh ∥2 H 1 (K )2 ∥Rh u∥H 1 (K )2 + |β K |∥µK ∥H 1 (K ) )2 ) ∥uh ∥2 H 1 (Ω)2 = ≤ K ∈Th ∑ ( K ∈Th ≤ 2 = ≤ ∑ ( K 2 K 2 ∥Rh u∥2 H 1 (K )2 + |β | ∥µ ∥H 1 (K ) K ∈Th 2∥Rh u∥2 H 1 (Ω)2 + 2 C ∥u∥2 H 1 (Ω)2 +2 ∑ K ∈Th |β K |2 ∥µK ∥2 H 1 (K ) from Proposition (2.

4. | K | 1 /2 π 2 ρ (the area of a triangle is greater than the area of the inscribed 4 K circle) and. We thus have proved that the element P1 -bubble/P1 veries the discrete "inf-sup" condition.4. h where C > 0 is independent of h and K .39) µK dx = λK . from (2. = .38) of β K yields to |β K | ≤ 60 We have |K | ≥ ∥u − Rh u∥L2 (K )2 . STOKES EQUATIONS where C > 0 is independent of u and of h. µK dx K Using the integration formula (2. ∀K ∈ Th . Thus. Moreover. Hence. ii) Finite element P2 /P1 .5. We can replace "bubble" by a null function on the boundary ∂K . In addition. ∀K ∈ Th ∩ L2 0 (Ω).4.22 2. where (2.4. the expression (2. we get 2 ∥uh ∥2 H 1 (Ω)2 ≤ C ∥u∥H 1 (Ω)2 + C ∥u − Rh u∥2 L2 (Ω)2 .4. by consequence.40) (2.17).4. v = 0 sur ∂ Ω .4. we conclude that 2 ∥uh ∥2 H 1 (Ω)2 ≤ C ∥u∥H 1 (Ω)2 . 1 λ2 λ3 d x = 60 K K Due to Cauchy-Schwarz inequality. { } = q ∈ C 0 (Ω) | q|K ∈ P1 . we have 1 1 1 ≤ C′ ≤ C ′′ 1 / 2 ρK h |K | because the triangulation is assumed to be uniformly regular. This element also veries the discrete "inf-sup" condition.38) K K K K ∫ βK = K (u − Rh u) dx ∫ . we obtain C |β K | ≤ ∥u − Rh u∥L2 (K )2 . we obtain ∫ ∫ |K | K K (2.33) we have ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ K u dx = uh dx = Rh u dx + β µK dx.41) Xh Yh { } v ∈ C 0 (Ω)2 | v|K ∈ P2 2 .4. we have ( ) hK K ∥µ ∥H 1 (K )2 ≤ C hK + ρK ≤ C ′ independent of K and h. which is piecewise ane on the 3 triangles obtained by cutting K by its center. h2 Using Proposition 2.37) and (2. We choose (2. Remark 2.4.

43) (2. To this end.44) uh · te (me ) = ∇qh · te (me ).43) of uh . let qh ∈ Yh be xed. The degrees of freedom of the pressure are the vertices of the triangulation Th . We choose uh ∈ Xh such that uh = 0 at all vertices of the triangulation Th and at all midpoints of the boundary ∂ Ω. Ω K K Since ∇qh is constant on K . qh ) ≥ β ∗ ∥uh ∥H 1 (Ω)2 ∥qh ∥L2 (Ω) .4. that is. We want to prove that there exists β ∗ > 0 such that ∀qh ∈ Yh . each triangle has at least one vertex at the interior of Ω. uh ̸= 0 such that (2. We suppose that the triangulation Th is uniformly regular.4.42) b(uh . let assume that none of the triangles of Th has two sides on the boundary ∂ Ω. Moreover.4.4. we have ∫ ∑∫ b(uh . qh ) = uh · ∇qh dx = uh · ∇qh dx. for all midpoints me situated at the interior of Ω. Since qh ∈ Yh ⊂ H 1 (Ω). where (see Figure 5) ∗ νe denotes the unitary normal vector at triangle K with me a midpoint of one of its edges ∗ te is the corresponding unitary tangent vector It is important to observe that ∇qh · te (me ) has a meaning when ∇qh · te is continuous through the edge e. We thus get ∫ 2 |K | ∑ uh · ∇qh dx = ∇qh |K · te (me ) .4. we choose: (2. then by the midpoints integration formula (exact for the polynomials P2 ). we have ∫ ∫ |K | ∑ uh · ∇qh dx = uh dx · ∇qh |K = uh (me ) · ∇qh |K 3 K K m e ∈K me ∈ /∂Ω = |K | 3 ∑ me ∈K me ∈ /∂Ω (uh · te (me )) te (me ) · ∇qh |K = |K | 3 ∑ me ∈K me ∈ /∂Ω (∇qh · te (me )) te (me ) · ∇qh |K according to the election (2. APPROXIMATION BY FINITE ELEMENTS AND DISCRETE "INF-SUP" CONDITION 23 The degrees of freedom for the velocity eld are the vertices of the triangulation and the midpoints of the edges of the triangles of Th (which are not on the boundary ∂ Ω). In addition. 3 K m e ∈K me ∈ /∂Ω . Verication of the discrete "inf-sup" condition for P2 /P1 . ∃uh ∈ Xh . uh · νe (me ) = 0.

me ∈K me ∈ /∂Ω With the notation from Figure 5. we have (see Figure 5) sin θK = H . we prove that there exists a constant C > 0 independent of K and h such that ∑ 2 (2. |∇qh |K |2 ≤ 2(|α1 |2 + |α2 |2 ). We assume that the sum covers at least the midpoints me1 and me2 as shown in the Figure 5. that is. 2 In addition. α1 νe1 · te2 . Verication of the "inf-sup" condition for the element P2 /P1 ν e1 me1 me2 t e2 θK al The previous sum covers at least two internal midpoints under the assumption that was made on the triangulation. it follows ∑ 2 ∇qh |K · te (me ) ≥ ∇qh |K · te1 (me1 ) me ∈K me ∈ /∂Ω + ∇qh |K · te2 (me2 ) = |α2 cos(π/2 + θK )|2 + |α1 cos(π/2 + θK )|2 ( ) = |α2 |2 + |α1 |2 sin2 (θK ).4. |a k − a l | . we obtain ∇qh |K · te1 ∇qh |K · te2 = = α2 νe2 · te1 . we have ∇qh |K = α1 νe1 + α2 νe2 . where θK is the angle between the edges e1 and e2 (see Figure 5). Since we deduce that ∑ m e ∈K me ∈ /∂Ω ∇qh |K · te (me ) 2 ≥ 1 |∇qh |K |2 sin2 (θK ). STOKES EQUATIONS ak t e1 H K aj νe2 Figure 5.24 2. By consequence. each triangle has at least one vertex inside of Ω. Then.45) ∇qh |K · te (me ) ≥ C |∇qh |K |2 . 2 2 Given the assumption on the triangulation.

4. APPROXIMATION BY FINITE ELEMENTS AND DISCRETE "INF-SUP" CONDITION 25

where H is the height of the triangle K and ak , al are the two vertices, the end points of the edge e1. We clearly have H > ρK and |ak − al | ≤ hK . Then, we deduce that ρK 1 sin θK ≥ ≥ , hK σ because the triangulation Th is supposed to be regular. Thus, we have ∫ ∫ |K | 1 2 uh · ∇qh dx ≥ |∇ q | = |∇qh |K |2 dx. h |K 6σ 2 6σ 2 K K Summing over the trianglesK , we obtain (2.4.46)

b(uh , qh ) ≥ C ∥∇qh ∥L2 (Ω)2 ,

2

with C = 1/(6σ 2 ) > 0 independent of h. We denote φK i , for i = 1, 2, 3, three P2 -basic functions associated with midpoints mi . Since uh is zero on the vertices of the triangles, then on each triangle K we have:

uh | K =

We deduce that

3 ∑ i=1

uh (mi )φK i . ∫ |uh (mi )|

2 K 2 |φK i | dx.

∥uh ∥2 L2 (Ω)2 ∫

=

∑∫

K K

|uh | dx ≤ C

2 ′

3 ∑∑ K i=1

**However, we have dx ≤ C |K | where C ′ > 0 is a constant independent of K and h. We thus obtain that 3 ∑ ∑ ′′ 2 |K | ∥uh ∥L2 (Ω)2 ≤ C |uh (mi )|2 .
**

2 |φ K i | K K i=1

According to the construction of uh , we have

**|uh (mi )| = | (uh · tei (mi )) tei | = |uh · tei (mi )| = |∇qh · tei (mi )| ≤
**

and then Therefore, (2.4.47) (2.4.48)

|∇qh |K | ∑

K

∥uh ∥2 L2 (Ω)2 ≤ C

|K ||∇qh |K |2 = C ∥∇qh ∥2 L2 (Ω)2 .

