KNOWLEDGE FORMATS AND APPLICATIONS: INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT EDUCATION CONTEXTS

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UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA COLLEGE OF EDUCATION & HUMAN DEVELOPMENT KNOWLEDGE FORMATS AND APPLICATIONS: INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT EDUCATION CONTEXTS Arthur Harkins, Assoc. Prof., CIDE email: harki001@umn.edu voice mail: 612-743-7528 fax: 1-763-497-3423
Office hours by appointment SECTION 1 -001 LEC , 01:25 P.M. - 04:15 P.M. , Th (01/22/2008 - 05/09/2008) , WullH 220 , TCEASTBANK , Harkins,Arthur M (CCE Distinguished Tchg Award) , 3 credits FURTHER INFORMATION ON SECTION 1 FOLLOWS INFORMATION ON SECTION 2. ***************************************************************************

UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA & FLACSO CO-SEMINAR From Information to Innovative Knowledge: Tools and Skills for Adaptive Leadership
SECTION 2 -002 LEC , 06:00 P.M. - 09:00 P.M. , Th (01/22/2008 - 05/09/2008) , WullH 310F , TCEASTBANK , Harkins,Arthur M (CCE Distinguished Tchg Award) , 3 credits VIRTUAL STUDY ABROAD VIA CO-SEMINAR “Version 2.0” of the open seminar “From Information to Innovative Knowledge” will kick off on January 24, 2008 at 18:00 in Wulling Hall. Partnering institutions include the College of Education and Human Development at the University of Minnesota, FLACSO-México, FLACSO-Ecuador, and FLACSO-Chile. Additional confirmed guest lecturers include Dr. Nora Sabelli at SRI International and Ismael Peña-López at Universitat Oberta de Catalunya.

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UMN/FLACSO COURSE OUTLINE: Utilizing Web 2.0 social technologies, Skype and Adobe Connect platforms, the course will connect the three FLACSO campuses with the University of Minnesota for both synchronous and asynchronous learning. Course content includes discussions of:
• • • • • • • • • •

New paradigms of knowledge production (production of actionable meaning) with implications for traditional education Interlocking roles of hardware, software, netware, and mindware Relationships of knowledge production to continuous innovation Tools for information and knowledge management Collective and distributed intelligence + ‘new basics’ Learning technologies (including associated open sourcing of education) Knowledge, innovation and new context-creating workers Human capital development, including software-enabled distributed competence Mechanical, organic, and intentional systems and their cultural and human capital requirements “2.0″ technology cultures and beyond, including emerging AI cultures

The Minnesota sessions will be facilitated by Dr. Arthur Harkins and Dr. John Moravec. Dr. Cristóbal Cobo will coordinate the course among our Latin American partners. For more information on the project or our co-seminar approach, please email harki001@umn.edu.

COURSE WEBSITE:
The seminar utilizes a blog for various activities, including: distribution of student work, publication of seminar videos, publication of the syllabus and the online bibliography, link to the Glossary (wiki), links to chat translator software and links to other resources.

http://openseminar.flacso.edu.mx/
SCHEDULE OF CO-SEMINAR CONFERENCES (SECTION 2 ONLY):
Week 2: January 31: The MN Knowledge Model Speaker: Dr. Arthur Harkins, UMN, USA. Related reading: Harkins , A. & Moravec, J. (2007). Knowledge Production Modes I-VI. Syllabus. University of Minnesota. Week 4: February 14: Leapfrogging in Education, Society and Economy: some necessary changes Speaker: Dr. Arthur Harkins, Dr. John Moravec, UMN, USA. Related reading: Harkins, A. and Kubik. G. (2006). Leapfrogging toward the "singularity:"
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Innovative knowledge production on market-driven campuses. On The Horizon, Vol. 14, Issue 2, 2006, 99-107. Week 6: February 28: Say "Hello" to Innovation Capital Speaker: Dr. John Moravec, UMN, USA. Related reading: Gibbons, M., Limoges, C., Nowotny, H., Schwartzman, S., Scott, P., & Trow, M. (1994). The new production of knowledge: The dynamics of science and research in contemporary societies. London: Sage. Week 8: March 13: Open source knowledge. Speaker: Dr. Cristóbal Cobo, FLACSO, México. Related reading (optional): Cobo, C. (2007) El conocimiento open source. La apertura estratégica como arquitectura para la gestión del conocimiento. Portal de la Comunicación InCom-UAB. Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona. Week 10: April 3: Knowledge, complex systems, decisions, uncertainty, risk. Speaker: Dr. Nora Sabelli, SRI International, USA. Topic : TBA Week 12: April 17: Welcome to the Singularity. Speaker: Dr. Arthur Harkins, Dr. John Moravec, UMN, USA. Related reading: Kurzweil, R "The singularity is near" (Cap. 6 (p.299-367) Viking 2005, Nueva York. Week 14: May 8: Cognitive competencies, Competencias cognitivas, 21st century Mexico in the digital and information ages. Speaker: Giovanna Valenti, FLACSO, México. Topic: TBA Week 16: May 26 (optional for UMN participants): The personal research portal: web 2.0 driven individual commitment with research diffusion Speaker: Dr. Ismael Peña, UOC, Spain. Related reading: " The personal knowledge worker portal: web 2.0 driven individual commitment with open access for knowledge/expertise diffusion".

Collaborative UMN/FLACSO Seminar structure The sections will have 1 session per week: • One virtual global session or conference (UMN and FLACSO) in real-time per week, where can be used one or more IT channels (Web platform, Skype conference, chat, web video streaming, etc.).

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The virtual global sessions or conference will be translated during the event and afterward they will be posted in the seminar’s blog. One local session workshop per week, which can be a physical or virtual meeting (each university determinates the time and location for their students).This session will present discussions of the texts by different lecturers.

SECTION 1: THE UMN COURSE
This course focuses on the development and application of knowledge and innovation capital within competitive national and global contexts. Interaction with students and faculty in Mexico via two-way video and sound in a "salon" classroom format is a part of section 2 of the course. The pedagogy is simulation based, utilizing a dynamic knowledge model managed by you, the student. Develop knowledge creatively and apply it innovatively within contexts ranging from the personal to the global. Consider the following pairings; for individuals: "used up" at retirement to multiple careers; organization person to individual skills emphasis; planned career to self-managed life plan; and job specific training to life long learning. For organizations: regional competition to global competition; employee as a cost to employer to employee as an asset; from hierarchical to horizontal structures. The seminar is intended to bring forward a wide range of literature, perspectives, and practical simulations on innovative knowledge development and applications. In this course, students will be able to: • • • explore the emergence of strategic knowledge resources as these develop within national, international and global contexts; design culture area-based perspectives on contemporary and early 21st Century impacts of knowledge-based international and global development education; share ‘rehearsals’ of alternative strategic outcomes of knowledge development within the interactive contexts of first, second, third, fourth and fifth world cultures.

Required Readings [please obtain the books via Barnes and Noble.com or Amazon.com] Syllabus [plus Powerpoint files/additional articles by Harkins, Moravec, et. al., sent to you by email] Verna Allee. (2003). The future of knowledge: Increasing prosperity through value networks. Burlington, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann. Ray Kurzweil. (2005). The Singularity is near: When humans transcend biology. NY: Viking.

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Weekly Schedule: 24 January: Read Mike Schmidt article (handout) + Harkins & Winer-Cyr monograph. 31 January: Read links from syllabus + Seely Brown & Adler article (handout). 07 February: Read Harkins, et. al, Strategies for Innovation in Tertiary Education: Producing Mode III Knowledge & Personal Capital + submit first term paper exploration via Moodle. 14 February: Read Harkins and Kubik, Leapfrogging Toward the ‘Singularity: Innovative Knowledge Production on Market-Driven Campuses + submit second term paper exploration via Moodle. 21 February: Read Virtual Learning Communities by Stewart, Harkins & Grochowski + submit third term paper exploration via Moodle. 28 February + 06 March: Read text, Verna Allee. (2003). The future of knowledge: Increasing prosperity through value networks. Burlington, MA: ButterworthHeinemann + submit fourth term paper exploration via Moodle and deliver a brief oral term paper development report on 06 March. 13 March + 27 March: Read Harkins and Ford, Children's global knowledge collaboratives and the CGKC support network: A strategic global knowledge development scenario + submit fifth term paper exploration via Moodle. April 03 through 01 May: Read Ray Kurzweil. (2005). The Singularity is near: When humans transcend biology. NY: Viking + submit weekly development reports on final term paper topic via Moodle (reports 6 – 10) 08 May: Deliver oral progress report on term paper topic + send final paper to instructor NLT 2400 hours on 11 May.

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Communication: This course will utilize email, Moodle, and blog postings for weekly assignments and final paper transmissions. Basic Learning Model: This model will be explained over the first several weeks of class.

Learning Objectives: • Analyze knowledge practices in diverse cultural systems • Define and defend ethical components of implicit and constructed knowledge models • Construct a personal leadership model for future work in global knowledge contexts • Explore the theories of constructivism and contextualism in culturally mediated knowledge engineering frameworks • Project the cultural transition from implicit to explicit knowledge practices in global context • Practice scholarly reviews of the knowledge literature appropriate for general and term paper-specific resource accumulations
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Express understanding of the role of knowledge leadership in complex cultural and educational change contexts Student Outcomes:

In this course, students will: 1. Examine knowledge theory and practice to seek examples of potential leadership. 2. Reassess the role of context in shaping knowledge leadership expectations and outcomes. 3. Explore means to overcome contextual limitations of knowledge leadership development. 4. Design a constructivist framework suitable for knowledge leadership use in educational, professional, civic, or other contexts. 5. Examine ethical aspects of the constructivist knowledge leadership framework, especially in the light of ethical impacts of knowledge leadership processes and projected outcomes. 6. Be expected to share products of previous class work utilizing Internet access to the course listserv and to Web resources. 7. Develop the knowledge engineering portfolio as an evolving resource in the construction of the personal knowledge leadership model. Assignments & grading for this three-credit course: Attendance & Participation: Class attendance and frequent discussion participation are expected. Missing classes means being left out on valuable exchanges of ideas and viewpoints. Please attend all class meetings. If you must be gone for a meeting, arrange for a fellow student to audio record it for you. Reflective Compositions (20%): On a weekly basis, all students will submit reflective compositions focused on term paper development. These compositions should document the construction of a knowledge leadership model, and critical reflections from the course readings, class discussions, Web/library/other resources, and course and related experiences. The development of the leadership model must reflect global awareness and knowledge development and application. Constructivist Term Paper (50%): Students will complete one analytical term paper, which demonstrates integration of concepts learned, a knowledge leadership model and an analysis of knowledge leadership practices in (diverse) global context(s). The paper should delineate a selfdeveloped constructivist knowledge leadership model, integrate it into a local/global contexts, and support it with scholarly documentation. The paper should draw on class lectures and discussions, assigned readings from the course syllabus, and other relevant materials. The paper should be fifteen-twenty pages, double-spaced, and typed using APA (or comparable) style for references.

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Portfolio and Two Progress Presentation (30%): Each student will work throughout the semester on a comprehensive portfolio that includes a compilation of experiences, achievements, field experiences, documents, and other resources useful for development of the term paper. The products of the term paper will be orally presented to the class twice: at mid-term and at end-of-term.

Thematic Areas: This course is divided into five interrelated thematic areas: The first theme is an ontological (ultimate origins) perspective of culture, paradigms and science. This area covers different archetypes of cultures and their systems of science (i.e., their knowledge). Among others, this theme considers origin myths, theories and philosophies of causation and association, and ultimate meanings. A second closely associated thematic area examines comparative epistemologies (logics, patterns of reasoning) associated with paradigms and science in different cultures. This theme is developed around five different "inquiring systems:" Leibnitzian (data), Kantian (net), Lockean (data and net), Hegelian (competing/conflicting combinations of data and net), and Singerian (paradigm alternatives). A third thematic area concentrates on general culture and mass media effects on knowledge awareness within different cultures. A fourth thematic area, access to knowledge expertise, considers education and training systems as sources of constraints and opportunities associated with ease or difficulty of access to knowledge information, knowledge and practice. The fifth thematic area examines modern and post-modern critiques of “big science,” or those organized forms of knowledge associated with the modern university, ‘think tanks,’ and private industry or government research and development. Background, Rationale and Need: Why was the course developed? There is a growing sense among professional and lay observers that knowledge practices may not always be properly guided by cross- or multicultural perspectives, or by sophisticated framing alternatives on the parts of science policy makers, planners, teachers and researchers. Accordingly, the course is intended to bring forward a broad sample of scientific and philosophical literatures on paradigmatic thinking. It will then analytically apply this
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literature to an initial field of five knowledge archetypes. Historical, present, and emergent scholarly tools will be employed for this purpose. Five historical archetypes will be offered as starting points for delineating the larger cultural settings of knowledge: slash-and-burn agriculture; sedentary agriculture; early, middle and late industry; information and knowledge; and constructivist/innovational/postmodern (collectively, the “five technoparadigms”). In particular circumstances, each of these archetypes may overlap others, both conceptually and empirically. Students will be asked to perform problem-focused library and Web surveys on paradigm characteristics and their issues and applications in scientific or other cultural institutions. One of their questions might be, "How does a defined knowledge paradigm with certain prominent characteristics affect human choices and behaviors within a particular practical, historical, or scientific context? A particular job? University? A nation? What might be the impacts on choices and behaviors of this same knowledge paradigm, but within the context of a different context? What are possible future contexts?” The course will employ lectures, handouts, guests, Web sites and daily sharing of efforts and results among students. Broad Course Goals: Each student will be able to understand the importance of perspectives (paradigms) on science and culture; develop skills in reading and analyzing professional literature on paradigms in general knowledge; develop awareness of overlapping paradigms and practices of particular knowledge in professional and everyday life; apply knowledge paradigm descriptions, analyses, and impact assessments to their on-going work within the CIDE program. General Course Process: The course is intended to bring forward a wide range of literature on paradigmatic thinking as this is applied to science and culture. A personalized approach will be employed, allowing individual students to examine knowledge in the context of different analytical "templates" or platforms. Some analytical templates may overlap others both conceptually and practically, but each should be sufficiently clear to be understood by other students. Employing the five Thematic Areas and the “five technoparadigms”, students will explore how they themselves, as well as other practitioners of knowledge, perceive themselves and appear to others. For example, individual students may choose to simulate exploring themselves and others through the following prompts: As a machine in a clockwork universe... As an intelligent animal in an organic universe...

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As a spirit in a metaphysical universe... As a naive in a knowing universe... As a cipher in a quantitative universe... As a woman or man in a polygenderal universe... As a servant in a needy universe... As an ordinary person in a meritocratic universe... And so on…. There is probably no limit to the types of prompts students may use alone and in groups to stimulate their awareness of the assumptions underpinning their knowledge and affecting its future development and application. Basic “Knowledge Worker” Characteristics:
-CAPABLE OF INTEGRATIVE & DISCURSIVE THINKING -CAPABLE OF CONNECTIVE PERCEPTIONS -DEVELOPS PARTIAL PICTURE & BIG PICTURE MINDSETS -COMFORTABLE WITH MULTIPLE REALITIES -ABLE TO PLAY MULTIPLE ROLES -ABLE TO RECONSTRUCT PERSONAL CAPABILITIES -LAYERED MULTI-CHANNEL COMMUNICATOR -COMFORTABLE WITH NOVEL LANGUAGING & NEW MEDIA -ACCEPTS & CREATES INVENTIONS & INNOVATIONS -EAGER TO COOPERATE & COLLABORATE -TAKES INITIATIVE & ACCEPTING RESPONSIBILITY -COMFORTABLE WORKING WITH BOTH PEOPLE & MACHINES -CREATES OWN WORK -MAKES CUSTOMERS HAPPY

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-CONTINUOUS LEARNER -BOTH INDIVIDUALIST & TEAM PLAYER -ETHICAL COLLEAGUE & CITIZEN

Selected Course and University Policies:
The University of Minnesota is an equal opportunity employer and educator. University Policies are available in alternative formats in collegiate and departmental offices. Accommodations: It is University policy to provide, on a flexible and individualized basis, reasonable accommodations to students who have disabilities that may affect their ability to participate in course activities or to meet course requirements. Students with disabilities are encouraged to contact their instructors to discuss their individual needs for accommodation. Classroom Conduct: Students are expected to attend all class sessions, to be prepared by having completed readings and assignments as scheduled, to be on time, and to leave only after the class has ended. See: http://www1.umn.edu/usenate/policies/class expect guide.html and/or http://www1.umn.edu/regents/policies/academic/studenconductcode.pdf. Academic Misconduct: Scholastic misconduct is broadly defined as “any act that violates the right of another student’s academic work or that involves misrepresentation of your own work.” Scholastic dishonesty includes, but is not necessarily limited to: cheating on assignments or examinations, plagiarizing, which means misrepresenting as your own work any part of work done by another, submitting the same paper, or substantially similar papers; to meet the requirements of more than one course without the approval and consent of all instructors concerned; depriving another student of necessary course materials; or interfering with another student’s work. See: http://umn.edu/regents/policies/humanresources/academicmisconduct.pdf. Sexual harassment: (http://www1.umn.edu/regents/policies/humanresources/sexharassment.pdf. Sexual harassment means unwelcomed sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and/or other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature when (1) submission to such conduct is made either explicitly or implicitly a term or condition of an individual’s employment or academic advancement in any University activity or program; (2) submission to or rejection of such conduct by an individual is used as the basis of employment or academic decisions
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affecting this individual in any University activity or program; or (3) such conduct has the purpose or effect of unreasonably interfering with an individual’s work or academic performance or cr4eating an intimidating, hostile, or offensive working or academic environment in any University activity or program. University policy prohibits sexual harassment. Complaints about sexual harassment should be reported to the University Office of Equal Opportunity, 419 Morrill Hall. Grading: Criteria on which assignments will be evaluated are cited below: A Achievement that is outstanding relative to level necessary to meet course requirements. B Achievement that is significantly above the level to meet course requirements. C Achievement that meets course requirements in every respect. D Achievement that is worthy of credit even though it fails to fully meet course requirements S Achievement that is satisfactory, equivalent of C- or better, awarded at the discretion of the instructor. F or N Represent failure (or no credit) and signifies that work was either (1) completed but at a level of achievement that is not worthy of credit, or (2) was not completed and there was no agreement between instructor and student that students would be awarded a grade of I or K. I or K Grade awarded at the discretion of the instructor to signify incompleted work due to extraordinary circumstances, e.g. hospitalization. Accessing Grades: Grades may be accessed by computer. See: http://onestop.umn.edu/student Click on “Academics” and “Grades.” Make-up Procedure: Late assignments will be accepted and incompletes will be awarded only with prior approval of the instructor. Support Services: The University of Minnesota provides free assistance with writing, personalized on-line tutoring, a grammar hotline and support for distance learners at its Center for Writing (227 Lind Hall, 612 626 7579) and through the Department of Rhetoric’s “Online Writing Center).

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PART II: COURSE RESOURCES
Selected References (provided by John Tomsyck, U of M MLS, under an Innovation Studies development grant): The Art of the Long View Author and Chairman of The Global Business Network, Peter Schwartz presents lessons in thinking about the future. Scenarios can be used to develop strategies in business and in life. The book can serve as a guide for individuals in how to apply strategic thinking skills. The book suggests that the use of knowledge and intuition of the external environment can be combined with the internal awareness to create successful futures for individuals and the organizations they are part of. Blur: The Speed of Change in the Connected Economy Stan Davis and Christopher Meyer propose that speed, connectivity and the growth of intangible value have catapulted the economy into a period of unprecedented transition. A new economy is emerging that is every bit as world-changing as that created by the Industrial Revolution. Speed is the shrinkage of time through near-instantaneous communication and computation. Connectivity is the shrinkage of space with the advent of the Web, E-mail, beepers, and other media of communication. Intangibles are values without mass, most importantly knowledge and its mobility, made possible through speed and connectivity. Choosing The Future Stuart Wells strategic thinking cycle model consists of three phases. The Perception Phase (environmental scanning) is the most challenging and time-consuming. Insight into the present and foresight about the future are developed in this phase. The second phase is termed Understanding and uses the information and knowledge collected and distributed in the Perception Phase to create the contextual foundation for good decisions. The “applied science” of the strategic thinking cycle is embedded in the final phase of the cycle, the Reasoning Phase. Strategic decisions are made in this phase. Don’t Stop the Career Clock Helen Harkness makes a compelling argument about the need for multiple careers rather than the traditional retirement paradigm. The book argues that life-long learning is not optional. Like Drucker, she presents the opinion that consistently providing value depends on remaining in alignment with external world realities. The Fifth Discipline Peter Senge’s book popularized the concept of “learning organizations.” Organizations that learn have the ability to recognize threats to the status quo and seize new opportunities. This ability has become prerequisite for successfully competing in today’s environment of global competition.

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Information Ecology: Mastering the Information and Knowledge Environment This book argues that the information assets within an organization should be considered from a wholistic perspective. Thomas Davenport and Laurence Prusak became leading spokesmen in the emerging field of Knowledge Management after this book was published. The central theme of the book is that information systems design should include human and political considerations. Information within organizations is exchanged in roughly the same manner that goods are traded in a marketplace. Intellectual Capital: The New Wealth of Organizations Thomas Stewart presents the case that knowledge has become the most important factor in economic life. It is the chief ingredient of what we buy and sell and the raw material with which we work. Intellectual capital--not natural resources, machinery, or even financial capital--has become the one indispensable asset of organizations. Intellectual capital involves looking at products, processes, and people in order to profit from the "intelligence" they contain. The Living Company Most companies do not survive the upheavals of change and competition over the long haul. The average life span of a Fortune 500 company is less than half a century, yet there also are corporations around the world that have been in business for 200, 500, even 700 years. Arie de Geus maintains after studying both extremes that the most enduring treat their companies as "living work communities" (learning organizations) rather than pure economic machines. The view is a biological rather than mechanical model of how the world works. Management Challenges for the 21st Century Peter Drucker, the preeminent observer and forecaster of organizational issues, is the leader of the discussion on Knowledge Workers. While not his first book dealing with the subject, it is the most current and discusses the need to begin meeting the Knowledge Worker productivity challenge. New Rules for the New Economy Author Kevin Kelly is a founding editor of Wired magazine. In this book he tries to encapsulate the characteristics of today’s emerging economic order by laying out 10 rules for how the wired world operates. At the root of this network revolution is communication. Kelly writes: Communication is the foundation of society, of our culture, of our humanity, of our own individual identity, and of all economic systems. This is why networks are such a big deal. Communication is so close to culture and society itself that the effects of technologizing it are beyond the scale of a mere industrial-sector cycle. Strategic Job Jumping The area of career planning folds into the Knowledge Worker discussion. Julia Hartman presents a career strategy that was infrequently used and even frowned upon during the Loyalty era, but can now serve as a good roadmap. For example, the idea of “Portfolio Careers” that job jumpers have followed is becoming the norm for Knowledge Workers.

