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BUILDING SERVICES ENGINEERING I (BCM 503) ASSIGMENT 1
PREPARED BY : MOHAMAD SAIFUL AZLAN BIN RASHID MUHAMMAD NURIQRAM BIN PUSPA CLASS: AP246 4A
STUDENT ID 2012972205 2012710557
PREPERED FOR: ASSOC. PROF. SR. ZAITON
Assalamualaikum and Alhamdulillah, thank to god, Allah s.w.t, because with his blessing and mercy, this report can be finished with perfection and on time. Firstly, the authors want to say thanks to all individual that involved in helping the authors finished their report and especially to those that have personally encourage their time and energy to help us to finish this task. Especially big thanks to my Lecturer Assoc. Prof. Sr. Zaiton Yaakob. Last but not least, the authors also want to say thanks to the department of building and to both of the authors, and to all our friends that support the authors during our study.Almost thanks to company that had give permission and support while case study on their factory, Nibong Tebal Personnel Care Sdn. Bhd.The author pray that hopefully Allah can repay all the good deed that they
do to the author Amin.
Yours truly, thank you.
1.TABLE OF CONTENT NO 1.3 DESIGN CONSIDERATION 1.0 ITEM (EXPERIMENT) PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHER 1.2.1 INTRODUCTION 10 2.2 2.1HydrostaticTests 8 8 9 2.2.3..2.1 2.0 FIXED GASEOUS SYSTEMS 126.96.36.199.2 Maintenance 1.1General requirement 1.4 2.1.3. 4-3.INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE 1.3.3 2.3.2.Requirement of the portable fire extinguisher– by Malaysian Standard 2013 MS 1539: Part 1 6 7 1 1 2 PAGES 1.3.3 2.3 FIRE EXTINGUISHER TYPES & USES 1.3.1 CLASS OF FIRE 1.2:) 1.2 188.8.131.52 INTRODUCTION DESIGN CONSIDERED COMPONENTS PROCEDURE OF INSPECTION AND TESTING 11 11 11 11 13 2. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Inspection (NFPA 10.2 FIRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM 1.3.2 FM-200 2.3 INERGEN 2.5 INTRODUCTION COMPONENT ECO-CHARACTERISTICS DESIGN AND OPERATION TESTING 14 14 14 15 16 16 184.108.40.206.1 2.4 HALON 17 ii .
1 220.127.116.11.4.1 INTRODUCTION 22 4.3 INTRODUCTION HALON FIRE SUPPRESSION SYSTEM INSPECTION ECO-CHARACTERISTIC 17 17 18 2.2 2.1 18.104.22.168 CO2 CARBON DIOXIDE 2.2 2.3 INTRODUCTION COMPONENT SYSTEM TESTING 19 19 19 20 3.0 CASE STUDY 3.0 CONCLUSION 26 REFERENCE 27 iii .5.
flammable metals. In place of usage you require theseelements but definitely in event of fire a means to cut the fuel must be considered for instance “turning off a fuel line.flammable gases. By disrupting: Interrupting the chemical chain reaction can extinguish the fire. 1 .g.CHAPTER 1 PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHER 1. Government introduce the portable fire extinguisher is very important to all building in Malaysia country doesn’t matter for high-rise building.1. Class B . By removing the fuel: Fuel can be any combustible material-solid.1 Class Of Fire A portable fire extinguisher must contain the type of fire extinguishing agent suitable for the fire it is required to extinguish.g. wood.flammable liquids. Class D .1. Electrical . By smothering: Carbon dioxide (CO2) or foaming agents are used to smother the burning material so that air is excluded 3. methane.2 FIRE EXTINGUISHING METHODS Fires can be extinguished in one of four ways: 1.1 INTRODUCTION 1. e. By cooling: Water is used to cool the burning material below the temperature at which it starts to burn 2. paint. e. acetylene. e. petrol. e.. B. cloth. Class F -cooking oil and fat. (Fred Hall R. Class C . oil. It must also be clearly identifiable by colour coding for its intended purpose.not specifically classed because it can apply to any of the other classifications. zinc. Extinguisher Agent Water Foam Carbon Dioxide Dry chemicals/powder Wet chemicals Special Powder Extinguisher Colour Red Red With Cream Band Red with Black Band Red with blue Band Red With Yellow band Red with blue band Application A A and B B and Electrical A.g. 2011). G.” 4. liquid or gas.organic solids.g. commercial and residential Fires can be grouped: Class A . Portable Fire Extinguisher (PFE) known as a firstaid fire fighting during the initial outbreak of fire incident to prevent fire into a full scale fire. C and Electrical A and F D 1. aluminium. uranium. propane. paper.
3. Use this type is recommended when burning combustible srequire a cooling and wetting action. Turning offthe electricity will change the status of a Class . A stored pressure distilled water mist extinguisher is safe to use around energized electrical fires provided that do not place any portion of the extinguisher within ten inches (10") of the electrical source.3 FIRE EXTINGUISHER TYPES & USES It is vital to know what type of extinguisher you are using. 1. as flammable liquids are lighter than water and will float on the surface of the water. The effectiveness of a fire extinguisher on a particular fire depends on the amount and type of agent in the extinguisher. This will simply aid in the spread of the fire. Water extinguisher also cannot be practic on a Class . the water will cause the grease to splatter and the fire may spread. (flammable liquids).1.A fires Diagram 1. Matching the agent to the fire beginswith an understanding of how fires are classified.1: Stored-pressure water Extinguishers Features:Stored pressure water type extinguishers contain water under pressure and are usually quite large and heavy.1. you are putting yourself in danger of electrical shock. Water is an electrical conductor so as the water spreads out. Using the wrong type of extinguisher for the wrong type of fire can be life-threatening. paper. Each extinguisher and extinguishing agent has certain advantages and disadvantages associated with its use and limitations onwhat it can accomplish. (electrical fire). The misting nozzle provides safety from electric shock and reduces the scattering of burning materials. rubber or textiles.C fire. Water extinguishers are effective against fires involving: wood. 2 . There are sixdifferent types of fire extinguishers and are classified by the type of fire on which they can be used. Water extinguisher cannot be uses for a Class -B fire. if you dowse live electricalequipment with water. the chance of electrocution increases. plastic. similarly.you spray water on a grease fire.C fire to a Class A and/or B fire. because of that run the risk of receiving an electrical shock. For example.1 Stored-pressure water Extinguishers Suitability: Class .1.