∥uh ∥L2 (Ω)2 ≤ C ∥∇qh ∥L2 (Ω)2 , b(uh , qh ) ≥ C ∥uh ∥L2 (Ω)2 ∥∇qh ∥L2 (Ω)2 ,

where C > 0 is independent of h. The inequalities (2.4.46) and (2.4.47) show that where C > 0 is independent of h. It is not exactly the condition (2.4.42) that we are looking for. Nevertheless, since the triangulation Th is assumed to be uniformly regular, we have the following inverse inequality

**∥uh ∥H 1 (Ω)2 ≤ Ch−1 ∥uh ∥L2 (Ω)2 .
**

Then, the estimate (2.4.48) becomes (2.4.49)

b(uh , qh ) ≥ Ch∥uh ∥H 1 (Ω)2 ∥∇qh ∥L2 (Ω)2 .

26

2. STOKES EQUATIONS

Let γ > 0 be a constant independent of K and h (to be xed later on).

**⋆ 1st case: If qh veries
**

(2.4.50)

∥qh ∥L2 (Ω) ≤ γh∥∇qh ∥L2 (Ω)2 ,

then, using (2.4.49), we have

b(uh , qh ) ≥

C h∥uh ∥H 1 (Ω)2 ∥qh ∥L2 (Ω) , γ

which prove the discrete "inf-sup" condition (2.4.42) for qh verifying (2.4.50) with γ > 0 given.

**⋆ 2nd case: If qh is such that
**

(2.4.51)

∥qh ∥L2 (Ω) > γh∥∇qh ∥L2 (Ω)2 ,

1 then, in this case, we use Lemma 2.1 to get the existence of w ∈ [H0 (Ω)]2 such that div w = qh and

(2.4.52)

∥w∥H 1 (Ω)2 ≤ C ∥qh ∥L2 (Ω) .

Moreover, due to Proposition 2.4, there exists Rh w ∈ Xh such that

**∥w − Rh w∥L2 (Ω)2 + h∥∇(w − Rh w)∥L2 (Ω)4 ≤ Ch|w|H 1 (Ω)2 .
**

We have

b(Rh w, qh )

**= (div Rh w, qh ) = (div w, qh ) + (div (Rh w − w), qh ) ∫ 2 = ∥qh ∥L2 (Ω) − (Rh w − w) · ∇qh dx
**

Ω

**≥ ∥qh ∥2 L2 (Ω) − ∥Rh w − w∥L2 (Ω)2 ∥∇qh ∥L2 (Ω)2 .
**

However, according to Proposition 2.4 and the estimate (2.4.52), we get

**∥Rh w − w∥L2 (Ω)2 ≤ Ch|w|H 1 (Ω)2 ≤ C ′ h∥qh ∥L2 (Ω) .
**

We thus obtain

′ ≥ ∥qh ∥2 L2 (Ω) − C h∥qh ∥L2 (Ω) ∥∇qh ∥L2 (Ω)2

b(Rh w, qh )

≥ (1 − C ′ /γ ) ∥qh ∥2 L2 (Ω)

due to (2.4.51).

For γ suciently large, we have 1 − C ′ /γ > 0. In addition,

**∥Rh w∥H 1 (Ω)2 ≤ C ∥w∥H 1 (Ω)2 ≤ C ′′ ∥qh ∥L2 (Ω) .
**

Therefore,

1 (1 − C ′ /γ ) ∥Rh w∥H 1 (Ω)2 ∥qh ∥L2 (Ω) . C ′′ ′ In conclusion, if we choose γ > 0 such that discrete "inf-sup" ( 1 − C /γ > 0, the) C 1 condition (2.4.23) is satised with β ∗ = min , (1 − C ′ /γ ) . γ C ′′ b(Rh w, qh ) ≥

4. APPROXIMATION BY FINITE ELEMENTS AND DISCRETE "INF-SUP" CONDITION 27

Figure 6. Degrees of freedom for the velocity at the element P1 -

ISO-P2 /P1 .

Remark 2.6.

We can replace the element P2 /P1 with the element P1 -ISO-P2 /P1 obtained considering { } 2 ˜ Xh = v ∈ C 0 (Ω)2 | v|K ˜ ∈ P1 on each sub-triangle K of K, ∀K ∈ Th , v|∂ Ω = 0 .

˜ by the midpoints of the edges (see Each triangle K is divided into 4 sub-triangles K Figure 6).

**4.4. Algebraic form. The algebraic form of the approximated problem (2.4.21), (2.4.22) is obtained as follows. We denote { } φi | i = 1, . . . , NXh , { } ψi | i = 1, . . . , NYh ,
**

the bases of Xh , respectively of Yh . We substitute in the approximated mixed formulation (2.4.21), (2.4.22) the following identities:

NXh

(2.4.53)

uh (x) =

∑

i=1

NYh

ui φi (x),

ph (x) =

∑

i=1

pi ψi (x)

and we obtain the linear system ( A (2.4.54) B where the unknowns are

BT 0

)( ) ( ) U F = , P 0

**U = (u1 , · · · , uNXh )T ∈ RNXh , P = (p1 , · · · , pNYh )T ∈ RNYh .
**

In the linear system (2.4.54), we consider

F ∈ RNXh , Fj = (f , φj ) A ∈ MNXh ×NXh , Aij = a(φi , φj ) B ∈ MNYh ×NXh , Bij = b(φi , ψj )

Proposition 2.5. The discrete "inf-sup" condition (2.4.23) is satised if and only if ker B T = {0}. In this case, the matrix ( ) A BT B 0

is invertible.

28

2. STOKES EQUATIONS

vectorial subspaces. We suppose that the discrete "inf-sup" condition (2.4.23) is satised by the bilinear form b on Xh × Yh . Let { } Vh = vh ∈ Xh | b(vh , qh ) = 0, ∀qh ∈ Yh . (2.5.55) We state a rst result on the approximation of the velocity eld in Vh . This result is similar to Céa Lemma for elliptic problems.

5. The convergence of the approximation 5.1. General results. We denote Xh ⊂ X and Yh ⊂ Y two nite dimensional

Let (u, p) the solution of the Stokes problem (2.2.12), (2.2.13) and uh the approximation given by (2.4.21), (2.4.22). Then, there exists a constant C > 0 independent of h such that ( ) (2.5.56) ∥u − uh ∥X ≤ C inf ∥u − vh ∥X + inf ∥p − qh ∥Y .

vh ∈Vh qh ∈Yh

Proposition 2.6.

Remark 2.7.

The Proposition 2.6 is true without the discrete "inf-sup" condition and uses only the continuity of the bilinear forms a and b and the coercivity of a (which is enough to assure the existence and the uniqueness of the approximation uh ∈ Vh ).

Proposition 2.7. We suppose that Xh ⊂ X and Yh ⊂ Y are such that the discrete "inf-sup" condition (2.4.23) is satised. Then, there exists a constant C > 0 independent of h such that

(2.5.57)

vh ∈Vh

inf ∥u − vh ∥X ≤ C

wh ∈Xh

inf

∥u − wh ∥X .

The following result concerns with the approximation of the pressure.

Proposition 2.8.