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Magazines and Publications: Fast Company Fast Company Magazine was founded on the premise that a global revolution was changing business, and business was changing the world. Discarding the old rules of business, Fast Company set to chronicle how changing companies create and compete, to highlight new business practices, and to showcase the teams and individuals who are inventing the future and reinventing business. It is recommended that all students in this course subscribe to Fast Company (it is about 12 USD/year). Wired Wired magazine has a future focus and highlights technological advances that are (may) change the way we live. It is recommended that all students in this course subscribe to Wired (it is about 12 USD/year). Knowledge Management The leading publication focused on the field of Knowledge Management. It is heavily weighted towards “hard skills” ITC topics. New York Times It is recommended that all students in this course scan the NYT Web site daily. The Wall Street Journal It is recommended that all students in this course attempt to scan the WSJ daily. Knowledge-Related Websites: NOTE: This resource list will be supplemented throughout the semester. The resources below are more than sufficient to get you started. OECD Observer on Knowledge http://search.netscape.com/ns/boomframe.jsp?query=OECD+knowledge&page=1&offse t=0&result_url=redir%3Fsrc%3Dwebsearch%26requestId%3D9c8a1a91f9c6fefd%26cl ickedItemRank%3D6%26userQuery%3DOECD%2Bknowledge%26clickedItemURN %3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.oecdobserver.org%252Fnews%252Ffullstory.php %252Faid%252F1514%252FStatistics%252C_knowledge_and_progress.html%26invoc ationType%3D%26fromPage%3DNSCPTop%26amp%3BampTest%3D1&remove_url=http%3A%2F %2Fwww.oecdobserver.org%2Fnews%2Ffullstory.php%2Faid%2F1514%2FStatistics %2C_knowledge_and_progress.html
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Wikipedia on Knowledge http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knowledge The Enterprise Development Web Site’s Overview of Global Knowledge Activities [this is a first-rate resource] http://search.netscape.com/ns/boomframe.jsp?query=OECD+knowledge&page=1&offse t=0&result_url=redir%3Fsrc%3Dwebsearch%26requestId%3D9c8a1a91f9c6fefd%26cl ickedItemRank%3D11%26userQuery%3DOECD%2Bknowledge%26clickedItemURN %3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.enterweb.org%252Fknow.htm%26invocationType %3D%26fromPage%3DNSCPTop%26amp%3BampTest%3D1&remove_url=http%3A%2F %2Fwww.enterweb.org%2Fknow.htm Knowledge Glossary http://search.netscape.com/ns/boomframe.jsp?query=knowledge+glossary&page=1&off set=0&result_url=redir%3Fsrc%3Dwebsearch%26requestId%3Dd6be31ed2ca53dee% 26clickedItemRank%3D6%26userQuery%3Dknowledge%2Bglossary%26clickedItemU RN%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.wipo.org%252Ftk%252Fen%252Fglossary%25 2F%26invocationType%3D%26fromPage%3DNSBoom%26amp%3BampTest%3D1&remove_url=http%3A%2F %2Fwww.wipo.org%2Ftk%2Fen%2Fglossary%2F Epistemology: the Philosophy of Knowledge http://search.netscape.com/ns/boomframe.jsp?query=knowledge+glossary&page=1&off set=0&result_url=redir%3Fsrc%3Dwebsearch%26requestId%3Dd6be31ed2ca53dee% 26clickedItemRank%3D2%26userQuery%3Dknowledge%2Bglossary%26clickedItemU RN%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.groovyweb.uklinux.net%252F%253Fpage_nam e%253Dphilosophy%252520of%252520knowledge%2526category%253Dphilosophy%2 6invocationType%3D%26fromPage%3DNSBoom%26amp%3BampTest%3D1&remove_url=http%3A%2F %2Fwww.groovyweb.uklinux.net%2F%253Fpage_name%253Dphilosophy%252520of %252520knowledge%2526category%253Dphilosophy Knowledge Management Glossary http://search.netscape.com/ns/boomframe.jsp?query=knowledge+glossary&page=1&off set=0&result_url=redir%3Fsrc%3Dwebsearch%26requestId%3Dd6be31ed2ca53dee% 26clickedItemRank%3D3%26userQuery%3Dknowledge%2Bglossary%26clickedItemU RN%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.nelh.nhs.uk%252Fknowledge_management%2 52Fglossary%252Fglossary.asp%26invocationType%3D%26fromPage%3DNSBoom%26amp%3BampTest%3D1&remove_url=http%3A%2F %2Fwww.nelh.nhs.uk%2Fknowledge_management%2Fglossary%2Fglossary.asp
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Knowledge Worker Emergence in the U.S.: Introduction The U.S. economy is in a period of transition that arguably began with the rise of global competition in the 1970s. While prophets of U.S. economic doom-and-gloom dominated future forecasts for a period of approximately two decades, opinion since the mid-1990s has been shifting to a view of an abundant economic future. The transition in economic eras has been characterized as the movement from the Industrial Age paradigm into the Information and now Knowledge Age. The fundamental driver of this shift has been the competitive paradigm change in economic value creation moving from brawn to brain skills. Productivity advances, the necessary ingredient for improving a society’s living standards, have moved from doing things better to innovatively doing things differently. Three factors stand out as enablers of this paradigm change. The first is the overall education level of the U.S. workforce. This level began moving from high school to college after World War II with the government supported introduction of the G.I. Bill of Rights and expansion of public universities. Therefore, Knowledge Workers (while not limited to college graduates) continue to become a larger percentage of the workforce. The second factor was the development and commercialization of the computer beginning about the same time. The evolution of this technology has moved from incrementally improving productivity by providing computing power to its current status as the most powerful communication device man has ever constructed. The third factor is the building and emergence of the Internet. It is the foundation of the rules for the “new economy,” i.e., speed, connectivity and the dematerialization of economic value. This gives individuals instant access to the globally-connected information and knowledge of man. The effect that this economic transition period has had on individual Knowledge Workers has been counterintuitive. Even though the social contract governing employee relations that was in effect since the New Deal has been deconstructed, Knowledge Workers are experiencing a level of employability and independence not seen since before the Industrial Age. Worker organizational displacement rate acceleration through the 1980s and 1990s has not resulted in high levels of unemployment. In fact, today U.S. workers are enjoying the lowest levels unemployment in three decades. Knowledge Workers have benefited even more than the general U.S. worker population. With demand outstripping supply, Knowledge Workers have moved from being able to quickly find employment if downsized, to frequently abandoning organizations today that fail to meet their individual needs. In effect, Knowledge Worker expectations have moved up a level in the hierarchy of needs. Business organizations have recently begun to recognize that the loss of longer-term competitive advantage that brainpower (Human Capital) drain creates is no longer offsetting the beneficial near-term positive effect on earnings growth that reducing headcount produces. Assuming brain skills continue to drive economic value creation, the basic problem now is answering the question of what Knowledge Worker support systems can be created that continuously raise individual and organizational innovation capacity? This basic problem becomes complex when one considers that individual Knowledge Workers are unique,
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innovation is not a linear process and institutional pressures routinely work to limit an organization’s ability to innovate. An environmental scan on the keywords and ideas surrounding this future challenge implies that while the problem has been recognized, suggested solutions have not produced a set of actionable alternatives. The current and future challenge for Knowledge Workers represents the opportunity for education providers is summarized by Peter Drucker: Most Knowledge Workers will have to learn to MANAGE THEMSELVES. They will have to place themselves where they can make the greatest contribution; they will have to learn to develop themselves. They will have to learn to stay young and mentally alive during a fifty-year working life. They will have to learn how and when to change what they do, how they do it and when they do it. (Peter Drucker – Management Challenges for the 21st Century) Knowledge Worker Transition Trends Solutions that are developed to address real needs (problems) have the highest probability of attaining success. The intent of this environmental scan was to assist in defining the set of needs that the Knowledge Worker transition period is creating. These needs were derived by identifying the change-driving trends that emerged from a scanning process focused on this set of ideas (keywords): knowledge work, knowledge worker, knowledge management, knowledge communities, tacit and explicit knowledge, implicate knowledge, strategic knowledge, knowledge strategy, knowledge mining, knowledge paradigm, intelligent organization, human capital, intellectual capital, social capital, personal capital, intelligent enterprise, knowledge context, contextual knowledge, context-based knowledge, knowledge process, knowledge assets, learning organization, wisdom, knowledge creation, collaborative connectivity, working smarter, context creation, knowledge evolution, knowledge revolution, virtual research/R&D community, perception, chaordic organization(s), online education, e-learning While the available volume of literature on these ideas is substantial, it primarily is organization, rather than individual Knowledge Worker focused. A good example of this situation is the developing field of Knowledge Management. This discussion has been built around a focus of the need for organizations to more productively utilize their intellectual capital while continuing to use the outdated organization as a mechanical model premise. This natural progression of first “paving the cow path” by attempting to fit new tools into an old paradigm appears to be the current state of the Knowledge Worker support system discussion. The following summaries represent ten Knowledge Worker transition trends that suggest real needs and therefore offer opportunity to create support system solutions. Individual Knowledge Worker and organizational trends are included since although the transition into the Knowledge Age is transferring power away from institutions, the interdependency of individual and organization in creating value will continue.
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Trend 1 – Individual Focus – From Used Up at Retirement to Multiple Careers Trend 2 – Individual – From Organization Person to Individual Skills Emphasis Trend 3 – Individual – From Planned Career to Self-Managed Life Plan Trend 4 – Individual – Job Specific Training to Life Long Learning Trend 5 – Individual – Contextual Skill Development to Mobile, Portable Skills Trend 6 – Organization – Means of Production: Brawn to Means of Production: Brains Trend 7 – Organization – Regional Competition to Global Competition Trend 8 – Organization – Competitive Advantage: Productivity to Competitive Advantage: Innovation Trend 9 – Organization – Employee: A Cost to Employee: An Asset Trend 10 – Organization – Hierarchy to Horizontal “THE AMERICAN k2i LEARNING COMMUNITY” SUMMARY AND IMPLICATIONS OF STORYTECH DATA Arthur Harkins, Ph.D., and Fifty-Four Forward-Looking Minnesota Educators 26 May 2000 This modal analysis of StoryTech data portrays a near-term future (2005) in a hypothetical Minnesota school district. The portrayed future is not the future, but a virtual one constructed from responses to StoryTech. Fifty-four people contributed to this future, which may be referred to as a model for knowledge-based, individualized, and innovative (or k2i) education. This education is constructivist, in that it supports 1) learner-created meanings that lead toward 2) Alpha (new) products, and 3) Beta (new product testing) outcomes. The learning advantages of this hypothetical district were created by letting go of the past and building an education service for the social, workforce and economic needs of a new global reality. Trends in technology were mastered, needs of the U.S. and global contexts were assessed, and vision was applied to help create the district and community described below. The laboratory that developed, tested, and continually improved the educational services of the district was education itself. Students, faculty and parents created most of 2005 by beginning its development in 2000. Through the developmental efforts of the classrooms of this district, a new mission and reality for education was built upward from grass roots beginnings. In this district students, parents, teachers, board members and the community literally created their own learning future. In the process, they built the mold for the American k2i learning community. In 2005 the typical student in this hypothetical district will have access to a computer in school and very probably a computer in the home. Wireless and wired digital networks will interface these computers with teachers, other students, bulletin boards, the Web, sources of individualized instruction, and both video and audio communications. Some of the computers accessible by students will be small and portable. Individual progress assessments will begin to take precedence over older forms of grading. Students are never ‘held back.’ Textbooks will shift toward electronic media even as they begin to disappear. Classes may be taken from anywhere in the world, consistent with student interest. As learning systems
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become more sophisticated, simulations will allow coordination of hand, eye and brain functions. Positive identification of students will be possible through fingerprint scans. All teachers will have Web pages; all classes and curriculum areas will have Web sites. Learning will be curricularly and socially interactive. Students will be assessed individually and will learn in association with teams and their families. Their records will follow them everywhere. The movement toward individualization of learning will be inexorable and will encourage a smoother transition into lifelong learning. Repetitious forms of instruction will be computerized and associated with individual progress measurements. Students, teachers and parents will grow together in an environment of mutual respect and acknowledged diversity and individuality. The relationship between home schooling and formal schooling may become far more complex, but not to the detriment of student achievement. School management functions such as attendance taking, supply orders, achievement reports, lunch accounts, equipment check-outs, and entry or exit to buildings will be virtually automatic and highly accurate. Students gradually will be shifted to research- and problem-based pedagogies and away from note-taking and memorization models. College-level curricula will be available to all students as they become ready for them. Learning becomes 24/365. Age grading is replaced by individualization and task-based teams. Curricula will be integrated in both real world and imaginative new ways. The arts may be embedded everywhere instead of remaining isolated. The roles of teachers will undergo continuous and unpredictable changes, most often culminating in collaborative and partnering roles with students, parents and other professionals. There is more emphasis on values of self-motivated learning, personal responsibility, character building, self-challenge, and innovation. Interest in education increases throughout the community, becoming a mainstreamed activity for citizens of every age. Daily connectivity to the world outside the community grows new forms of awareness and sophistication. The district has developed curriculum and school management software that it sells to other districts. Test scores rise, fall or are discarded depending upon grade level and student learning patterns. Technology infuses all forms of learning, enabling both higher order learning and immediate forms of practical learning applications. For example, all students learn to read because of amplifications provided by text-scanning, natural language, and speech recognition and generating software. Individuals and teams sometimes produce Alpha-level products, meaning true innovations that can be granted copyrights or patents. The district also encourages Beta-level product testing, including school-generated products and new software or hardware from corporations. There is a great deal of off-campus learning made possible by a new education mission and by combinations of digital wireless and computing technologies. Considerable use is made of virtual reality environments and simulations. Smart agents gather information for students twenty-four hours a day. Students even learn while sleeping. Education begins much younger in life, commencing prior to birth. Intelligent agents are employed in this district, even though the year is only 2005. Technologies enable students to prepare and deliver instruction to other students. There is no longer a September ‘start’ to the school year; the year is ‘on’ at all times. Students routinely learn how to function at the ‘high’ ends of the community, the workforce and the economy.
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Accountability for learning and application outcomes is very clear in this district. While students are often more specifically accountable than others, everyone is ultimately held to standards, including parents, teachers, staff, and community members. Such an ethic promotes greater sense of purpose, self-confidence, community pride, and quality outcomes. Often, contracts are formally drawn up to accentuate the assessable roles of players. There is no ‘escape’ that lessens the importance of accountability or that deflects the arrow of indictment for those who fail in their duties. Accountability leading to high-level outcomes in knowledge, innovation and implementation is often associated with electronic portfolios. These are begun very early in a student’s life and will be carried forward and developed until the individual dies. Portfolios are a ‘constant context’ for students, who may experience thousands of different learning contexts over the course of their lives. Poor families are afforded the same learning services as better-off families in this district. All families have access to free public and college education, much of it delivered electronically by advertiser- or tax-supported services. This district and its community will not permit the continued learning advantage or disadvantage of children based on parental earning differentials. The district and community make certain that all children have access to the same learning hardware and software, and to decent housing, healthcare, and family services. This is not seen as a form of utopia, but a necessary condition to allow the fullest development and lifelong productivity of all members of the community. It Can Be Done Anywhere – Alan Levy’s Approach: The government of India adopted my plan about the same time my book came out. For those who asked and received a copy, the following news will be most relevant. India is now proceeding in the exact prescription touted in my book. These are the exact methods that solve literacy, cost and access problems. As I explained in the book: You need medium bandwidth applications such as voice/text mail to free the need from having immediate access to an access device. You need to employ smart-card ID's to allow whole group to use a few devices. You need a global payments system to allow micro and small businesses to have access, even if not owning an access device, to e-commerce participation... the majority of which is electronic fulfillment, when in process of rapid commoditization for most product categories (an effect of ICT and trade liberalization). Nothing else will work. Period. Our best and brightest appear to have trouble understanding not only technology, but the methodology to our daily endeavors. The methods described below will create a substantial rise in education, health, productivity, new business formation, and open democratic governance processes. It will protect culture and diversity, and spur innovation and new communication and media forms. Alan Levy Director Ejecutivo ADI - Asociacion para el Desarrollo de Internet, S.C. refconstandard@yahoo.com
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-------------------From a December 2001) Bangkok newspaper article: A small, handheld computer more powerful than a Palm could bring information technology to the world's rural poor, its designers claim. The "Simputer" is being billed as a low-cost alternative to PCs, "by which the benefits of IT can reach the common man," according to the Simputer Trust, which designed it for use in rural India. Priced at a little less than US$200 - or 9,000 rupees in India – the machine offers speechto-text technology and other language features. "It has a special role in the third world because it ensures that illiteracy is no longer a barrier to handling a computer," trust officials said. Spokesmen for the trust, made up of researchers from Encore Software and the Indian Institute of Science, both based in Bangalore, India, said the machine is slightly bigger than a Palm handheld but is intended to operate as a full-fledged portable computer. It runs the Linux operating system, has 32 megabytes of flash memory and 32 MB of RAM. "Internal storage, of limited capacity, is already available through flash memory," the company said. "Though limited in size, it is still substantially higher than the Palm-based PDAs that are so popular." The Simputer also has a built-in modem, infrared port and a USB port for connection with other devices. It features a 240-by-320 pixel touch screen. What sets it apart from other handhelds, its makers say, is a smart-card reader. Its designers came up with "Information Markup Language, based on XML but designed specifically for use with the Simputer. The Simputer ("Simple, inexpensive, multi-lingual computer") is expected to be commercially available in the second quarter of this year, officials said. Even at $200, many of the world's poor could not afford it, so it is being targeted at government agencies and community organizations, which in turn are expected to share them with villagers. The smart-card stores the personal information of users who rent or borrow the machine, described as "radically simple." It has no keyboard and operates on touch, sound and simple visual icons.

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"Rural communities could own several devices and hire these out for usage to individuals based on the ownership of a smart-card," the company said. "This model of sharing would bring down the cost of the Simputer to that of owning only a simple smart-card and paying for the usage of a shared Simputer." The makers noted that applications downloaded over remote links could be free or fee-based. "Both models are possible. The Simputer platform is not just a platform to take IT to the masses; it is suitable for profit-making enterprises." The software can provide voice feedback in several languages, according to its makers. It runs on three AAA batteries for up to eight hours and is said to be dust-resistant. Encore Software began the Simputer project two years ago at a seminar on IT for developing countries, in an effort to design a "low-cost mass access device" to help bridge the digital divide in the country.

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KNOWLEDGE BASE LEARNING
Bridging Industrial Education to the Knowledge Age

By ARTHUR HARKINS MICHAEL WINER-CYR
with contributions from Thomas Duening Nancy Leonard Brennan Foley

February, 1992

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THE SATURN INSTITUTE

The Saturn Institute is a nonprofit organization dedicated to augmenting the effectiveness of the St. Paul Schools and other schools through the timely transfer of skills and information that can maximize students', parents', and staffs' personalized, usable knowledge. The Institute seeks to create: 1. Partnerships to attract parents, businesses, and community organizations into productive networks with District schools; 2. Linkages that bring the St. Paul School District into contact with national and international programs identified as those with current best practices; and 3. Product development that aids in the design, delivery and upgrading of quality learning techniques to serve District schools. Appendix 1 presents more information about the Saturn Institute. Developing the Institute and producing this document required the help and support of many people. We wish to thank everyone who gave so generously:
Judy Balderson, Staff St. Paul Expo School Kathryn Bardins Vice President for Community Affairs and Communications KARE 11 TV Dr. David Bennett Former Superintendent St. Paul Public Schools Mary K. Boyd, Principal St. Paul Open School Robert Bye Production Manager KARE 11 TV Dianne Dawson Editor for this document Arthur Dee Reviewer for this document Dr. Curman Gaines, Superintendent St. Paul Public Schools Robert Miller, Principal St. Paul Saturn School John Rollwagen, President Cray Research, Inc.

Susan Garrett St. Paul Saturn School

Dr. Judy Rothenberg, A. H. Wilder Foundation

Beth Lentsch, Parent St. Paul Saturn School William Linder-Scholer, Director Community Affairs Cray Research, Inc. Diane McCarty St. Paul Expo School

Dr. Diana Swanson, Principal St. Paul Expo School Joanne Whiterabbit, Manager Community Relations Cray Research, Inc.

We hope that this document will stimulate and challenge you, and lead to productive discussions and, perhaps, fruitful arguments.

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Sincerely, The Board of Directors
Dr. Arthur Harkins, Nancy Halvorsen, Michael Hopkins, Dr. Thomas King, Milne Kitner-Dee, Michael Winer-Cyr

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The Knowledge Age is the era in human development in which the community is the world, and the primary labor is adding value to the exchange of information and services. Knowledge is the timely and successful application of information. Knowledge Base Learning is the process whereby teachers, parents and mentors facilitate work done by the learner to transform learning experiences into personally usable, practical knowledge; AND help the learner to present results of this transformation to others as 'new' information.

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INTRODUCTION
CHANGING NEEDS
The speed of change is accelerating more rapidly with each passing year. By the year 2010, human information, now doubling every 18-24 months, is likely to double every one to three weeks. (M.I.T. study, 1989)

The somewhat frightening, accelerating pace of change PARADIGM: pattern, example, model; a way of organizing calls for a major shift in the basic patterns by which we thoughts, ideas, behaviors. perceive and function in the world. This is truly a PARADIGM shift, and may be described as moving from an INDUSTRIAL paradigm to a KNOWLEDGE BASE paradigm. On a daily basis, American students, workers and citizens are experiencing the throes of this shift, yet most of us have not yet become fully aware of the change itself or what the change means in our lives. The INDUSTRIAL paradigm can be seen as: adherence to accepted standards in thinking, learning and work; adaptation to existing methods and resources; willingness to accept direction from authority; and defined ways for problem-solving. Traditional education teaches these characteristics. The KNOWLEDGE BASE paradigm can be seen as: mutually agreed upon standards; selfcrafting of learning and work; collaborating on resource identification; willingness to integrate suggestions from authorities and peers; and flexible ways for generating opportunities. Here, individual needs are meshed with desired standards that benefit both the person and society. To thrive within the fast pace of change, new directions in human resource development will be needed that focus less on repetitive activities and more on personal uniqueness. Computers and other forms of automation will accomplish repetitive tasks. The mind will be challenged to create the products, services and the way of life we need. Moving into the KNOWLEDGE BASE paradigm is a path to creating these new directions. As an essential part of this paradigm, education must also change its orientation—from likemindedness in both teachers and students to nurturing and encouraging functionally unique individuals.. Learners will need new, appropriate and timely educational services. The purpose of education will be to produce thinking and innovative workers and citizens, who understand themselves and their society, and can speed progress through maximum skill and creativity. The needs of America have changed since the creation of mass public education over one hundred years ago. Yet the traditional, INDUSTRIAL paradigm of education is not "dead." The majority of parents still expect their children to receive the kind of education they experienced
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as children. Learners are expected to be grounded in the basics. At the same time, pressure is mounting from all parts of the community to perform and produce more in keeping with the KNOWLEDGE BASE paradigm. This document explores possibilities for implementing significant change in public schools fully knowing there is little available labor, space, money, equipment, or clear cut reason, path, structure or reward for doing the job in a new way. This document is not the final answer. It is a launching point for discussion and debate.

