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1979-59

79-0059
ii

Guidance Laws for Short Range Tactical Missiles


H.L. Pastrick, U.S. Army Missile Research & Development Command, Huntsville, Ala.; and S.M. Seltzer, Control Dynamics Co., Huntsville, Ala.; and M.E. Warren, University of Florida, Gainesville, Fla.

17th AEROSPACE SCIENCES MEETING


New Orleans, La./January 15-17, 1979
For permission l o copy or republish. contact the American institute 01 Aeronautics and Aslronaulics. 1290 Avenue 01 the Americas. New York. N.Y. 10019.

GUIDANCE L A W S FOR SHORT RANGE TACTICAL MISSILES

H. L . P a s t r i c k " US Army M i s s i l e Research and Development Cornand H u n t s v i l l e , Alabama


S. M. S e l t z e r " * C o n t r o l Dynamics Company H u n t s v i l l e , Alabama
M. E . Warrent University of Florida Gainesville, Florida

Abstract_
A comparison of guidance laws a p p l i c a b l e t o s h o r t r a n g e t a c t i c a l m i s s i l e s is made. These laws are segmented i n t o several c l a s s e s and t h e p r i n c i p l e s u n d e r l y i n g e a c h c l a s s are d i s c u s s e d . S p e c i f i c a t t e n t i o n i s g i v e n t o t h e s t r u c t u r e of t h e guidance t e c h n i q u e and t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r i t s implementat i o n . E v a l u a t i o n and comparison o f t h e performance of t a c h g u i d a n c e l a w versus t h e c o s t o f implementing i t are c o n s i d e r e d . An e x t e n s i v e b i b l i o g r a p h y of r e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e is included.

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system. H e r e t o f o r e t h e s e two classes o f weapons each were developed i n d e p e n d e n t l y . T h i s r e s e a r c h s h a l l a t t e m p t t o view them as p o t e n t i a l l y s i m i l a r systems t h a t u t i l i z e d i f f e r e n t modules s u c h as p r o p u l s i o n , g u i d a n c e , warhead, e t c . The f i r s t s c e p i n implementing t h i s t a s k was t o c o n d u c t a l i t e r a t u r e s u r v e y t o e s t a b l i s h a technology b a s e s t a r t i n g p o i n t . C o n s t r a i n t s on l e n g t h of t h e p a p e r r e s u l t i n summarizing ( a l p h a b e t i c a l l y by a u t h o r ) t h e l i s t t o i n c l u d e only t h o s e r e f e r ences c o n s i d e r e d by t h e a u t h o r s t o be most r e l e v a n t . Following t h i s s u r v e y , guidance l a w s were p l a c e d i n f i v e c a t e g o r i e s and d e f i n e d m a t h e m a t i c a l l y . The implementation and p r e d i c t e d performance of each c a t e g o r y was t h t a i n v e s t i g a t e d and compared in l i g h t of c u r r e n t and p r e d i c t e d hardware and s o f t w a r e capab i l i t i e s . This paper d e s c r i b e s t h e s e r e s u l t s .

1.

