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NANOCLAY >>>> Nanoclay is one of the most affordable materials that have shown promising results in polymers. Nanoclay is made from montmorillonite mineral deposits known to have ―platelet‖ structure with average dimension of 1 nm thick and 70 to 150nm wide. Nanoclays are nanoparticles of layered mineral silicates. Depending on chemical composition and nanoparticle morphology, nanoclays are organized into several classes such as montmorillonite, bentonite, kaolinite, hectorite, and halloysite. Organically-modified nanoclays (organoclays) are an attractive class of hybrid organic-inorganic nanomaterials with potential uses in polymer nanocomposites, as rheological modifiers, gas absorbents and drug delivery carriers. Nanoclays are clay minerals optimized for use in clay nanocomposites– multi-functional material systems with several property enhancements targeted for a particular application. Polymer-clay nanocomposites are an especially well-researched class of such materials. Nanoclays are a broad class of naturally occurring inorganic minerals, of which plate-like montmorillonite is the most commonly used in materials applications. Montmorillonite consists of ~ 1 nm thick aluminosilicate layers surface-substituted with metal cations and stacked in ~ 10 µm-sized multilayer stacks (Figure 1a). The stacks can be dispersed in a polymer matrix to form polymer-clay nanocomposite (Figure 1b). Within the nanocomposite, individual nm-thick clay layers are fully separated to form plate-like nanoparticles with very high (nm × µm) aspect ratio. Even at low nanoclay loading (a few weight %), the entire nanocomposite consists of interfacial polymer, with majority of polymer chains residing in close contact with the clay surface. This can dramatically alter properties of a nanocomposite compared to the pure polymer (Table 1). Potential benefits include increased mechanical strength, decreased gas permeability, superior flameresistance, and even enhanced transparency when dispersed nanoclay plates suppress polymer crystallization.

\ Figure 1: (a) Schematic of nm-thick montmorillonite clay aluminosilicate layers. (b) TEM micrograph of 2% Nanoclay, Nanomer® I.34TCN — Nylon 6 nanocomposite showing complete dispersion of clay layers into distinct plate-like nanoparticles. Montmorillonite Nanoclays Plate-like montmorillonite is the most common nanoclay used in materials applications. Montmorillonite consists of ~ 1 nm thick aluminosilicate layers surface-substituted with metal cations and stacked in ~ 10 µm-sized multilayer stacks. Depending on surface modification of the clay layers, montmorillonite can be dispersed in a polymer matrix to form polymer-clay nanocomposite. Within the nanocomposite individual nm-thick clay layers become fully separated to form plate-like nanoparticles with very high (nm × µm) aspect ratio. Sigma-Aldrich, in collaboration with the Nanocor Corporation, offers a range of montmorillonite nanoclay products with different organic modifications optimized to be compatible with various polymer systems.