We suppose that Xh ⊂ X and Yh ⊂ Y are such that the discrete "inf-sup" condition (2.4.23) holds. Then, there exists a constant C > 0 independent of h such that ( ) (2.5.58) ∥p − ph ∥Y ≤ C ∥u − uh ∥X + inf ∥p − qh ∥Y .

qh ∈Yh

Combining Propositions 2.6 and 2.8, we get the following result:

Corollary 2.1. We assume that Xh ⊂ X and Yh ⊂ Y are such that the discrete "inf-sup" condition (2.4.23) holds. Then, there exists a constant C > 0 independent of h such that ) ( inf ∥u − vh ∥X + inf ∥p − qh ∥Y . (2.5.59) ∥u − uh ∥X + ∥p − ph ∥Y ≤ C

vh ∈Xh qh ∈Yh

5. For each g ∈ [L2 (Ω)]2 .13) belongs to ( 1 (Ω) . ξg ) = b(φg . q ) = (g. we introduce the following dual problem: Find (φg . (approximation property of Xh ) ( ) ( ) 1 There exists Πh ∈ L [H 2 (Ω)]2 .5. Under the previous assumptions. Then.(2.1). 0 ∀q ∈ Y. Hypothesis H1 5. Error estimate. ξg ) ∈ X × Y such that (2. We also suppose that the hypotheses H1H2 and the discrete "inf-sup" condition (2. We assume the following hypothesis on the approximation spaces Xh and Yh .12).2. v) ∀v ∈ X. Hypothesis H2 ∀v ∈ [H 2 (Ω)]2 . (approximation property of Yh ) ( ) There exists Sh ∈ L H 1 (Ω) ∩ L2 0 (Ω).5. · sup qh ∈Yh vh ∈Xh g∈[L2 (Ω)]2 ∥g∥[L2 (Ω)]2 . If the solution (u.60) is a direct consequence of Corollary Estimate L2 for the velocity. THE CONVERGENCE OF THE APPROXIMATION 29 We denote Wh ⊂ [H 1 (Ω)]2 a nite dimensional subspace. Xh such that ∥v − Πh v∥[H 1 (Ω)]2 ≤ C1 h∥v∥[H 2 (Ω)]2 where C1 > 0 is a constant independent of h. we have the following intermediate result: Lemma 2. We assume that Ω ⊂ R2 is a polygonal bounded convex domain. (2. (2.2. p) of the ) Stokes problem (2. Proof. φg ) + b(v.63) a(v. Yh such that ∥q − Sh q ∥L2 (Ω) ≤ C2 h∥q ∥H 1 (Ω) where C2 > 0 is a constant independent of h.2. Wh ∩ L [H 2 (Ω)]2 ∩ [H0 (Ω)]2 . we have the following error estimate: Theorem 2. Estimate H 1 .61) ( ) ∥u − uh ∥[L2 (Ω)]2 ≤ C ′′ h2 ∥u∥[H 2 (Ω)]2 + ∥p∥H 1 (Ω) . ∀q ∈ H 1 (Ω).5.60) ∥u − uh ∥[H 1 (Ω)]2 + ∥p − ph ∥L2 (Ω) ≤ C ′ h ∥u∥[H 2 (Ω)]2 + ∥p∥H 1 (Ω) .2. then we have the following error estimate: (Ω)]2 × H 1 (Ω) ∩ L2 [H 2 (Ω)]2 ∩ [H0 0 ( ) (2.2. The estimate (2.62) (2.4. There exists a constant C > 0 (only dependent of the continuity constants of a and b) such that ( ) ∥u − uh ∥[L2 (Ω)]2 ≤ C ∥u − uh ∥X + ∥p − ph ∥Y · ) ( 1 inf ∥φg − vh ∥X + inf ∥ξg − qh ∥Y . where C ′ .5. We use the Aubin-Nitsche duality argument.5.23) hold. C ′′ are positive constants independent of h.

(2. then we prove that the solution ( ) 1 (φg .5. the discrete "inf-sup" condition is satised by the elements P1 -bubble/P1 and P2 /P1 . if the triangulation Th is such that no triangle has two sides on the boundary ∂ Ω. (2. ξg ) of (2.12).61) of Theorem 2. We want to apply Theorem 2. p) of the ) 1 (Ω)]2 × H 1 (Ω) ∩ L2 problem (2.65) ∥u − uh ∥[L2 (Ω)]2 + h ∥∇(u − uh )∥[L2 (Ω)]2 + ∥p − ph ∥L2 (Ω) ( ) ≤ Ch2 ∥u∥[H 2 (Ω)]2 + ∥p∥H 1 (Ω) .2.2. = 0 in Ω.65).61). then the approximation (uh . ph ) of element P1 -bubble/P1 satises ( ) (2.13) belongs to [H 2 (Ω)]2 ∩ [H0 0 (Ω) . Proof. C ′′ )h ∥φg ∥[H 2 (Ω)]2 + ∥ξg ∥H 1 (Ω) ≤ Ch∥g∥[L2 (Ω)]2 due to (2.5. The hypothesis H1 and H2 imply vh ∈Xh inf ∥φg − vh ∥X + inf ∥ξg − qh ∥Y qh ∈Yh ( ) ≤ max(C ′ . If Ω ⊂ R2 is a polygonal bounded convex domain. Error estimate for the elements P1 -bubble/P1 and P2 /P1 . We assume that the triangulation Th is uniformly regular.5. Ω Proposition 2.2. The hypothesis H1 is satised with Πh = Ih = the Lagrange interpolation operator from Proposition 2.9. To this end. Moreover. . it is enough to verify the hypotheses H1 and H2 because under the hypothesis on the triangulation. ph ) of element P2 /P1 satisfy the same estimate (2. The hypothesis H2 is satised with Sh = Rh = the 1 2 projection operator.62).2.64).62).5. then the approximation (uh .5. For nite elements of type P1 -bubble/P1 and P2 /P1 the above result becomes: Let Ω ⊂ R2 a polygonal bounded convex domain. Rh : H 1 (Ω) ∩ L2 0 (Ω) → Yh dened for v ∈ H (Ω) ∩ L0 (Ω) by (see Proposition 2.64) ∥φg ∥[H 2 (Ω)]2 + ∥ξg ∥H 1 (Ω) ≤ C ∥g∥[L2 (Ω)]2 . we get ( ) ∥u − uh ∥[L2 (Ω)]2 ≤ Ch ∥u − uh ∥[H 1 (Ω)]2 + ∥p − ph ∥L2 (Ω) and we thus conclude the estimate (2.3.5.5. = 0 on ∂ Ω.5.30 2. STOKES EQUATIONS Let us use this result to conclude the estimate (2.63) corresponds to the weak formulation of the following Stokes problem: −ν ∆φg + ∇ξg div φg φg = g in Ω. If the solution Stokes ( (u. (2.2. The problem (2. where C > 0 is independent of h. Plugging this estimate in the estimate of Lemma 2.5. where C > 0 in independent of g and h.5.4) ∫ ∇(Rh v − v) · ∇v dx = 0 ∀v ∈ Yh .63) belongs to [H 2 (Ω)]2 ∩ [H0 (Ω)]2 × H 1 (Ω) ∩ L2 0 (Ω) and (2.

simple such that vk (t) → v (t) in X . u(0) = 1The function v is measurable in the Bochner sense (strongly measurable). v) ∀v ∈ X.1.5) (3. with ν > 0 the dynamic viscosity of the uid.1) (3.e. Introduction Let T > 0 be xed (the nal instant). p(t)) = (f (t). T ). T ].0. T . 31 . we only consider N = 2. Y ) such that a.1. v) dt X ′ . u = 0 on ∂ Ω × R+ . T ] → X | v is measurable1 and T 0 ∥v (t)∥p X dt < +∞ . X ) . we dene { } ∫ Lp (0.0.X + b(v. v) + c(u(t). T . it is almost everywhere the limit of a sequence of simple functions in X : there exists vk : [0. We recall the denition of function spaces with values in a Banach space X . We now introduce the mixed variational formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations: { } dv 2 2 ′ Find u ∈ W (0. Let Ω ⊂ R2 be a bounded and suciently smooth (regular) domain. v + a(u(t). that is. u(t). t ∈ [0. X ) | ∈ L (0.3) ut + (u · ∇)u − ν ∆u + ∇p = f in Ω × R+ .2) (3. we have : ⟨ du ⟩ (3. T . [L2 (Ω)]2 ) and u0 ∈ [L2 (Ω)]2 . q ) = 0 ∀q ∈ Y. dt 2 p ∈ L (0. a.4) (t). = L2 0 (Ω). T ] → X . X Ω We consider X Y 1 = [H0 (Ω)]2 .X ) = ∥u(t)∥p dt . (3. We consider the following Navier-Stokes problem: (3.0. 1. T ) = v ∈ L (0. t ∈ (0. u0 .CHAPTER 3 Navier-Stokes equations In this chapter.T . Let f ∈ L2 (0.1.6) b(u(t). T . For p ≥ 1.e. div u = 0 in Ω × R+ . X ) = v : [0. T . This space is endowed with the following norm (∫ )1/p ∥u∥Lp (0.