HOW TO USE THIS DOCUMENT
Differences between the traditional education of the INDUSTRIAL paradigm and changes inherent in the KNOWLEDGE BASE view are not all bad; in fact, they are for the good, since differences tend to create workable "middle ground." The Saturn Institute has produced this document to explore those differences. The document is based on two premises:
1] That a menu of educational choice in the hands of the consumer is needed to satisfy the millions of stakeholders in the future of American education, and That exploration of the educational, personal and social issues surrounding the two paradigms will improve education choices and learning outcomes.

2]

To expand the base of choice through exploration, this document looks at five emerging ideas: I. THE AGES OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT: How We Came to the Knowledge Age
This section contains an overview of the skills needed to function in the Knowledge Age; a brief review of the five ages of the human past and Knowledge Age characteristics; and comments on educations' needed response to create "Just-Ahead-of-Time" education.

II.

TWO LEARNING PARADIGMS: Industrial and Knowledge Base
This section contains an overview of the two paradigms—their approach, characteristics and focuses; and education's needed response to develop choice.

III.

PRODUCTIVITY: Learners and School Culture
This section contains an overview of how we must rethink productivity; needed changes in how we view learners/workers/citizens and school culture; and education's needed response to provide new educational services.

IV.

THE VARIETY PRINCIPLE: Planting a Mixed Crop
This section contains an overview of the need to prepare for an uncertain future by creating a variety of new knowledge; and education's needed response to develop world-class graduates who can speed progress through maximum skill and creativity.

V.

WORLD-LEVEL INFORMATION: "Zero Lag" and "Zero Gap" Schools

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This section contains an overview of need to bring world-level information into our institutions; and education's needed response to assure that knowledge is where it should be—on time and in the right place.

Each of the five sections is structured in a similar manner: first, an overview of the ideas is presented; then education's needed response to the new concepts is discussed; and last, a beginning list of 'Implications' are suggested—ideas that can be adapted by learners, schools and communities. Space is provided for readers to note how these ideas can be applied to their unique learning environments.

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In each section, when a new term is used, its definition will be contained in a box with a single-line around it. Furthermore, there sometimes will be related ideas that might be interesting to some readers but not critical to the main discussion. These will be contained in a box with a double-line. A bibliography is provided at the end of the document that refers the reader to books and articles related to the KNOWLEDGE BASE paradigm. Two Appendices are also included: one gives more information about the Saturn Institute; the second discusses the concept of "Knowledge Brokering" for those who are interested. ********************** The best of the Industrial paradigm needs to be preserved. The potential of the Knowledge Base paradigm needs to be developed and incorporated. They are intended only stimulate you to think, discuss, even argue about how the process of preservation and development can happen to benefit our schools, businesses and communities.
Other Applications The focus of this document is on the individual, yet many of the concepts can be applied to a Knowledge Base organization.

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I. THE AGES OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT:
How We Came to the Knowledge Age

OVERVIEW OF THE AGES OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
The Knowledge Age We are entering the KNOWLEDGE AGE. The KNOWLEDGE AGE: the era in human development in which Knowledge Age recognizes that change is rapid; that the community is the world, and the primary job of people is to exchange information the primary labor is adding and services; and that because of technology, people value to the exchange of can know what is happening in most places throughout information and services. the world. The Knowledge Age also recognizes that to be effective workers and citizens, everyone needs to productively use "resources, interpersonal skills, information, systems, technology, basic skills, thinking skills and personal qualities" [1991 SCANS report]. Employing these competencies will bring added value—shaping and increasing the impact of information—to our societies and industries. In past ages, only an elite few were required to manage the volume and complexity of information that would guide human efforts. Furthermore, Resources: allocating time, money, materials, space these efforts took place in relatively and staff; Interpersonal Skills: working on teams, teaching others, serving customers, leading, small communities. In the negotiating, and working well with people from Knowledge Age, information can be culturally diverse backgrounds; Information: acquiring available to anyone and there is comand evaluating data, organizing and maintaining files, petition from all around the world to interpreting and communicating, using computers to process information; Systems: understanding social, use that information. To succeed organizational and technological systems, monitoring now, we need far greater numbers of and correcting performance, and designing or contributing workers and citizens improving systems; Technology: selecting equipment who understand themselves and their and tools, applying technology to specific tasks, and maintaining and troubleshooting technologies; Basic society, and who actually thrive Skills: reading, writing, arithmetic and mathematics, within the pace of change by using speaking and listening; Thinking Skills: thinking tools such as personal initiative, crecreatively, making decisions, solving problems, seeing things in the mind's eye, knowing how to learn, and ative thought, and technological reasoning; Personal Qualities: individual literacy. They must bring added responsibility, self-esteem, sociability, selfvalue to their communities and indusmanagement, and integrity. tries and help shape them. A review of how human development has progressed to this point of rapid change today might be helpful in coming to terms with the Knowledge Age.
Competencies recommended by the SCANS report [U.S. Department of Labor's Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills]:

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-

A Brief Review of the Human Past A succession of cultural/technological ages have shaped the course of history. For purposes of this discussion, we have identified five ages and have limited the descriptions of these ages to their forms of: community, primary labor and education. These overlapping ages all exert influence on our current communities and global civilization:
• The Pre-Agriculture Age encompasses the history of people before agriculture. This First Age started about three million years ago. Communities consisted of small clans of related individuals. Primary labor was hunting and gathering. Education supported survival in the face of natural elements. The Agricultural Age traces the conversion of hunters into farmers. In this Second Age, people learned how to make things grow in one spot to more readily guarantee a continuous food supply. This conversion began about thirteen thousand years ago. Communities became villages and cities of unrelated individuals who banded together for support, commerce and mutual defense. Primary labor was farming and hand crafts. Education taught methods for producing food and goods. The Industrial Age sees the conversion of muscle labor into semi-automated “dumb machine” labor. This Third Age conversion began in earnest about two hundred years ago with the invention of the factory. Communities became nations, and the primary labor was tending the machines. Citizens and laborers required basic abilities in reading, writing and manipulating numbers. The Information Age is about the growing conversion of brain labor into automated and semi-automated “smart machine” labor. This Fourth Age automation began with World War II. Increasingly, people have become aware of the world, but fight to maintain their nation's status. Primary labor is the expansion of information and services. Education recognizes that students are not learning the necessary skills and experiments with many new approaches. The Knowledge Age is the Fifth Age. This newest Age is about the creation of "smart machines"—computers and other forms of automation—that will accomplish repetitive tasks. Communities will be the alliances of nations without firm borders [as is happening in the European Community]. Primary labor will be to bring added value—shaping and increasing the impact of information—to our societies and industries. Education will focus on knowledge—the timely and successful application of information.

The advent of the Knowledge Age cannot be avoided. Only how we respond to and make use of its opportunities is our choice. To aid in understanding this Fifth Age, we need to look at some of its characteristics.

Knowledge Age Characteristics
JAT
Just-Ahead-of-Time

Examples of machine intelligence: Smart Machines — While distributed intelligence

networks and utilities mature and new ones grow, Just-In-Time assures another source of change is starting to make itself felt. that, according to This source is based on the capacity of machines to plan, resources are in emulate and learn from some forms of human thought place just before they and is often referred to as “smart machine” are needed. JAT intelligence. Smart machine intelligence is currently Knowledge Formats and Applications, Sections I and II, Spring 2008. Arthur Harkins/John Moravec. - 34 assures that needs at a beginning level of development, but could are anticipated and profoundly impact community institutions. resources are in place even though the need Nanomachines — Machine intelligence of many kinds is expected to grow over the next ten-to-twenty for them was not

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New technologies led by computers and telecommunications have opened international opportunities and resources. Satellite delivered information, for example, collapses time and space boundaries, giving potential ownership of the information to everyone. The technologies provide “just-in-time” and “just-ahead-of-time” resources. With instant access to information, opportunities for expression of personal variety are unlimited. Yet at the same time, people need help to work with one another and to cope with the onslaught of information. Thus, communication in the global society provides new arenas and challenging situations in which everyone must operate.
The Knowledge Age can be viewed as having three chief characteristics:
DISTRIBUTED INTELLIGENCE—computer

and telecommunication growth of information—is moving into every corner of business, education and society. Distributed Intelligence is just starting to skyrocket. The major output of this characteristic—variety in everything available to everyone—will continue to surprise us.
MASS INDIVIDUALISM—the

These new arenas bring great pressure to bear on our institutional cultures which are now besieged by a world of "runaway" international information. This world is changing rapidly and unpredictably.

exponential growth of personal variety—is creating major changes in working and living styles. Most expressions of Mass Individualism are due to expansions in Distributed Intelligence. An outgrowth of Mass Individualism might be the emerging movement toward contractual relationships in the work place.

The world of "runaway" international information is the result of such technological forces as the printing press and “old” electronic data and VARIETY INTEGRATION—the struggle to “put it all back together”— information systems. is the on-going task for everyone. Individuals, organizations Historically, these technoand groups cannot individually stand up to the strains produced by endless change without effectively planning for the future. logical drivers of change Many Variety Integration efforts are visible to anyone who always evolved faster than the cares to watch, but most are hidden inside corporate cultures, culture's ability to utilize the the family, and the individual person. Variety Integration efforts are beginning to become public as change pressures increase. information generated by the technology. With the introduction of "machine intelligence", the technology forces threaten to leave most of the community's institutions and many national economies far behind.

EDUCATION'S NEEDED RESPONSE
Education needs to help shape contributing workers and citizens who understand themselves and their society, and who actually thrive within the pace of change by using tools such as personal initiative, creative thought, and technological literacy. Educational
KNOWLEDGE BASE LEARNING : the process whereby teachers, parents and mentors facilitate work done by the learner to transform learning experiences into personally usable, practical knowledge; AND help the learner to present results of this transformation to others as 'new' information. Knowledge Formats and Applications, Sections I and II, Spring 2008. Arthur Harkins/John Moravec. - 35 -

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institutions need to turn out students capable of: 1] transforming information into knowledge, and 2] communicating that knowledge to others as new information to further increase the supply of available knowledge. This is KNOWLEDGE BASE LEARNING. Some argue that education is not equipped to deal with instant access to information, unlimited expression of personal variety, and the need to develop ways to cope with the onslaught of information. The argument goes that education should focus on the basics and not deal with Knowledge Age advances because there is no reward for it; there are no personnel trained to make the institutional change; there are no skills with which to accomplish such a feat; there are no facilities for these kind of activities; there is no money for it; and finally it is doubtful if any changes would “make a difference.” In many respects, today's education systems are slow systems within relatively fast Fourth Age Information environments and the rapidly emerging Fifth Age of Knowledge. The cultural situation in education seems to be this: "Just-About-Forever" [JAF] community and school traditions are now colliding with the technology-driven "Just-InTime" [JIT] needs of other institutions. Meeting emerging needs of the faster-paced institutions will require education to focus on the development of KNOWLEDGE skills. This can be accomplished by "Just-Ahead-of-Time" [JAT] education curricula and curricular support systems. Such JAT education systems can utilize technologies to import the latest information instantaneously. JAT can foster the expression of personal variety and give individuals a framework for coping with the rapid increase in information. In addition, JAT systems can demand that both students and faculty demonstrate proficiency in information research, knowledge development, and new information dissemination.
KNOWLEDGE: the timely and successful application of information.

By drawing from the best of past ages and preparing for the vast opportunities posed by the developing Knowledge Age, education can find ways to profit from this interaction. There is room for both the basics and the JAT skills necessary for prosperity in the Knowledge Age.

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THE AGES OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT: Implications for Education
Human development through time has brought us to the Knowledge Age. Its characteristics bring great pressure on schools to move from "Just-About-Forever" traditions to "Just-Ahead-of-Time" [JAT] education curricula and support systems. For discussion with your community's learners and schools, here are some possible implications of JAT curricula and support systems that can go beyond what you do today.

1. Increased Resources
• • Allow for many types of “HELP” features to be readily available from a wide variety of sources, and usable without embarrassment or penalty. Share education expertise, including continuous updates of such expertise, from institution to institution. Such diversity and productivity will give new meaning to education and new opportunities for educational institutions to cooperate with each other. Honor expertise—they allow many kinds of skilled people to help transform world information into curricula, and to convey it to the culture. Supplement local common sense and reality perceptions while respecting these as resources. Cooperate with educational institutions and cultures in other countries. Routinely scan world weather, political, economic, industrial, military, entertainment, and other information categories on an hourly or quicker basis. This information can be used daily for planning and training as well as curricula. Allow for the quick identification of “expert people” and “expert institutions.” Encourage refining today’s educational work for greater application tomorrow.

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• • 2. • • • • •

Enhanced Utilization
Learn to respond to the individual student, family member or organization. Put world-class information to work as a multiple-source, opportunity-generating, crisis-averting resource. Allow the formulation of “quick folklore,” which provides a rapid assessment of reality from new perspectives. Move schools from processing students to processing creation of new information. Put emphasis on both the quality of people and the quality of emerging automation; back up those whose time is spent in “redesigning the system.” Therefore, back up everyone, because everyone can be “redesigning the system.” Encourage a longer, sustained look into the alternative futures of the school community and its culture, because proactivity has replaced reactivity. Encourage a reward system based on the effective application of knowledge.

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3. Improved Results
• Have education take the responsibility to explain itself, learn how to perform at its best, and be willing to update and rebuild itself to take advantage of new opportunities. Become models for research and development, providing not only for the “basics,” but for the development of human and other resources. Build toward community revitalization rather than be stripped of community resources through forced conformity. Be supportive of diversity and offer educational services to business, community agencies, and tourists. Allow communities to explain and defend local change within community and global perspectives. Justify the creation and maintenance of futures-focused cultures of relearning and retraining. Preserve human expertise that might otherwise erode, leave the community, be held back, never be sought out, or never be applied. Allow world-class information to be a component of cooperative community and regional planning. Cooperatively pressure vocational, business, secondary, graduate, and other institutions to change their curricula to world-class and anticipatory configurations. Help to produce confidence based on facing change squarely instead of “punishing messengers” or pitying the victims of change. Fund lateral repositioning, new internal careers, and retraining or sabbaticals for those whose work in education automation has been successful.

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Please use this space to make notes about applications to your learning community:

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II. TWO LEARNING PARADIGMS:
Industrial and Knowledge Base

OVERVIEW OF THE TWO PARADIGMS
The need to know in our society grows at a continually KNOWLEDGE: the timely and successful application of accelerated pace. Eighty (80) percent of the information. occupations in this country already are informationbased. We live in a world in which societal information and the personally applicable knowledge derived from this information are increasingly important commodities. By the 21st century, we will face a personal knowledge crisis of epidemic proportions. Simply put, more people need to know more than ever before. The information required must be up-to-date, and put to use as personal KNOWLEDGE—faster than ever before. Being attuned to rapid change requires a major PARADIGM: pattern, example, model; a way of organizing PARADIGM shift, a shift in the fundamental patterns by thoughts, ideas, behaviors. which we perceive and live in the world. This paradigm shift is one of moving away from an industrial world view to a KNOWLEDGE BASE world view. Both of these paradigms are critical to the development of a competent American work force—and citizenry—for the 1990’s and beyond:
INDUSTRIAL PARADIGM Approach: “Tell me what to do and how you want me to do it, and I will produce.” KNOWLEDGE BASE PARADIGM Approach: “Now that we’ve agreed on the desired results, let me tell you how I’m going to achieve them, and then please help me find the resources to do it.” Characteristics: • Mutually agreed upon standards • Self-crafting of learning and work with collaborative resource identification • Willingness to integrate suggestions from authorities and peers • Flexible systems for generating opportunities. Focus: • Rapidly changing, innovative thinking and labor • Individual needs are meshed with socially -

Characteristics: • Adherence to accepted standards in thinking, learning and work • Adaptation to existing methods and resources • Willingness to accept direction from authority • Defined systems for problem solving. Focus: • Repetitive thinking and labor

Individual needs are subordinate to production

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requirements Personal contribution yields to a structured order.

desired results Personal contribution is meshed with choices that benefit both the person and society.

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Both paradigms depend upon information as a resource “fuel” for the active learner, citizen, and worker. Both paradigms use the same information, but in different ways leading to different outcomes. Both paradigms are personally and socially powerful. Each generates different kinds of individual and group reactions. Each is legitimate, and plays a proper role for the person and within society. Both are needed.

EDUCATION'S NEEDED RESPONSE
Today's learners, tomorrow's workers and citizens, require the best of the industrial paradigm plus additional and wholly different education services delivered from the Knowledge Base paradigm. The goal of these services must be to shape individuals who understand themselves and their society, who actually thrive within the pace of change, and who use such tools as personal initiative, creative thought, and technological literacy to be a part of their community and to help shape it. Education decisions based solely on either paradigm can lead well-intentioned teachers, students, and parents into self-defeating decisions and consequences. On the other hand, the two paradigms often help to guide learners toward achieving outcomes comparable to those on any world scale of comparison. Some of the attributes inherent in the two learning paradigms are:
INDUSTRIAL PARADIGM • Curriculum development within a framework of cultural literacy and basic skills • Common set of standards for all learners • External control and assertive discipline • Objective evaluation, testing and competition

KNOWLEDGE BASE PARADIGM • Human development in a world information context • Individual development of talents to achieve personal and societal potential • Internal control—self discipline • Cooperative evaluation—self assessment and portfolios • Variety for each learner—curriculum is the means of reaching personal goals and social responsibility • Parents and community members are full active partners.

Common core curriculum for everyone Licensed staff are the professionals.

Whether learners pursue education in the industrial or Knowledge Base paradigm, they need to do so because of explicit choices. These choices may be made by the learner, the parent, or both. The choices may be woven into a contract format involving these players and others, including teachers, other students, and outcome requirements set by the community.

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THE TWO LEARNING PARADIGMS: Implications for Education
The shift from the Industrial paradigm to the Knowledge Base carries with it implications in educational planning and policy development for the next decade and beyond. Both paradigms have their place in education which stresses student and parental consumer choice over subject matters, learning styles, and the physical locales in which learning takes place. As a beginning for exploring these implications with your learners and in your schools, we have listed some possible implications here that might go beyond what you do today:

1. DIFFERENT OUTCOMES • • • • Redefinition of education with emphasis on productive outcomes in both the intellectual and social (job, family, etc) sectors; Positive changes in student/parent/teacher “self esteem;” "All-win" outcomes; Dropping of the bell curve for total education success within each learner's scope of choice and ability.

2. CREATION OF NON-TRADITIONAL ROLES • • • • • Encouragement of mentoring/coaching roles by teachers and parents; Teachers as lifelong learners that are enthusiastic and focused; Enlightened leadership and invisible management that promotes learner selfmanagement of the learning and tracking processes; Parental development as a part of student development; Personal Learning Contracts developed with and for students, parents, and staff.

3. CHANGES IN CURRICULUM • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Moving from learning information to applying knowledge, from memorization to understanding, personalizing and utilizing curricula; Basing curriculum on individual learner plans and learner-set time frames; Allowing for constant focus on real life issues and opportunities; Reduced ageism in “levels” of school and community education programs; Gradual elimination of “grade levels” through conversion of curricula to personal access/evaluation/mastery formats; Higher stress on international factors; Stronger focus on student needs, personalities, experiences, etc.; More up-to-date curricula; Immediate application curricula; Putting drill curricula into portable software/hardware packages; Balancing drill with learner-driven processes associated with learning goals; Developing futures-focused curricula; Developing integrative, or “systems” curricula; Nonstop curricular evolution that is responsive, dynamic, vastly expanded and constantly improving

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4. CHANGES IN LEARNING METHODS • • • • • • • • • • Multiple entry, throughput and exit paths for learners; Multiple interface/repeat/skip/jump/backtrack options for learners; 24-hour learning systems; Better utilization of technology for the right reasons, increasing the complexity of the curriculum and its offerings to the individual student, parent, and teacher; Learners, parents and teachers have real-time access to learner progress and provider system characteristics; Constant tracking of workplace/lifestyle/leisure changes and their implications for learning and applying skills; Support for shorter teaching hours, with proper personnel “backups;” More time for staff development with the teacher viewed as learner; Humane and sophisticated approaches to human development; Learning services delivered to anybody who needs them that is nondiscriminatory with respect to race, religion, learning styles, learning rates, abilities, age, gender, location, and economic status.

5. INTEGRATION OF SCHOOL AND THE COMMUNITY • • • • • • "Real time" connections with the outside world; Off-campus involvement of students in meaningful public and private sector activities; Far closer and earlier relationships with technology institutes, colleges, jobs, and other post-graduate pathways; Community-wide “think tank” approaches to future social and personal needs; Education acting as a catalyst for the community; Professional ways to involve public education in the enhancement of community/collective/personal quality of life that generates life and vibrancy in the entire community; Routine off-campus local, regional, national, and international student trips; Good fit between learner outcomes and accountability to the tax payers that is positive and visible; Ability of the community to 'see' the educational processes and their outcomes.

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Please use this space to make notes about applications to your learning community:

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III. PRODUCTIVITY:
Learners and School Culture

OVERVIEW OF PRODUCTIVITY
Changes in How We Think About Productivity Retention of high-cost, labor-intensive human behaviors is becoming an indicator of sluggish innovation and a sluggish economy. Yet these behaviors are difficult to change without compelling reasons and workable practical alternatives. Consequently, the world is struggling to shift away from industrial philosophies and models of labor-intensive provision of products and services. In the Industrial PARADIGM, automation has been the PARADIGM: pattern, example, model; a way of organizing two major avenue through which human cultures have thoughts, ideas, behaviors. guaranteed their people access to previously scarce or costly products. Automation through machinery, and now computers and robots, is viewed as maximally efficient. Cheaper human labor sources are viewed as temporary stopgaps, useful until new forms of automation emerge. As this occurs, what will people do? A new direction in the use of human resources, thereKNOWLEDGE: the timely and successful application of fore, is needed that focuses less on repetitive activities information. and more on personal uniqueness that can and will invent new products and services. In the emerging KNOWLEDGE paradigm, human innovative skills will be employed to create products and services, and to use machines and computers to produce them. To keep current with world changes, American institutions will now have to embark on a rapid transition from the use of the human mind as a functionally low-grade computer to that of the functional shaper of productive change.