Introduction

The US Army M i s s i l e Research and Development C o m n d (MIRADCOM) r e c e n t l y began a t a s k t o develop a n advanced g u i d a n c e and c o n t r o l s y s t e m f o r f u r t h e r Army Modular Missiles. The i n t e n t i s t o " l e a p f r o g " systems c u r r e n t l y u n d e r development. The purpose o f t h i s p a p e r i s eo d e s c r i b e t h e work t h a t h a s been done w i t h i n t h i s new t a s k and t o p r o v i d e an i n d i c a t i o n o f f u t u r e e f f o r t s t h a t are now planned.
T h e reason f o r embarking on t h i s t a s k is now s u m a r i z e d . P r e s e n t weapon systems performance may b e s e r i o u s l y degraded i n engagements a g a i n s t t a r g e t s w i t h p r e d i c t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e 1990s and beyond and i n t h e b a t t l e f i e l d environments of t h a t time frame ( s e e , e . g . , p . 1 1 , A v i a t i o n Week and Space T e c h n o l o m , March 20, 1978). I t h a s been e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t t h e guidance laws c u r r e n t l y i n wide use may n o t be a d e q u a t e t o combat t h o s e t h r e a t s . Thus, i t is p r o j e c t e d t h a t fundamental advances i n guidance and control systems t h e o r y are r e q u i r e d t o enhance t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of f u t u r e weapon s y s t e m s . A d d i t i o n a l l y , m i s s i l e a i r f r a m e and p r o p u l s i o n systems may r e q u i r e advances c o m e n % r a t e with t h e predicted t a r g e t s c e n a r i o s . I n p a r t i c u l a r , a i r d e f e n s e weapons c u r r e n t l y i n Research and Development (R&D) may be s e r i o u s l y hampered i n t h e combat s c e n a r i o s e n v i s i o n e d . From a n overall systems v i e w p o i n t , t h i s t a s k s h a l l a d d i e s s t h e i s s u e o f c r e a t i n g new t h e o r y i n the g u i d a n c e and c o n t r o l area t o meet t h e h i g h performance t h r e a t of t h e f u t u r e a s a l e a d i n g technology item. C l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t and i n p a r a l l e l w i t h t h e g u i d a n c e and c o n t r o l e f f o r t , weapon system work s h a l l be u n d e r t a k e n t o modify a i r f r a m e and p r o p u l s i o n modules t o be c a p a b l e of engaging t h e 1990s t h r e a t . G e n e r a l s u p p o r t weapons s h a l l b e viewed i n i t i a l l y as a s u b s e t of t h e a i r d e f e n s e

11.

Guidance Laws

The development o f guidance laws f o r s h o r t r a n g e t a c t i c a l m i s s i l e s h a s become a w e l l - r e s e a r c h e d t o p i c over the p a s t 25 y e a r s . A summary of a d e t a i l e d l i t e r a t u r e s u r v e y , how each guidance l a w c a n be implemented, and guidance l a w p r e d i c t e d p e r formance are d e s c r i b e d w i t h i n t h e f i v e guidance law categories stated i n the Introduction. L i n e of- S i g h t Guidance (Command- t o - L i n e - o f - S i g h t and B e a m R i d e r 1 Clemow (1960), i n h i s book M i s s i l e Guidance, p r o v i d e s a d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n o f beam r i d i n g , w h i l e Mahapatra (1976) d i s c u s s e s m o r p h o l o g i c a l d e s i g n based on beam r i d i n g , Clemow (1960) d i s c u s s e s co-nd-to-line-of-sight (CLOS) w h i l e Kain and Yost (1976) u s e t h i s method i n t h e i r s h i p d e f e n s e s c e n a r i o , u s i n g Kalman f i l t e r s t o r e d u c e beam j i t t e r .

A t t h e MIRADCOM, CLOS and Beam R i d e r (BR) conc e p t s are each c o n s i d e r a d a s u b s e t of the l i n e - o f s i g h t guidance laws. They d i f f e r p r i m a r i l y i n t h e i r m e c h a n i z a t i o n . The CLOS uses a w i r e f o r t h e transponder l i n k , e.g., T O W o r DRAGON. BR may use a n e l e c t r o - o p t i c a l l i n k , e . g . , SHILLELAGH, and f l y i n a d i r e c t e d beam aimed a t t h e t a r g e t . G e n e r i c a l l y they a r e s i m i l a r and w i l l b e d i s c u s s e d as one.

*Research Aerospace E n g i n e e r . Member A I A A . **Senior S c i e n t i s t . A s s o c i a t e Fellow A I A A . Member A I A A .

t A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r , E l e c t r i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g Department.