v) ≤ C ∥w∥[L2 (Ω)]2 |w|[H 1 (Ω)]2 |z|[H 1 (Ω)]2 ∥v∥[L2 (Ω)]2 |v|[H 1 (Ω)]2 . z. i. the initial condition (3. then we have W (0. by consequence.32 3. we have denoted c : X × X × X → R the trilinear form dened by ∫ N ∫ ∑ ∂zi wj [(w · ∇)z] · v dx = vi dx. z. z.9) c(w.1. v) ≤ ∥w∥L4 (Ω)2 ∥∇z∥L2 (Ω)4 ∥v∥L4 (Ω)2 ∀w. we have (3.8) c(w.1. z.11) c(w. Some properties of the trilinear form c.1.1. v ∈ [H0 (Ω)]2 .8) gives us: ∀w.j Ω ∑∫ ∂ = − (wj vi )zi dx by integration by parts ∂xj i.1. if H is a Hilbert space such that X → H ≡ H ′ → X ′. z. valid only for N = 2 (for details. where the injections are continuous and compact. v) = wj vi dx ∂xj i. • Using the Hölder inequality.1. u(0) = u0 . H ) with the injection a continuous function and. because H 1 (Ω) → L4 (Ω) (this injection is true for N ≤ 3). Ω c(w. z. (3. z.1. ∀w.e. T ]. ∂xj ∂xj i.1. T ) → C 0 ([0. z. see [2]): (3.1. v ∈ [H0 ∑∫ ∂zi c(w.4)(3. v) = ∂xj Ω i. v ∈ [H 1 (Ω)]2 . v ∈ [H 1 (Ω)]2 . z) − . v. In particular.1.j =1 Ω Let us observe that the formulation (3. v) ≤ C ∥w∥H 1 (Ω)2 |z|H 1 (Ω)2 ∥v∥H 1 (Ω)2 where | · |H 1 denotes the seminorm in H 1 .12) ∫ 1 (v · z)div w dx ∀w.1.6).6) is well-posed. (3. Then (3. is well chosen in the space H = [L2 (Ω)]2 . z. we have • For all w. 1 /2 1 /2 1 /2 1 /2 1 (Ω)]2 . NAVIER-STOKES EQUATIONS In the above formulation. z. v ∈ [H 1 (Ω)]2 .j Ω We then get (3.j Ω ∑∫ ∑ ∫ ∂wj ∂vi wj = − zi dx − vi zi dx. • We recall the following interpolation inequality. 1.j Ω i. z. The estimate (3.10) ∥v ∥L4 (Ω) ≤ C ∥v ∥L2 (Ω) ∥∇v ∥L2 (Ω)2 1 /2 1 /2 ∀v ∈ H 1 (Ω).7) c(w. v) = −c(w.

X Using relation (3.1. = {v ∈ X | div v = 0 a. t0 • Discrete Gronwall Lemma.14) = 1 [H0 (Ω)]2 .1. • Young inequality. 1. b ∈ R.u = (u. t0 then (3. z. ∀n ≥ 1. From (3. u. we obtain 1 d 2 2 ∥u(t)∥[L2 (Ω)]2 + ν ∥∇u(t)∥[L2 (Ω)]4 + c(u.1. We take v = u(t) ∈ X as test function in the Navier-Stokes equations (3. z ∈ X. Let I be an interval from R and t0 ∈ I .1. Let ρ > 0 and {an }n≥0 . u(t)). Let ϕ and g be two positive and continuous functions on I . z) ∀w ∈ V. 2 dt .1. we have (3.16) (∫ ϕ(t) ≤ g (t) exp t ) f (s) ds ∀t ∈ I. {bn }n≥0 be two positive sequences such that a0 ≤ ρ and Then.12) we deduce the following relations: c(w.1.1. z. • Gronwall Lemma.13) (3. u) .1.3. c(w. v) = −c(w. ∀z ∈ X. 4ε ∀ε > 0 . ∀n ≥ 1.1. INTRODUCTION 33 • Let X V (3.e. For all a. 1. We consider the function f : I → R positive and integrable on I .5). z) = 0 ∀w ∈ V. dt 2 dt X ′ . We can prove that (see [22]) ⟨ ⟩ du 1 d . u) = (f (t).17) an ≤ ρ + n −1 ∑ j =0 aj bj .4).2. in Ω}. Some useful properties. ∀v.15) ab ≤ εa2 + 1 2 b . (3. an ≤ ρ exp n −1 ∑ j =0 bj . If g is increasing and if ∫ t ϕ(t) ≤ g (t) + f (s)ϕ(s) ds ∀t ∈ I. v. Energy estimate.

with t = k ∆t. z ∈ X.13) and the fact that u(t) ∈ V .19) c ˜(w. z. u) = 0. z. the following estimate holds: 1 d 2 2 ∥u(t)∥[L2 (Ω)]2 + ν ∥∇u(t)∥[L2 (Ω)]4 ≤ ∥f (t)∥[L2 (Ω)]2 ∥u(t)∥[L2 (Ω)]2 2 dt 1 1 2 2 ≤ ∥f (t)∥[L2 (Ω)]2 + ∥u(t)∥[L2 (Ω)]2 . k ≥ 0 k k and ph (x) ∈ Yh the approximation of p(x. Complete discretisation in time and space variables for the mixed formulation of the Navier-Stokes equation We assume that the domain Ω ⊂ R2 is polygonal and convex. v) − c(w. 2 This new term is antisymmetric.16)).23) c ˜(w. we conclude that: for any t ∈ [0. we assume that f is independent of time. z. v ∈ X. z. T ]. (3.2. z. We consider Xh ⊂ X and Yh ⊂ Y two subspaces of nite dimension. n ∈ N∗ k k and we consider the approximation uk h (x) ∈ Xh of u(x. in order to simplify the computation. we introduce a new nonlinear term c ˜ dened by: 1 (3.18) ∥u(t)∥[L2 (Ω)]2 + 2ν ∥∇u(s)∥[L2 (Ω)]4 ds 0 ( ) ∫ t 2 2 ≤ ∥u(0)∥[L2 (Ω)]2 + ∥f (s)∥[L2 (Ω)]2 ds exp(t). we have (3.2. v) = [c(w.2. z) ∀w.34 3.1.22) In particular. . NAVIER-STOKES EQUATIONS Due to relation (3. z. v) = c(w. v) + c ˜(w. ∫ t 2 2 (3. t ).21) c ˜(w. In this section we present two numerical schemes (which are semi-implicit in time) and we will study their stability and convergence.1. v) ∀w ∈ V ∀z. we have c(u. t ). z. 1 2 ∫ (v · z)div w dx ∀w. dened by ∆t = T /n. 0 Applying Gronwall Lemma (see (3. v) = −c ˜(w. we have the following important property: c ˜(w. that is: (3. z) = 0 ∀w.1. z. we get ∫ t ∫ t 2 2 2 2 ∥u(t)∥[L2 (Ω)]2 + 2ν ∥∇u(s)∥[L2 (Ω)]4 ds ≤ ∥u(0)∥[L2 (Ω)]2 + ∥f (s)∥[L2 (Ω)]2 ds 0 0 ∫ t 2 + ∥u(s)∥[L2 (Ω)]2 ds. v ∈ X and. z. Ω Using relation (3. 0 2. by consequence. v ∈ X. u.2.20) (3.2.12). v. z)] . 2 2 By integrating from 0 to t. Due to stability reasons which will appear later in the analysis. We denote ∆t > 0 the time discretisation step. v. z. Thus. v) = c(w. Moreover.1.