the know-how of uniform dispersion of nanoclay (0. surface area measurement. cation exchange capacity (CEC) using standard ammonium acetate method.5 to 10% level) in polyolefins to produce concentrates that can be used in nanocomposites is claimed.Research trials performed by the independent laboratory TNO in the Netherlands have shown the efficacy of nanoclay as a wide-spectrum mycotoxin binder. barrier properties. Nanomer® and Cloisite® are the popular nanoclays available in the market. an interlayer space. calcite. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The two-layer halloysite tubes are chemically similar to kaoline and have average dimensions of 15 × 1000 nm comparable to carbon nanotubes. pillaring and acid treatment to develop catalysts with desired functionality. In . flame resistance. reduced static cling and UV transmission in film and bottles.Halloysite Nanoclay Halloysite is a naturally occurring aluminosilicate nanotube . metal/metal complex impregnation. stiffness. Clay characterization Clays and their modified organic derivatives can be characterized using simple as well as modern tools which include determination of chemical compositions by gravimetric analysis. epoxy. high hydration and swelling capacity and a high chemical reactivity. amorphous silica. PE and PP leading to better clarity. Plastic molded parts exhibit higher heat distortion temperatures. The binding ability of the nanoclay to the mycotoxins was maintained as the product passed through the stomach and small intestine. USA. powdered X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and others. sedimentation method and chemical treatment. Inc. Nanoclays are known to enhance properties of many polymers such as nylon 6. and thermal and structural properties of many plastics to extend their reach into areas dominated by metal. PET. centrifugation. Nanomer® is a nanoclay product developed by Nanocor/AMCOL International Corporation. Nanoclay uses Clays are inexpensive materials. scratch resistance. which can be modified by ion exchange. and Cloisite® nanoclays are produced by Southern Clay Products. This new product is called Amadite and has been patented worldwide. Mycotoxin binder Researchers at Olmix in France have developed a technique where the ulvans (a polysaccharide) contained in seaweed are used as pillars to increase the interlayer space of the montmorillonite clay by 10 times.The clays are also characterized by their cation exchange capacities. The technique mainly used for purification of clays includes hydrocyclone. Low inclusion rates of 1 kg per ton were used to obtain these adsorption levels. solvents. The nanoclay dispersion is used to improve modulus and tensile strength. thermal stability. These qualities include stability. inductively coupled plasma (ICP) or XRF. due to this it is very important to have montmorillonite with minimum impurities of crystalline silica (quartz). flame. which add to the practical and economic usefulness of the product. Halloysite tubes are hollow and can be used for controlled delivery and release of drugs as well as nanocomposite and rheology modification applications. Studies showed that the new product reduced the level of DON (1 part per million) by 40% compared to control and of fumonisin B1 (2 ppm) by 50-60% when compared to control.. EVA.According to a US Patent by Nanocor. providing protection to the animal. This increase in the interlayer space allows even the larger-sized mycotoxins to enter. and dimensional stability in injection molded products. vapors. gases and flavors. of Texas. kaolin etc. glass and wood. The purity of the clay can affect the final nanocomposite properties. which can vary widely and depends on source and type of clay. and better appearance when painted. Qualities Montmorillonite clays possess several qualities that make them an excellent base for manipulation through nanotechnology. barrier properties to moisture. improved chemical.

Thermal stability of grease is greatly enhanced by the addition of small amount of organoclays. Adsorption applications When used for water treatment. including pertechnetate. where it acts as a drug vehicle. hectorite and saponite have been used as rheological modifiers in paints. a hydrocarbon adsorbent material. A small addition of nanoclays can greatly enhance the rheological properties of the paint system. proteins and water-soluble vitamins. These properties prevent pigment settling and sagging on vertical surfaces and gloss is minimally affected due to the low levels of addition. and sparingly soluble hydrophobic. inks. the trials showed the inability of the nanoclay to adsorb carbohydrates. but it has seen little use in petroleum production. and metabolic toxins such as steroidal metabolites associated with pregnancy. polynuclear and polycyclic aromatics. hydrogen ions in acidosis. heavy metals. ideal for water treatment applications. most of which are typical symptoms of the side effects caused by anticancer drugs. from water is another application with tremendous potential. organoclays are commonly utilized in the upstream sector of the petroleum industry for removing hydrocarbons from refinery process water. vomiting and diarrhea. grease. The organic binds to the ionic surfaces of layered silicates and converts it from a hydrophilic form to an oil wet. Removing radionuclides. organic matter. Organoclays obtained by interaction of these layered silicates with ammonium or phosphonium salts act as thixotropic agent in the above applications. Rheological modifier Nanoclays made of synthetic layered silicates such as laponite. a concern with the use of other clay products. All these conditions result in a host of common symptoms.addition. Organoclays have also been tested for treating ground and surface water and for other toxic organic chemicals from pharmaceuticals and pesticides industries. including nausea. including removing oil. Organoclays can offer dramatic performance improvements in many other adsorption applications. Nanoclays provide colour retention as well as good coverage in cosmetics and inks. such as humic and fulvic acids. greases and cosmetics. and polychlorinated biphenyl. bacterial toxins associated with gastrointestinal disturbance. . MMT could adsorb dietary toxins. chlorinated organics. Drug vehicle Nanoclays are potentially useful materials in the field of controlled release of therapeutic agent to patients.