and any situation where water would be damaging to the material after the fire is extinguished. as indicated by the CO2 snow. Precautions in Using CO2: The characteristics of carbon dioxide are such that certain precautionary measures are necessary: • So far as safety to life is concerned. if you place the extinguisher on the ground while operating the unit or if you come into contact with another grounded object while operating the unit.2 Carbon-dioxide (CO2) Extinguishers Diagram 1.a good choice for electrical machinery and apparatus. CO2. if not breathed in excessive amounts. • When carbondioxide (CO2) converts from its liquid state in a fire extinguisher.The spark will take place if the extinguisher's grounding state is altered during operation. dry chemical type) since the extinguisher do not leave a harmful residue . it is potentially dangerous for personnel to be in an area protected by a CO2 system. This snow turns into gas and in the process absorbs heat from the surrounding atmosphere. CO2 extinguishers have an advantage over other extinguishers (e. It is however not as effective outdoors as it is indoors due to the effect of wind on the agent. however.B & C fires Features: The use of CO2 as an extinguishing agent is based on the principle of lowering the percentage of oxygen within the fire area.2: Carbon-dioxide (CO2) Extinguishers Suitability: Class . to its vapour state in the atmosphere. it has the ability to penetrate into loose material and confined spaces. The hose and horn assembly of the extinguisher is designed to conduct and dissipate this static charge to prevent harm to the operator and the generation of a static electrical spark. a concentrated atmosphere inhaled for several minutes will produce suffocation. Since CO2 is heavier than air. is not dangerous.1. Inhaling CO2 at concentration above 9 percent can render a person helpless almost immediately. static electricity is created.B and C fires. The fireis extinguished by a reduction of the oxygen content from the normal 21 percent to15 percent. which has a temperature of minus 79°C (-110°F). Uses: Carbon Dioxide (CO2) extinguishers are used for Class .g. The preferred way to operate this extinguisher is to 3 .3. As CO2 design concentrations for fire extinguishing generally exceed 25 percent. that is. The rapid expansion of the gas on discharging produces a refrigerating effect.1.
releases many times its volume in non-toxic fire. B and C fires Features:Dry-chemical extinguishers expel a finely powdered dry chemical which.3: Dry chemical Extinguishers Suitability: Class . However. effective in Class .9kg domestic model up to the 9kg industrial model. on striking flame. and when discharged. •CO2is stored in a liquid state under very high pressure. or in any situation where the compound stream can be swept across the burning surface.A.drag the extinguisher into and out of the fire area while discharging the unit.enables themto be utilized in numerous applications. B and C fires. spilled fires on floors. The compact nature of these fire extinguishers.3 Dry chemical Extinguishers Diagram 1. 1. They don't work very well on class-A fires because they may not be able to displace enough oxygen to put the fire out. The discharge pressure is so great that it is not uncommon for bits of dry ice to shootout the nozzle.both in rotating machinery and other equipment. the rapid expansion produces a refrigerating effect to the extent that one may obtain a "burn.1. the powder remaining after the fire is extinguished is difficult to clean from motor or generator windings." or frostbite from coming in contact with a metal part through which the gas has passed.3. These extinguishers can be used for electrical fires. 4 . The powder consists principally of bicarbonate of soda which has been chemically processed to make itfree-flowing. causing it to re-ignite.Dry chemica lextinguishers have an advantage over CO2 extinguishers since they leave a non-flammable substance onthe extinguished material.A. The extinguishers contain a cartridge of CO2 or nitrogen (depending on size) to expel the dry chemical. reducing the likelihood of re-ignition. Use of a dry chemical extinguisher is not affectedby wind like CO2 extinguishing agents.extinguishing gases similar to CO2. These extinguishers arethe most versatile type of portable extinguishers.ranging from the 0. These extinguishers are effective on fires of flammable liquids in vats and pools. thusthe extinguisher remains groundedat all time.