Changes in How We View Learners/Workers/Citizens To address the changing ways we think about productivity, we need people who are aware of a fundamental human condition: that perception of reality ultimately resides within the individual person. The perceived nature of society itself, including its limitations and opportunities for the individual, is a function of the person’s own “menu” of choices as to how reality may be perceived—and acted upon. To the extent that the individual’s perception of social reality is incomplete or skewed toward negativism and alienation, the lack of available choices are likely to inhibit that
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person’s contribution to self and society. On the other hand, that individual is more likely to make a contribution to self and society when: 1] perception of social reality is positive, and 2] it is as close to a complete view of the types and ranges of choices available for societal contribution as possible.

Through the Knowledge Base paradigm, learners/workers/citizens will have a more positive social reality and more complete choices because they will know:
• • • • themselves and what they want; how to find the resources they need in order to deal with ambiguity, thrive on flexibility, and create their options; how to extract learnings from those resources; how to apply those learnings to be informed, active citizens and part of an educated workforce that is creative, problem solving, and decisive.

Changes in School Culture If productivity is to be viewed as developing personal uniqueness that can and will invent new products and services; and if the learner/worker/citizen's opportunities are a function of a person's own menu of choices; then schools must help shape that personal uniqueness by offering a variety of approaches. An issue that underlies helping to shape personal uniqueness is “who controls the education of each student?” If the student is seen as a ward of the school, the answer leans in the direction of an authority other than the learner. If the student is regarded as a customer, then he or she drives the learning, with professionals, mentors, and community resources offering services to meet and exceed customer requirements. School culture is already confused about the consumer/ward alternative. That is one reason reform potentials get battered by arguments about failures of the 1960's and 1970's, along with cries for more discipline and basics countered by arguments for more freedom and choice. Another controversy prompted by the consumer/ward dichotomy is how the school relates to the community: how much “voice” in school affairs should the community have? Even the relationship of the school to technology is affected: should students be allowed to “go off on their own” curricularly? As a result, parents are pushing for both the ward and consumer models, some teachers are becoming increasingly customer driven, and some administrators going about business as usual, producing a standard school with lots of computers. Schools have not really decided what business they are in: collective ward or individual consumer. Are they a service primarily for the collective or for the individual? Are educators willing to see that it has been the collective goal to date, and that this model is

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in transition? Are they willing to take the risks of restructuring the system to integrate the individual consumer approach?

EDUCATION'S NEEDED RESPONSE
To fuel and manage the changes in productivity and personal choice, education must encourage and support functionally unique individuals. This will require a new ethic and practice of employing the assets of the educated, continuously evolving, individual human mind. Thus, in order to participate effectively in the many changes that are on-going in work and society, millions of workers and citizens will need bold, appropriate, and timely educational services. The changing role of education will be to support thinking, innovative workers and citizens, who understand their environment and themselves, and can speed progress through maximum skill and creativity.

To meet the changes in productivity and customer expectations, education will need to explore "upgrades" such as: Performance requirements: Education job descriptions, degree backgrounds, department missions, and key leadership must be reshaped around the requirements of curricula driven by worldlevel information. Curriculum development: Choices based on the latest and best of world-level information must be actively incorporated. Newer formats of existing resources: Revised education, teaching, and management assumptions must encourage exemplary information-driven curricular responsiveness and efficiency.

Industrial education has never been focused on changing the world, but preparing the student for it. This is necessary. Knowledge Base learning, United efforts: Curricular excellence requires more than world information heaped together by single however, stresses customer orientation: individuals or isolated teams—the entire educational the learning environment goes all-out institution and its community must join forces to offer to serve the customer. Within curricula driven by world-source information. community established standards, the delivery system bends, breaks, and reforms itself to only one end: the complete satisfaction of the customer within an ethic of total, individualized quality.

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PRODUCTIVITY: Implications for Education
Dynamic change is underway in our conception of human productivity and school culture. Understanding the needs of the Knowledge Base learner/worker/citizen and the implications for a customer approach to education is clearly needed. These changes are likely to influence at least seven interrelated areas for your learners and schools that might go beyond what you do today:

1. Mission Reassessment: • • • • • Focus on the future Demand continuing mission dialogue Open a dialogue about education and outcome quality Help raise fundamental questions Create a shift in emphasis from the past to the future.

2. Accountability through Tangible Outcomes: • • • Relate to real world needs Encourage variety Promote interlaced goals/means/measures •Reduce accountability problems as measurement and goals become linked on a daily basis Create comprehensive models that will "sell" at the community level •Support positive new regard for vision, diversity, and real experiences in the non-classroom world Require that everything be outcome centered rather than focus on inputs Eliminate the bell curve and focus on achievement.

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3. System Evolution: • Promote enlightened leadership and management •Encourage incremental systems improvements through dialogue about change Develop computerized systems and services •Enhance coordination and articulation of purpose within and between internal departments and outside agencies Help turn educators into leaders, facilitators and guides Allow more time for planning and evolution Promote participatory and anticipatory education management •Provide for interlaced quality enhancement programs at all levels of school and community.

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4. Efficiency: • • • Drive costs down in some areas that lead to savings which can then be reinvested elsewhere Heighten awareness of just-in-time issues Require that mechanical tasks increasingly be done by computers. -

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5. Focused Customer Services: • • • Focus curricula and teaching on the learner for personalized learning Promote 24-hour year round services Facilitate individualized learner/customer outcomes •Promote individualized learning plans as necessary components of receiving and evaluating learning services •Require a learner needs focus rather than a systemic focus on handicaps and general content areas •Provide a dynamic curricular/teaching framework that allows and encourages quality education for all Free people to think and teach them to think.

6. Person/Agency Partnering: • • • • • • • Work with parents and communities to achieve the goals and measures Encourage more common collaboration/partnering between schools and other agencies Partner with learners, parents, human services, business, government and providers responsibly and effectively Partner between schools and teacher training institutions Helps at-risk learners through parental and community involvement Broker services Share school resources.

7. Human-Scale Professionalism: •Create a proactive staff culture that stimulates teamwork, flexibility and problem solving Require more attention to new and up-dated in-service for teachers and other staff Shift staff/parental attitudes from passivity and victimization to proactive empowerment Encourage providers to grow along with customers.

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Use this space to make notes about applications to your learning community:

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IV. THE VARIETY PRINCIPLE: Planting a Mixed Crop
OVERVIEW OF THE VARIETY PRINCIPLE
Variety: a mix of different things; different forms, conditions qualities of something

The education changes proposed in this document are tied to the Variety Principle. The VARIETY Principle is based on the premise that the future makes no promises—we need variety to be prepared

for anything and everything. An effective organization will take a PROACTIVE approach of being prepared for the future by looking at its changing mission and service roles within the now accessible global community. An information-driven, intercultural approach is mandatory for the 21st century. That approach can be continually adapting itself and thereby demonstrate great variety. The orientation toward variety, then, is key to being prepared for the future unknowns.
Proactive: a supporting action; movement forward to a new or more advanced condition

However, any organization has the tendency to want to remain REACTIVE. Reactivity occurs when an institution presumes to control its future by forcing a once successful form of operations to solve problems and create opportunities within new and novel situations. The result is institutional lag and associated charges that the institution has “lost its way” or “lost its quality.”
Reactive: an opposing action; movement back to a former or less advanced condition

KNOWLEDGE, rather than money or traditional inter-institutional prestige, will be the primary currency for the future. Knowledge, put to use through its transformation into a wide variety of new information, can reduce uncertainty about the future.
KNOWLEDGE: the timely and successful application of information which, in turn, creates new information

EDUCATION'S NEEDED RESPONSE
To prepare our learners/workers/citizens for the information-driven, international culture of the 21st century, our schools need to explore the Variety Principle. Knowledge Base learning can provide ways of creating the variety that will facilitate prosperity in an uncertain future. Three basic questions reflect this emphasis on variety:

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“Who can be served by education?” A diverse group—the more diverse the better. Instead of only intellectual output, the “product” of education can be a climate of equally accessible pursuit of knowledge. The knowledge “output” of education—new information—should be of great variety and positioned at the cutting edge. The “outcome” of education can be cultures rich in diversity, self-understanding, and willingness to cooperate with others. "What can be served by education?” Learning how to learn. Quality in education can depend not only upon what knowledge the staff possesses, but what knowledge students obtain for themselves, their fellow students, and their communities. “How can education serve?” Across many sectors. Schools can continually reexamine themselves on the basis of how successfully their teachers, support staff and curricula equal or exceed the changing best quality demanded by the global community.
The Variety Principle for the development of education is based on ten interrelated principles of uncertainty and experimentation that promote great variety: 1. All decisions made within education are experimental. These decisions are experimental because their outcomes are always at least partially uncertain. All decisions made within education are also uncertain experiments—they commit education or a part of it to involvement in processes whose outcomes are indeterminate. The same conditions apply to decisions made about education from the outside the school system; such decisions are experimental. On a larger scale, education is itself experimental. The future vitality and viability of education are affected by probabilities, serendipities, and shocks. Cultural systems around education are no less and are often more impacted by their natures as experimental. Curricula and structures of education should reflect and augment the uncertain, experimental nature of schools and surrounding life. The education task in this experimental setting is to enhance vitality and viability of itself and its constituents through employment of principles inherent in the “mixed crop” theory. Such principles, when manifested in education, would develop far more heterogeneous structures within education, and between it and its coinstitutions. Symbioses among forms of heterogeneity would gradually come to characterize the “real” structure of education, both within itself and between it and its co-institutions.

Schools best serve when graduates perform at a sustained world-class level. This is the core of education’s guarantee of high-quality impact on the learner and on the community. There is no clear path to the education future through variety, only indications that variety can revitalize education. Variety may be exemplified in a “mixed crop” metaphor of education future. A “mixed crop” offers to “save the farm” by ensuring that something can almost certainly grow each season because of crop diversity. The Variety Principle:
• offers the opportunity to use differences to promote evolution within education, and between education and other institutions; • acts as the catalyst for expected success; • asserts the idea that many people can and should participate in the evolution of education futures.

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Education can KNOWLEDGE: the timely and avoid reactivity successful and the resulting application of cultural lag by the information which, way it carries out in turn, creates its mission to new information produce thinking and innovative workers and citizens
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who understand themselves and their society, and who can speed progress through maximum skill and creativity. To be prepared for the uncertainties of the future we need variety—differences celebrated through individual interests, flexible monitoring systems, and evaluation measures based on knowledge. The Knowledge Base learning paradigm can provide ways of creating that "mixed crop".

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THE VARIETY PRINCIPLE: Implications for Education
If we accept that: 1] variety has a major role to play in the future of education, and 2] that the outcome of education is cultures rich in diversity, self-understanding and willingness to cooperate with others, then it will be crucial to develop a variety of Knowledge Base skills. These skills should be incorporated into the framework of education to meet the demands of today’s and tomorrow’s marketplaces. The following list is not inclusive, but provides a reasonable start for thinking about the kinds of skillbuilding curricular that go beyond what your are doing today and which could serve consumers' needs in the Knowledge Age:

Paradigm Skills: Paradigm skills enable people to look at the world in a variety of very broad but coherent ways. Paradigm skills will become more necessary as the world continually reconfigures itself into new alliances, cultures, and ideologies. Information Systems Skills: The world’s telecommunications, computing, and information systems complexes are developing rapidly. These technology systems are producing many new opportunities in quality of life, employment, and education. Skills are needed in understanding, using, and evaluating information systems. Knowledge Production Skills: As students learn the skills of using information systems, they can be in a position to develop their own personally usable knowledge. Skills are needed to draw from the information systems resources around us and transform the information into personally usable knowledge. Information Dissemination Skills: As learners develop their own personally usable knowledge, they will be in position to share their knowledge with others as new or modified information. They need to know if the new information works as useful information for others. Discovery Skills: As world-wide changes emerge, discovery skills will also become more important to learn what is available and how to best utilize resources. Thinking Skills: As changes going on in the world of work develop, critical thinking skills will become more important in order to make discriminating choices and set priorities. Invention Skills: As changes in the self and the world become mandatory, learners will need skills that can help them invent the world around them that they want. Problem-Solving Skills: Problem skills become useful when they are contained within a paradigm that has been thought about, examined, and accepted for its merits. Problem identification, study, and solution skills will become more essential as the world novelty develops faster and faster. Opportunity-Seeking Skills: Opportunity skills become useful when they are contained within a personal vision or set of goals that has been well developed.

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Opportunity creation, evaluation, and operationalization will become more important as steps toward improved living. CONTINUED ☛

Computation Skills: Computation skills are now being supplemented by simulation and decision-assistance programs through the computer. Computation concepts will become more important as simulation and decision-assistance programs become more generally used. Learners will need to become skilled in these advanced uses of computation. Economic Skills: Economic skills are moving toward the need to understand economic systems as well as mathematical management of money. Economic skills will become more important as society mixes capital and social welfare in new ways, and as capitalist and socialist societies increasingly cooperate and trade. Science Evaluation Skills: As science reveals and creates the world more and more, science will be subject to closer evaluation. Learners will need the skills of science assessment. Technology Evaluation Skills: As technology develops, technology assessment will become more important to determine what will be most useful at which time. Learners will need the skills of technology evaluation. Emotion Management Skills: Emotion management is becoming more important as the world becomes more interactive, generally more peaceful and "smaller." Learners will need the skills of emotional maturity and management. Ethics Skills: As the world becomes more complex, ethics skills will be crucial. Learners will need skills and opportunities to test different forms of ethics that ultimately will help them behave more ethically toward others. Futuring Skills: As the world becomes more uncoupled from the past, futuring skills will become more important. Learners will need skills that can help them study trends pointing toward the future and evaluate their implications. History Skills: History skills will become more important as anchors in a rapidly changing world. Students need to learn skills that can help them understand the past and present achievements of humankind and balance their futuring skills against the achievements and mistakes of the past and present. Social Skills: As the world becomes more multicultural, interpersonal skills will become essential. Learners need skills and models that can help them study and appreciate other cultures and peoples, and to interact with them successfully. Language Skills: The world now employs English as a standard first or second language. Chinese is spoken by one-fourth of all peoples. The Japanese are a major influence in world markets. The peoples south of the United Sates speak Spanish and Portuguese. Students need to become skilled at both a first and second language, and they need role models for appreciating other languages.

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Aesthetic Skills: Forms of beauty have always changed with the times, and most certainly will continue to do so. Learners need to become skilled in the variety of aesthetic expressions of humankind and should anticipate changing aesthetic forms. CONTINUED ☛

Dietary Skills: The emerging demands upon the mind appear to call for carefully thought-out diets in order to maintain good health and top functioning. Learners need guides and models for proper diet. Environmental Skills: Environmental skills become increasingly important as the world’s chemistry becomes more complex and unstable due to the influence of humankind. Students need to learn and practice the skills of environmental assessment, maintenance, and reclamation. Exercise Skills: Exercise appears to be related to mental as well as bodily fitness, both of which are important as stress management aids. Students need encouragement and participation in developing these skills. Self-Management Skills: The self is becoming more important as work moves from many people doing the same things to many people doing different things. Learners need skills in self-management of their personal resources.

Please use this space to make notes about applications to your learning community:

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WORLD-LEVEL INFORMATION
“Zero Lag” and “Zero Gap” Schools

OVERVIEW OF WORLD-LEVEL INFORMATION
World-level information immediately (daily, hourly) must be brought to bear on the activities of our institutions. This is the idea of a “real-time” world information base, which has two necessary components: "Zero Lag" in accessing world information, and "Zero Gap" in applying information as knowledge.
Zero Lag: "right on time"—near-immediate availability of old and new information within a particular environment. Zero Gap: "in the right place"—the nearimmediate decision which determines where the information will best supplement existing programs.

Through cooperation with outside service agencies, the KNOWLEDGE: the timely and successful application of Knowledge Base paradigm nurtures those cultures information which, in turn, which promote learning through the creates new information. transformation of information into knowledge. Knowledge Base learning will become the focus for creative learners/workers/students intellectual development. Through the use of world-class materials and the interactive capabilities of technology, productive individuals need not spend hours seeking scarce information, but can instead spend those hours in productive conversion of information into usable knowledge—for themselves, their industry, their communities.

Education's Needed Response
KNOWLEDGE BROKERS Knowledge Base learning can develop the full potential of learners. Learners, in turn, can develop the full potential of their cultures as their knowledge becomes new information.

This might require a new profession. Education for the Knowledge Age requires real-world information applicability, and the preparation of persons as professional knowledge brokers. These knowledge brokers will convert the global challenges and problems into opportunities that can be used in our schools, industries and communities. Knowledge Formats and Applications, Sections I and II, Spring 2008. Arthur Harkins/John Moravec. - 59 -

The Knowledge Base school needs to be built on the concept of innovation and cooperation to attain the goals of “Zero-Lag/Zero Gap” education in American schools. “Zero Lag” education refers to the near-immediate availability of old and new information within a particular learning environment. “Zero Gap” education refers to the near-immediate decision process which determines whether the information will be made available as general or personalized curriculum.

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Through Zero Lag/Zero Gap education, schools need to be prepared to: 1] seek out and rapidly integrate world-level information, and 2] help learners translate that information into knowledge. To do this, schools should consider:

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Establishing measurement and evaluation models that are based upon the concepts of Zero Lag and Zero Gap. One example performance measure: how efficient are schools in achieving a Zero Lag and Zero Gap environment. Reshaping existing educational structures into “knowledge transformation” environments. Knowledge-transformed environments immediately convert precurricular world-class information into educationally deliverable new information.

Some argue that this transformation is impossible. But Zero Lag/Zero Gap schools are capable of the “impossible” because they are driven by the notion that knowledge must be where it should be—on time and in the right place—regardless of constraints. This philosophy and practice allow for realistic Zero Lag/Zero Gap institutional and personal goals in education. Zero Lag/Zero Gap principles are based on an idea which many have long advanced: that the fundamental human resource is knowledge—growing and varietal. This "on time and in the right place" knowledge is applicable to the conversion of problems into opportunities that will benefit all community sectors.

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WORLD-LEVEL INFORMATION: Implications for Education
Schools can become “user-friendly” sources of Zero Lag/Zero Gap knowledge. They can be restructured to help our communities succeed in using the best available real-time information resources of the world. For discussion with your learners and schools, consider the following possible implications of 'zero lag' and 'zero gap' approaches:

Zero Lag/Zero Gap education can: • Help put learners and teachers on top of the most up-to-date, relevant information available anywhere. Encourage daily “updates” of the world’s freshest information in the subjects being learned about. Honor expertise, allowing many kinds of skilled people to help transform world information into curricula, and convey it to the learner. Help gradually transform schools into “think tanks,” or research and development resources for their communities. Stimulate schools to cooperate with each other by specializing in their search for information and sharing it among themselves. Allow schools to collaborate in the development of new information out of their Knowledge Base learning formats. Encourage contact with other cultures, promoting an alternative to ignorance, fear, and the “not invented here” syndrome. Encourage a longer, sustained look into the alternative futures of collaborative school and community cultures, because proactivity can replace reactivity. Allow world-class information to be a component of cooperative community and educational planning. Create and maintain cultures that are futures-focused by continually offering opportunities to relearn and retrain based on emerging trends. Help to produce confidence based on facing change squarely by bring information on time to the right place Allow for the quick identification of “expert people” and “expert institutions.” Encourage reward systems based on efficient and effective knowledge application in the school, community, family and workplace.

• •

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CONCLUSION
Both paradigms, the INDUSTRIAL and the KNOWLEDGE BASE, are powerful. Each generates a different type of individual and group reaction. Tension is created in schools that strive to create "stabile mobility" where learners are anchored in a keen sense of self while moving about in a chaotic environment. The learners are tough yet flexible and resilient. Such schools aim for a balance between:
• Learner outcomes inherent in the production capabilities of the Industrial paradigm that produce students who can be uniformly tested for information retention in such areas as cited by President Bush: math, English, science, geography and history; and Innovation and resource development of the Knowledge Base paradigm that sponsors and encourages functionally-unique, creative individuals who are knowledgeable about information as well as their capacity to apply learnings in innovative ways.

The key to resolving the tension: structure the learning environment so that the learner can know when it is appropriate to function within the Industrial paradigm and when being in the Knowledge Base paradigm would be more fruitful. This structure needs to be supported by a community that is involved in the evolution of education, and stands by both the learner and the learning structure. Such a structure for learning can be envisioned as having three main parts:
1. The Portfolio Student: Students learn in many ways. They need to be accountable for what they have learned and how they have applied their learnings equally in many ways. Teachers, parents, other students, and eventually college admission officers and employers want to see products of those learnings. The portfolio builds a file of accomplishments that is available for other people to review and parallels the normal records keeping of the school system. The portfolio demonstrates student performance in the real world, based on community evolved standards. Over time, a student's portfolio might be comprised of test scores, a dance or musical recital, essays and reports, a computer program, artwork, a videotape, mastery of math facts, etc. The Network Parent: Parent [or other family member or role model] involvement is not only essential for learner success but must be explicit at all levels of education. The family and the learner's education must be integrated. Parents have to be linked to their child's portfolio, growth plan and the school community through school meetings, conferences, written and telephone communication, modems, videotapes and participation in learning events and creation of the portfolio. The family and learner are a team for mutual benefit. The Personal Growth Plan: Personal Growth Plans are created to fit each student's strengths, interests, and desired improvement areas. Students can contract with staff, families and the community to define anticipated goals, activities, and appropriate rewards/consequences for completion of outcomes and tangible products. Learners are supported to see the relatedness of the products from both paradigms. Ideally, parents also would have learning contracts.

2.

3.

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Education's role and contribution: Today's learners, tomorrow's workers and contributing citizens, require the best of the Industrial paradigm plus additional and whollydifferent education services delivered from within the Knowledge Base world view. The goal of these services must be to shape individuals who understand themselves and their society, who actually thrive within the pace of change, and who use tools such as personal initiative, creative thought, and technological literacy to be part of their community and to help shape it.

