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is flowing.

Assume the flow is frictionless and adiabatic i.e., isentropic. In this case,

γ =

cp

cv ,

p

ργ

=c=

p1

ρ1γ

p

,

p ρ = ρ1 ( ) γ p1

1

.

Mechanical Energy (Bernoulli Balance)

u 2 u12 dp − +∫ =0 2 2 p1 ρ

. The above expression for ρ can be substituted into the pressure integral to obtain γ −1 p p 1 γ1 dp p1 p γ γ ∫ p1 γ = (γ − 1) ρ1 [( p1 ) − 1] ρ1 p 1 . Substituting this relationship back into the Bernoulli balance leads to the following velocity-pressure relationship:

2γ p1 p u = [1 − ( ) (γ − 1) ρ1 p1

2

γ −1 γ

] .

Oftentimes the mass flow rate, is the most important flow characteristic and here it is related to the pressure by the following relationship:

. pCT: pCT 2 γ −1 ) =( . is obtained from the following relationship: 2 uCT =( γ 2γ p1 γpCT γRTCT ) = = = c2 . the maximum occurs when d ( m A) =0 d ( p p1 ) . c. This is the maximum velocity that can be attained at the throat and it is referred to as choking the throat. MW γ + 1 ρ1 ρ CT Thus the gas velocity at the throat of the converging-diverging nozzle under critical conditions is the local speed of sound. Under choking conditions the critical mass flow rate is: mc = AT 2 γ −1 (γp1 ρ1 ( ) . uCT . γ +1 γ +1 If the diffuser section is absent. the flow is essentially that through an orifice in a high-pressure reservoir with applications in the performance of rupture disks. The latter constraint leads to the definition of a critical pressure ratio at the throat. p1 γ +1 Then the critical velocity at the throat. The maximum value of γ −1 γ p ]( ) γ p1 2 m occurs at the throat of the converging-diverging A nozzle but it also depends on pressure. where AT is the cross sectional area of the throat.m 2γ p ( )2 = p1 ρ1[1 − ( ) A (γ − 1) p1 .

e. In this case the velocity increases as the area decreases and attains a maximum u < c at the throat and then the velocity deceases in the diverging section. Case I: u<c. In this case there is subsonic flow at the throat and p 2γp1 u= [1 − ( 1 ) p (γ − 1) ρ1 γ −1 γ = ρ T AT uT m where a subscript T denotes the throat of the converging-diverging nozzle.Example 1.. Ma<1. i. . everywhere.

There is one value of o .2. This occurs when the pressure at the outlet of the nozzle. a sudden change in pressure. i. 2 Ao γ +1 γ +1 .. 3. In this case γp c = T ρT 2 and 2γp1 p γp1 = [1 − ( T ) p1 ρ1 (γ − 1) ρ1 1 γ −1 γ ] . i. occurs somewhere down stream of the throat. In this case a shock. Case II: Sonic speed at the throat. p1 γ +1 This ratio is approximately ½ for common gases. then the equation can be recast in the pressure..e. γ +1 γ +1 γ +1 This equation can be solved for the ratio of outlet pressure to reservoir po p .e.. p o . for which no shock occurs in a welldesigned nozzle. i. Let x ≡ p1 p1 form: A (γ − 1) 2 γ −1 x 2 − x γ +1 − ( T ) 2 ( ) =0 . is lower than the value necessary to p produce a sonic velocity at the throat. o . Since the process is assumed to be isentropic ρT p = ( T )γ ρ1 p1 and γ p 2 γ −1 ( T)=( ) .e. u=c. Case III: u>c somewhere in diverging section.. p1 p E in the previous figure. Determination of p C and p E (see the previous figure) leads to the following equation after some lengthy algebra: p 2 Ao2 po γ ( ) [1 − ( o ) AT p1 p1 2 γ −1 γ 2 γ −1 2 ) )( ] = (γ − 1)( .e. i.

This equation can be solved using Newton’s method to yield x ≈ 0.925 . Thus.108) = 3.There are two roots of this equation representing the values pE on the previous plot. throat and 2 in exit diameter.8 psia . Once the gas. Thus. i. p1 pC and p1 γ and the geometry of the nozzle. for example.936) = 32. Here x 2 − x 2.3 − 0.3 flowing from a tank through a Consider a gas with γ ≡ converging-diverging nozzle of 1 in. Ao cp cv = 1. . if po = 20 psia .0129 = 0 . it follows that pC = (35)(0.108 and x ≈ 0.. the two pressures can be computed.7 psia p E = (35)(0. Example A1 . The pressure in the tank is 35 psia. a shock would occur somewhere in the diverging section of the nozzle. Determine po and pc.e.

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