uranium and powdered aluminium.3.A. They are acidic in nature and are effective on Class . are capable of fightingall three classes of fire. B. ground to selected particle sizes and treated with flow promoting and moisture repellent additives.C (flammable gas) fires.D: Class -D powder is a special form of fire fighting agent that is used for combustible metal fires.1. the more ammonium phosphate.A (flammable solids). C & D fires Features:Multipurpose powders fall into three distinct groups: 1.3.4 Multipurpose Extinguishers Diagram 1. The BC variety leaves a mildly corrosive residue which must be cleaned immediately to prevent any damage tomaterials.B (flammable liquid/liquefiable solids) and Class . These are mixtures of ammonium phosphate and ammoniumsulphate. 1.3.2 ABC Type ABC Type: ABC-rated extinguishers. 5 . the particles fuse and swell to form a barrier which excludes oxygen and thereby completes the extinguishing process and prevents re-ignition. Class . Potassium bicarbonate BC Powder (often calledPurple K) is twice more effectivethan sodium bicarbonatepowder.1. In addition tothe particle surface extinguishing effect of a Class .1.ABC powders have low melting/decomposition points in theorder of 150°C to 180°C. commonly called multi-purpose ortri-Class Extinguishers.3 D Type (powder) Class . the more effective it is.4.1. Three main types are in usei. It extinguishes a metal fire by fusing to form a crust.C (flammable gas) fires.1 BC Type BC Type: These are based on sodium bicarbonate or potassium bicarbonate compounds. The unique property of Monnex is that withinthe combustion zone.1. Sodium Chloride for fires involving alkali metals such as sodium and potassium. These are effective on Class . Urea based Potassium Bicarbonate BC Powder (commonly known as Monnex) is still moreeffective. Class .B (flammable liquid/liquefiable solids) and Class .4.B powder. They are electrically non-conductive. 1. When thesepowders are applied to hot and smouldering surfaces.4.3.4: Multipurpose extinguisher Suitability: Class . Different blends are available. also zirconium. the high temperature causes the powder to explode and break into minute particles giving avery large surface area which affects the extinctionof the flames instantaneously.
B fire that spreads from the stove to the curtains (Class . Extinguishers shall be mounted so that the top is no more than 5 feet (1. the effectiveness of the fire extinguisher used on that class of hazard. In this case. The copper compound smothers the fire and provides an excellent heat sink for dissipating heat. suitable safeguards shall be provided to ensure prompt evacuation of such locations. Cabinets may be recessed to minimize the aesthetic impact and the door may be opaque.5m) above the floor and the bottom is at least 4 inches (10. Water-mist extinguishers shall be provided in all exhibit halls. and also to provide means for prompt rescue of any trapped personnel. 6 . 1. any Class . It is extremely toxic. unless specially treated.1 General requirement Portable Fire Extinguishers Where Portable Fire Extinguishers are required.2. one of the reasons it is ineffective against class F fires as although it can extinguish the flame. At no time shall fire extinguisher cabinets be locked.2 Design Considerations 1. Caution: Although modern powders are non-toxic. but not too near as to be inaccessible in case of fire. or in cabinets. The selection of the most appropriate fire extinguisher depends on the fire hazards anticipated pertaining to occupancies of a building. rescue or other emergency action. The lack of a securing blanket means there is a re-ignition risk. Portable fire extinguishers provided in building are meant to be used by occupants as a first line defence. They shall be located along the normal paths of egress from a space to an exit. Break-glass type cabinets are not permitted. The powder has no cooling properties. Fire extinguishers provided to deal with special risks shall be sited near the risk concerned. for example. each building shall provide portable fire extinguishers for fire protection and other hazards being protected.2 cm) from the floor.ii.A) can be fought with the same extinguisher. the cabinet shall be labeled.91 cm) letters. Fire extinguishers shall be located so that no person needs to travel more than 15m to reach an extinguisher. Ternary Eutectic Chloride developed specifically for uranium fires works similar to Sodium Chloride. But since the priority is on safety the ABC multi-purpose extinguishers are widely used mainly because it not only reduces any confusion about what to use and where (saving time). Sodium Bicarbonate Powders. and the weight of the extinguisher can be handled by occupants. are not compatible with foams.The minimum classification of extinguishers that are required for building protection is 2A-10BC. but also covers the possibility that. in handling fires of limited size. The agent is slightly corrosive and may damage sensitive computer/electronic equipment. Extinguishers may be mounted on hangers or brackets. the heat of the fat will cause immediate flashback. the discharge of a powder extinguisher in a confined space can cause a sudden reduction of visibility which may temporarily jeopardize escape. Where there is a possibility that personnel may be exposed to a dry-chemical discharge. Copper extinguishing agent specially developed for fighting lithium and lithium alloy fires. on shelves. iii. Fire extinguishers shall be conspicuously located in positions where they will be readily accessible and immediately available in the event of fire. “FIRE EXTINGUISHER" with minimum 3/4 -inch (1. The chemical extinguishers have the drawback of often ruining sensitive equipment because it leaves behind the secondary residues.
1 Operational Requirement Safety device should be remove with force between 20 N and 100 N.3 Colour And Marking The extinguisher shall be red in colour and shoul be an area between 3% and 10% of the external area of the body coloured canary yellow.2.2.the extra requirement is unimpaired the all parts of the mechanical operation..2.2 External corrosion The extinguisher shall be tested and shall comform to operational requirement and extra additional requirement. The discharge of the portable fire extinguisher shall commence within 10 s of the opening of the control valve and the duration shall comform to the appropriate minimum value in table.Extinguisher cabinets recessed in fire rated walls are to be listed for such purpose.2. 1.2. 1. The marking of the extinguisher also shall 7 . The extinguisher also should meet the funtioning test and burst pressure requirement.1: Location of fire extinguisher extinguisher Diagram of 1. The energy required to activated the operating devices should be in accordence with this malaysian standard. the pressure indicator is fitted and shall be remain funtional.2.2.. Requirement of the portable fire extinguisher– by Malaysian Standard 2013 MS 1539: Part 1 1. Diagram 1.2.2: height of the 1.. The metal of the extinguisher shall be not corrosion.. Extinguishers shall be readily accessible and not hidden from view. the discharge is not less than 90% of the nominal charge of the agent shall be discharge from the extinguisher after continuous discharge including all expelling gas.