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SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY
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its labyrinths. NY: MacMillan. Haraway, D. J. (1991). Simians, cyborgs, and women: The reinvention of nature. NY: Routledge. Harrison, E. (1985). Masks of the universe. NY: Macmillan. Haugeland, J. (Ed.) (1981). Mind design: Philosophy, psychology, artificial intelligence. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Healy, J. (1990). Endangered minds: Why children don't think and what we can do about it. Simon & Schuster. Heylighen F. (1991). Cognitive levels of evolution: Pre-rational meta-rational. In F. Geyer (Ed.), The Cybernetics of Complex Systems (75-92). Salinas, CA: Intersystems. Hirsch, E .D. (1987). Cultural literacy: What every American needs to know. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, Hofstadter, D. R. (1979). Gödel, Escher, Bach: An eternal golden braid. NY: Basic Books. Holzner, B., & Marx, J. H. (1979). Knowledge application: The knowledge system in society. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Howard R. (1991). Virtual reality: The revolutionary technology of computergenerated artificial worlds. Summit. Humberto, R. M., & Varela, F. J. (1988). The tree of knowledge: The biological roots of human understanding. Boston: New Science Library, Shambhala. Jantsch, E. & Waddington, C. (1976). Evolution and consciousness. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. Jantsch, E. (1975). Design for evolution. NY: George Braziller. Jantsch, E. (1979). The self-organizing universe: Scientific and human implications of the emerging paradigm of evolution. Oxford: Pergamon Press. Jonassen, D., Beissner, K. & Yacci, M. (1993). Structural knowledge. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Kelly, K. (1994). Out of control: The new biology of machines, social systems, and the economic world. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. Excerpts available online: http://www.hotwired.com/staff/kevin/oocontrolpress.html

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Kosko, B. (1993). Fuzzy thinking: The new science of fuzzy logic. New York: Hyperion. Kuhn, T. (1962). The structure of scientific revolutions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press Kurzweil, R. (1990). The age of intelligent machines. MIT. Kuweil, R. (2000). The age of spiritual machines. MIT Lakoff, G. (1987). Women, fire and dangrous things: What categories reveal about the mind. Chicago, University of Chicago Press. Landow, G. (1992). Hypertext: The convergence of contemporary critical theory and technology Johns Hopkins. Laurel, B. (1991). Computers as theatre. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. Lightman, A. (1993). Einstein’s Dreams. NY: Pantheon Books. Luhmann, N. (1982). The differentiation of society. NY: Columbia University Press. Lukes, T. W. (1989). Screens of power: Ideology, domination and resistance in information society. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. Mann, M. (1986). The sources of social power (Vol. I). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Maruyama, M. (1978). Epistemologies and esthetic principles. Journal of the Steward Anthropological Society, 8, pp 155-167. Maruyama, M. (1963, June) The second cybernetics: Deviation - amplifying mutual causal processes. American Scientist, 51(2), 164-179. Maruyama, M., & Harkins, A. M. (Eds.). (1978). Cultures of the future. Mouton Publishers. Maturana, H. (1970). Neurophysiology of cognition. In P. G. Garvin (Ed.), Cognition: A Multiple View (pp. 3-24). NY: Spartan Books. Maturana, H., & Varela, F. (1980). Autopoiesis and cognition: The realization of the living. Dordrecht/Boston: Reidel. Maturana, H. R. (1981). Autopoiesis. Autopoiesis: A Theory of Living Organization. NY: North Holland.

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Maturana H. A. & Varela, F. J. (1987) The tree of knowledge: The biological roots of understanding. Boston: Shambhala, New Science Library. McCulloch W. S. (1965). Embodiments of mind. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. McLuhan, M. (1962). The Guttenberg galaxy. Toronto: University of Toronto. McLuhan, M. (1964). Understanding media: The extensions of man. NY: McGraw-Hill. McLuhan, M. (1967). The mechanical bride: Folklore of industrial man. Boston: Beacon Press. McLuhan, M. & McLuhan, E. (1988). Laws of media: The new science. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. McLuhan, M. & Powers, B. R. (1989). The global village: transformations in world life and media in the 21st century. NY: Oxford University Press. Minsky, M. (1988). The society of mind (2nd ed). NY: Simon & Schuster (Touchstone). Morgan, G. (1986). Images of organization. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. Murray, G. M. (1960). The quark and the jaguar: Adventures in the simple and the complex. NY: W. H. Freeman. Musashi, M. (1982). The five rings (Go Ri No Sho): The real art of Japanese management. NY: Bantam. Nicolis, G. & Prigogine, I. (1989). Exploring complexity: An introduction. NY: Freeman. Nonaka, I., & Takeuchi, H. (1995). The knowledge-creating company: How Japanese companies create the dynamics of innovation. NY: Oxford University Press. Ornstein, R. (1991) Evolution of consciousness: The origins of the way we think. NY: Simon & Schuster. Papert. S. (1980) Mindstorms: Children, computers, and powerful ideas. NY: Basic Books. Porush, D. (1987). Cybernauts in cyberspace: William Gibson's neuromancer. In G. Slusser (Ed.), Aliens: The Anthropology of Science Fiction. Carbondale: University of Southern Illinois Press.

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Porush, D. (1985). The soft machine: Cybernetic fiction. NY: Methuen. Poster, M. (1990). The mode of information: Poststructuralism and social context. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Raskin, M. G., & Bernstein, H. J. (1987). New ways of knowing: The sciences, society, and reconstructive knowledge. NJ: Rowman & Littlefield. Reiser, O. L. (1958). The integration of human knowledge. Boston, MA: Porter Sargent Reiser, O. L. (1966). Cosmic Humanism: A theory of the eight-dimensional cosmos based on integrative principles from science, religion, and art. Cambridge, MA: Schenkman Publishing. Richard B., & Grinder, J. (1982). Reframing; neurolinguistic programming and the transformation of meaning. Moab UT, Real People Press. Rowan, J. (1990). Subpersonalities: The people inside us. London: Routledge. Rozak, T. The cult of information: The folklore of computers and the true art of thinking. Pantheon. Sakaiya, T. (1991). The knowledge-value revolution: Or a history of the future. NY: Kodansha International. Saxby, S. (1990). The age of information: The past development and future significance of computing and communications. NY University Press. Schön, D. A. (1987). Educating the reflective practitioner: Toward a new design for teaching and learning in the professions. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Schön, D. A. (1983). The reflective practitioner: How professionals think in action. Basic Books. Senge, P. (1990). The fifth discipline. NY: Doubleday/Currency. Sennett, R., & Cobb, J. (1977). The hidden injuries of class. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Slack, J., Fejes, D., & Fejes, F. (Eds.). (1987). The ideology of the information age. Norwood, NJ: Ablex. Stacey, R. D. (1992). Managing the unknowable: Strategic boundries between order and chaos in organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

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Tapscott, D. (1995). Paradigm Shift: The new promise of information technology. NY: McGraw-Hill. Turkle, S. (1984). The second self: Computers and the human spirit. NY: Simon & Schuster. Varela, F., Thompson, E., & Rosch, E. (1993). The embodied mind: Cognitive science and human experience (3rd ed.). pp. 4-5. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.. von Glasersfeld, E. The construction of knowledge. Salinas, CA: Intersystems Publications. Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. In M.I. Cole, V. John-Steiner, S. Scribner, & E. Souberman (Eds.), Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Wheatley, M. J. (1992). Leadership and the new science: Learning about organization from an orderly universe. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler. Whitehead, A. N. (1929/1967). The aims of education. Toronto: Collier-Macmillan Ltd. Wiener N. (1961). Cybernetics: Or control and communication in the animal and the machine NY: MIT Press. Wilber, K. (1980). The Atman project: A transpersonal view. Wheaton, IL: Theosophical Publishing. Zuboff, S. (1989). In the age of the smart machine. NY: Simon & Schuster.

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APPENDIX I

THE SATURN INSTITUTE
"nurturing real-world learning"

Knowledge "Brokering" in the Information Age: • The Saturn Institute was established in 1989, recognizing the need to continuously update the public and interested schools about educational developments. It is now incorporated as a nonprofit with its own board of directors. The Institute's mission is to augment the effectiveness of the St. Paul Public Schools and others through timely transfer of skills and information, maximizing students', parents', and teachers' personalized, usable intellectual and social knowledge. The Institute's mission reflects today's profound transition from an era of repetitive work in a relatively stable environment to an era of invention in a relatively chaotic world. This means bridging the disparate perspectives of the Industrial paradigm and the Knowledge Base paradigm. The Institute seeks to forge common ground and produce services and products for tomorrow's workers and contributing citizens, especially in the areas of portfolio development and parent/community networks.

Goals for Collaborative Relationships and Learning Products: 1. Partnerships: Attract parents, businesses, and community organizations into productive
networks with district schools. Tactically, this means creating modes and forums for communication to promote exchange of educational ideas which lead to individual/community enrichment.

2. Linkages: Bring the St. Paul School District into contact with national and international
programs identified as those with current best practices, and in turn, expose the world to the districts' developments and progress. Activities include publications, data bases, audio and visual resources, on-line services, and technical assistance.

3. Product Development: Aid in the design, delivery, and upgrading of quality products to
serve District schools and external educational agencies and programs. The Institute will facilitate 'Zero Lag' support — new ideas, no matter where they are developed, will be available to school curriculum development without delay; and 'Zero Gap' services—new ideas will be developed selectively to fully augment present learning opportunities. For example: develop ways for learners to create and present portfolios, and for parents and others to network with learners and the school community. Knowledge Formats and Applications, Sections I and II, Spring 2008. Arthur Harkins/John Moravec. - 71 -

For further information, write or call the Institute: Saturn Institute P.O. Box 40154 St. Paul, MN 55104-9998 612/739-2870

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APPENDIX 2

KNOWLEDGE BROKERING

The Knowledge Age has already made major inroads into business, science, and technology. In these spheres, Knowledge Age innovation is increasingly acceptable, and integrated within the planning and operations functions of organizations and institutions. Although the Knowledge Age has been with us for some time, our schools are now in the process of developing the role models, precedents, and “success” stories to incorporate it. The Knowledge Age does not yet have the power of an established and recognized implementation base in American schools. It does not yet possess a “shared history” with Knowledge Age successes in other sectors of American and international institutions and organizations. While there is no recognized implementation base, increasingly schools are being pressured to meet global educational standards. Individual school districts, however, cannot afford the luxury of developing leading edge, world-class curricula along the entire spectrum of their educational charter. Nor can they afford to remain satisfied with the use of “safe,” frequently out-dated curricula.

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One recent organizational phenomenon has accompanied the Knowledge Age. It is known as KNOWLEDGE BROKERING. Knowledge Brokering as both a function and a role, will be an increasingly integral component of Knowledge Age organizations and institutions. The concept of Knowledge Brokering provides a key element to developing the KnowledgeBase school and rectifying the curricula dilemma described above. Knowledge Base schools are environments designed to support the timely transformation of information into the learner’s personally usable knowledge. To this end, Knowledge Brokering creates national and international connections for the Zero Lag/Zero Gap school, for the network parent/community, and for the portfolio student who will use this vehicle for displaying his/her accomplishments. It creates on-demand, space-free and time-free educational resources that flow in and out of the school. This approach empowers Knowledge Base schools to broker educational opportunities and resources within a “learning society.” It is a “win-win” opportunity.

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Knowledge Base schools are also“learning laboratories.” They invent new networkbuilding applications for their school districts and communities, and for American education. The challenge for Knowledge Base schools is to network this educational innovation and to provide “just-in-time’” and “just-ahead-of-time” Knowledge Base educational services and products.

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Knowledge Brokers become the choreographers for the Knowledge Base schools. The Knowledge Broker orchestrates the synergy between innovation and networking. The Knowledge Broker brings structure to opportunity. As the rate of change increases in the Knowledge Age, the need for brokering relationships also increases. The role of the Knowledge Broker in this context is twofold:
1. To help scan the educational frontier for the “know-how” that will deliver ZeroLag/Zero-Gap educational services and products; and, To help cultivate relationships with educational partners who can co-develop educational resources essential to Knowledge Base schools and communities.

2.

The Knowledge Broker seeks to return responsibility for the delivery of leading edge, world-class education to Knowledge Base schools and their individual customers. The Knowledge Broker seeks to restore power to communities and schools through the performances of individual learners. The philosophy of the Saturn Institute is driven by the necessity for high-quality Knowledge Brokering in the coming decades of community and educational change. Saturn Institute can help provide unique knowledge brokerage services to the St. Paul Public Schools and beyond. For more information, contact: Saturn Institute P.O. Box 40154 St. Paul, MN 55104-9998 612/739-2870

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[An edited version of this paper was published in Theory of Science in 2005. It was presented by Harkins and Vitaskova in Paris during the 4EASST conference, late August 2004.]

Strategies for Innovation in Tertiary Education: Producing Mode III Knowledge & Personal Capital
Arthur Harkins, Ph.D. Anna Vitásková, Ph.D. Lori Blake Mollberg, M.A. Abstract

The knowledge-to-innovation path defines an emerging need for tertiary educational and institutional support of innovative knowledge workers in all sectors of modern global workforces. Therefore, strategically oriented tertiary education must alter its mission to include the vigorous production of Mode III knowledge. We assume the a priori relevance of person-focused, Mode III-driven education services for growing economies based on symbolic resources and the requirement for individuals as well as collectives to shape useable knowledge from such resources. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate how personal capital and social capital can be enhanced by the recognition and development of Mode III knowledge production, or that knowledge driven by the uniqueness of the individual learner. Our approach employs nine sets of framers (i.e., technology, context, process, knowledge, culture/value, role, learning, application, policy/decision) for tertiary education services in support of routine, continuous innovation at the level of the individual. It is assumed that simple framers can be acquired by ‘ordinary’ individuals practicing implicate professionalism, and that their communication and collaboration with tertiary education can thereby expand. Our guiding assumptions has been that tacit knowledge is positioned within the individual, and that explicit knowledge emerges as a product of individuals who endeavor to selectively apply their knowledge in the forms of personal and social capital in support of continuous innovation.
Introduction

The goal of this paper is to demonstrate how personal capital and social capital can be enhanced, especially in countries in transition, by the recognition and development of Mode III knowledge production, or that creation of knowledge driven by the uniqueness of the individual learner. Personal capital is a holistic approach to describing individual potential. It is a fusion of the functional and procedural knowledge, skills and talents, imagination and creativity, courage, attitude, worldview, vision, energy, passion, organization, wisdom, intuition, emotional intelligence, communication and relationship skills, social capital and networks, initiative, leadership and other personal resources that an individual brings to

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bear and is able to apply on the spot, in any situation, may it be professional, social, or personal. In addition, personal capital is about innovating the self, and pro-actively finding a variety of contexts that encourage the self’s fullest expression of actionable potential, resulting in continuous growth and improved capacity to catalyze other forms of capital, such as social capital in organizations, institutions, and corporations. Therefore, we define social capital as the synergistic application of personal capital within value-creating institutions, organizations, and corporations. Personal capital is a useful concept to consider particularly in former socialist countries because it takes a broader look at the diverse and related facets that make up individual potential and allows for many pathways towards achieving personal goals, vision, and purpose. Personal capital development does away with stagnation, plateaus, and boredom. It allows one to create a vision of what one wants to be, and offers an evaluative method for self-assessment; self-assessment that identifies potential gaps in the pathways to achieving the vision, offering the possibility of continuous cycles of growth and self-improvement at every stage of life . Gibbons and his associates (1994) have already demonstrated the importance of Mode I knowledge production, or that organizationally produced through basic research, and consequently Mode II knowledge production, or that organizationally produced through applied research. In Europe, an overwhelming majority of tertiary institutions devote their primary resources to Mode I knowledge production, very often following state, less so corporate or foundational directives and influences. In other words, the European universities are characterized by a high degree of heterogeneity reflected in their organization and governance. For such top-down approaches, they have been persistently criticized by the Commission of the European communities. This is in contrast to the U.S., where the majority of universities is now focusing on Mode II knowledge production where the order of “followership” is reversed; they very often follow corporate directives and less so the state ones. Despite the stance, one is willing to take on the effectiveness of Mode I vs. Mode II or the combination of both, there is yet another, intentional production of person-driven Mode III knowledge, or a bottom-up approach. This approach permits the identification, measurement, and utilization of knowledge resources that would otherwise remain fallow or trapped in the netherworld of social invisibility. The capacity of the individual to expression Mode III knowledge is defined as his or her personal capital. For the individual student, the outcome of innovation-supportive tertiary education is the expansion of personally constructed knowledge expressed as personal and social capital. For us, the knowledge-to-innovation path defines an emerging need for tertiary educational and institutional support of innovative knowledge workers in all sectors of
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modern global workforces. Our argument, therefore, is that strategically oriented tertiary education must alter its mission to include the vigorous production of Mode III knowledge. This notion of bottom-up knowledge creation based on an intellectually proactive individuals should be considered as a method for leapfrogging in Central and Eastern Europe. Background to the Argument Our strategies for innovation in tertiary education rest upon two fundamental assumptions: (1) the emergence of socioeconomic and cultural changes in the workplace; and subsequently (2) these changes call for an individual (bottom-up) approach and participation in knowledge production. The workforce changes now underway, often driven by technology, are perhaps the major justifications for re-missioning tertiary education to energetically produce Mode III knowledge and its derivatives, personal and social capital. These two forms of capital in turn drive the emergence of innovative knowledge workers. • • • • As information permits the utilization of data, knowledge allows the productive use of information. Information workers transform data, supplying results to knowledge workers as the latter’s basic symbolic resource. Knowledge workers then transform this information into improved and new goods and services. Knowledge workers currently comprise 34% of the workforce in the Czech Republic ((32% in Poland, 38% in Hungary, 33% in Canada, 40% in the USA). Innovative knowledge workers then help to redirect the goals and missions of professionals, technicians, and other workers. Innovative knowledge workers will be 80% of the USA workforce by 2014 (our projection).

• •

Some of the changes associated with the emergence of innovative knowledge workers are: 1. Cultural factors: complexity; new sciences; science fiction myths replacing old images of human potential; media becoming de facto mass education systems; rise of ubiquitous choices; management for output/results; management for continuous upgrades and continuous innovation.
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2. Societal factors: webs replacing pyramids; walls and barriers tumbling down; situational selves replacing character; individuals/groups able to catalyze or destabilize large entities. 3. Work place factors: loss of moral and institutional authority; threatened replacement by electronics/software products and cheaper labor; lack of workable professional alternatives; fundamental dichotomy between emphasis on delivery systems vs. focus on value to customers vs. the ‘pull’ of future competencies. All of these changes require new forms of knowledge production; forms that emphasizes creativity, forward-thinking, invention, and true innovation. As stated elsewhere in this paper, the Mode 1 model of knowledge production is generated within a disciplinary context and validated by a defined community of disciplinary specialists who make decisions as to what counts as sound research. The internal operational mechanisms of most Central and Eastern European research universities are driven precisely by such fixed hierarchies with top-down control structures and rigid practices in disciplinespecific knowledge production. We assume the a priori relevance of person-focused, Mode III-driven education services for growing economies based on symbolic resources and the requirement for individuals as well as collectives to shape useable knowledge from such resources. The innovative application of knowledge products is part of the services provided by leadership in tertiary education and other institutions. It is part of the complex of processes required to develop traditional and non-traditional learners, thereby raising their personal capital and its potential to drive extensions of social capital. Our premises are as follows:
• • The knowledge revolution is producing a societal requirement for continuous innovation. Until now, Mode I and Mode II knowledge production have been focused upon to the relative under-development of Mode III knowledge production. Universities, therefore, should support Mode III knowledge production within a new emphasis upon personal capital development. Universities can support and lead continuous innovation by expanding their mission definitions and broadening their markets to support lifelong learning within the framework of Mode III knowledge production. This changed emphasis will require that universities reengineer learning contexts for personal development and leadership through Mode III knowledge production and its application through continuous innovation. To accomplish these steps, tertiary education systems should reject any pedagogical or curricular disservices driven by what we call Mode 0, or knowledge-suppressing activities. For example, our contention is that lecture-driven mass education is not the best platform for minimizing the threat of Mode 0 knowledge suppression.

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Of critical importance to Mode III knowledge production (and the minimization of Mode 0 threats) is contextual redesign for strategic innovation leadership within tertiary education. Such redesign must support the ‘engine’ underlying Mode III knowledge production: the personal creation of meaning. Applied meaning is the engine that drives personal capital, which in turn stimulates social capital and continuous societal innovation..

• •

Fortunately, the social and cultural realities and potentials of emerging innovation societies are now also being recognized in the European Union. For this, progressive tertiary institutions may take cheer and savor new futures of service and leadership. Still, while some nations have begun to enter continuous innovation era, many of their leaders have only started to recognize the existence of a knowledge era. Yet, most politicians and other educational leaders behave as though tertiary education is preparing youth for an information era, and are shocked to find their workforces threatened by the emergence of knowledge workers in formerly less-developed societies (i.e., South Korea and India). Perhaps the most regrettable of situations, short of no services at all, is signaled by countries forsaking the potentials of Mode III learning in favor of factory-model schooling -- a retreat to the rote memory industrial and agricultural eras. A New Emphasis on the Individual Is Required What might these projected changes imply for re-missioning today’s tertiary education as a source of leadership in the production of Mode III knowledge and its derivatives, personal and social capital? Harkins and Fiala recently asked, Can tertiary education shift from industrial/informational models of [collective] capital preparation to knowledge/innovation models? Can tertiary education focus seriously on recognizing and developing the uniqueness and variety of individuals through technology-supported, individualized learning services? Can tertiary education focus more on student …innovations as opposed to [contextfree] testing and rigidly constrained paper topics? Can tertiary education become more experiential [and experimental] as it moves toward knowledge-based, innovation-supportive learning services? Can tertiary education innovate development of the individual through lifelong subscription services? Can tertiary education move to create expectations of innovational leadership among its faculty and students? We assert that every functional adult together with many adolescents and children, are already practicing an implicit skill set with strong ties to the personal capital development potentials of tertiary education, especially those common to research universities. We also claim that the average individual exerts far more inventive and innovative activity than credit is given for, and that tertiary education should address itself to facilitating the processes of invention and innovation while collaborating with individuals of many backgrounds.
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The arguments for this association are two:(1) that the ‘ordinary’ individual could benefit enormously from continuous contact with tertiary education, especially if the individual is part of a society moving toward continuous innovation; and (2) that tertiary education would also gain enormously from inputs of information, knowledge, and ideas from literally billions of individuals, most of them ‘ordinary’ by our present assessments. The proposed task of tertiary education becomes two-fold: (1) to assist the ‘ordinary’ individual to become ‘extraordinary’ in ways that emerge from collaborations between the two parties; and (2) to evolve individuals and universities as co-leaders in knowledge development and innovative applications. How do individuals routinely invent and innovate in situ using tacit and explicit knowledge, much of which is employed experimentally or constructed out of whole cloth? How can this daily expression of personal capital become codified and/or externalized, and made part of expected services of tertiary education? How can tertiary education vastly expand its impact on the individual and the collective by providing its individual clients with the shortest possible time and application delays? How can tertiary education expand both personal capital and social capital, in part by making the substance of each more explicit? We submit that the ordinary individual’s skill set includes a host of capabilities common to the professional practices of research universities. We believe that such skills should become the core of redesigned curricula and pedagogies. Some of these skills, all associated with expansions and expressions of personal and social capital, are:
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • inductive and deductive thought, construction of theorems and hypotheses within more or less well-known contexts, generation of new ideas and knowledge through applications of analogies, similes and metaphors, conscious and intuitive decision-making, time and task management, creation of alternative futures through projections and systemic constructions, use of philosophy, including logic, values, epistemologies and ontologies, tactical and strategic constructions of candidate realities, decisions, and actions, reassessments of the past, present, and anticipated or preferred futures, reassessments of self and others in differing contexts, constructions of mental simulations as heuristic and self-instructive virtual realities and worlds, role playing, role shifting, and role creation, dualistic and non-dualistic thought, continuous generation of multiple perspectives of systems in their simplicity, complexity and organization, self-leadership and leadership of others, construction of decision algorithms, continuous experimentalism in negotiating daily decisions, continuous reassessment of the value of personal experience and outside resources,
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• • • • • • • • • •

emotion management, intellectual focusing, engagement with hard, soft, and bio technologies, the generation of correlational and causal associations, engagement in information searches and data mining, development and interpretation of meaning, creative understandings of impact potentials, creation, application, and extensions of knowledge-in-context, uses and creations of language suitable for engaging in the preceding activities, continuous creation and redefinition of alternative personal and collective cultures, on-going creation of preferred futures and present/past reinterpretations.