This paper ih declared P work 01 Ihe US. Gorernmcnl and Iherelorei, in thepublicdornsin.

i /

The l i n e - o f - s i g h t (LOS) guidance scheme (CLOS and BR) i s one i n which t h e missile is guided on an LOS c o u r s e so as t o remain on a l i n e a d j o i n i n g t h e t a r g e t and t h e p o i n t of c o n t r o l . To f l y a l o n g t h e LOS, t h e missile r e q u i r e s a v e l o c i t y component (V )

M1

p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e u)S t h a t i s e q u a l t o t h e M S v e l o c i t y d e s c r i b e d by t h e r e l a t i o n

complex t h a n d e p i c t e d h e r e . Also t h e BR missile r e q u i r e s anboard a u t o p i l o t compensation s i n c e t h e p r o j e c t o r does not know where t h e missile i s l o c a t e d once e n r o u t e . The CMS scheme, however, does keep t r a c k o f t h e m i s s i l e and t h u s compensates f o r i t s p o s i t i o n p r i o r t o transmitting the guidance s i g n a l via the w i r e link. Performance o f m i s s i l e s f l y i n g t h i s guidance law i s t y p i c a l l y v e r y good. Without t h e man-int h e - l o o p t r a c k i n g e r r o r , flawless guidance h a s been t h e r u l e : t a r g e t h i t s c a n be expected v i r t u a l l y on each s h o t . I n t h e more r e a l i s t i c c o n d i t i o n where t h e t h e t r a c k i n g e r r o r i s t h e major e r r o r s o u r c e , g i v e n t h a t a r e l i a b l e round h a s been f i r e d , t h e p e r f o m a w e h a s been found t o be b e t t e r t h a n 1 f t CEP w i t h a 90% c o n f i d e n c e l e v e l . P u r s u i t Guidance Goodstein (1972) gave a comparison o f t h e q u a l i t i e s and s e n s i t i v i t i e s of LOS, p u r s u i t , and p r o p o r t i o n a l n a v i g a t i o n guidance f o r a i r - t o - g r o u n d and a i r - t o - a i r missiles. I n a n o t h e r paper i n t h e same r e p o r t , Goodstein d i s c u s s e s t h e guidance and c o n t r o l system t r a d e o f f s i n m i s s i l e design.

' M I

= %M

'ST

(1)

where RSM r e p r e s e n t s t h e range from t h e m i s s i l e t o t h e t r a c k i n g s t a t i o n and yST r e p r e s e n t s t h e LOS.

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I n g e n e r a l , t h e missile f l i e s a p u r s u i t guidance c o u r s e a t t h e i n i t i a t i o n o f t h e e n t r y i n t o t h e beam a t launch and f l i e s an approximately c o n s t a n t b e a r i n g course near impact. This i s observed from t h e velocity equation

'Mi

- %M _
RST T '

where t h e range of t h e t r a c k i n g s t a t i o n t o t h e t a r g e t i s g i v e n by R and V r e p r e s e n t s t h e t a r g e t

ST

v e l o c i t y r e l a t i v e t o the s u r f a c e of t h e e a r t h . F i g u r e s 1 and 2 a r e s i m p l i f i e d c o n t r o l b l o c k diagrams h i g h l i g h t i n g f e a t u r e s of t h e scheme f o r e a c h of t h e two cases. I t should be noted t h a t t h e p r o j e c t o r mount dynamics i n F i g u r e 1 and t h e t r a c k e r mount dynamics i n F i g u r e 2 may be c o n s i d e r a b l y more

Two p u r s u i t guidance laws are d i s c u s s e d h e r e i n : a t t i t u d e p u r s u i t g u i d a n c e and v e l o c i t y p u r s u i t guidance. A t t i t u d e p u r s u i t guidance tries t o keep t h e c e n t e r l i n e of t h e m i s s i l e p o i n t e d a t t h e t a r s e t . I n a m i s s i l e which f l i e s an a n g l e o f a t t a c k when maneuvering, t h e v e l o c i t y v e c t o r w i l l always l a g