Missing indicator are missing or broken must be replaced to ensure the funtionality of the extinguisher.4. or has obvious corrosion. The extinguisher cannot be placed at other places. Extinguishers shall be inspected monthly. No obstructed from any thing such as cupboard that can prevented from accessing the extinguisher The operation instructions on the extinguisher name plate shall be legibleand face outward. NFPA 10.the extinguisher shall not be obstructed.3 INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE Portable extinguishers shall be maintained in a fully charged and operable condition. Any seals or tamper indicators that are broken or missing shall be replaced. for 8 . 4-3. v. 1. or clogged nozzles shall be noted. the extinguisher shall be subjected to applicable maintenance procedures. or when specifically indicated by an inspection. Fire extinguishers shall be inspected when initially placed in service and thereafter at approximately 30 -day intervals. The tags on which the date are preferred for a lasting record. The broken seal or indicator can confusing the user. vi. The designated place is calculating followed the rules and requirement. Fire extinguishers shall be inspected at more frequent intervals when circumstances require. NFPA 10. Access to. The date the inspection was performed and the initials of the person performing the inspection shall be recorded. corrosion. *Maintenance procedures shall be performed in accordance with 4 -4. at the time of hydrostatic test.2:) Inspection is a quick check that an extinguisher is available and will operate. orvisibility of. 1.2\ Maintenance is a "through check" of the extinguisher intended to give maximum assurance that an extinguisher will operate effectively and safely. When an inspection reveals that tampering has occurred.3. or that the extinguisher is damaged. The instruction’s use of extinguisher are faced outward to make easy to followed by user. 4-4.1 Inspection (NFPA 10. and the following items shall be checked: i. iv.3. Pressure-gauge readings when not in the operable range shall be noted. Any obvious physical damage. under-or overcharged.1 1. impaired. A carbon dioxide extinguisher.1 Frequency. and kept in their designated placed at all times when they are not with a tag for registering inspection date.be in such a position that can be clearly read from front when the extinguisher is on its mounting bracket.2 Maintenance NFPA 10.1 Frequency: Fire extinguishers shall be subjected to maintenance at intervals of not more than one year. The extinguisher shall be in its designated place. leaking. iii. 4-3. The instruction must be clean from any dust. leakage. 4-3. ii.
the signature of the person who performed the test and the serial number of the fire extinguisher that was tested. The pressure must be maintained for at least 30 seconds Extinguisher Type Stored Pressure Water Extinguisher Foam Dry chemical with Stainless Steel shells or soldered brass shells Dry chemical. Testing and servicing is usually carried out by a service agency. Low-pressure cylinders (e. Hydrostatic testing is performed by filling the container with water or another noncompressible fluid that is compatible with the fire extinguisher container.3.1: Hydrostatic Test NFPA requires that a permanent record be maintained for each cylinder tested. and the container is inspected for potential failure points. at anytime. Maintenance shall be performed at regular intervals. This can cause electric shock. the hydrostatic test intervals for extinguishers listed below should be followed. pressurized water) that pass the hydrostatic test must have the test information recorded on a metallic label. disposable containers are exempt from the requirement. The tests are performed by qualified service technicians in a controlled environment to minimize the risk of injury or damage. cartridge operated with mild steel shells Carbon-dioxide HydrostaticTest Interval (Years) 5 5 5 12 5 Table 1. it should be subjected to hydrostatic pressure tests or replaced.If. can build up a high static charge if it is used when there is a breakdown of the insulation around the discharge horn. the test pressure used. affixed to each extinguisher that indicates the month and year the test was performed. Refill all extinguishers as soon as they are used.2. Extinguishers requiring discharge for hydrostatic testing or refueling should be utilized for demonstration purposes. an extinguisher shows evidence of corrosion or mechanical injury. In addition: i. The pressure is then increased on the container to a specific point as required by the manufacturer or Federal safety standards. These records should be kept until the extinguisher is hydrostatically retested at the required time interval or until the extinguisher is taken out of service. dry chemical. Certification records include the date of the test. . 1.example.g.1 HydrostaticTests Periodic hydrostatic pressure testing is performed on portable fire extinguishers to evaluate the containers’ strength against unwanted failure. wet chemical. carbon dioxide) that pass the hydrostatic test must be stamped with the tester’s identification number and the month and year of the test. In addition.g. Dry chemical extinguishers having non-refillable. Any extinguishers removed from the premises to be recharged shall be replaced by spare extinguishers during the period they are gone. Disposable fire extinguishers can be used only once and must be replaced after one use or 12 years from the date of manufacture. and the initials or 9 ii. not more than 1 year apart or when specifically indicated by an inspection. High-pressure cylinders (e. or similar durable material. Stored pressure-dry chemical extinguishers that require a 12-year hydrostatic test will be emptied and subjected to applicable maintenance procedures every 6 years.
Standard on Water Mist Fire Protection Systems. NFPA 750. On the fixed gaseous systems. Standard on Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems.name of the personperforming the service and the name of the company they represent. telecommunication switches. fire detection system which are wiring control panel. actuation signalling. Standard on Halon 1301 Fire Extinguishing Systems. Standard for Wet Chemical Extinguishing Systems. fire detectors. NFPA 17A. NFPA 2001. agent storage contenders. Hartindo. Inergen Gas. NFPA 17. Standard on Clean Agent Fire Extinguishing Systems. Carbon Dioxide. Standard for Dry Chemical Extinguishing Systems.1 INTRODUCTION Fixed gaseous systems are used to protect areas containing a critical equipment such as data processing rooms. Halon systems. get a some part of systems like typically consists of the agent. There are several type of fixed gaseous systems like. CHAPTER 2 FIXED GASEOUS SYSTEMS 2. agent release valve. and Aerosol. 10 . NFPA 12A. and process control rooms. FM-200. agent delivery piping and agent dispersion nozzles. There are National Fire Protection (NFPA) standards for fixed gaseous extinguishing systems like NFPA 12.