Polypropylene is reasonably economical. another popular plastic for containers. such as polystyrene. Whether used for industrial molds. it is one of a handful of materials the world is literally built around.g. Polypropylene has good resistance to fatigue. The melting point of polypropylene is very high compared to many other plastics. although commercial production began in 1957. . it doesn't soak up water. polypropylene has virtually endless uses. is a thermoplastic polymer used in a wide variety of applications includingpackaging and labeling. making it ideal for uses where it will be constantly subject to moisture. atactic). especially when copolymerized with ethylene. This plastic is often used for food containers. isotactic) opposite to amorphous thermoplastics. which means that the hot water used when washing dishes will not cause dishware made from this plastic to warp. which is also often used as a fiber for rugged carpeting. with new consistencies and a different feel from the fairly rigid version that most people are used to. automotive components. acrylic. polyamide. which radicals are placed radomly (i. It is manufactured from propylene gas in presence of a catalyst such as titanium chloride. Beside PP is a by-product of oil refining processes. competing with materials such as ABS. Research is ongoing with polypropylene. but it has benefits that make it the better choice in some situations. This contrasts with polyethylene.It is used in many different settings. An addition polymer made from the monomer propylene. laboratory equipment. Polypropylene is very resistant to this sort of stress. This allows polypropylene to be used as an engineering plastic.e. Polypropylene is not as sturdy as polyethylene. PP . and eventually will break.e. etc. as makers experiment with different methods for synthesizing it. car parts. also known as polypropene. It is said that PP has an intermediate level of crystallinity between low density polyethylene (LDPE) and high density polyethylene (HDPE). it is rugged and unusually resistant to many chemical solvents. On the other hand PP has higher working temperatures and tensile strength than polyethylene. or certain other plastics. which has a much lower melting point. Some of these experiments yield the promise of exciting new types of plastic. These new elastic versions are very rubbery. and polymer banknotes. It is a linear structure based on the monomer CnH2n. loudspeakers. Most polypropylene used is highly crystalline and geometrically regular (i. such as a plastic lid on a travel mug. Most commercial polypropylene is isotactic and has an intermediate level of crystallinity between that of lowdensity polyethylene (LDPE) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE). thermal underwear and carpets). textiles (e. bases and acids. and it can be used both as a structural plastic and as a fiber. plastics wear out from the repetitive stress of being opened and shut. making them even more resistant to shattering and opening up many different uses for an already pervasive plastic. Polypropylene is normally tough and flexible. or storage containers. and can be made translucent when uncolored but is not as readily made transparent as polystyrene. particularly those that need to be dishwasher safe. rugged currency. Over time. and its development has not slowed since its discovery. such as that for use around swimming pools or on miniature golf courses. plastic parts and reusable containers of various types. and it is often used as a fiber in carpeting that needs to be rugged and durable. ropes.POLYPROPYLENE Polypropylene is a plastic polymer with the chemical formula C3H6. both in industry and in consumer goods. stationery. at 320°F (160°C). The first polypropylene resin was produced by Giulio Natta in Spain. It is often opaque or colored using pigments. PVC. Polypropylene is also very easy to add dyes to. Unlike nylon. Like many plastics. and it is the plastic most often used for lids and caps that require a hinging mechanism... One of these situations is creating hinges from a plastic.

organic solvents.20.Excellent resistance to stress and high resistant to cracking (i. different monomers are involved) are prefered for all applications exposed to cold and they are widely used for pipes.Non-toxic . yogurt containers.928 . Polypropylene is used in most of our nonwoven fabrics such as rope used in a variety of industries.High operational temperatures with a melting point of 160°C .930 0.e.0. straws. Characteristics & Benefits of Polypropylene During the past thirty years polypropylene has gained wide acceptance for use in corrosive applications where previously steel vessels with a rubber & brick lined interior and coated exterior were used.Properties of polypropylene Listed below you will find the reasons why polypropylene is commonly used in our daily life: . syrup bottles.0. seat shells and automotive parts e.It is highly resistant to most alkalis and acid.Easy to produce. PP can be used for flexible packaging applications (e. cassette holders and fibers. etc. PP has the lowest density (i. assembly and an economic material In order to improve some properties PP formulas may include additives such as pigments.950 .0 Density (gr/ml) 0.). Application In general homopolymers (i.0 2.25. monofilaments and film tapes. textile staple.). and UV stabilizer. aliphatic and chlorinated solvents and UV. it has high tensile and compressive strength) . The manufacture of the polymer at high temperature can released irritating vapors to respiratory system and eyes. etc.0 0. boat hulls.960 0.910 . antioxidants.0. .g. cast film. Polymer Melt Index LDPE (Low Density Polyethylene) HDPE (High Density Polyethylene) Polypropylene 0.90-0. PP is available as molding powder. On the contrary is less resistance to aromatic. housewares. etc. degreasing agents and electrolytic attack. in terms of chemical toxicity. with only one type of monomer) can be used for housing. making it a thermoplastic elastomer but the recycling degrade the properties. carbon black. packaging. and continuous filament yarn.g. It can be melted and recycled. The use of PP does not have any remarkable effect from an occupational health and safety point of view.92 g/cm3) of the resins used in packaging.Non-staining . battery cases and bumpers.g. rubbers.Excellent dielectric properties . Another difficulty is the management of plastics that are difficult to separate from other materials for its recycling. Its resistance to bacterial growth makes it suitable to be used in medical equipment.e. including fishing and agriculture. extruded sheet.2 . copolymers (i.Light in weight For example.e 0. Polypropylene can be manufactured to a high degree of purity to be used for the semiconductor industry. Polypropylene has also . Environmental issues and occupational health and safety issues Plastics represents a 14 to 22% in volume of solid waste.e. There is no known effect from chronic exposure to this product. On the other hand recycling can be a cost-effective possibility if we take into account the social cost of landfills as well as fees. automotive sector. drainage pipes. construction sector (e.2 . containers.916 .50.0 . pumps.