PROJECTOR

RANGE ZOOM

' L ZOOM PROJECTOR

DYNAMICS MAY BE MORE COMPLEX

ACCELERATION

m!
F i g u r e 1.
AM
I

Beam R i d e r Scheme$<

TRACKER

GAIN PROGRAM

OVNAMICSMAY BE MORE COMPLEX

ACCELERATION

F i g u r e 2,

Command-to-Line-of-Sight

Scheme*

.
"Implementation scheme provided by R. H. Farmer, Technology L a b o r a t o r y , US Army Missile Research and Development Comand.
2

t h e v e h i c l e p o i n t i n g d i r e c t i o n . Miss d i s t a n c e i s a s t r o n g f u n c t i o n of the maneuver c a p a b i l i t y o i t h e m i s s i l e and can be reduced by a f a s t responding high-g vehicle. V e l o c i t y p u r s u i t g u i d a n c e a t t e m p t s t o keep t h e v e l o c i t y v e c t o r of t h e m i s s i l e p o i n t e d a t t h e targ e t . I t i s mechanized i n sone less s o p h i s t i c a t e d missiles by mounting a target sensor o n an a i r vane which i n d i c a t e s r e l a t i v e wind d i r e c t i o n . The d i i ference between t h i s v e l o c i t y v e c t o r and a t r u e v e l o c i t y v e c t o r is t h e primary error i n t h e scheme. The a t t i t u d e p u r s u i t guidance m e c h a n i z a t i o n d e c o u p l e s t h e a n g l e o f a t t a c k from t h e t a r g e t s e e k e r and improves m i s s d i s t a n c e performancc by a n amount p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e v e h i c l e a n g l e o f a t t a c k . F i g u r e 3 d e p i c t s two-dimensional geometry useful f o r d e s c r i b i n g t h e p u r s u i t guidance laws.
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Figure 4.

A t t i t u d e P u r s u i t Guidance

F i g u r e 5. V e l o c i t y P u r s u i t Guidance

Figure 3.

P u r s u i t Guidance Geometr)

N e g l e c t i n g t h e c a s e of a maneuvering t a r g e t , f o r s i m p l i c i t y , one n o t e s t h a t

i = vT - v M
and the LOS r a t e i s

'

(3)

The performance t o be expected f r o m p u r s u i t guidance i s i n d i c a t e d i n F i g u r e s 6 , 7, and 8. These were o b t a i n e d f o r a t a c t i c a l weapon of t h e c l a s s known as close s u p p o r t a n t i t a n k weapons. They a r e i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e q u a l i t y of performance one may e x p e c t f o r t h e s e guidance laws. Although t h e s e are s i m u l a t i o n r e s u l t s , r e c e n t experience with f l i g h t hardware h a s v a l i d a t e d t h e s i m u l a t e d pcriormance t o a h i g h d e g r e e of c o n f i d e n c e .

The p r o p o r t i o n a l n a v i g a t i o n guidance (PNG) law performance i s a l s o i n d i c a t e d ; therefore, it s h a l l be d e s c r i b e d n e x t .

F o r an i d e a l p u r s u i t , 0 = X . S i n c e 6 = A, t h e m i s s i l e w i l l always have t o t u r n d u r i n g t h e a t t a c k e x c e p t f o r t h e case o f a p e r f e c t head o r t a i l c h a s e .

40

I I

ATTITUDE PURSUll

F i g u r e s 4 and 5 p r e s e n t examples of s i m p l i f i e d c o n t r o l s y s t e m diagrams f o r t h e a t t i t u d e and veloc i t y p u r s u i t g u i d a n c e laws, r e s p e c t i v e l y . In the former, a wide angle t a r g e t sensor is r e q u i r e d s i n c e i t is t y p i c a l l y mechanized t o b e body f i x e d . I n t h e l a t t e r , a narrower f i e l d - o f - v i e w (FOV) sens o r may b e u t i l i z e d a s a r e s u l t of t h e d e c o u p l i n g o f t h e body from t h e sensor mount as p r e v i o u s l y i s t h e forward guidance d e s c r i b e d . I n each c a s e , g a i n , and i t w i l l d i f f e r f o r each as w i l l t h e fcedback damping g a i n K R . The guidance f i l t e r i n F i g u r e 5 i n d i c a t e s t h a t h i g h e r guidance g a i n i n t h e v e l o c i t y p u r s u i t law r e q u i r e s some smoothing t o i n h i b i t n o i s e o f t h e t a r g e t sensor o p t i c s and i t s associated electronics.