(3. . . . n such that (3. vh ) h . the term (u · ∇)u. k = 1. The introduction of the modied nonlinear form c ˜ allows us to get a stable scheme.1 (Stability result). • We can show that. the scheme (I) is convergent. .4. Let us observe that: • The introduction of c ˜ instead of c amounts to considering the additional 1 term u div u in the Navier-Stokes equations. pk h ) = (f . we compute uk and pk as follows: = f uk − uk−1 1 − ν ∆uk + (uk−1 · ∇)uk−1 + uk−1 div uk−1 + ∇pk ∆t 2 div uk uk in Ω. First semi-implicit scheme.1. for uk ∈ Xh given. In fact. (I). n. ph ). vh ) b(uk h . there exists C > 0 independent of h and ∆t such that (3. ∥f ∥[L2 (Ω)]2 and ν . (3. = 0 on ∂ Ω.1. .2.1. Then.2. i. which is a little bit more implicit that the previous one. We are going to show this for the second scheme (II) below. the problem (3. COMPLETE DISCRETISATION OF THE NAVIER-STOKES EQUATIONS 35 2. Proposition 3. STABILITY. = 0 in Ω. (3. . .25) h k k admits a unique solution (uh .25) ∀qh ∈ Yh . Remark 3. is explicitly time discretised. vh ) + a(uh . The constants C and C ∗ are dependent of ∥u0 h ∥[H 1 (Ω)]2 . u h . . Find (uh . . Then. ∆t • The scheme (I) is stable under the condition that the fraction 2 is small h enough. We suppose that the triangulation Th is 0 uniformly regular and that the initial data u0 h is such that ∥uh ∥[H 1 (Ω)]2 is bounded independently of h and ∆t.2.2.25) is stable.26) ∥um h ∥[L2 (Ω)]2 + ∆t 2 m ∑ k=1 ∥∇uk h ∥[L2 (Ω)]4 ≤ C 2 for m = 1.2.e.2. under the hypothesis of Proposition 3. ph ) ∈ Xh × Yh .23) from Chapter 2 holds −1 for the spaces Xh and Yh .24) 1 k −1 k −1 −1 k ˜(uk (u − uk h . vh ) + c ∆t h + b(vh . k k Let u0 h ∈ Xh be given. qh ) = 0 ∀vh ∈ Xh .2.24).2.e. This is because the nonlinear term of the Navier-Stokes equations.24). the scheme (I) is 2 the following semi-discretised in time variable scheme: for u0 given and for k ≥ 1. the rst semi-implicit scheme (3. This important result is stated in the following proposition. We suppose that the discrete "inf-sup" condition (2. i. there exists a constant C ∗ > 0 independent of h and ∆t such that for ∆ t ≤ C ∗ h2 .

2.4. T .23) from Chapter 2 is −1 veried by the spaces Xh and Yh .2.2. n. vh ) + c h . u). v) + a(u.e. Remark 3.2. n such that (3. p ∈ H 1 (0. (3. T ].2. u. vh ) 0 ∀vh ∈ Xh . u ∈ C 0 ([0. We suppose that the discrete "inf-sup" condition (2. (3.2. v) → (u. Let us state the convergence result for the second semi- Proposition 3. The second semi-implicit scheme. u) = ∥u∥L2 (Ω)2 + a(u. v) is continuous and coercive on ∆t 1 2 X × X because a ˜(u.2. pk h) = (f . . (3. . [H 2 (Ω)]2 ) ∩ H 2 (0.28) b(uk h . the bilinear 1 −1 form a ˜ : (u. k = 1. . ph h h In fact. In practice. . for a given uk ∈ Xh . (II). The semi-implicit scheme (3. qh ) = ∀qh ∈ Yh . [L2 (Ω)]2 ).2.29) ∥uh ∥[L2 (Ω)]2 + ν ∆t ∥∇uk for m = 1. implicit scheme (II). high Reynolds numbers). (3. i. .36 3. for the initial data u0 h such that ∥uh ∥[H 1 (Ω)]2 is bounded independently of h and ∆t. 2 2 1 h h L (Ω) H (Ω) where C > 0 is independent of h and ∆t.2 (Stability result). In the case of low viscosity (i. ∆t and ν such that for ∆t ≤ C ∗ ν and h ≤ C ∗ ν . . k k Let u0 h ∈ Xh be given.28) 0 is unconditionally stable. ∆t STABILITY. Then. the nonlinear convection term (u · ∇)u can be treated by using the upwind scheme or the "Streamline Diusion Method" (SDM). there exists a constant C > 0 independent of h and ∆t such that m ∑ 2 m 2 (3. Find (uh .27). [W 1.1. the problem h k k ) ∈ X × Y . .e. p) of the Navier-Stokes equations (3.27). uh . NAVIER-STOKES EQUATIONS 2. v) + c ˜(uk h .3 (Convergence result). T . we have ( ) k 0 2 ∥uk − u ( t ) ∥ ≤ C ∥ u − u (0) ∥ + h + ∆ t ∀k ≥ 1. T ]. vh ) ∆t h + b(vh .6) is regular. H 1 (Ω) ∩ Y ). . ph ).27) 1 k −1 −1 k k (u − uk ˜(uk h . .2. Then. that is. h ∥[L2 (Ω)]4 ≤ C k=1 CONVERGENCE. We suppose that the exact solution (u. vh ) + a(uh .1. the scheme (II) (and in a lower sense the scheme (I)) is used for large enough viscosities ν and this happens due to the condition that relates ∆t and h with ν . there exists a constant C ∗ > 0 independent of h.4)(3. We have the following result: Proposition 3.28) admits a unique solution (uh .∞ (Ω)]2 ∩ X ) ∩ C 1 ([0.

Examples. The decomposition methods of operators are based on the decomposition of operator A. with u0 given.3.1.3. the Yanenko scheme is consistent in O(∆t). on ∂ Ω.31) uk+1/2 − uk − ν ∆uk+1/2 + (uk · ∇)uk+1/2 ∆t uk+1/2 = f k+1 = 0 in Ω. as follows: (1) Find uk+1/2 such that (3. φn+1/2 − φn + A1 (φn+1/2 ) + A2 (φn ) ∆t/2 φn+1 − φn+1/2 + A1 (φn+1/2 ) + A2 (φn+1 ) ∆t/2 This scheme is consistent in O(∆t2 ). This method is due to Temam [21] and Chorin [4] (see also [9]). ∆t φn+1 − φn +Aφn+1 = −∆tA1 A2 φn+1 . DECOMPOSITION METHODS OF OPERATORS 37 3. 3. where ⋆ A1 is the sum of the inertial terms and the viscosity. The projection method. where A is an operator (nonlinear) such that A = A1 + A2 . The projection method is constructed using the semi-discretised scheme and considering the previous decomposition. we have ∆t In this case. with the operators A1 and A2 simpler than A. φn+1/2 − φn + A1 (φn+1/2 ) = 0. We decompose the Navier-Stokes operator A as follows: A = A1 + A2 . .2. = = 0. ∆t φn+1 − φn+1/2 + A2 (φn+1 ) = 0. k ≥ 0. Introduction. dt φ(0) = φ0 . If A is linear (then A1 and A2 ). ⋆ A2 take into account the pressure term and the incompressibility condition. that is we want to successively solve several problems which are simpler than the original problem (P ). 0.3. (2) The Peaceman-Rachford scheme. Decomposition methods of operators problems of type 3. We dene two vector sequences {uk } and {uk+1/2 }.30) (3. The decomposition methods of operators focus on solving { (P ) dφ + A(φ) = 0. (1) The Yanenko scheme.