6 LB size. The amount of gas required must be determined form the volume of the protected space.3 COMPONENTS FM-200 Cylinder/Valve Assemblies FM-200 is stored in DOT steel cylinders as a liquefied compressed gas. low in toxicity.1 INTRODUCTION FM-200 is the extinguishing agent used in Firetrace pre-engineered automatic indirect fire suppression units or a actual name is Heptafluoropropane. 2. Standard on Clean Agent Fire Extinguishing Systems. and a quarter turn ball valve that interfaces with the Firetrace detector tubing. The cylinder/valve assemblies are available in 3 sizes. 2. the quantity of nozzles will be determined by the throw from each nozzle and the maximum quantity gas that can flow through a nozzle. and is an extremely effective fire suppression agent. super-pressurized with nitrogen to 150 psig at 70˚F (1. Each cylinder is fitted out with a brass valve.034 KPa @ 21 C). These units are considered for total flooding applications. namely are 3 LB size. in accordance NFPA-2001. and 12 LB size. electrically non-conductive. leaves no residue.2.2. It is colourless odourless gas.2. The ball valve must be kept closed at all times when the cylinder is not in service.2 FM-200 2. using FM200 Clean Agent.2 DESIGN CONSIDERED The pipe work design is critical and must make sure the gas is release in 10 second.2. 11 . a pressure gauge to display cylinder pressure. Besides that.
Recharge Adapters. during the charging procedure. FM-200 Cylinder The recharge adapter is installed in one of the cylinder valve discharge ports during the cylinder recharging procedure. The tubing is fit throughout the hazard volume. The small nozzle is for use with the 3Lb. Each bracket is fitted out with two integral quick-clamp straps. The nozzles discharge in a 360opattern and are designed to be installed at the top of the hazard in the center of the area being protected. located on top of the cylinder valve. An optional pressure gauge or pressure switch can be linked to the other end of the detector tube to monitor unit pressure or signal unit actuation etc. The medium size nozzle is for use with the 6 Lb. Firetrace Flexible Detector/Actuation Tubing The Firetrace tubing is used as a mixture linear heat detector and unit activation device to cause actuation of the FM-200 agent cylinder. and 12 Lb size units. with one end connected to the top of the FM-200 cylinder valve. Two size nozzles are available. unit actuation and or to energize or de-energize electrically operated equipment. Cylinder N2Recharge Adapter The recharge adapter is connected to a Firetrace tubing. Pressure Switch A pressure switch is providing as a standard part of the cylinder valve assembly and is connected directly into the pressurized share of the cylinder valve. The detector tubing is heat sensitive and in a fire situation is considered to rupture at any point along the tube when the temperature ranges 212 F (100 C). resulting in complete discharge of the FM-200 agent through the nozzles. Discharge Nozzles Discharge nozzles are used to distribute FM-200 agent uniformly throughout the hazard area. size unit only. The rupture of the tube releases the nitrogen pressure causing the FM-200 cylinder valve to actuate. This pressure switch is used to display unit pressure. and the other end of the tubing is attached to the ball valve. The nozzles are brass with female NPT pipe threads. The adapter is used for refilling the cylinder with FM-200 agent. 12 .Cylinder Mounting Bracket A wall mounted painted steel bracket is used to support the cylinder/valve assembly in a vertical position.
at the entrance to the protected areas. the installing contractor shall offer complete operation and maintenance instruction manuals. including door and damper installations completed. Warning signs shall be provided in a conspicuous location. The installing contractor will arrange for operational training to each shift of the owners personnel. troubleshooting techniques. One copy of reproducible engineering drawings shall be provided reflecting all actual installation details. FM-200 Warning Nameplate The Warning Plate is required to warn personnel not to enter the hazard area during or after discharge. After that must do a training requirements. manuals and aborts. Upon completion of each system. to final acceptance. All aspects of system operation and maintenance shall be detailed. sequence of operation and drawing(s) illustrating control logic and equipment used in the system. including piping isometrics. in accordance with the manufacturer's recommended procedures and NFPA standards.2. the complete system shall be checked out. For example. trained personnel. supervisory procedures. PROCEDURE OF INSPECTION AND TESTING After the system installation has been completed. Each training session shall contain control panel operation. 2. The drawings shall show actual installation details including all equipment locations. inspected and tested by qualified. control panel. ii. iii. and to super pressurize the FM-200 cylinder with nitrogen. 13 . or in the case of cabinet protection on the front face of the cabinet. Checklists and procedures for emergency situations. auxiliary functions and emergency procedures. Show all room or facilities modifications. maintenance operations and procedures shall be included in the manual. Cylinder Hydrostatic Pressure Test Adapters These adapters are available for use when a cylinder hydrostatic test is required in order to comply with DOT regulations. the installing contractor shall provide four copies of system "As-Built" drawings to the owner. manual and abort functions.The adapter is used to apply nitrogen pressure to internally seat the valve piston. wiring diagrams of all circuits. as well as piping and conduit routing details. agent container. iv. trouble procedures. a written description of the system design.4 i. alarms. detectors. Besides that.
materials and workmanship for the full warranty period which is standard with the manufacturer. Inspections shall be conducted in accordance with the manufacturer's guidelines and the recommendations of NFPA 2001. The tests shall demonstrate that the entire control system functions as designed and intended. Diagram 2. At the time "As-Built" drawings and maintenance/operations manuals are submitted.3. Next. A room pressurization test shall be conducted. All circuits shall be tested. after system acceptance. 14 . installed under this contract. Then. and has been specially developed to provide fire protection for sensitive electrical and electronic instruments and equipment. and the second inspection at the 12-month interval. but in no case less than one year from the date of system acceptance. vi. to determine the presence of openings which would affect the agent concentration levels viii. vii. The system is designed and installed in accordance with the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Standard 2001.1: FM 200 2. ix.v. argon and carbon dioxide.1 INTRODUCTION INERGEN is a mixture of nitrogen. The first inspection shall be at the six-month interval. in each protected space. documents certifying satisfactory system operation shall be submitted to the owner upon completion of each inspection.3 INERGEN 2. the installing contractor shall submit a test plan describing procedures to be used to test the control system. the installing contractor shall provide two inspections of each system. All PYRO-CHEM system components furnished and installed under this contract shall be warranted against defects in design. during the one-year warranty period.