Carbon steel tanks. Polypropylene is available in Homopolymer for general use and Copolymer. installation and relocation of polypropylene equipment is easier because polypropylene is lighter than most other materials used in fabrication. black and grey. It is USDA approved and meets FDA requirements for food contact. Polypropylene is also available in a flame retardant grade. surface hardness. alkalis and solvent solutions with a temperature range up to 200ºF. The most commonly used colors include natural. Handling. It has good impact strength. Our customers have reported that the polypropylene equipment we have supplied has reduced maintenance cost and provided less disruption in production time. The light weight allows for less expensive structural supports and concrete floors to be required. where higher impact qualities are required. . The black and grey pigments have better UV qualities and an additional UV package can be added for outdoor use. however.been the material of choice to replace tanks and other vessels fabricated from specialty metals such as stainless steel because of reduced original cost and long term cost savings benefits over the life of the equipment. Polypropylene is a homogeneous material that has the same corrosion resistant properties throughout which eliminate the need for additional maintenance such as re-coating the inside or outside to guard against corrosion. Polypropylene is resistant to a wide variety of acids. Characteristics Polypropylene has the following advantages over conventional materials previously used. • High chemical and corrosion resistance • Easily machined and cut • Light weight and rigid • Easy to maintain and clean • High tensile strength • Excellent thermal insulating properties • Excellent abrasion resistance • Excellent dielectric properties • Low moisture absorption • Long life span Benefits Polypropylene provides superior qualities and is the most versatile and cost effective plastic in comparison to other thermo-forming and polyolefin materials. require a two step process during fabrication to get the necessary protection required for the application. Modifications and repairs are easily made with no advanced preparation needed on the material with little down time and usually no need to remove the equipment from service. dimensional stability and excellent abrasion resistance.

