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2 In the Table Browser, click the tables you want to add to the universe s tructure.select several contiguous tables, hold down the Shift key, then click the first table and the last table. All the tables between the selected tables will be highlighted. To select several tables that are not contiguous, click each ta ble while holding down the Ctrl key. 3 Click the Insert button. 63.View the Structure pane in List Mode Select the List Mode command from the View menu.panes (Tables, Joins, and Contex ts) are added above the display of the schema. When you click a component in one of these panes, Designer highlights its graphical representation in the schema, and vice-versa. 64.Modify graphic options 1 2 3 4 Select the Options command from the Tools menu. Click the Graphics tab. Select the graphic options you want. Click OK. 64.Arrange tables in the Structure pane Select the Arrange Tables command from the View menu. 65.Display gridlines in the Structure pane Select the Gridlines command from the View menu. 66.View the values of tables 1 In the Structure pane, click the table whose values you wish to view. 2 Select the Table Values command from the View menu.displays a window, wh ich lists all the values for each column in the table. With the check box Distinct Values, you can filter the display so that on ly unique values are shown. 67.View the values of columns 1 In the Structure pane, place the pointer on the column whose values you wish to view.may wish to enlarge the view of the columns by applying the Zoom In command one or more times. This makes it easier to select a column. 2 Click the right mouse button.pop-up menu appears. 3 From the pop-up menu, select the View Column Values command.displays a w indow, which lists all the values for the column. With the check box, Distinct Values, you can filter the display so that only unique values are shown. 68.What join types are supported? Designer supports the following types of joins: equi-joins, outer joins, theta j oins, and shortcut joins. In addition to join strategies, Designer provides several other methods for crea ting or editing joins:
and edit the formula. In the Edit Join dialog box.Create joins automatically 1 Select the Detect Joins command from the Tools menu.Trace a join manually 1 Position the mouse pointer over the column to be the source of the join. 3 4 Double-click the join.Candidate Joins dial og box appears. Select all highlighted joins. Click each join while hold ing down the Ctrl key. 2 Click the entry area of the formula bar. 6 Click the OK button.column is highlighted. 3 Press the Enter key to exit from the formula bar. Click the Insert button. Table1 and Table2.join bet ween the two tables is created. 3 While keeping the left mouse button pressed. 5 When the second column is highlighted. then click the first and last join. 4 Position the pencil over the column to be the destination of the join. select the column that is to link Ta ble1 to Table2. release the mouse button.Create a join with the Edit Join dialog box 1 Select the Join command from the Insert menu. 3 Click the Close button to dismiss the dialog box.Edit a join with the formula bar 1 Click the join that you want to edit.joins appear in the Str ucture pane. 2 Insert the joins by doing any of the following: Select one join by clicking it. It displays the joins that were detected according to the join s trategy set for the universe. 5 Check the validity of the join by clicking the Parse button. modify the definition of the join as needed Check the validity of the join by clicking the Parse button. 3 Click the list box and select an operator. and then click the Insert button. Click the Insert button. pointer is transformed into a hand symbol.formula for the join appears in the formula bar. Select several joins that are not contiguous. 2 Click the column with the left mouse button.pointer is t ransformed into a pencil. all the joins are selected. 73. Select several contiguous joins. By default. and then click the Insert. 70. . 2 In the list boxes.the Detect Joins command tracing the joins manually the Edit Join dialog box the formula bar 69. Click the OK button. 4 In the list boxes below each table. 72. select the tables.Edit a join with the Edit Join dialog box 1 2 . All the joins between the selected joins will be highligh ed. drag the join which begins to appear away from the source column toward the destination column. Hold down the Shift key. 71.
it must always have two cardinalities.What are loops? A loop is a situation that occurs when more than one path exists from one table to another. more than one alias may be necessary for a given table. or N. 75.Detect cardinalities You can detect the cardinalities for one join or for all the joins in the univer se. Loops result in ambiguity in the design of a universe. the Loop Detection viewer appears.What are aliases? An alias is a logical pointer to an alternate table name. . which indicates the existence of any l oops. To detect the cardinalities for all joins: 1 Select the Detect Cardinalities command from the Tools menu. The minimum and the max imum number of instances can be equal to 0. The purpose of an alia s is to resolve loops in the paths of joins. If you selected the Detect cardinalities in joins options in the Database tab of the Options dialog box. click it. Note The Graphics tab of the Options dialog box contains a number of options for the display of cardinalities in the Structure pane. Deleting one or more joins may have undesirable consequences on the overall structure of your universe. click the Dete ct button. and in the Edit Join dialog box. 74. 78. There are two main methods for detecting or editing cardinalities: the Detect Cardinalities command the Edit Join dialog box 76. If there are loops. Designer detects and retrieves the cardinalities of the joins. 1. 2 Click the OK button.Delete a join 1 Click the join. it indicates the joins causing a loop.You ca n then use aliases or contexts to resolve the loops in your universe. Note Be careful when deleting a join. You can select the Detect Loops command from the Tools menu. If you do not use this option. A dialog box prompts you to confirm the action for all the joins of the universe. you can still retrieve the cardinalities for one or all joins in the universe. To deactivate it. select the Formula B ar command from the View menu.Because a join represents a bidirectional relationship. In some cases. Designer enab les you to identify loops in one of two ways: You can run the Check Integrity function. For a single join. 2 Do one of the following: Press the backspace key on your keyboard Press the Delete key on your keyboard Select the Clear command. 77. the formula bar is activated.Note By default.What are cardinalities? Cardinality expresses the minimum and maximum number of instances of an entity B that can be associated with an instance of an entity A.