The orifice plate provides readily visible orifice identification. The nozzle selection depends on the hazard and location to be protected. Pressure Reducer – The pressure reducer is required in the distribution piping to limit the flow of Inergen agent. Electric Actuator – Electric actuation of an agent cylinder is accomplished by an electric actuator interfaced through an autopulse Control System. Detection System – The autopulse control system is used where an automatic electronic control system is required to actuate the inergen system.2 COMPONENT Cylinders – The cylinders are constructed. This actuator can be used in hazardous environments where the ambient temperature range is between 32 °F and 130 °F (0 °C and 54 °C) Manual or Pneumatic Actuators – Three types of manual actuators are available for lever actuation on the cylinder valve. Nozzles are presented in either 360° or 180° discharge patterns.2. Each cylinder is prepared with a pressure seat-type valve equipped with gauge. The pressure reducer contains a stainless steel orifice plate which is drilled to the specific size hole required based on the hydraulic calculation. One size is available. As a minimum. Manual actuation is accomplished by pulling the hand lever on the actuator.3. thus reducing the agent pressure down stream of the reducer. Cylinder Assembly – The cylinder assembly is of steel assembly with a red standard finish. The system design specifies the nozzle and orifice size to be used for proper flow rate and distribution pattern. The valve is built of forged brass and is attached to the cylinder providing a leak tight seal. independent or priority-zone (counting) concepts. tested. the cylinders must meet the requirements of DOT 3AA3000. The detection circuits can be organized by cross. This control system is used to switch a single fixed fire suppression or alarm system based on inputs established from fire detection devices. 15 . counting. and marked in accordance with applicable Department of Transportation (DOT) specifications. Nozzles – Nozzles are considered to direct the discharge of Inergen agent using the stored pressure from the cylinders. The control system has been tested to the applicable FCC Rules and Regulations for Class A Computing devices.
2.9 bar). Also cylinders can be stored away from the protected enclosure within a plant room or storage area thereby making more efficient use of operational space. Using directional valves multiple rooms can be piped back to a central bank of cylinders and when a detector detects a fire the correct valve is operated and the gas will be discharged into the correct enclosure. does not contribute to global warming.5 TESTING 16 . Because inergen agent is composed of atmospheric gases.3. installation. it reveals no ozone depleting potential. inspection. Limitations – The inergen system must be designed and installed within the guidelines of the manufacturer’s design. argon.5% which does not allow the fire to sustain itself but is still safe for up to 10 minutes for people to be present. 2. and maintenance manual.3. We would however strongly recommend that everyone evacuates the room before a discharge for health and safety reasons. it does not pose the problems of toxicity associated with the chemically derived Halon alternative agents.4 DESIGN AND OPERATION As inert fire suppression systems are stored as gas it makes them very flexible allowing us to design systems with multiple banks of cylinders protecting multiple enclosures.Pipe and Fittings – System manifold piping must be constructed to withstand a minimum pressure of 3000 psi (206. and carbon dioxide. the point at which a fire cannot be sustained. This negates the need for individual banks of cylinders for each enclosure. Distribution piping downstream from the vent union must be constructed to withstand the maximum downstream pressure as determined by the flow calculation. Typically we design to around 12. As inergen agent is derived from gases present in the earth’s atmosphere.3.3 ECO-CHARACTERISTICS Inergen agent is a mixture of three naturally occurring gases like nitrogen. operation. Inert gases work on the principle of reducing the oxygen content within the room from the normal approximately 21% by volume to below 15%. nor does it contribute unique chemical species with extended atmospheric lifetimes. recharge. as a fire has been detected. 2.
" Halon is a liquefied. Testing schedules should include confirmation of proper functioning of alarms and safety system. a "Clean Agent" as "an electrically non-conducting.2: Inergen Diagram 2.Evidence of satisfactory testing for the functioning of all part should be the surveyor satisfaction." The National Fire Protection Association defines. leakages. or gaseous fire extinguishant that does not leave a residue upon evaporation.1 INTRODUCTION Halon is a "Clean Agent. but it is also effective on class "A" 17 . volatile. Halon is rated for class "B" (flammable liquids) and "C" (electrical fires). valves.4 HALON 2.4. compressed gas that stops the spread of fire by chemically disrupting combustion. interlocks. flow and gas analysis and vibration level. Diagram 2.3: Inergen 2. Halon 1211 (a liquid streaming agent) and Halon 1301 (a gaseous flooding agent) leave no residue and are remarkably safe for human exposure.