35) (uk+1 .3. ∆t k∆t (2) Find (uk+1 . { v = w + ∇ψ. then pk+1 satises the Neumann condition ∂pk+1 = 0 on ∂ Ω.3. If f is less regular. i. ∆t is obtained by considering the normal component ∂pk+1 =0 ∂n on ∂ Ω. w) = (uk+1/2 .32) on ∂ Ω: 1 div uk+1/2 in Ω. we have uk+1 − uk+1/2 + ∇pk+1 ∆t div uk+1 uk+1 · n = 0 = 0 = 0 in Ω. w) ∀w ∈ V. w · n = 0 on ∂ Ω 2 } and To get the limit condition (3.1. in Ω.33).3. we take f k+1 = f ((k + 1)∆t). • The limit condition (3.31).3. We take the divergence of (3.3. we obtain ∆pk+1 = The boundary condition for pk+1 of the equation (3.e. on ∂ Ω.3.3. (Helmholtz decomposition or Ladyzenskaja Theorem ) Any function v ∈ [L2 (Ω)]N (with N = 2 or 3) can be uniquely represented by where w ∈ Hdiv (Ω) = ψ ∈ H 1 (Ω). w ∈ [L (Ω)]N | div w = 0 in Ω. using the incompressibility condition (3.33) (3.3. pk+1 ) such that (3. we take ∫ (k+1)∆t 1 k+1 f = f (t) dt. uk+1 · n − uk+1/2 · n + ∆t But uk+1 · n = 0 according (3.3.3.3.34) from this result.38 3.32) (3. we have (3.34) In fact. Then we see that the natural space for uk+1 is the space Hdiv (Ω). where P :X→V is the orthogonal projection operator in V with the inner product from [L2 (Ω)]2 .32) and. • Let us compute the pressure pk+1 . we write (3. for example square integrable in time. ∂n . NAVIER-STOKES EQUATIONS If f is continuous with respect to time variable. uk+1 ∈ V = {v ∈ X | div v = 0 in Ω} and uk+1 = P uk+1/2 .34) and uk+1/2 · n = 0 according (3.34) is a consequence of the following result: Theorem 3.3.32) as follows: uk+1/2 = uk+1 + ∇(∆t pk+1 ).

but in the H 1 (Ω) ∩ L2 (Ω)-norm.42) ∆p = div f − in Ω.3.38). and it decreases exponentially to the interior (see [12]). The exact pressure veries ∑ ∂ui ∂uj (3.39) ∆pk+1 = 1 div uk+1/2 in Ω. in a strip of thickness δ ∼ ν ∆t. The convergence error for the pressure belongs also to O(∆t).40) uk+1 = uk+1/2 − ∆t∇pk+1 .3. on ∂ Ω.41).3.3.j ∂p = (f + ν ∆u) · n on ∂ Ω.3. combining (3. the projection method is well adapted for the computation of the velocity. Briey.32).3. ∂n (3) Computation of the velocity uk+1 .3. we can show that the convergence error for the velocity in the L2 norm belongs to O(∆t) (see [9].3.38) (3. [12]). we can show that the error√ in the case of the pressure is conned near the boundary. ∂n The dierence between the exact system (3. However.3.j −uk · ∇(div uk+1/2 ). (3. ∆t ∂pk+1 = 0 on ∂ Ω. Find uk+1/2 such that (3. (3. with ∂pk+1 /∂ n = 0 on ∂ Ω. the projection method consists in the following three steps: (1) Advection-diusion problem for the velocity. Moreover. Find pk+1 such that (3.37) uk+1/2 − uk − ν ∆uk+1/2 + (uk · ∇)uk+1/2 ∆t uk+1/2 = f k+1 = 0 in Ω. Let us remark that the approximated velocities uk are not equal to zero on the boundary ∂ Ω (only their normal component are zero).3.36) and (3.3.3. In fact.3.3.41) div f k+1 k+1/2 ∑ ∂uk ∂uj i − + ν ∆(div uk+1/2 ) ∂x ∂x j i i. we have ( ) ∆pk+1 = div f k+1 + ν ∆uk+1/2 − (uk · ∇)uk+1/2 = (3.39) is responsible for the low convergence of the pressure pk (x) to p(x. In practice. (2) The Poisson problem for the pressure. ∂xj ∂xi i. but not for the computation of the pressure.42).36) (3. (3. DECOMPOSITION METHODS OF OPERATORS 39 • Once the pressure pk+1 is computed.3.43) . (3.43) and the approximated system (3. we deduce the velocity uk+1 by using (3. tk ).3.

44) (3.4. uk+1 = 0 on ∂ Ω.4. x) · ∇ u X(τ . The Glowinski method. x) associated with the velocity eld u. Find (uk+1/2 . t). T ). t. t.4. u k+1/2 (2) Nonlinear elliptic problem of convection-diusion type. T ]. on ∂ Ω. t) + (3.44). The semi-discretised in time version is written as follows (with 0 < η < 1): (1) Stokes problem.45) dX (τ . x). x). Find uk+1 such that uk+1 − uk+1/2 + (1 − η )ν ∆uk+1 + (uk+1 · ∇)uk+1 ∆t/2 = f k+1/2 − ην ∆uk+1/2 −∇pk+1/2 in Ω. x). It is a scheme of type Peaceman-Rachford applied to the Navier-Stokes equations. The characteristic function X(τ . τ (x.40 3. τ + X(τ . x). x).[8]). t. We can replace the term (uk+1 · ∇)uk+1 by (uk+1/2 · ∇)uk+1 . We have ( ) )] ( ) ∂u ( ) dX d[ ( u X(τ . we get )] ∂u d[ ( = (u · ∇) u(x. Glowinski (see [7]. This method is due to R. (3. t.[8]). t. x) represents the position at instant τ of a particle which has occupied the position x at instant t. pk+1/2 ) such that uk+1/2 − uk − ην ∆uk+1/2 + ∇pk+1/2 ∆t/2 = f k+1/2 − (1 − η )ν ∆uk −(uk · ∇)uk in Ω.4.45) of the characteristic. x) ( ) = u X(τ . we dene the characteristic function X = X(τ . t. 4. div uk+1/2 = 0 = 0 in Ω. = x.46) u X(τ . The characteristic method For x ∈ Ω and t ∈ [0. NAVIER-STOKES EQUATIONS 3. t. dτ ∂τ |τ =t . τ = (τ .4. τ τ ∈ (0. verifying (3. see [7]. τ dτ dτ ∂τ and using the denition (3. t. Let us remark that there exists a θ-scheme with 3 steps that generalizes this scheme (for details. t. t.3. x) dτ X(t. The introduction of the characteristic function allows the appearance of the material derivative of the velocity eld in the Navier-Stokes equations and then the "absorbtion" of the nonlinearity.