For the purposes of this paper, these skills may be understood as evidence of an implicate professionalism demonstrated in countless daily acts carried out by literally billions of ordinary people. We define implicate professionalism as the protean layer of competencies, skills and performances that characterize expressions of personal and social capital. A New Synergy between Individuals and Tertiary Learning While we may assume that the majority of these protean skill minimums are already part of the literature of most professions, we cannot assume that formal guidance in their development and use is usually available to any given individual throughout the twentyfour hour daily conduct of his or her life. This is the future we favor for those tertiary systems interested in the mass development of personal capital. In a very real sense, we are suggesting that tertiary education attempt to close the gap between itself and the media, which can and do reach billions within each and every hour. One of the first tasks of tertiary education is to frame its services in ways gradually understandable to increasing percentages of targeted implicate professionals. Our approach employs nine sets of framers for tertiary education services in support of routine, continuous innovation at the level of the individual. Framers are systematized boundaries that limit and focus the number and types of observations, analyses, assessments, and potentials that are associated with the development of personal and social capital. It is assumed that simple framers such as those presented below can be acquired by ‘ordinary’ individuals practicing implicate professionalism, and that their communication and collaboration with tertiary education can thereby expand. The framers offer new curricular “modules” capable of expressing the skill set listed above.

• Technology Framers: Understanding the technology impacts that helped to
create movement from periods of agriculture through industry, information, knowledge and innovation, with associated impacts on people, cultures, organizations, institutions, societies, and national/international/global dynamics. Equal emphasis can be placed on the social and cultural

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technologies that both precede and follow from new networks, wireless and high-speed communications, agents, distributed systems, etc.

• Context Framers: Context is critically important to the emergence,

understanding, utilization and upgrading of knowledge. Contexts may be unknown, a priori, emergent, designed, and virtual. Contexts may also be temporal (past, present, future) and may be assessed for relevance (nonexistent, low, medium, high, essential).

• Process Framers: Understanding how information is constructed from data,
becoming raw material for knowledge; how knowledge produces added choices, some of which are innovated as pilots, experiments or prototypes; how some successful pilots, experiments, and prototypes are made a part of on-going personal and collective behaviors and enterprise.

• Knowledge Framers: Understanding the critical role of how knowledge is
created and distributed, and how generally applicable these knowledge framing roles appear to be in all levels of society from the individual to the research university. Knowledge framing roles are expressed through five basic modes: -Mode 0: Knowledge-free/knowledge-rejecting/knowledgesuppressing systems (Mode 0 is the only mode that is not knowledge generative). -Mode 1: Institutional knowledge derived from basic research. -Mode 2: Institutional knowledge derived from applied research. -Mode 3: Personal knowledge derived from, and initially applied to, the individual. -Mode 4: Knowledge based on context creation, utilization, and assessment. -Mode 5: Cyber knowledge derived from, and initially applied to machines. -Mode 6: Knowledge based on the management of chaordic systems (systems that continuously phase-shift from chaos to order and back), resulting from combinations of knowledge Modes 1-5.

• Culture/Value Framers: Understanding open systems and closed systems
of self, society, purpose, vision, values, inquiry, communication, travel, etc.

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• Role Framers: Understanding types of individuals and workers common
to each of the technology framers (farmers, white collar/information workers, knowledge workers, innovative knowledge workers, context design workers).

• Learning Framers: Understanding types of pre-natal, formal/non-formal,

early childhood, primary/secondary/tertiary/post-doctoral, and lifelong learners, and their roles in the production and application of knowledge for innovational purposes.

•Application Framers: Understanding personal, organizational,

institutional, national, international, and global application points for revised and new data, information, knowledge, and inventions/innovations.

• Policy/Decision Framers: Analyzing policy options associated with the
development of the innovation society in education, economics, environment, society, individual rights and obligations, etc.

One of our guiding assumptions has been that tacit knowledge is positioned within the individual, and that explicit knowledge emerges as a product of individuals who endeavor to selectively apply their knowledge in the forms of personal and social capital in support of continuous innovation, in other words to develop innovation capital. Innovation capital is the potential, based on implicit and explicit knowledge, to apply selected innovations in personal and social lives. We assume that continuous innovation constitutes the routine application of inventions derived from both tacit and explicit knowledge. Innovation capital is a composite construct, based on other forms of capital of which there are many varieties expressed in the lives of individuals and collectives. How can re-missioned tertiary institutions prepare themselves to support learner capital development strategies, help define and apply just-in-time knowledge, and support lifelong individual improvement skills? To allow such re-missioning over a ten-year period (2004-2014), we believe that tertiary systems must: • • • • employ technologies and software to support their own, far more rapid and timely continuous innovation, know and teach the differences among innovation-related concepts such as modification, upgrade, creativity, invention, imitation, substitution, teach and model the characteristics of complex adaptive systems and “simplex proactive systems,” teach and model how to create alternative decision situations, scenarios and cultures,

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• • • •

create curricula aimed at creating more flexible, adaptable, and proactive individuals and organizations, Leverage networks of students and instructors in all seminars employ workshops and laboratories instead of lecture halls, create wireless support systems and personal area networks (peer-faculty; peer-peer; digital).

What might be some of the technology changes required to support the agenda above and to expand Mode III knowledge production over the near-term future (now through 10 years)? In leading tertiary systems, we may expect the following projections to be reasonable likelihoods between 2004 and 2014: • • • • • wireless digital will place most systems of tertiary education in direct or indirect competition, 55 mbs wireless will be operational and cheap (in many parts of the world), wired and wireless digital will permit global-scale 24/365 educational services, “smart agents” added to wireless digital will permit individualized learning contracts for all students, including all those who are part-time, learning in the work or domestic contexts, or fully/semi retired, physical campuses will be reassessed to identify their “best case” roles in the context of digitized education, one of which will be a vigorous development of Mode III knowledge production,

Sociologically, we may expect the following associated changes over 10 years: • • • • the social and personal distinctions among living, learning and working will continue to break down, the emerging venue for meaningful learning increasingly will be the individual’s own “body area,” much learning will become situation-specific to improve the practical outcomes of each learning service application, learners will begin to “upload” their experiences to learning (and other) services as part of a “prosumer” process, thereby potentially offsetting a percentage of their learning expenses,

• •

this change will become the process for establishing a unique “personal culture” and its expressions of personal capital for each individual, the purpose of education will have shifted to knowledge based learning for continuous innovation societies, based on software that replaces repetitive human labor and memorization-based learning when/wherever possible. Projected Implications for Nations in Transitions

Since the collapse of socialism, Central and Eastern European nations have been looked upon as well as considered themselves to be in the process of catching up with the rest of
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the so-called well-developed countries of the world. Two fundamental questions come into mind: First, with whom specifically are they trying to catch up? And second, why do they have to go through a stage of “catching up”; why not pass this, in our mind unnecessary, step? One of the proposed “surpassing” methods is precisely the focus on the production of Mode III knowledge and personal capital at universities. Historically, universities have displayed their talent to continuously re-invent and re-design themselves in order to better “serve” and lead the nations/regions toward human progress. In order to avoid the perpetual game of “catching-up”, we offer eight alternative archetypal personal capital development futures for Mode III innovative tertiaries for nations in transition. These types permit institutions to strategically place themselves beyond the confines of historical practice. 1. Genius-Centered Future (Individuality Product). Uniqueness development focus creates graduates capable of functioning as articulate, proactive individualists, in other words as human singularities. 2. Think Tank Future (Knowledge Worker Product). Students invent most of their own education experiences, evolving graduates capable of joining the workforce as full-fledged knowledge workers. 3. “Free” Electronic Tertiary Education/On-Campus Development Teams Future (Collaborator Product). An opportunity focus creates graduates who have worked in teams to produce patented or copyright materials while learning ‘basics’ through “free” advertiser-supported learning services. 4. Student Services-Based Curriculum Future (Student Culture Product). Students are matured within a culture nurtured by redefined and upgraded student services. Graduates leave college able to work well with graduates of similar programs. 5. Global/International Learning Future (Globalized Individuality Product). The holistic approach creates students who can work within existing and emerging global cultures. The students utilize language translation devices and in-country experiences within local/global systems development models. 6. Old Economy Personnel Development Future (Student Employee Product). A talent/interest development approach permits business and industry the opportunity to locate potential star employees earlier in life. Chosen students are financially supported throughout college while acting as apprentices. 7. Home College Future (Family Centered Convenience Product). The domestic venue permits wide age-range access to services. Co-generated curriculum

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choices. Domestic experiential learning options. Campus- & age-free services. Innovations aided by learning consultants and advanced technology. 8. Experiential Innovation Future (Context Worker Development Product). Students are selected for their capacity to integrate knowledge products. Their education is experiential in advanced contexts. They are paid to engage in tertiary education, and/or they are charged nothing on their loans while in school (current Tony Blair student loan plan). 9. Chaordic Systems Future (Chaordic Systems Design and Management Product). Students are selected for their capacity to work in the phase-shifting contexts of uncertainty, unpredictability, and limitless diversity. They are provided the latest in simulation software, including advanced games, to hone their skills at coping with chaordia. Students are helped to develop the skills to work primarily in virtual space and time. We believe that the above-mentioned nine scenarios allow for innovation based on the continuous rejuvenation of knowledge resources based on attention to the creative, inventive, and innovative individual. Even more traditional systems require applications of innovative social capital to help them survive and evolve. We contend that the production of Mode III knowledge offers stakeholders very appealing returns on investment in tertiary education, since most innovation begins in the mind of the creative individual. Coda This paper has examined a topic that until recently has remained somewhat “under cover” in tertiary education: how to prepare workforces and citizens of nations in transition for societies that are highly intellectualized, knowledge-driven, and rushing to emphasize competitive innovation on an increasingly global scale. We hope that we have provided food for thought and the support or initiation of policy alternatives. We close with these questions: What are the implications for lagging societies when other countries move forward in the development and application of Mode III knowledge? What might be the implications when some countries quickly achieve higher personal and social capital performance levels than others? When some countries lose populations and businesses because their economies are maladapted to the realities of economic systems driven by creative, collaborative, knowledgeable, and innovative individualists? What will be the differing futures of tertiary education systems that are in the vanguard or part of an atavistic historical legacy? And not least, which tertiary services will be best serve our own children in the context of emerging creative individualism? All in all, there are many different paths to be taken towards the production of innovation. Europe and Asia have been known for their coordinated (i.e., top-down)
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approaches where the governmental implementation of national innovation systems is typically perceived as the most effective guarantor and enabler of innovation. Such a strong presence of different regulatory mechanisms – even though some regulatory subsystems show high degree of flexibility – has been proven detrimental to the ability to produce knowledge and innovation effectively. Therefore, in our paper, we have proposed as well as advocated the bottom-up, Mode III knowledge production approach to innovation. We deem this path to be most consistent with the development of personal and social capital; the capital much needed in any society. Resources Allee, V. (1997). The Knowledge Evolution. NY: Butterworth-Heinemann. Amidon, D. M. (2003). The Innovation Superhighway. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann. Basalla, G. (1988). The Evolution of Technology. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. Botkin, J., et. al. (1984). The Innovators: Rediscovering America’s Creative Energy. NY: Harper and Row. Bronowski, J. (1978). The Origins of Knowledge and Imagination. New Haven: Yale University Press. Commission of the European Communities. (2004). “Communication from the Commission: The Role of the Universities in the Europe of Knowledge.” Paper presented at the OECD General Conference on Choices and Responsibilities: Higher Education in the Knowledge Society. Paris, France. September 13-15, 2004. Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1993). The Evolving Self: A Psychology for the Third Millennium. NY: Harper Perennial. Cleveland, H. (2002). Nobody in Charge: Essays on the Future of Leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Dent, H. (1998). The Roaring 2000s. NY: Touchstone. Drucker, P. (1999). Management Challenges for the 21st Century. NY: Harper Business. Flood, R. L. (1999). Rethinking the Fifth Discipline: Learning Within the Unknowable. London: Routledge. Florida, R. (2002). The Rise of the Creative Class. New York: Basic Books. Foster, R. N. (1986). Innovation: The Attacker’s Advantage. New York: Summit Books.

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Gibbons, M., Limoges, C., Nowotny, H., Schwartzman, S., Scott, P., & Trow, M. (1994). The New Production of Knowledge. London: Sage. Gilfillan, S.E. (1935) The Sociology of Innovation. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Hall, P. A., & Soskice, D. (2001). Varieties of Capitalism: The Institutional Foundations of Comparative Advantage. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Harkins, A. M. (2002). “The Futures of Career and Technical Education in a Continuous Innovation Society.” Journal of Vocational Education Research, Volume 27, Issue 1. Harkins, A. M. & Kubik, G. (July, 2002). “The Costs of Legacy-Based Thinking: RetroPreparation for the Industrial Age.” On The Horizon, 9, 4. Harkins, A. M. & Kubik, G. (September, 2002). “Legacy-Based Thinking II: Resisting New Tools and Competencies.” On The Horizon, 9, 5. Harkins, A. M. & Kubik, G. (November, 2002). “After Competency: Performance Base Innovation.” On The Horizon, 9, 6. Harkins, A. M. (2003). “Re-Missioning Higher Education for Knowledge and Innovation: Supporting the Leadership Roles of All Individuals.” Theory of Science, XII (XXV)3. Harkins, A. M., & Fiala, B. (January, 2003). “Personal Capital and Virtual Selves: Learning to Manage the Five ‘Divides.” On The Horizon, 10, 1. Harkins, A. M. (Spring, 2003). “In Their Dreams: Paradigm Alternatives and the Marketing of Responsive Educational Services.” On The Horizon, 11, 1. Harkins, A. M. (Winter, 2003). “The Futures of Career And Technical Education in a Continuous Innovation Society.” Journal of Vocational Education Research, 27(1). Harloe, M., & Beth, P. (2004). “Rethinking or Hollowing Out the University? External engagement and Internal Transformation in the Knowledge Economy.” Paper presented at the OECD General Conference on Choices and Responsibilities: Higher Education in the Knowledge Society. Paris, France. September 13-15, 20044. Horibe, F. (2001). Creating the Innovation Culture: Leveraging Visionaries, Dissenters and Other Useful Troublemakers in Your Organization. New York: John Wiley and Sons. Kash, D. E. (1989). Perpetual Innovation: The New World of Competition. New York: Basic Books. Kelly, K. (1998). New Rules for the New Economy. New York: Penguin.

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Kuhn, R. L., ed. (1993). Generating Creativity and Innovation in Large Bureaucracies. Westport, CT: Quorum Books. Leonard-Barton, D. (1995). Wellsprings of Knowledge: Building and Sustaining Sources of Innovation. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press. McElroy, M.W. (2003). The New Knowledge Management: Complexity, Learning and Sustainable Innovation. New York: Butterworth-Heinemann Moravec, H. (1999). Robot. New York: Oxford. Negroponte, N. (1996). Being Digital. New York: Vintage. Nonaka, I. (November-December, 1991). “The Knowledge-Creating Company,” Harvard Business Review. Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development. (2004). Innovation in the Knowledge Economy: Implications for Education and Learning. Paris: OECD. Oliver, R. (2000). The Coming Biotech Age. New York: McGraw-Hill. Owen, H. (2001). How Good Can You Be? Grow Your Personal Capital. London: Perseus. Pinchot, G. & Pinchot, E. (1994). The End of Bureaucracy and the Rise of the Intelligent Organization. San Francisco, CA: Barrett-Koehler Publishers. Pine, B. Joseph II. (1993). Mass Customization: The Next Frontier of Business Competition. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press. Quinn, J. B. (1992). The Intelligent Enterprise: A Knowledge and Service Based Paradigm for Industry. New York: The Free Press. Rogers, D. M. Amidon. (1989). Global Innovation Strategy: Creating Value-Added Alliances. Austin, TX: University of Texas. Rogers, E. M. (2002). Diffusion of Innovations, 4th edition. New York: The Free Press. Sakaiya, T. (1991). The Knowledge-Value Revolution: A History of the Future. New York: Kodansha America. Senge, P. M. (1990). The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization. New York: Bantam Dell Publishing Group. Savage, C. M. (1996). Fifth Generation Management, Revised Edition. New York: Butterworth-Heinemann.
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Schwartz, P., Leyden, P., & Hyatt, J. (1999). The Long Boom. Reading, MA.: Perseus. Tatsuno, S. (1990). Created in Japan. From Imitators to World Class Innovators. New York: Harper Business-Ballinger. Thurow, L. (1992). Head to Head: The Coming Economic Battle Among Japan, Europe and America. New York: William Morrow. von Hipple, Eric. (1998). The Sources of Innovation. New York: Oxford University Press. von Krogh, G., Ichijo, K., & Nonaka, I. (2000). Enabling Knowledge Creation: How to Unlock the Mystery of Tacit Knowledge and Release the Power of Innovation. New York: Oxford University Press. Winslow, C. D., & Bramer, W. L. (1994). Future Work: Putting Knowledge to Work in the Knowledge Economy. New York: The Free Press. Zuboff, S. (1989). In the Age of the Smart Machine. New York: Basic Books. Zuboff, S. (2002). The Support Economy. New York: Viking.

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[On The Horizon, Spring 2006]

Leapfrogging Toward the ‘Singularity:’ Innovative Knowledge Production on Market-Driven Campuses by Arthur M. Harkins George H. Kubik University of Minnesota Abstract In this article we focus on the production and application of seven knowledge production Modes in support of continuous innovation societies (CIS). CIS have moved into and through the transition from information to knowledge resources, permitting them to compete with other societies beginning to use knowledge products as the raw materials for continuous innovation. We construct seven tertiary educational archetypes as engines for creating and supporting CIS, with attention to the modal types of knowledge that each produces together with markets for this knowledge. The most important “on the horizon” type of knowledge we identify for the future of tertiary education is Mode III, or knowledge produced by and for the individual. We project the division of knowledge production within tertiary education through leadership or lagging indicator choices, and the associated roles of faculty, students, and stakeholders. Special emphasis is placed on the future of leapfrog campus, or the campus capable of, or aspiring to, new leadership status in support of CIS. Key Words • • • • • • • campus archetypes innovation leapfrog campus knowledge Modes knowledge production personal capital singularity

The ‘Singularity’ and Emerging CIS In 1999 Ray Kurzweil proposed that advanced societies are moving toward the ‘singularity,’ a transformation composed of ever briefer, overlapping S-curves of change. Such increasingly unpredictable rates and directions of exponential change were to be driven by ubiquitous, high-volume networks associated with integrated artificial intelligence and genetic engineering. Kurzweil’s projection included the assumption that, as the ‘singularity’ approached, software supported
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education would erode the teaching roles of faculty and propel them toward new roles in support of what we have chosen to call CIS. He projected a fascinating role for advanced learning systems: creating virtual realities on- and over-thehorizon to partially compensate for the reduced efficacy of forecasts and the impossibility of prediction. Kurzweil’s future is one that we have chosen to accept as a reality for knowledge-driven innovation societies. We believe it is already in an early stage of development, and has already strongly impacted the workforces of advanced societies. Such impact produced the knowledge industries, but rapid change is already demonstrating a growing capacity to automate or off-shore much codified knowledge and the means to produce it. The CIS is a natural outcome of these processes, already long demonstrated in the automation and off-shoring of white collar informational, industrial, and agricultural work. A Rationale for New Leadership in Tertiary Education Our position is that the future of tertiary education is a highly pluralistic one. Many “markets” are served by colleges and universities worldwide, including the religious and faith-based, secular-commercial, technical-scientific, artshumanities, and so on. It is not our intent to focus on these markets in particular. Instead, we will use descriptions to explore the generic properties of tertiary systems that may or may not effectively support knowledge-based continuous innovation societies or CIS. We identify seven campus types with modal approaches to innovation-relevant knowledge production. A knowledge Mode is not a pure type, but rather a strong product emphasis on the part of the particular campus. Of these seven Modes, we believe there are two, Modes V-VI, which no university yet produces. The Modes are: • Mode 0: Static knowledge and/or suppression of knowledge production and distribution (Laurene Christensen, University of Minnesota seminar in Knowledge Formats and Applications, 2002). Production of primary knowledge based on intellectual traditional and/or critically reviewed work within cohorts of peers (Gibbons, et. al., 1994). Production of knowledge for enterprise applications (Gibbons, et. al., 1994). Production of knowledge by individuals, initially for use by the originating persons (Harkins, University of Minnesota knowledge seminar, 2002). Production of knowledge for context innovations, affecting the definitions, descriptions, and utilizations of cultural, intellectual,
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• Mode I:

• Mode II: • Mode III:

• Mode IV:

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and physical frameworks and settings (Harkins, University of Minnesota knowledge seminar, 2004). • Mode V: Production of knowledge by software and machines (not yet possible for any campus or other type of human system) (Harkins, University of Minnesota knowledge seminar, 2003). Production of chaordic knowledge by all Modes, including Mode 0. Mode 0 is also a source of complexity despite its characteristic emphasis on static knowledge or rejection of new knowledge. Based on the concept of chaordia management, or the orchestration of complex, unpredictable systems, Mode VI knowledge is associated with Ray Kurzweil’s “singularity,” or the expansion of complexity beyond the capacity to predict, forecast, or fundamentally understand the behavior of human, post-human, and AI systems. (Harkins, University of Minnesota knowledge seminar, Spring 2004.)