chemically stable compounds that. It stops the fuel. Halon 1211 and Halon 1301 are low-toxicity.the ignition. Halon protects computer and communication rooms throughout the electronics industry. tested and documented for operation by a certified trained technician. 2. According to the Halon Alternative Research Corporation: "Three things must come together at the same time to start a fire. and remains an integral part of the safety plans in many of today's manufacturing. Halon is a highly effective agent for firefighting in closed passenger carrying areas 18 . Halon is clean (i. the second is oxygen (normal breathing air is ample) and the last is an ignition source (high heat can cause a fire even without a spark or open flame). If inspection shows at least a five percent loss in net weight or a 10 percent drop in pressure.2 HALON FIRE SUPPRESSION SYSTEM INSPECTION Because Halon depletes the ozone layer. to stop a fire you need to remove one side of the triangle . During inspection.4. aircraft and tanks and helps ensure safety on all commercial aircraft.breaking the chain reaction. The first ingredient is fuel (anything that can burn). is its ability to extinguish fire without the production of residues that could damage the assets being protected.4. even at low concentrations. Halon is an extraordinarily effective fire extinguishing agent.. leaves no residue) and is remarkably safe for human exposure." 2. electronic and aviation companies. NFPA 12A standards require that all Halon fire suppression systems be thoroughly inspected. the EPA requires strict conformity with NFPA standards on Halon fire suppression systems inspection and maintenance. the quantity of extinguishing agent and the pressure of refillable containers must be checked.3 ECO-CHARACTERISTIC A key benefit of Halon. chemically stable compounds that have been used for fire and explosion protection from early in the last century. the system must be refilled or replaced. Traditionally.e. as long as they remain contained in cylinders.(common combustibles) fires. Halon adds a fourth dimension to fire fighting . as a clean agent. are easily recyclable. it has numerous military applications on ships. the fuel or the oxygen. Halon has been used for fire and explosion protection throughout the 20th century. the ignition and the oxygen from dancing together by chemically reacting with them. Halon has proven to be an extremely effective fire suppressant. Halons are low-toxicity.
Discharge nozzles must be suitable for the fire it is proposed to extinguisher. pump rooms. diesel generator rooms and rooms containing electrical and electronic equipment. but may pose a serious risk to personnel. However. This because. 2. separator rooms. co2 fixed gaseous systems has a highly valued for their specific features.5.1 INTRODUCTION Co2 fixed gaseous systems is commonly used for the ships engine rooms. co2 fire suppression results in minimal damage.. Diagram of 2.5. Its bell shape 19 . It has excellent fire-extinguishing capabilities and is relatively inexpensive. For example. Co2 also not conduct electricity thus leading to a widespread use in on board spaces filled with sensitive and valuable electronic equipment and machinery.4: Halon Gas 2. the primarily extinguishes fires by reducing the available oxygen in the atmosphere. The nozzle is designed for total flooding applications.5 CO2 CARBON DIOXIDE 2.2 COMPONENT Discharge nozzles A discharge nozzle is a device designed to release the extinguishing agent at a specific rate and design to quickly extinguish a fire.
heat. Automatic Fire Detectors Automatic detection devices sense the smoke. Automatic detection devices used on a total flooding system must automatically activate the pre-discharge alarm before the system discharges to give employees time to safely exit from the protected area. These alarms must be able to be heard or seen above ambient noise or light levels. Control panel The control panel monitors and integrates all components together and controls the audible and visual alarms and discharge functions. installed and maintained. or flames from a fire and initiate an alarm. Piping The piping network is considered to properly issue the extinguishing agent to the protected areas. Hazard warning or caution signs must be posted at the entrance to and inside of areas protected by fixed extinguishing systems which use agents in concentrations known to be hazardous to employee safety and health. All fire protection systems must have pipes and fittings that are suitable for the expected temperature extremes with good corrosion resistance properties. Discharge Alarm or Signaling Devices Each area protected by a fixed extinguishing system must have a distinctive alarm or signal to alert occupants that the system is discharging. Manual Discharge Station A manual discharge station is a device usually mounted on a wall near the emergency exit 20 . All automatic detection equipment must be approved. Warning Signs and Safeguards Warning signs must be posted to warn employees in advance about the hazards associated with the extinguishing agent. In addition to warning signs. When an automatic or manual device is activated it sends a signal to the control panel where.and multiple small discharge openings will create a broadly dispersed and diffused discharge pattern to quickly flood an enclosed area with an extinguishing agent. depending on the type of system and hazards. the employer must also provide effective safeguards to warn employees when the atmosphere of a protected area remains hazardous to their safety or health as a result of a system discharged.
which will automatically sound an alarm and release the extinguishing agent. chemical storage. or major modification of the unit or CO2 system. Annually. rewind.1. Although discharge of CO2 is not required during this test. a functional test of the control/protection circuits should be performed. operation of the discharge valve or pneumatic/electrical discharge devices should be verified. ii. or similar areas. Operation of air housing pressure relief devices Bearing pressure equalization features CO2 concentration achieved Time duration that CO2 concentration is maintained after initial and delayed releases 2. local heaters. This test should be repeated every 5 years. a Concentration test should be performed to demonstrate the ability of the air housing and machine to maintain the needed CO2 concentration. iv.3 SYSTEM TESTING 2. This test must include verification that the unit differential relay would initiate CO2 discharge.3. operation of the discharge valve or pneumatic/ electrical discharge devices should be verified. or other methods to test operation of the detectors and sensors.5.1.5. 2. Concentration Test After initial installation. upgrade. 21 .5. iii. Although discharge of CO2 is not required during this test. These containers can be used to hold specialized fire suppression agents like carbon dioxide or halon to protect special work areas. Functional Tests A CO2 system functional test must be performed simulating an actual fire using smoke bombs. If your workplace is equipped with a fixed suppressant system. This test verifies: i. such as computer rooms.3. there must be at least one manual station for each protected area Extinguishing Agent Storage Containers Storage containers hold the extinguishing agent until it is needed and can be high or low pressure cylinders or tanks.