VELOCITY PURSUIT

PROPORTIONAL

12

16

READING ERROR Idegl

d
F i g u r e 6 , Performance of C l a s s i c a l Guidance Laws f o r a Given Heading E r r o r a t F i r s t T a r g e t Acquisition

100

80

60
VELOCITY PURSUIT

40

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20

0
0

10

20

30

40

60

TARGET VELOCITY lrnph)

F i g u r e 7. Performance o f C l a s s i c a l Guidance Laws f o r a Given T a r g e t V e l o c i t y and as a FUnction of C o n t r o l A u t h o r i t y ( U n i t s Expressed i n g ' s )

loo 90

7
=58 ' s

Clemow (1960) g i v e s a n o t h e r b a s i c d e r i v a t i o n o f PNC, w h i l e Pitman (1972) compiled s e n s i t i v i t y f u n c t i o n s and p r o j e c t e d errors f o r P N G w i t h gains o f 2 , 3, and 4. C a l c u l a t i o n s o f t e r m i n a l homing p a r a m e t e r s were made by Rawlings (1970). I n a 1971 p a p e r , Rawlings c o n s i d e r e d t h e e f f e c t s o f s a t u r a t i n g aerodynamic s u r f a c e s on t r a j e c t o r i e s flown w i t h PNG. Many a u t h o r s have c o n s i d e r e d augmenting P N G to a c c o u n t f o r t a r g e t a c c e l e r a t i o n s . Arbenz (1970) c o n s i d e r e d making t h e c l o s i n g v e l o c i t y h e a d i n g r a t e p r o p o r t i o n a l t o LOS r a t e and developed a c l o s e d form e x p r e s s i o n f o r a m o d i f i e d P N G law. Siouris (1974) added an e s t i m a t e of t a r g e t a c c e l e r a t i o n t o t h e missile a c c e l e r a t i o n command t o y i e l d an augmented P N G law. Guelman used g e o m e t r i c arguments t o g i v e t h e s t r u c t u r e of t h e m i s s i l e t r a j e c t o r y ; h e showed i n 1971 t h a t P N G w i l l a l m o s t always r e s u l t i n an intercept f o r a constant v e l o c i t y t a r g e t i n 1972. F o r c o n s t a n t t a r g e t a c c e l e r a t i o n s , q u a l i t a t i v e t r a j e c t o r i e s were d e t e r m i n e d and t a r g e t a c q u i s i t i o n boundaries assessed. I n 1976 Cuelman cons i d e r e d t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t r a j e c t o r i e s under t m e p r o p o r t i o n a l n a v i g a t i o n g u i d a n c e (TPNG), where t h e commanded a c c e l e r a t i o n is normal t o t h e LOS r a t h e r t h a n the m i s s i l e v e l o c i t y . I n t h i s work h e showed t h a t TPNG r e s u l t s i n i n t e r c e p t o n l y if the i n i t i a l c o n d i t i o n s l i e i n a w e l l d e f i n e d S u b s e t of t h e N G for parameter space. S h i n a r (1976) c o n s i d e r e d P a r o l l i n g missile where h e c o n s i d e r e d t h e crossc o u p l i n g between roll and t h e c o n t r o l system. S l a t e r and Wells (1973) s t u d i e d o p t i m a l e v a s i v e tactics against a P N G missile, incorporating a lag i n t o t h e m i s s i l e dynamics, and g e n e r a t e d two S t r a t e g i e s based upon d i f f e r e n t o p t i m a l i t y c r i t e r i a . A comprehensive s t u d y o f c l a s s i c a l (PNG) and o p t i mal c o n t r o l t e c h n i q u e s f o r t e r m i n a l homing of CNc i f o r m and b a n k - t o - t u r n s t e e r i n g m i s s i l e s was performed by B a l b i r n i e , S h e p o r a i t i s , and Eferriam (1975). P N G i s a guidance l a w of t h e m i s s i l e f l i g h t p a t h t o t h e a n g u l a r LOS r a t e o f s i m p l i s t i c a l l y i n Figure 9
case.
Y
FLIGHTPATH

80 . CONTROL AUTHORITY
70
60

50 40 20

i n which t h e a n g u l a r r a t e is d i r e c t l y p o r p o r t i o n a l change. T h i s is shown f o r a two-dimensional

PROPORTIONAL 0
0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

F i g u r e 9.