4. T ). this map is almost everywhere dierentiable in Ω and its Jacobian is equal to 1 almost everywhere in Ω. The following result states some important properties on the characteristic function: [ ] Lemma 3. using Lemma 3. x).50) and using (3. Xk (x) = φ(tk . in Ω. where [ 1 ]2 V = {v ∈ H0 (Ω) . t. t) ∈ Ω × (0. Taking v = uk+1 in (3.4. T ]. uk+1 ) + (uk ◦ Xk . v) 0 ∀q ∈ Y. where φ = φ(·. v) + b(v. tk+1 . T ). x) dt φ(tk+1 .4.48) div u = (3. Semi-discretisation in time variable. tk+1 .51). THE CHARACTERISTIC METHOD 41 Then.53) dφ (t. t. For |τ − t| suciently small.4.e. uk+1 ).4. t) ∈ ∂ Ω × (0.1. x) is a homeomorphism2 on Ω.4.4. x) is a( continuous bijection from Ω to Ω and since div uk = 0 a. t) ∈ Ω × (0. we get ∥uk+1 ∥0 + ν ∆t∥∇uk+1 ∥0 = ∆t(f k+1 .50) . = = (f k+1 . x) = 1 a. t .1. C 0. Find (u . it follows that ( ) 2 2 (3. 2is a continuous bijection on Ω and the inverse map is also continuous on Ω. x) veries (3. tk+1 . 4. v + a(uk+1 . in Ω.4. x).e.4.51) b(uk+1 .1.4. We can show that u ∈ X ⇒ ∃ ! φ(·. we have ) k+1 det ∇φ(t. x) k ( ) = uk φ(t. We suppose that u ∈ C ([0. x) tk ≤ t < tk+1 . Let u0 ∈ V be given. tk+1 . More precisely. 2 2 .47) u X(τ . τ − ν ∆u + ∇p = dτ | τ =t (3. Moreover. the map x → X(τ.49) u = the following Lagrangian form: f 0 0 for (x. tk+1 . for (x. Due to the Hölder inequality. ∀v ∈ X. for (x. we write the Navier-Stokes equations on )] d[ ( (3. q ) k+1 k+1 k 4. T ). we can prove that the map x → φ(t. pk+1 ) ∆t (3. div v = 0 in Ω}. Stability. The approximated characteristic function X (x) corresponds to the position at time tk of a particle which will be in x at instant tk+1 under the action of the velocity eld uk .p ) ∈ X × Y such that ( uk+1 − uk ◦ Xk ) (3.2.54) ∥uk+1 ∥0 + ν ∆t∥∇uk+1 ∥0 ≤ ∆t∥f k+1 ∥0 + ∥uk ◦ Xk ∥0 ∥uk+1 ∥0 . tk+1 ]) for almost every x ∈ Ω. tk+1 .1 (Ω) 2 ∩ V ). = x. tk+1 . Moreover. We denote ∥ · ∥0 = ∥ · ∥[L2 (Ω)]2 and also ∥ · ∥0 = ∥ · ∥[L2 (Ω)]4 .52) (3.4. x) ∈ C 1 ([tk .

Then. we obtain ∫ ∫ ∫ (3.4. we get (3. ν m k=1 Thus. Error estimate.4. ν Summing over k = 0. Thus. t ) − u ∥0 + ν ∆t k=1 for m = 0.4. (3.54) becomes Using the Poincaré inequality and the fact that ab ≤ (a2 + b2 )/2.4. The scheme is of order ∆t (i. NAVIER-STOKES EQUATIONS Moreover. we deduce the stability of the scheme. (3. .4. . 4. we assume that ∥u(·.3. .56) ∥uk ◦ Xk ∥0 = ∥uk ∥0 . by using the change of variable y = Xk (x). ) ( 2 2 ∥uk+1 ∥0 + ν ∆t∥∇uk+1 ∥0 ≤ ∆t∥f k+1 ∥0 + ∥uk ∥0 ∥uk+1 ∥0 . dt2 Moreover. . 0) − u0 ∥0 = O(∆t). we deduce that (3. there exists a constant C > 0 independent of ∆t such that )1/2 ( m ∑ k k 2 m m ∥∇(u(·.55) with ϕ(x) = |uk (x)|2 .4.3.42 3.e. m − 1 with 1 ≤ m ≤ n (we recall that n∆t = T ). T ) × Ω). . T ]. in Ω. We denote the norm ∥ · ∥0 = ∥ · ∥[L2 (Ω)]2 and also ∥ · ∥0 = ∥ · ∥[L2 (Ω)]4 . t ) − u )∥0 ≤ C ∆t. We now prove an error estimate for the convergence of the velocity eld. Remark 3. we obtain ∆t k+1 2 2 2 2 2 ∥uk+1 ∥0 + 2ν ∆t∥∇uk+1 ∥0 ≤ ν ∆t∥∇uk+1 ∥0 + C ∥f ∥0 + ∥uk ∥0 ν that is ∆t k+1 2 2 2 2 ∥uk+1 ∥0 + ν ∆t∥∇uk+1 ∥0 ≤ C ∥f ∥0 + ∥uk ∥0 . .59) ∥u(·.55) (ϕ ◦ Xk )(x) dx = ϕ(y) det(∇Xk )−1 dy = ϕ(y) dy.e.4.4. 2 2 By applying the Young inequality on the rst term of the right hand side. W 1. . for all function ϕ dened and integrable in Ω. Applying (3. Ω Ω Ω because det(∇Xk ) = 1 a. We suppose that the exact solution u of the Navier-Stokes equation has the following regularity properties: [ ]2 u ∈ C ([0.∞ (Ω) ∩ V ). the inequality (3. T ]. Proposition 3.57) ∥um ∥0 + ν ∆t 2 m ∑ k=1 ∥∇uk ∥0 ≤ C 2 ∆t ∑ k 2 2 ∥f ∥0 + ∥u0 ∥0 . [ ]2 ∂u ∈ C ([0. L2 (Ω) ). ([ 2 ]2 ) L (Ω) and . . O(∆t)) for l∞ ( [ ] ) 2 l2 H 1 (Ω) -norms. n. we have 1 1 2 2 2 2 ∥uk+1 ∥0 + ν ∆t∥∇uk+1 ∥0 ≤ C (Ω)∆t∥f k+1 ∥0 ∥∇uk+1 ∥0 + ∥uk ∥0 + ∥uk+1 ∥0 .58) ∂t d2 (u ◦ X) ∈ L2 ((0.

·). tk+1 ) − pk+1 ) = 0. tk+1 ).4. for all x ∈ Ω. tk+1 ) and the constant C > 0 is independent of T and ∥∇u(·.4).4. we have u(x. ·).50) and considering the test function v = ek+1 ∈ X .4. (3.61) and (3. · ) . ∀v ∈ X. we need the following result concerning the approximation of the characteristic function. x). (3. 2 ds then where (3. tk+1 ) = u(X(tk . p(·. THE CHARACTERISTIC METHOD 43 In order to prove the error estimate (3. t) dt |t=tk+1 ] d2 [ u(X(s. tk+1 ). tk ) − Rk . k +1 dt ∆t |t=t 1 Rk = − ∆t ∫ tk+1 tk ∫ t tk+1 ] d2 [ u ( X ( s. tk+1 ) − pk+1 ) = 0 and then (d[ ( )] uk+1 − uk ◦ Xk k+1 ) 2 − u X(t. t .4.4.63) dt ∆t |t=tk+1 Furthermore. tk+1 )) = (f k+1 . we have.62). s) ds dt. We write the mixed variational formulation Navier-Stokes equations in t = tk+1 : (3. ·).4. x). ·). v) dt |t=tk+1 + b(v.58) on the exact solution u. (3. tk+1 ) = u(X(tk+1 . t − .4. v) b(u(·.4. Proof. tk ) − uk ∥0 + ∆t . tk ) − uk . According to (3. .4. x). Let us denote ek = u(·. ·). for k = 0. .4. it follows that (d[ ( )] uk+1 − uk ◦ Xk k+1 ) 2 u X(t. t) = u(·. p(·. tk+1 . . ds2 . ∂t L2 (Ik .64) ] ) 1 ( d[ u(X(t.4. tk+1 ) − u(X(tk .62) Taking the dierence between the equations (3. . (Proof of Proposition 3. t . v + a(u(·. tk )∥[L∞ (Ω)]4 .51) and (3. tk ) + ∆t ∫ − tk t tk+1 ∫ tk+1 ] d[ u(X(t.4. we have b(ek+1 .59). x).61) (d[ ( ) )] u X(t. p(·.[L2 (Ω)]2 ) where Ik = (tk .60) ( ) √ ∂u ∥X(tk . s ) ds dt. e + ν ∥∇ek+1 ∥0 dt ∆t |t=tk+1 + b(ek+1 . Lemma 3.2. n. Under the regularity assumptions (3. ·) − Xk ∥0 ≤ C ∆t ∥u(·. q ) = 0 ∀q ∈ Y. e + ν ∥∇ek+1 ∥0 = 0.