Own by Personnel Care Resources SDn. Perak Darul Redzuan.5: Carbon Dioxide Tank CHAPTER 3 CASE STUDY 3. Bhd. The factory are employed 167 person to running the manufacturing work processes. Jalan Perusahaan 3.Diagram 2. tissue. Kawasan Perindustrian Parit Buntar. The size of the factory are double of the football 22 . shower span and the others. Lot7278. 34200 Parit Buntar. This company are running manufacturing factory that are produced personnel daily care stuff.1 INTRODUCTION Our case study for fixed gaseous system has been conduct in green building factory. Such as. which is located at Nibong Tebal Personal Care Sdn Bhd (228234-U).
field. the risks of fire are high. the factory used heavy electric current to supply the machine power. Picture 3. The maintenance and inspection of the installed extinguisher are running by their own maintenance department. The company choose to installed fixed gaseous system use carbon Dioxide(CO2). Enrico Syafiq bin Ismail suggest to worker to prevent from passing through the area. The use of machineries and plant to process the product. Factor chosen a co2 gaseous system 23 . So that the co2 gaseous system located far from working place. the safety officer. En. The factory are built with power room that are installed fixed gas system to prevent while emergency happen at the factory. For safety. The size of the power room is around 12x 18 feet. The maintenance department cares about the power room because the power are supply is important to their factory. The co2 is use in power room for this company. That are divided into a few part like store. To running directly. plant and machineries and administration part. Because of the usage of power are heavy.1: Location of the case study Position of co2 gaseous located Co2 gaseous system is dangerous to human because reducing the available oxygen in the atmosphere.
Co2 is suitable to located at power room. Then. co2 have a more cheapest than another gaseous system. All discharge piping and pneumatic tubing has not been damage. required schedules for periodic maintenance and inspection and record of inspections and maintenance that including corrective actions taken to maintain the system in operable condition Monthly Inspections At least every 30 days a general visual inspection should be made of the overall system condition for obvious signs of damage and should include verification that i. If compare to other gaseous system. Besides that. ii.BHD. Picture 3. factor chosen the co2 gaseous system is not conduct electricity thus leading to a widespread use in on board spaces filled with sensitive and valuable electronic equipment and machinery. All high pressure cylinders are in place and properly secured The alarm devices are in place and do not appear damaged 24 . iv. Maintenance and inspection plan of the factory by Maintenance Department Good working order and readily available for immediate use is shall be apply to the fixed gas system extinguisher.2: Nibong Tebal Personnel Care SDN. This is because. co2 is more capabilities to prevent a wiring and electrical for the power room. v. co2 gaseous system has excellent fire-extinguishing capabilities and is relatively inexpensive. All stop valves are in the closed position All releasing controls are in the proper position and readily accessible for immediate use iii. Maintenance department of the factory carried out the plan of maintenance and inspection due to maintenance and inspection procedures and instruction.
vii. 25 . corroded. The boundaries of the protected space should be visually inspected to confirm that no modifications have been made to the enclosure that have created uncloseable openings that would render the system ineffective ii. iii. All remote releasing controls should be checked for clear operating instructions and indication as to the space served.vi. The pressure gauge is reading in the normal range The liquid level indicator is reading within the proper level The manually operated storage tank main service valve is secures in the open position ix. loose supports and corrosion. All entrance doors to the protected space should close properly and should have warning signs. dented or bulging should be hydrostatically retested or replaced. Nozzles should be inspected to ensure they have not been obstructed by storage of spare parts or a new installation of structure or machine iv. viii. All storage containers should be visually inspected for any signs of damage. Cylinders that are leaking. System piping should be visually inspected to check for damage. rust or loose mounting hardware. which indicate that the space is protected by a fixed carbon dioxide system and that personnel should evacuate immediately if the alarms sound. The manifold should be inspected to verify that all flexible discharge hoses and fittings are properly tightened v. The vapour supply line valve is secured in the open position Annual inspection The following minimum level of maintenance and inspection should be carried out in accordance with the system manufacturer’s instructions and safety precaution: i.
Piture 3.3: Carbon Dioxide gas tank CHAPTER 4 26 .
CONCLUSION In conclusion. 27 . we can say that chosen of fire protection is very important in maintain of green environment. using ecological friendly fire protection also can save a soul and People healthy. All type of chosen of portable fire extinguisher and gaseous system will be effect the environment which is global warming and ozone depletion. Furthermore.
gov 28 . (2009).gov BASIC FACTS ABOUT HALON. Building Services handbook fifth edition. Retrieved from National Fire Protection Association: http://www. S. O. Retrieved from www2.org/ OSHA. Burlington: Butterwoth Heinemann.dupont. 1.com/ Administration. Retrieved from Standart Malaysia: http://www.my/v2/ Standart. Retrieved from www2. S. Kempen. (2010). Burlington: Butterworth . M. (2013).h3rcleanagents. Retrieved from Occupitional Safety and Healthy Acedemy: http://www. r. R.nfpa. NFPA. Retrieved from http://www.dupont. Institution. (2011).com/ Fred Hall. (2009).biz/ (2008).my/ (2003). Retrieved from http://www.com. Portable Fire Extinguisher . Retrieved from http://www.OSHA. Fred Hall.Heinemann.osha. Building Services Handbook sixth edition. G.standardsmalaysia. Retrieved from http://www. Retrieved from www.com Administration.fm200. S. O. Department of Standarts Malaysia.gov. NFPA.fm200.com BASIC FACTS ABOUT HALON. OSHA.biz/ (2008). (2005). (2010). M. (2013).h3rcleanagents.OSHA.REFERENCES (2003). Retrieved from www. (2012). G. Portable Fire Extinguisher Program Template.com. (2005). (2013). FIRE PROTECTION & LIFE SAFETY DESIGN MANUAL.my.
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