In some cases.right pane displays the alias name(s) Designer suggests for the table y ou selected. in other wor ds. 4 5 6 Click the OK button. Contexts can be use d to resolve loops in the universe. Repeat steps 2 to 4 for the remaining tables (if any).dialog box appears prompti to enter a name for the aliased table. 79.message box prompts you to confirm the creation of the alias(es). Note If you create an alias manually. Notes Before using Detect Aliases.Candidate Alias di alog box appears.e. When contexts are useful. and then cl . Enter a new name for the aliased table. Click OK. You can create contexts manually. click the first table that you wish to alias.Create an alias manually 1 lias. 2 ng you 3 4 In the Structure pane. and ent er the new name. you must also create the joins necessary to lin k it to the other tables. 80. be sure that Designer has already detected all the cardinalities of joins.What are contexts? A context is a rule by which Designer can decide which of two paths to choose wh en more than one path is possible from one table to another. Designer suggests a list of contexts that you can create. 3 Click the Create button. click the name of the first context you wish to create. Before using Detect Aliases. Designer may prompt you to create other aliases. propagate the aliases) Designer displays an alias in the Structure pane as a table. click the table for which you want to create an a Select the Alias command from the Insert menu. Click the Add button. check to see that all the tables in the universe ar e already linked by joins. re-arranging joins. a dialog box may prompt you to propagate additi onal aliases.As you create aliases. 81. or keep the one proposed.Candidate Context s dialog box is displayed. In such a situation. creating such aliases entails the propagation of other aliases. It links an aliased table to existing tables.aliased table appears in the Structure pane. if this is not the case.context is displayed in the right p ane.Create a context automatically 1 Select the Detect Contexts command from the Tools menu. or cause them to be detected by Designer. click the Rename button. This occ urs when the new aliases result in the need for additional aliases. select the Detect Cardi nalities command from the Tools menu. You can remove any context from the right pane by selecting it. as necessary. two options are available to you: You can cause only the first table proposed to be aliased You can alias all the tables listed (i. To give an alias a different name. 2 In the left pane of the dialog box. 82. 2 In the left pane of the dialog box. Click Close to dismiss the dialog box.Create an alias automatically 1 Select the Detect Aliases command from the Tools menu.
conditions.parsing checks only the syntax of a component Thor ough parsing checks both the syntax and semantics of a component.icking the Remove button. and then click the Rename button. It determines whether changes were made to the database to which the uni verse is connected. .Integrity Check d ialog box appears. and cardinalit ies of your universe. 86.How do you test the integrity of a universe? With the Check Integrity command. 3 Enter the name of the class in the Class 4 Enter information about the class in the 5 Click the OK button.Create a class manually 1 Click the class after which you want the erse pane.Run check integrity 1 Select the Check Integrity command from the Tools menu. 5 If you wish to rename a context. type a name for the context in the text b ox. 85.Check All causes all the options to be checked.view makes it easy to see the joins you selected.Structure pane is displayed in List Mode. 5 Click OK. click all the joins defining the c ontext. click the Show selected o nly option. click the component(s) to be checked by clicking the corresponding check boxes. It detects whether there are any loops in the joins. 4 Click OK. click the option again. 84. select it from the right pane. to add the other contexts. Note Options for running Check Integrity automatically are available in the Options d ialog box (Tools menu). it shows the joins making up a context and suggests a name for it.context is created.Edit Properties dialog box Name text box. Of the two opt ions. 2 In the New Context dialog box. you can test the structure of your active univ erse. the latter may take longer to run. new class to appear in the Univ menu. 3 Click the parse level.can click the Detect button for assistance. 83. 2 In the dialog box.Create a context manually 1 Select the Context command from the Insert menu. if applicable. 4 Repeat steps 2 and 3. joins. Check Integrity serves the following purposes: It detects any inconsistencies in the objects. 4 If you wish to see all the joins you selected. To return to the pr evious view. 6 Click the OK button. 2 Select the Class command from the Insert appears. 3 In the Current context join list box. This means testing to determine whether its components are accurate and up -to-date. This lets you view the contexts you created.Rename Context dialog box appears from which you can en ter a new name. Description text box.
Notes A class appears within the Universe pane with a symbol. Otherwise. it becomes a subclass of this class. If you insert a class in an opened class. it appears .
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