• Mode VI:

Of the seven knowledge Modes, we believe that Mode III is currently the most important and the most in need of development. We believe that the absence of support for Mode III knowledge inhibits development of knowledge Modes IV-VI, and sometimes tacitly or explicitly supports knowledge Mode 0. In Mode III knowledge production, learning has the goal of enhancing personal capital, or the value-producing effects of personal capabilities. This is in contrast to the previous goals of Mode I ‘knowledge for knowledge’s sake’ (Gibbons, et al.), and Mode II, or knowledge that is socially contextualized, transdisciplinary, and pragmatic (Gibbons et al.). The overall effect of Mode III is to mobilize the individual’s capacity to contribute to the production of knowledge and innovation. The production of Mode-appropriate context is critical for campuses aspiring to maintain Mode III knowledge leadership or ascend to it. Failure to emphasize the creativity of the individual, we believe, directly and indirectly inhibits the development of Modes IV-VI. Inattention to Mode III knowledge production can result in knowledge “blind spots” such as anomie, or the learner’s lack of a sense of purpose or individual benefit from the efforts of encountering ideas, information and knowledge. Another blind spot may be characterized as a “snapshot effect” of knowledge production – that knowledge is an endgame accumulation of facts and institutional culture rather than raw material applied to continuously regenerative cycles of performance and innovation within leading tertiary systems and CIS. Seven Archetypal Campuses

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Having stated the importance of several knowledge production Modes I-III, we now explore how these are logically associated with the archetypal or heuristic campuses that we describe below, each of which has a different ‘mix’ of contexts, knowledge producers and knowledge consumers. The archetypal campus descriptions we shall propose for these knowledge Modes are heuristic, designed to stimulate thought, discussion, and planning for the future. We have assigned the seven campuses identifying names, while recognizing that physical campuses are not necessary components of many tertiary education futures. We also recognize that, in practice, it may be difficult to declare any particular campus a clear example of one of the campus archetypes. We further recognize that departments or units, not whole campuses, are usually the drivers of excellence or mediocrity and leadership or laggardliness. The seven campuses, each “buffered” by its own selection and production of knowledge, practices, and markets, are: • • • • • • • Chaordic Campus Visionary Campus Strategic Campus Tactical Campus Existential Campus Retro Campus Leapfrog Campus

Chaordic campus is hypothetical. Encompassing knowledge Modes I-VI, it demonstrates the capacity to organize successively, and rapidly, to thrive during the emergence of chaordic society -- a society attempting to derive value from both chaos and order. We project that chaordic society will be produced by the “singularity,” Ray Kurzweil’s term for a condition of hyper-rapid, overlapping, short-lived S-curves offering minimum certainty and poor forecastability. This state is brought on by enormous technological and software change. Building blocks for the singularity are already appearing in faster chips, early intuitive software, and ubiquitous wireless network access. Chaordic campus is buffered by imagination, the construction of virtual future scenarios and worlds, and the “backcasting” of futures into the present with the intent of expanding awareness and decision options. In our opinion, no campus of this type exists in 2004. . Visionary campus demonstrates leadership emphasizing the creation of future(s). A large fraction of its departments are bold, experimental, pioneering, and of high prestige. This campus is known for its extrapolations and creative designs of relatively long-range futures (e.g., two or more generations and beyond). Visionary campus is buffered by boldness, leadership, strategic purposing, elite reputation, and iconic power. Knowledge production in these campuses is vast, covering production Modes 1- V. Critically, Visionary campus is the source of innovative context production, or the pioneering of social, cultural, conceptual, and physical ‘spaces’ required for the creation and
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nurturance of value-adding ideas and innovations. In our opinion, only a few campuses of this type exist in 2004. Strategic campus is less bold than visionary campus in the creation of futures. Engaged in production Modes 1-II, it strives to position itself within the “responsible, competent, and value-adding” research niche created by respected government, industry, and foundation funding sources. Its time envelope can extend as far as visionary campus, but does not match the latter’s bold leadership toward creation of futures. Strategic campus is buffered by conventional risk-taking, general lack of boldness, conventional research and development activities and applications, and adherence to the empirical Model and its processes. First-rank research campuses exemplify strategic campus. Tactical campus also operates from a near-future Mode I-II perspective. Its market is the next two-to-four years, in part because it is inclined to track employment opportunities in traditional workforce professions such as law, business, medicine, engineering, dentistry, and agriculture. Tactical campus may have a strong research mission, but its research tends to focus on futures already projected by relatively short term workforce planning, straight-line trend analysis of labor needs, and the availability of professional training funds and infrastructure. Tactical campus is buffered by congruence with conventionally educated pubic opinion, short- term economic practicality, and ‘common sense.’ Service and professional schools of lesser research rank exemplify tactical campus. . Existential campus works hard to meet the consensual needs of the present and near-past through production of “lagging indicator” Mode II knowledge. Its market is immediate, since it is a prime source of educated and trained labor for police forces, social work, home economics, teaching, coaching, business, and student services. Existential campus usually stresses teaching far more energetically than original research. Its reputation among local business and fraternal organizations is ideally high. Existential campus is buffered by dutifulness, pliability, and the immediate labor force acceptability of its generally unremarkable graduates. Existential campus may be built around conventional curricula delivered via digitally-based distance education. Service schools exemplify existential campus. Retro campus, based on Mode 0 knowledge, reaffirms the consensual past and works to protect students from the shock of reassessed histories, contemporary novelty, and threatening futures. Retro campus often features conservative boards, timid students, and cautious faculty. Watchful parents expect retro campus to shield their children from experiences that would expand their minds, cause values to be questioned, or put them into association with students representing non-traditional, forward-thinking role Models. Retro campus frequently has a small endowment and faces persistent survival problems. Retro campus is buffered by the resolute avoidance of sin or its secular equivalents,
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comfort with piety, relatively weak student personae, and relatively subservient, unassertive faculty. Schools with highly conservative clientele exemplify retro campus. Leapfrog campus selectively discards tradition so that it can take advantage of fortuitous opportunities to enjoy the status of visionary campus with the promise of evolving toward chaordic campus. Leapfrog campus is prepared to abandon its previous niches, create new contexts, and vault into uncharted knowledge development and innovative leadership. Such visionary re-purposing may be driven by a small cadre of leaders or by a single individual. These individuals may benefit by collaborating with an outside agency such as a large industry or a visionary government ministry. Leapfrog campus is buffered by individualism, exasperation with rigid administration, a world class visionary process in at least one project or department, and the willingness to seek external, frequently unconventional or bold collaborators and partners. Just as in the case of chaordic campus, the core knowledge production focus of leapfrog campus is expressed through Modes I-VI but with special emphasis upon the drivers inherent in Mode III knowledge production. Schools with world-class leadership in one or more units exemplify leapfrog campus. Leapfrog campus is a logical path to future leadership for the majority of campuses. It already boasts exponents worldwide. We will now explore some of its potentials for the support of CIS. Evolving a Functional Leapfrog Campus Tertiary education in contemporary societies impacts the level of social welfare, economic growth, and scientific/technological progress. While some countries have been shifting to a new educational paradigm, the tertiary education systems of many countries are still in transition from an industrial model to informational one. Putting it another way, they are mired in Mode 1 and Mode II knowledge. Despite the use of computers and Internet on such campuses, planned and administratively centralized structures have prevailed. These campuses rely heavily on rapidly depreciating structural capital and high-cost hierarchical bureaucracies. Exceptional campuses are turning toward the growing challenges of CIS or knowledge-based innovation societies requiring the creative use of Mode III personal capital among faculty, students, partners, and collaborators. To accomplish this, they must 1) engage in movement toward Mode III knowledge production; and 2) continuously produce Mode IV context innovation to create the social and cultural environments required for their own selftransformations in pursuit of Mode V and VI status. The world economy is growing more competitive, complex, and volatile. The economies of all countries, therefore, need to leapfrog into knowledge and innovation. This will permit them to develop knowledge that can add value to successful companies and other organizations. Redefining and rebuilding the
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missions of campuses to equip students with the skills and knowledge required by the modern global economy means taking advantage of diverse thinking and new interdisciplinary curricula. These changes are the basics of leapfrog campus when they are coupled with a drive toward innovation undergirded by unique expressions of personal capital. Leapfrog campus permits faculty and students to seize upon new ideas and to join the ranks of the more visionary campuses. The mechanics of this boldness involve shifting the roles of faculty and students initially driven by Mode III knowledge production: • • • Individual projects based on self-disciplined inquiry vs. instructorcontrolled curricular downloads; Student- and team-centered learning collaborations vs. group-centered cooperative learning; Rapid creation of value-adding partnerships with public and private collaborators.

For shifts such to take place, faculty and students must agree to develop and apply their personal capital along individualistic pathways. Individualists can then choose to collaborate in creating curricula, projects and programs that can increase the likelihood that their campus may achieve leapfrog and eventual visionary status. How might any campus leapfrog to the visionary level? We suggest that this process requires a strategic focus on selected leapfrog projects, rather than attempts to move forward an entire campus. Wholesale conversion of entire campuses to leapfrog standards would be asking far too much of most faculties and students, not to mention administrators, trustees, or legislators. Leapfrog campus focuses on developing solutions for a vexing problem: what to do with innovations when they cannot be integrated within existing contexts? Context is critically important to the production of Mode III-based personal capital and the achievement of visionary campus status. Context Modes may be unknown, a priori, emergent, designed, and virtual. Contexts may also be temporal (past, present or future), and may be assessed for relevance (none, low, medium, high, or essential). Leapfrog campus permits students to work from existing innovation-in-context case studies, and to create virtual context studies. Both efforts are intended to better define creativity-supporting contexts, with emphasis on meeting the criteria of innovatively produced personal capital. Such capital fuels the CIS or knowledge based innovation society. Leapfrog campus defies academic traditions in order to permit performances that are associated with the leadership of visionary campus and the promise of chaordic campus. How is this accomplished? How are shifts away from
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tradition, buildings, and inflexible disciplines undertaken? How are individualism, personal capital, collaboration, and innovational leadership emphasized? Leapfrog campuses have the power to support CIS in a number of ways. They can: • • develop leadership based on ‘friendly distancing,’ in which stultifying traditions are by-passed rather than challenged; balance conventional progress with leapfrog leadership, in which the project or other leapfrog effort is placed in parallel with the traditional infrastructure of the institution while operating differently with the help of its partner(s); overcome professional limitations through faculty adjuncts as well as faculty volunteers, in which faculty needs are met expediently by bringing aboard willing, competent team members whose freedoms are not limited by departmental conservatism, hostile chairs or deans, or envious colleagues; overcome student inertia through special orientation and recruitment workshops, in which student volunteers are engaged in a reflexive boot camp with faculty and collaborators to help determine readiness for the project and even the dimensions of the project itself; overcome financial limitations by seeking outside partners, in which monies are sought from directly involved collaborators rather than relatively distant foundations or ministries, etc.; place innovation before tradition, in which, for purposes of the project, a studied disregard for encumbering tradition is replaced by enthusiastic support of the new heresy; turn risks into assets, in which the threat of shame and failure is transformed into conviction, zeal, and the expectation of success; turn problems into opportunities, in which the tradition of “solving problems” is replaced by the leadership of “creating opportunities,” often out of problems; create a culture of individualism and collaboration based on focused personal capital development, in which faculty, students and collaborators continuously grow their capabilities as individuals and choice-rich team members; create, not merely support, knowledge, innovation and context productivity, in which the needs of the knowledge based innovation society are not only met but surpassed, particularly in context production; anticipate ascension to the ranks of elite visionary campuses as an inevitability, in which cultural cross-overs between visionary campus and the leapfrog campus become routine; publicly identify with knowledge based innovation societies and partnering with them, in which the leapfrog campus becomes a symbol, as well as a partial source of, the emerging new society.

• • • • •

• •

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The personal capital base of leapfrog campus is developed energetically and continuously. Involved faculty, students, and collaborators work hard at creating a campus culture that supports leapfrog efforts and the knowledge based innovation society. A broad approach to the curriculum of leapfrog campus would probably include at least these components: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • an all-pervading use of distributed information to eliminate ‘reinventions of the wheel,’ particularly in curricula; the use of virtual case studies, multiple-perspective scenarios, ethnographic futures research, Delphi, trend analysis, forecasts and projections, retro-casts, and constructed alternative futures; principals of systems design, including complex, adaptive, selforganizing, and frequently far-from-equilibrium individuals, groups and organizations; principals of culture design, including the development of ‘instant’ traditions and transition stories; principals of invention and innovation, for facilitating the creation and application of selected configurations of leapfrog efforts and focuses; issues and trends research and assessments, including the interfaces between global and local dynamics; simulations, including dynamic computer Modeling of education, community, and other systems; interactive experiential learning, especially forms supported by wirelessly delivered software; collaborations, including working within the interfacial cultures established with collaborators; visionary purposing and goal setting, for short, medium, and longrange goals; comparative analysis, for determining the quality of design and application efforts; anticipatory leadership for the personalization of design and application efforts; opportunity generation for employing creativity in deconstructive as well as constructive ways; ‘contingent potentials’ to replace obsolete tactical and strategic plans that constrain adaptability and flexibility; context mining and refining, to take maximum advantage of existing, prototypical, and projected learning and R&D contexts; continuous environmental scanning and foresight to identify, assess, and prioritize emergent and projected leapfrog opportunities.

Such transdisciplinary characteristics permit leapfrog campus to seriously attempt convergences with exemplars of visionary campus. The prospect of such equivalence is a heady intoxicant to leapfrog campus practitioners, stakeholders and collaborators because they see nothing standing between themselves and greatness save themselves and their change-resistant traditions
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and practices. Thus, the ‘secret’ of leapfrog campus is transcending limited selfdefinitions. This can be accomplished through appropriate alterations in vision, purposing, expressions of personal capital, and transformations of curricula and pedagogies. Leapfrog campus is an always-available alternative for lagging programs and departments in all the campus archetypes, including visionary campus. In many ways, leapfrog campus is the best hope for emerging CIS and for societies in agricultural, industrial, or informational economies. Founding the Singularity: Knowledge Production Modes IV-VI In this article we examined the futures of tertiary education through the production and application of knowledge Modes, including context production, in support of the knowledge based CIS or continuous innovation society. We constructed and applied seven tertiary campus archetypes as the engines of change, with particular attention to leapfrog campus. We did not discuss in any detail the application of technology. Indeed, the application of advanced technology bodes well for visionary and leapfrog campuses, but to a qualitatively lesser degree for strategic, tactical, existential, and retro campuses. In our opinion, visionary and leapfrog campuses stand to increase their leadership through advanced technology by moving rapidly toward simulations, instantly accessible memory, and prompting agents as replacements for routine instruction, thereby releasing human resources for more rapid development and deployment. We expect the other campuses either to lag in this process (e.g., retro campus) or to focus their efforts on cost reductions in conventional memory-based instruction (e.g., strategic, tactical, and existential campuses). We expect visionary and leapfrog campuses to co-lead with business and industry in what we believe will become a step beyond knowledge based innovation societies: context production and application leading toward Kurzweil’s singularity. It is the absence of context capital – the production of settings for successful innovations -- that so often inhibits the prototyping and implementation of innovations. Hence, we expect visionary and leapfrog campuses to help initiate the foundations of a context creation industry. We expect the arrival of Mode IV knowledge in the coming decades, and we are confident that, as in the case of Mode V context development, visionary and leapfrog campuses will pioneer initial collaborations with artificial intelligence, the projected primary source of Mode IV knowledge. No current archetypes are better able to participate in the integration of Mode IV and Mode V knowledge production than visionary campus and leapfrog campus. This will help set the stage for Mode VI knowledge production, a major source of support for chaordic societies, the futures of which cannot be predicted or even reliably projected. In this, we concur with the scenarios of singularity impacts
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envisioned by Kurzweil and Bell (Kurzweil, 1999; Bell, 2003). In the chaordic society, order and chaos interplay continuously, leading to routine transformational changes. Chaordic campus is a logical extension beyond visionary campus, and the most likely setting for the end of mass education and the beginning of individually customized majors, minors, certificates, and other self-enhancing services delivered 24/7 by personal capital service organizations. For now, however, tertiary support of continuous innovation societies will depend upon the rapid development of Mode III knowledge production in support of personal capital. Personal capital, too little valued at present, will deplete antiintellectual tendencies (in America, for example) and help launch the emergence of Modes IV-VI. In our opinion, the societies most likely to lead at the beginning of this race are Australia, Canada, China, Denmark, Finland, Japan, South Korea, Sweden, and the United States. But this list could change dramatically depending upon whether these or other CIS-focused societies can transform their tertiary education systems into leading indicators of knowledge-based continuous innovation. Yet they may have no choice, since it is the CIS societies that will give birth to the singularity. We can expect they shall bear the brunt of its emergence, as they will constitute the leapfrog societies.

Resources Allee, V. (2003). The future of knowledge: Increasing prosperity through value networks. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann. Amidon, Debra. (2003). The innovation superhighway: Harnessing intellectual capital for sustainable collaborative advantage. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann. Bell, J. (2003). Exploring the “singularity.” The futurist (37, 3, 18-24). Cleveland, H. (2002). Nobody in charge: Essays on the future of leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Director-General for Enterprise (2001). Innovation policy issues in seven candidate countries: The challenges. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. Elaine Dundon. (2002). The seeds of innovation: Cultivating the synergy that fosters new ideas. NY: American Management Association. Ford, P. (2002). Beyond the Modern university: Toward a constructive postmodern university. Westport, CT: Praeger. Gibbons, M., Limoges, C., Nowotny, H., Schwartzman, S., Scott, P., & Trow, M. (1994). The new production of knowledge. London: Sage.
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Marshall Goldsmith (Editor), Ian Somerville (Editor), Frances Hesselbein. (2001). Leading for innovation & organizing for results. NY: Jossey-Bass. Harkins, A. (1998). Global academies as strategic self-organizing think tanks. Josef A. Mestenhauser and Brenda J. Ellingboe (eds.). Reforming the higher education curriculum: Internationalizing the campus. Phoenix: Oryx Press. ________. (2003). Re-missioning higher education for knowledge and innovation: Supporting the leadership roles of all individuals. Theory of Science, XII (XXV) 3, 45-58. _______. (2003). The futures of career and technical education in a continuous innovation society. Journal of Vocational Education Research (27, 1, 1-30). _______ & Fiala, B. (2002). Personal capital and virtual selves: Learning to manage the five ‘divides’. On The Horizon (10, 3, 22-27). ________& Vysoka, A. (2004). Knowledge based innovation in tertiary education: Contexts, missions and capital production. Paris Conference on Knowledge and Innovation, August (to be published in Theory of Science, Fall 2004). Horibe, Frances. (2001) Creating the innovation culture : Leveraging visionaries, dissenters & other useful troublemakers. NY: John Wiley. Kurzweil, R. (1990). The age of intelligent machines. Boston: MIT Press. _________. (1999). The age of spiritual machines: When computers exceed human intelligence. New York: Viking Penguin. McElroy, M. (2003). The new knowledge management: Complexity, learning, and sustainable innovation. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann. Owen, H. (2003). Growing your personal capital. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Perseus. Von Krogh, G., Ichijo, K., and Nonaka, I. (2000). Enabling knowledge creation: How to unlock the mystery of tacit knowledge and release the power of innovation. NY: Oxford University Press.

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VIRTUAL LEARNING COMMUNITIES
by Brenda Stewart Arthur Harkins Janet Grochowski University of Minnesota WORLD FUTURE SOCIETY 15 July 1996

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I. Introduction Electronic networks soon will feature high portability, videophones, personalized servers, intelligence amplification, and a variety of virtual reality formats. Just as corporations are moving to virtual venues, it is expected that customized, reflexive Virtual Learning Communities (VLCs) will develop on the foundations provided by better hardware, software, bandwidth, and switching. VLCs are explored through projected interactive global and local area networks (supported by Iridium satellites, LANS, intranets, etc.). This integration of the individual and the technology focuses on the impact the technology has upon the individual and the individual’s impact upon the use of technology. Using a complex adaptive systems’ framework, the flexibility of the structure of the community is examined. VLC’s can also be viewed in autopoetic contexts which brings forth the metaphor of an organizational “Petri dish.” VLCs are projected as self-organizing tactical and strategic learning support entities with lifespans driven by preference, expediency, cost, outcomes, and other measures. II. Ergonomic Eugenics: Individual (and possibly organic) convergence of communication, personal computer, and virtual reality technology with increasing in bandwidth capacity. Currently, ergonomics in computers are operating in hardware and software venues at the level of making computing more physically comfortable for the users. There is nothing natural about using a keyboard or a mouse. It is more natural to communicate through speech. The concessions communities and individuals have made to computer technology include climate-controlled (often cold) atmospheres, confined to desks and chairs placed at specific heights and angles, and lack of computability between software packages and operating systems. Virtual Learning Communities will be able to flourish in a more portable, a more comfortable computing environment whose trend is to be smaller faster, and (we hope) more compatible with each other. This impact of the technology upon the individual forces the individual to adapt to the (currently) limited and logical realm in which the technology is most effective. Electronic communication technologies continue to improve in speed of communication and expanding the accessibility of information to others. In avoidance of ‘information overload’ soft-bots and software agents have been developed to filter and categorize incoming and ever increasing supply of information made available to those individuals and communities who are taking advantage of the electronic communications capability (e.g. through the Internet). VLCs take advantage of the informational support provided by these technologies in a continuous and filtered manner that hardware and software networks provide on-demand,
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and/or with the help of electronic agents. Already informational software agents are being used to search for information on real-time and ATM (asynchronous) networks. These software agents are easily personalized and task oriented. One person could have several software agents search for and filtering through information in various electronic forums. The strength of the software agents comes in their collective ability to provide kernels of relevant information to its user(s). Individuals within a Virtual Learning Community may have hundreds or thousands of these software agents seeking information in a collective manner. A hive of agents, each with their own task who are programmed to bring the information back and present or store it in a sorted manner for the use of the communities. The continual convergence of technology places a wider range of single- and multi-media informational databases at the finger tips of the individuals within the Community. The increased help in searching for information is translated into increased time to look for emerging trends and synergetic matches in the information for the VLC’s primary and secondary customer needs. The individuals in the community have the capacity to simultaneously create new and value-added knowledge for the community with novel strategies for sharing information and newly created knowledge throughout the community. The VLC and its members are continually looking for connections between information and needs, instead of only searching for information. Individuals can have as great of impact upon the use of the technology as the technology has upon the individuals. Most people find uses for the technology for which it was not originally designed or suited. The technologies adapt to their users by incorporating some of these user-created features into software programs or hardware devices. The term ‘kludge’ is used for such patched together systems that were not built and used as designed, but adapted or made to fit an individuals needs. One example of this kludging of technology by the individuals is the originally designed use of AARPANet was to transfer scientific data between academic institutions between U.S. and European academic institutions. A nifty feature of this new network was the capability to send more personalized mail via this same system that was designed to transmit scientific data. Thus email was born and bulletin boards, gopher systems, and the world wide web soon followed. Individuals continue to create the need for greater bandwidth technologies and faster transmission speeds. If there were no communities on the other end of the technology to demand greater used to apply the technologies to their ideas, then there would be little need for next generation technologies. This line of logic rapidly turns into a ‘which-came-first-the-chicken-or-theegg’ argument. Both individuals and technology impact each other and co-evolve together as communities build new knowledge and create needs for new technologies. Information is continuously looped through both individuals and the technologies they use.