we get ( k+1 2 k+1 2 ∥e ∥0 + ν ∆t∥∇e ∥0 ≤ ∥ek ∥0 + C ∥X(tk . tk )∥[L∞ (Ω)]4 |X(tk . tk )∥0 + ∥u(Xk . s)] ds dt ∆t tk ds2 0 t ∫ tk+1 2 d ≤ [u(X(s.69) ∥u(Xk . (3. ·) − Xk ∥0 . tk ) − u(Xk . ·). ·). tk ) − u(Xk (x). ek+1 + ν ∥∇ek+1 ∥0 = (Rk . tk )|2 dx Ω ∫ 2 ≤ ∥∇u(·. ·). since det∇Xk = 1.4.65) ∥ek+1 ∥0 + ν ∆t∥∇ek+1 ∥0 ( ) ≤ ∥u(X(tk . ·). ek+1 ).64) can be estimated as follows. • In addition.66)(3. we have (3.4.4. Moreover. ·). (3. ·).65).4. 2 2 • The rest Rk dened by (3. tk ) − uk ∥0 . the equation (3. ·). By taking into account the estimates (3. We have 2 ∫ |u(X(tk .[L2 (Ω)]2 ) . ∆t ∆t which implies that (3. tk ) − uk (Xk )∥0 .[L2 (Ω)]2 ) . tk ) − u(Xk . tk )∥0 ≤ ∥∇u(·.4.69) in (3.4.68) ∥u(X(tk . tk+1 ) − u(X(tk . tk )∥[L∞ (Ω)]4 ∥X(tk .67) ∥u(X(tk . ds2 0 tk then (3. ·). ·) − Xk ∥0 ) 2 3 /2 d ( u ◦ X) ∥ek+1 ∥0 + ∆t dt2 L2 (Ik . tk ) − uk ◦ Xk ∥0 + ∆t∥Rk ∥0 ∥ek+1 ∥0 . x) − Xk (x)|2 dx = Ω ∥u(X(tk . tk ) − u(Xk . by consequence.4.63) becomes ( u(·. NAVIER-STOKES EQUATIONS Thus. s)] ds. we have ∥u(Xk .4.4.44 3. tk ) − uk (Xk )∥0 = ∥u(·. tk )∥0 and. tk ) − uk (Xk )∥0 = ∥ek ∥0 . that is. tk ) − uk ◦ Xk ∥0 ≤ ∥u(X(tk .66) ∥Rk ∥0 ≤ √ ∆t d2 ( u ◦ X) dt2 L2 (Ik . x). tk ) uk+1 − uk ◦ Xk ) 2 − . We have ∫ tk+1 ∫ tk+1 1 d2 ∥Rk ∥0 ≤ [u(X(s.4. We will successively estimate both terms of the right hand side of the previous inequality.

ν Summing over k = 0.[L2 (Ω)]2 ) + d2 ( u ◦ X) dt2 2 L2 (0. THE CHARACTERISTIC METHOD 45 Using Lemma 3. ν ) ∆t ( k 2 2 ∥e ∥0 + ∆t αk . 2 2 2 2 Applying Poincaré and Young inequalities.T . ν ν which conclude the proof of Proposition 3. . Therefore.T .71) ∥ek+1 ∥0 + ν ∆t∥∇ek+1 ∥0 ≤ ∥ek ∥0 + C k=1 k=0 k=0 But.4.[L2 (Ω)]2 ) ) d2 + (u ◦ X ) ∥ek+1 ∥0 .4.[L2 (Ω)]2 ) . . By using Gronwall Lemma.70) ∥ek+1 ∥0 + ν ∆t∥∇ek+1 ∥0 2 2 ( αk = ∂u ∂t 2 d2 + (u ◦ X) dt2 L2 (Ik . . A complete discretisation in time and space variables by using the characteristic method will be developed in the next chapter for a uid-structure interaction problem.2. with (3. it follows that ∥ek+1 ∥0 + 2ν ∆t∥∇ek+1 ∥0 ≤ ∥ek ∥0 + ν ∆t∥∇ek+1 ∥0 + C i. we have ( √ ) 2 2 2 ∥ek+1 ∥0 + 2ν ∆t∥∇ek+1 ∥0 ≤ ∥ek ∥0 + C ∆t ∥ek ∥0 + αk ∆t ∥ek+1 ∥0 .4. . . we deduce that ( ) ( ) m ∑ ∆t 2 ∆t 2 2 2 ∥em ∥0 + ν ∆t ∥∇ek ∥0 ≤ ∥e0 ∥0 + C ′ exp C m ν ν k=1 ( ( ) ) 2 T 0 2 ′ ∆t ≤ ∥e ∥0 + C exp C .4.4. m − 1 with 1 ≤ m ≤ n. We thus obtain 1 k 2 1 k+1 2 2 2 ∥e ∥0 + ∥e ∥0 ∥ek+1 ∥0 + ν ∆t∥∇ek+1 ∥0 ≤ 2 ( 2 √ ) +C ∆t ∥ek ∥0 + αk ∆t ∥ek+1 ∥0 . 2 2 2 ) ∆t ( k 2 2 ∥e ∥0 + αk ∆t .[L2 (Ω)]2 ) 2 L2 (Ik .. we have m −1 ∑ k=0 2 αk ≤ ∂u ∂t 2 L2 (0.e.[L2 (Ω)]2 ) )1/2 . ∥e ∥0 + ν ∆t ∥∇e ∥0 ≤ ∥e ∥0 + C ν (3.[L2 (Ω)]2 ) where C1 and C2 are 2 positive constants independent of k and ∆t. we get ) (m−1 m −1 m ∑ ∑ ∆t ∑ k 2 2 m 2 k 2 0 2 ∥e ∥0 + ∆t αk . dt2 L2 (Ik . Remark 3. we deduce that ≤ ∥ek ∥0 ∥ek+1 ∥0 + C1 ∆t∥ek ∥0 ∥ek+1 ∥0 ( √ ∂u +C2 ∆t ∂t L2 (Ik .

.

in this chapter. we are interested in the equations modeling the motion of a rigid body immersed in a uid.CHAPTER 4 A uid-structure interaction problem In this chapter we will study the interaction between an incompressible viscous homogeneous uid and a structure. For simplicity of analysis.springer. we completely include the paper [18]. the numerical analysis of the problem which models the motion of a rigid body immersed in a uid. when the densities of the uid and of the structure are equal.1007%2Fs00211-012-0460-1. where densities of the uid and the structure are dierent constants could be nd in the paper [16] available at the following link: http://link.com/content/pdf/10.pdf 47 . To this end. Moreover.

A FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERACTION PROBLEM .48 4.

4. A FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERACTION PROBLEM 49 .

50 4. A FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERACTION PROBLEM .

A FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERACTION PROBLEM 51 .4.

52 4. A FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERACTION PROBLEM .

4. A FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERACTION PROBLEM 53 .

A FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERACTION PROBLEM .54 4.

4. A FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERACTION PROBLEM 55 .

A FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERACTION PROBLEM .56 4.

A FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERACTION PROBLEM 57 .4.

A FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERACTION PROBLEM .58 4.

4. A FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERACTION PROBLEM 59 .

60 4. A FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERACTION PROBLEM .

4. A FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERACTION PROBLEM 61 .

62 4. A FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERACTION PROBLEM .

4. A FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERACTION PROBLEM 63 .

A FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERACTION PROBLEM .64 4.

A FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERACTION PROBLEM 65 .4.

66 4. A FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERACTION PROBLEM .

A FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERACTION PROBLEM 67 .4.

A FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERACTION PROBLEM .68 4.

4. A FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERACTION PROBLEM 69 .

A FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERACTION PROBLEM .70 4.

A FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERACTION PROBLEM 71 .4.

A FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERACTION PROBLEM .72 4.

4. A FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERACTION PROBLEM 73 .

74 4. A FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERACTION PROBLEM .

4. A FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERACTION PROBLEM 75 .

A FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERACTION PROBLEM .76 4.

A FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERACTION PROBLEM 77 .4.

78 4. A FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERACTION PROBLEM .

4. A FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERACTION PROBLEM 79 .

A FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERACTION PROBLEM .80 4.

4. A FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERACTION PROBLEM 81 .

82 4. A FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERACTION PROBLEM .

4. A FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERACTION PROBLEM 83 .

.

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