Various chemical treatments have been used to improve the mechanical performance of the natural fiber including jute and hemp by many researchers in the past. The main obstacles in the use of natural fibers in plastics have been the poor compatibility between the fibers and the matrix and the inherent high moisture absorption which could result in dimensional changes of the fibers that may lead to micro cracking of the composite and degradation of mechanical properties. .7 Various types of tissue paper containing KTMP pulp.9 1. Uses of kenaf and kenaf products 1.5 Various types of writing and printing paper containing KTMP. Linerboard. Newsprint from mixes of kenaf thermo-mechanical pulp (KTMP) and wood pulp from Southern Pine. 1.2 1. there are various new applications for kenaf including paper products. absorbents and animal feeds. renewability. Historically. the National Kenaf Research and Development Program has been formed in an effort to develop kenaf as a possible new industrial crop for Malaysia. 1. Standard newsprint from mixes of KCTMP pulp and de-inked pulp from retted paper. paper and cardboard (from wet way process). Natural fibers such as kenaf have some advantages over traditional reinforcement materials such as glass fiber in terms of cost. recyclability. molded and non-woven products. The efficiency of the fiberreinforced composites depends on the fiber matrix interface and the ability to transfer stress from the matrix to the fiber. abrasiveness and biodegradability. 1.10 Chemical pulp from the whole kenaf stem or from separated fibres obtained using processes other than Kraft. Kenaf has a single.11 Lining for roofs in feltpaper. Kenaf stalk is made up of an inner woody core and an outer fibrous bark surrounding the core. Kenaf bast fiber has superior flexural trength combined with its excellent tensile strength that makes it the material of choice for a wide range of extruded. 1. The fiber derived from the outer fibrous bark is also known as bast fiber. density. In Malaysia.KENAF Kenaf or its scientific name Hibiscus cannabinus L is a warm season annual fiber crop closely related to cotton and jute. realizing the diverse possibilities of commercially exploitable derived products from kenaf. The government has allocated RM12 million for research and further development of the kenaf-based industry under the 9th Malaysia Plan (2006–2010) in recognition of kenaf as a commercially viable crop.0 Pulp. corrugated board made from kenaf pulp (from mechanical or chemical processes using both the whole kenaf stem or separated fibres).4 Super-calendered writing and printing paper from mixtures containing KTMP pulp. rope and sackcloth.3 Standard newsprint containing between 90% and 100% chemi-thermo-mechanical pulp. building materials.1 1. straight and branchless stalk. 1. 1. 1.6 Fine coated paper from mixtures containing KTMP. 1.8 Sulphate pulp (Kraft) from the whole kenaf stem and from separated fibres. kenaf has been used as a cordage crop to produce twine. Nowadays. Kenaf fiber could be utilized as reinforcement material for polymeric composites as an alternative to glass fiber.

2 6.1 Natural core and bast filters.13 Cellulose for chemical uses.7 Compost from sullage.0 Animal fodder and feed. 5. .1 Moldable fibre mattresses for industrial uses from Kenaf bast fibre.4 Rigid molded products: boxes.7 Linings in compressed fibre for doors and other decorative applications (architectural).5 Bast fibre mattresses impregnated with grass seeds and absorbent agents for "instant lawns". 4. drums. 7.2 Kenaf powders (in the specific field of application of wood powders). for the packing. 2. 6. 3. 4. 4.1 Inert.0 Traditional cordage uses 3. core fibre and waste in general). 4.2 Natural molded fibres for interior panels for cars and planes.5 Compressed insulating panels. 3.12 Hardboard panels made from whole stems or separated fibres. 2. 3.2 String.14 Handmade art paper from whole kenaf stems or just from separated fibres. 2. 4.3 Cleaning up of liquid leakages from plants in industrial areas. 5.4 Cleaning of industrial flooring.0 Natural fuels. 4. 8.6 Decorative wall panels. 6.6 Filtering products.3 Production of ethyl alcohol and other chemical products using ligno-cellulose conversion technologies. 5.1 Animal litter.4 3. Production of ethyl alcohol from animal litter using ligno-cellulose conversion technologies.3 Material for mattresses and furniture. 7. 7.0 Mass uses as absorbent agent. 1. 2. used instead of polystyrene foam.1. 2.0 Cellulose products.1 Biomass for burning in various forms (powder. 3. Bast fibre mattresses combined with spray mulching products to control terrain erosion. 2. 1. stowage and shipment of industrial products.1 Green plant used as fodder. natural and biodegradable filler.5 Additive for drilling muds in oil wells.2 Wrapping for gifts and handicraft products. Pressed board and other materials for use in the furniture and construction industries. rope and cord to substitute imported cordage. 4.3 2. trays. 8. 4. 6. 2.0 Packing materials.1 Padding material (to substitute jute and kenaf imported from Asia). pallets etc.2 Horticulture and flower-growing products.0 Panels (dry processes using moldable fibre mattresses).

1 Biomass for the production of edible mushrooms. 8. 8. 9. 9. 10.1 Production of selected seeds for kenaf cultivators.0 Use of the biomass.2 By-products from the lingo-cellulose conversion process of animal litter for the production of alcohol. 9.2 Production of oil and extraction panels.8.4 By-product of inoculated biomass (exhausted subsoil) for the production of edible mushrooms. .0 Use of the seeds. 10.3 Middlings for birdfeed (kenaf seeds with poor germination).3 Biomass for the production of feed by means of wood fungus inoculation. 9.

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