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The VLC learns more than just though electronic informational management. The key is in the interfaces between the capacities informational processes, the customers real and anticipated needs, and the individuals working within the mission-directed, generationoriented environment. The VLC as a defined entity generated a system of technological, informational and knowledge nodes of interaction which perpetuates the “genetic” memory of the communities and allows system to exist at a certain level beyond just the collection of the individuals and their technologies. III. Multifacial, Complex and Adaptive: VLCs are simultaneously customers and clients within their self-designed mission/visions. Ideas of networked, collaborative communities come from people who are willing to look at the role they plan within a group or community and are able to create new roles for themselves within the group as the group defines itself. This model of the internetworked enterprise relies upon the interface of the community with the electronic. Community networks run in combination with electronic ones; it is sometime difficult to determine where one ends and the other begins. The increasing use of agents in every field is blurring the line even more. However, enhancement of reflection due to the capabilities of technology to do computation information retrieval increases the effectiveness of the individual. Learning Communities are complex adaptive systems that operate from fundamental principles within which the culture and the productivity of the community evolve. The principles of VLCs are founded on both structural and community (or cultural) aspects. Characteristics of complex adaptive systems include: • • • • • Self-Organizing and Learning Guided by Schema (Rules, Principles of Action, Ideals) Order is Emergent; Not Predetermined Often Unpredictable Adaptation May Be Easy or Difficult; Instantaneous or Delayed in Time

Within these broad concepts of the learning community and complex adaptive systems exist multifacial models of the individual and the community. Both the individual and the community can be seen to exist in structural and cultural patterns which each uses to perform day-to-day activities. Complex behaviors emerge as the patterns interface and generate new patterns of understanding and operation. As new information or environmental change is introduced into the individual, and subsequently the community, the potential to adapt the rules upon which the schema is founded, or to adapt the application of the rules, is greater within an organizational culture which is interested in re-generating and improving itself. Both the VLC and the individuals within are a complex adaptive systems. These systems have schema which are used to filter incoming information. The purpose of the schema
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is to compress the incoming information and to look for regularities which fit the schema. Information which does not fit the schema may be either disregarded or used to change the schema. The adaptation of the schema to fit the new data may be difficult or easy, instantaneous or delayed. Emergent behaviors of complex adaptive systems interact with each other in a manner in which each person’s behavior is information to another person’s schema. Individuals focus on constructing interfaces between the new information and their existing schema, emergent knowledge and ideas. The technology supports rapid interface of communication between individuals regardless of geography or the need to be synchronous in one’s communications with others. Construction of new ideas and solutions occur at the interface of these logical technologies and emotional individuals. Each person’s schema are the basic assumptions one carries with them. These assumptions change as the context one lives and works in changes. Knowledge is constructed from the learning that takes place when individuals internalize the skills and information brought forth by others. This information and newly constructed knowledge is useful to the individuals and community schema is it confirms the image and identity held by oneself (or the collective of the selves within the communities). There exist dominate and recessive schema to both the structural and cultural schema from which the individuals and communities act. These layers are not meant to be labels for a taxonomy of the learning community, but as interfacial boundaries from which difference in preference, expediency, cost, outcomes, and other measures may reside, and the dissonance in these boundaries helps hold and create the creative tension necessary for the development of new knowledge and understanding. IV. Strategic Pasts, Presents and Futures: VLC’s can exist within the strategic past, present or future. VLCs are projected as self-organizing tactical and strategic learning support entities. Many communities are in need rapid development of virtual communities within their traditional structures. The recognition of the strategic pasts, presents and futures act as environments which can be future responsive and future generating. Within the ‘strategic past,’ VLCs are able to redefine and re-orient themselves in relationship to past trends with regard to decisions that need to be made in the present and an eye to the future development of its customer relations. Within in the strategic present, compressed decision times require the deliberate creation of ‘fast traditions, ‘conditional rules, ‘intentional cultures,’ ‘anticipatory customer relationships,’ and similar variations on organizational cultures. ‘

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Strategic Futures’ are the creation of cultures and potentials beyond the bow wave of the existing organizational and customer relationships. The development of these ‘strategic futures’ can draw the VLCs forward toward positive customer-oriented missions. The co-development and continuing focus on community and electronic networking technologies allows for generative growth of the VLCs’ missions through the creation and capabilities strategic pasts, presents and futures. VLCs are strategically developed to exist at the individual, team or organizational level. Within the most effective and reflexive VLCs, the number of VLC members may balloon or shrink to maximize effectiveness, support tactical and strategic learning. They are entities with lifespans driven by preference, expediency, cost, outcomes, and other measures. This responsiveness to their environment is due to attention to the interface between the customer, the market and the VLC. VLCs are developed in a just-in-time or just-in-ahead of time basis. Their appearance within other communities is as cultural bubble connected through technology and other customer interfaces to look at the processes of applying information and knowledge in a zero-gap and zero-lag time frame. Tasks and goals are developed from the immediate and anticipated needs to the customers for the VLCs as well as from within the VLC as new knowledge and information resources generate new learning /product-producing opportunities. Ideally, the degree of connectivity within the “ergonomic eugenic” networks would allow for opportunities to immediately locate the individual, team or community which would be the best performer for that need along with the necessary information to complete the task or goal. Because of the importance of being connected as well as looking to connect, VLCs operate on an on-call and generative manner. V. Organizational Petri Dish: Metaphor for the intentional creation of cultures and the adaptability of VLCs. The metaphor of a Petri dish describes VLCs because of the intentionally generated cultures that are created by external influences and the unpredictability of a culture to adapt to its surroundings. VLCs are organized around internal knowledge and expertise of its members and the external needs of its customers and markets. The growth and sustainability of a VLC is dependent upon many factors of influence from preference, expediency, cost, outcomes, etc. The complex adaptive nature of the VLC bounds and focuses the community’s processes and cultures. It is imperative not to equate the business processes inside the community with the community’s culture(s). The process of meeting the needs of the customers do not correspond to the same scheme as the culture needed within the community to
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perform the business processes in a manner that is rewarding (financially and personally) to the individuals, the customers, and the community. Individuals and the technologies within the Organizational Petri dish are bounded by the external environments that created the need for the VLC. Each must be flexible enough to adapt to the changing external environment, as well as the changing internal environment which drives both the business processes and the culture which emerge over time. The most effective VLC’s will self-organize and dissipate as needs are anticipated and arise. The structure of a VLC does not preclude its flexibility. Too often communities begin an ossification process soon after their initial organization forms. The desire to seek to stabilize the successful relationships and processes often leads to the community’s downfall because it is unable to respond to new and unanticipated changes. A focus on the strategic present and the dynamic nature of the environment allows a VLC to take advantage of its successful structure and adapt them into new successful structures by kludging together previously unused ideas, contexts and processes. The anticipatory nature of the most effective VLCs will behave reflexively knowing when to dissolve and form new VLCs which will better respond to the external environment and the anticipated trends within the environment. VI. Conclusion Virtual Learning Communities seek to meet customer and markets needs in times of rapid change and rapid growth of information. VLCs self-organize around preference, expediency, cost, outcomes, and other measures from the external environment. The integration of electronic communication technology with the individuals allow for a more flexible and responsive organizational structure. The interface between technology and the individuals, and the interface between the individuals and their generative knowledge-bases, provides a ready space for the construction of newer technologies and the continuous generation of knowledge. The compelling change environment encourages the formation of these strategic learning support entities.

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VII. References Argyris, C. (1990) Overcoming Organizational Defenses Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Bennett, J.K. and O’Brien, M.J. (1994) “The 12 Building Blocks of the Learning Community” Training v.31, n.6, p.41. Bermudez, J. (1993) Interfacial Education Ph.D. Thesis, University of Minnesota. Chawla, S. ed. (1995) Learning Organizations Portland, OR: Productivity Press. Clark, R. and Cameron, J. eds. (1991) Managing Information Technology’s Organizational Impact Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishers. Connors, M. (1993) The Race to the Intelligent State: Towards the Global Information Economy of 2005 Oxford: Blackwell Publishers. Fowler, J. and Keen, S. (1978) Life Maps. Waco, TX: Winston Press. Garratt, B. (1995) “An Old Idea That has Come of Age” People Management v.1, n.19, p.25. Gell-Mann, M. (1995) The Quark and the Jaguar. NY: Wm. H. Freeman and Company. Harkins, A. and Winer-Cyr, M. (1992) Knowledge Base Learning: Bridging Industrial Education to the Knowledge Age St. Paul, MN: Saturn Institute. Heracleous, L. (1995) “Spinning A Brand New Cultural Web” People Management, v.1, v.22, p.24. Kelly, K. (1994) Out of Control Reading, MA: Addison Wesley. Kling, R. (1996) Computerization and Controversy: Value Conflicts and Social Choices, 2nd edition San Diego: Academic Press Kofman, P. and Senge, P. (1993) “Communities of Commitment: the Heart of Learning Communities” Organizational Dynamics v.22, n.2. p.5. Martin, W.J. (1988) Information Society London: Aslib, the Association for Information Management Masuda, Y. (1990) Managing in the Information Society Oxford: Blackwell Publishers. Morgan, G.M. (1986) Images of Organization. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications

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Nonaka, I. and Takeuchi, H. (1995) The Knowledge Creating Company NY: Oxford University Press. Recardo, R.; Molloy, K.; Pellegrino, J. (1995) “How the Learning Community Manages Change” National Productivity Review v.15, n.1 p.7(7). Schön, D.A. (1987) Educating the Reflective Practitioner San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Senge, P. (1992) The Fifth Discipline NY: Doubleday Books. Senge, P., et.al (1994) The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook NY: Doubleday Books. Slater, S.F. and Naver, J.C. (1995) “Market Orientation and the Learning Community” Journal of Marketing v.59, n.3, p.63. Tapscott, D. (1996) The Digital Economy NY: MacGraw-Hill Wheatly, M. (1992) Leadership and the New Science San Francisco: Barrett-Kohler.

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CHILDREN'S GLOBAL KNOWLEDGE COLLABORATIVES and the CGKC SUPPORT NETWORK A STRATEGIC GLOBAL KNOWLEDGE DEVELOPMENT SCENARIO by Arthur Harkins & Keith Ford February 1999

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A call for Cross-Generational Teleogenic Knowledge Development Experiences This Prospectus is aimed at restructuring cultural assumptions about the value-adding potentials of children in a rapidly changing world. It is about adults collaborating with children to help turn ingenuity and knowledge development experiences into mutually rewarding opportunities for younger and older alike. INTRODUCTION Many children born today might very well live into the twenty-second century. Whether these children actually become centenarians and in what condition they will live to see the year 2100 are functions of decisions made now and throughout the next onehundred-and-five years. It is compellingly true that the future indeed belongs to today's children and that they must come to make most of the decisions which will determine the nature of their world and their lives in the next century. Now the question: How well equipped will our children be to make successful decisions about their knowledge development experiences? We believe that the answer is that many of today's children are structurally ill-equipped to consider, develop, evaluate, plan and manage their knowledge development experiences. It is not that today's children are natively any less competent than past generations; it is the nature of their knowledge development experiences which is so different, and the fact that so many children are structurally prevented from helping to develop their knowledge development experiences at early ages. It is a cliché to say that the world is changing, but while this was always true it is absolutely clear that change has never occurred so unpredictably and at such a rapid rate. And this increase in the rate and diversity of change seems likely to continue to expand well into the next century. What prevents our children from collaborating with adults in the knowledge development experiences and management of their knowledge development experiences and those of adults? We believe that industrial mind sets and associated socioeconomic roles have become impediments to the employment of imagination and flexible future-focused role images: • Children suffer from structured lack of awareness of of alternative knowledge development experiences and their potentials;

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• •

Children suffer from structured ignorance of important trends, understanding little of the "big pictures" and of paradigm changes; Children suffer from structured powerless to help innovate their knowledge development experiences, and often expect stability or change simply to happen to them.

As a result of these and related cultural factors, children usually are not experienced in how to innovate new options, nor how to make choices today to optimize outcomes tomorrow. Overwhelmingly, our elementary and secondary education systems do not energetically address these issues. Knowledge development experiences studies are simply not in the curriculum, or they are provided for some socioeconomically advantaged or lucky children. Furthermore, it is just as common for a college student not to encounter these issues in the course of his or her post-secondary learning or training experiences. As a result, our children and young people often are partially or wholly unprepared to operate well in the one place they will end up -- learning, living and working in "accidental" knowledge development experiences. CHILDREN'S KNOWLEDGE DEVELOPMENT COLLABORATIVES We propose the establishment of Children's Knowledge Development Collaboratives whose missions will be to equip and assist children to study, assess, and develop shortand long-term knowledge development experiences. The term "children" is vague. We accept this. We do not believe that the children associated with the Collaboratives necessarily should be from a particular age range. We would rather look to such characteristics as interests, readiness to use the resources of the Collaboratives, and to willingness to contribute to knowledge development activities. This suggests having achieved the developmental stage at which abstract concepts can be understood but does not absolutely presuppose any advanced age. Many adults are still able to "be" children at times. We wish to include such manifestations of the child concept in our prospectus. The Children's Knowledge Development Collaboratives will accomplish this by teaching chronological and self-defined children about knowledge development experiences study, how to explore alternative knowledge development experiences, and how to seize opportunities and tools to innovate personal, family, and community knowledge development experiences.

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In addition, the Collaboratives will seek to support the education systems by promoting knowledge development experiences studies in school curricula, by developing curricular materials, by providing teacher residencies, and by sponsoring teacher workshops. Through these and related activities, we intend that the sense of hopelessness among children, which is often associated with many of the ills of today's society, will be replaced by a substantial and self-managed empowerment in the face of change. We further intend that the Collaboratives will provide opportunities for community service that truly has importance and value, and which unleashes the children's most valuable tool for their knowledge development experiences: individual intellects and emotions combining in value-producing, ethical combinations. Each of the Collaboratives will provide a locus for children, with the assistance of adult faculty, parental and public/private volunteers. Collaboratives will present role models and techniques for examining the natures of alternative knowledge development experiences, and of the forces which affect these. Collaboratives will help children, their parents and their communities to discover knowledge development experiences which are worth dreaming, planning, and living for. Collaboratives will offer services that help stakeholders understand: • • • • • • • • • how past cultures viewed their knowledge development experiences; how different knowledge development experiences are or are not being innovated; what alternative knowledge development experiences look like from today and "back" from the future; how choices made now will affect knowledge development experiences ten, twenty, etc. years from now; how to conduct applied scientific research; how to forecast trends in three interactive ways; how to design logical and plausible alternative knowledge development experiences; how to formulate "virtual policies" aimed at optimizing desirable knowledge development experiences; how to shape learning, living and working around "best case" associations among personal, family, and community elements;

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how to innovate practical, real-world opportunities for children and their families, schools and communities by involving children in the definition and knowledge development experiences of the world they share with adults. SHARING RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT EXPERIENCES

The Children's Knowledge Development Collaboratives will put children and adults to work together on major knowledge development experiences-oriented projects, the results of which are intended to be of significance to the wider community. A project may involve just one Collaborative but is just as likely to involve two or more Collaboratives, bringing together children from different Collaboratives or children from one Collaborative and consultants with special expertise from another. Operating from differing perspectives of age and culture, children and adults would be able to benefit from diversity and experience variety-driven growth. The projects will, of course, be determined by the individuals and Collaboratives involved, subject only to the requirement that they be knowledge development experiences-oriented and their results be of benefit to the self, family and community. Examples of some of the knowledge development experiences-relevant issues and problems which children and adults could tackle within a global knowledge development studies perspective are: • Changing Global Relationships What are the implications of Earth seen more and more as a unitary planetary home, of changing relationships among nations, of Russia’s changing attitudes, or Asia's growing importance and perhaps dominance, of Europe's increasingly more united economic and political community? • A Changing American Society The USA is becoming less "white". How will this society react as people of color increase in number and influence? How will the rise of Americans with ties not to Europe but the Asia, Africa and South America affect our view of the world? • Changing Natural Environments What could new efforts to understand the planet as a system of interrelated weather, oceanic and other processes bring? What are the societal results of rain forest depletion, the greenhouse effect, plankton die-offs, gas emissions and natural changes?

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Changing Spiritual Expressions Older forms of absolutist moralities are under siege in the West by newer forms of "situational" and "personalized" moralities. Concepts of deities and their relationship to men and women are being "modernized" to reflect concerns about the environment, the destruction of wealth, women's rights and the plight of children. Yet, in the midst of all this change, traditionalist churches flourish in North America and Europe. What will all this diversity bring?

Health Issues The life expectancy of humankind is increasing as a function of changes in food, hygiene, public health and medical services. Societies are having to grapple with issues of how to deliver the fruits of these changes--lesser developed societies with the delivery of food and public health, developed societies with the allocation of scarce technologies. Paradoxically, rich and poor alike suffer from the expectations of increased standards of living, a phenomenon often associated with stress diseases.

Reknowledge development experiences and Leisure For those with the means, Earth is becoming a tourist playground. Electronics offer magical leisure for the well-off. Some homes contain machines to make artificial work which are the equivalent of commercial gyms. Some leisure activities damage the natural environment. How will knowledge development experiences look in the knowledge development experiences? How do we balance knowledge development experiences with environmental protection? How do we protect cultures?

New Built Environments The sheer number of houses, coupled with their sewer, water, heating, cooling and transportation requirements have begun to develop "whole system" impacts. Factories, offices, shopping malls, roads, cars, planes, and even space vehicles and platforms have added to the complexity of the built environment. Only now are we beginning to understand the importance of proper management of the build environment.

Changing communications The speed of communications has jumped to the speed of light. Telecommunications hardware moves information around the planet faster than many individuals, organizations and cultures are able to cope with. How do we manage this phenomenon? One response has been machine

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intelligence and "neural networks" designed to manage the chaos caused by the clash between light-speed information and "slow" cultures. But what is the effect of becoming dependent on hardware to keep up with other hardware? • Education Mass education systems were only invented two hundred years ago. Yet some are questioning whether mass education is still possible when we struggle to raise the performances of the "bottom 80 percent" of the American society so that "they" can cope with change. Others seek to redefine the goals of education in a technologically advanced society with its portable and even implantable learning devices and information bases. Still others discuss education reform in the context of life-long learning and even education of the fetus. What, then, are the possible knowledge development experiences of an education system which seems to be giving up, redefining its mission and expanding its client base, all at the same time? • Changing Homelives The declines of the nuclear and extended families in America have stimulated numerous choices in intimate lifestyle structures. Yet a growing number of these new structures are associated with poverty and the loss of choices. Is there a need for new legislation or economic incentives for certain structures? Abortion rights, crack babies, fetal alcoholism syndrome, smoking during pregnancy, and child support have raised anew issues of children's rights and parental responsibilities. Should these concerns justify greater intervention into the privacy of the family and what restraints should there be on these interventions? THE CKGC COLLABORATIVES NETWORK Each Children's Knowledge development experiences Collaborative will belong to the Children's Knowledge development experiences Collaboratives Support Network. We believe that opportunities exist to establish or cooperate with Collaboratives in North and South America, Europe and Russia, the Pacific Rim and eventually world-wide. The primary role of the CKGC Support Network will be to foster communications among Collaboratives, to provide services to institutions, to encourage and assist in the establishment of new Collaboratives, and to further the examination of alternative knowledge development experiences. Since a rigorous examination of the knowledge development experiences requires access to the most up-to-date information, the Collaboratives will use modern communications to provide access to real-time, or as near to real-time as possible, information sources.

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Examples of communication technologies to be used by the CKGC Support Network include Internet, cable, optical fiber, fax, satellite, cellular and short wave radio, disc, tape and print. These technologies will also be used to communicate among and share the work of the Collaboratives. Appropriately, the network will "publish" the results of many projects, position papers developed by Collaboratives, and scenarios of transitions to improved knowledge development experiences. The Network and individual Collaboratives also will sponsor or participate in seminars and workshops. Each Collaborative will be encouraged to define its role and its community and to operate its programs in the manner which it believes is appropriate, consistent with basic commitments to the notions of community service, education of children, intergenerational and inter-cultural cooperation, and exploration of alternative knowledge development experiences. Each CKGC Collaborative should emphasize local involvement and control. It is the role of the CKGC Support Network to ensure and assist in the global interaction of locally controlled Collaboratives. ORGANIZATION OF THE KNOWLEDGE DEVELOPMENT EXPERIENCES COLLABORATIVES Each Collaborative will have its own local board of directors, base of support, administration and budget. The CKGC Support Network in turn will have its own board and will include representation from member Collaboratives. It is envisioned that the Collaboratives and the CKGC Support Network would be not-for -profit or charitable legal entities. Individual Collaboratives will likely be comprised of a small administrative staff, a professional staff of consultants, teachers in residence, interns, volunteers and children together with their parents or guardians. Consultants will be a mixture of full time and part time and will come from various backgrounds and competencies: Teacher residencies will permit teachers to join the learning experience of the Collaboratives for periods of time consistent with career patterns and plans. Internships will provide educational experiences for students specializing in areas consistent with the Collaboratives' activities. Volunteers will come from many demographic and institutional sectors of society.

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BACKGROUND BIBLIOGRAPHY Knowledge Formats and Applications: International Development Education Contexts
Bloom, Alan. The Closing of the American Mind. NY: Simon and Schuster, 1987. Cetron, Marvin and Margaret Gayle. Educational Renaissance. NY: St. Martin’s Press, 1991. Cleveland, Harlan. The Knowledge Executive. NY: E.P. Dutton, 1985. Coates, Joseph (et. al.). Future Work. Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1990. Gardner, Howard. The Unschooled Mind. NY: Basic Books, 1991. Harkins, Arthur (et. al.). Change and Choice. Minneapolis, MN: Control Data Corporation, 1983. _______, and Kathleen Redd (eds.). Education: A Time for Decisions. Bethesda, MD: World Future Society, 1980. Hirsch, E.D., Jr. Cultural Literacy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company,1987. Holzner, Burkart and John H. Marx. Knowledge Application: The Knowledge System in Society. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1979. Kierstad, Fred (et. al.) (eds.). Educational Futures: Sourcebook 1. Bethesda, MD: World Future Society, 1979. Louv, Richard. Childhood’s Future. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1990. Maturana, Humberto R. and Francisco J. Varela. The Tree of Knowledge. Boston: Shambhala, 1988. Nonaka, Ikujiro, The Knowledge-Creating Company. Harvard Business Review, NovemberDecember ,1991. Prigogine, Ilya. From Being to Becoming. NY: W.H. Freeman and Company, 1980. Redd, Kathleen and Arthur Harkins (eds.). Education: A Time for Decisions. Bethesda, MD: World Future Society, 1980. Reynolds, Maynard C. (ed.). Knowledge Base for the Beginning Teacher. NY: Pergamon, 1989. Toffler, Alvin. Powershift. NY: Bantam, 1990. ________, Utne Reader, “Good Schools.” Minneapolis, MN: Sept-Oct 1991, #41. ________, United States Department of Labor. What Work Requires of Schools: A SCANS Report for AMERICA 2000. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, June, 1991.

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________, American Council on Education and Education Commission of the States. One-Third of a Nation. A Report of the Commission on Minority Participation in Education and American Life, 1988.

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