Geometry of F l i g h t P a t h

TARGET ACCELERATION (a1

The geometry o f F i g u r e 9 s u g g e s t s

F i g u r e 8. Performance o f C l a s s i c a l Guidance Laws f o r a Given T a r g e t A c c e l e r a t i o n Commencing 5 sec B e f o r e Impact P r o p o r t i o n a l N a v i g a t i o n Guidance Adler (1956) p r o v i d e d one of t h e seminal papers i n t h e area, c o n s i d e r i n g P N G i n t h r e e dimensions. Adler p r o v i d e s a r e a d a b l e development of t h e t h e o r y u s i n g v e c t o r c a l c u l u s , whereas most s u b s e q u e n t a u t h o r s have c o n s i d e r e d o n l y t h e p l a n a r case f o r s i m p l i f i c a t i o n . Murtaugh and C r i e l ( 1 9 6 6 ) p r o v i d e d a n o t h e r fundamental p a p e r d e v e l o p i n g three-dimensional P N G f o r a s a t e l l i t e rendezvous problem.

where yH r e p r e s e n t s f l i g h t p a t h a n g l e r e l a t i v e t o
a f i x e d reference, h r e p r e s e n t s the LOS r e l a t i v e t o a f i x e d r e f e r e n c e , and N i s t h e n a v i g a t i o n r a t i o . A g e n e r a l e x p r e s s i o n f o r m i s s i l e a c c e l e r a t i o n may

he written

7 = VMfMR+ VMT
where q r e p r e s e n t s t o t a l m i s s i l e a c c e l e r a t i o n ; T ~ t ,h e missile f l i g h t

( 6)

VM, t h e m i s s i l e s p e e d ;

p a t h angle;

VMl,

a u n i t vector l a t e r a l t o the

m i s s i l e f l i g h t p a t h ; and 7, a u n i t v e c t o r tangent i a l t o m i s s i l e f l i g h t p a t h . The d e f i n i t i o n s o f R and 7 y i e l d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p , a . = 0. One may implement p r o p o r t i o n a l n a v i g a t i o n v i a t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p ( i n t h e L a p l a c e domain)

where E ( . ) d e s i g n a t e s t h e expected v a l u e o p e r a t i o n , S and R are w e i g h t i n g m a t r i c e s , x i s t h e s t a t e ,

f u i s t h e c o n t r o l , and w i s a w h i t e n o i s e p r o c e s s . I n most f o m l a t i o n s the dynamics a r e assumed cons t a n t t o o b t a i n c l o s e d form s o l u t i o n s .

I /

where 0

represents the l a t e r a l acceleration i n

u n i t s o f g ' s and E r e p r e s e n t s t h e LOS e r r o r which is measured by a seeker h a v i n g a time lag c o n s t a n t of T sec and an e r r o r o f d. The symbol k r e p r e s e n t s a guidance g a i n f a c t o r . By n o t i n g t h a t a c o n s t a n t b e a r i n g c o u r s e i s d e t e r m i n e d i f m i s s i l e and t a r g e t are f l y i n g cons t a n t speed and n e i t h e r i s maneuvering, i t may be c o n c l u d e d t h a t the LOS a t each i n s t a n t o f t i m e would be p a r a l l e l t o t h e LOS a t a p r e v i o u s i n s t a n t . L a t e r a l l y p e r t u r b i n g t h e c o l l i s i o n c o u r s e noted by t a r g e t and m i s s i l e p o s i t i o n s X and respecti.vely T y i e l d s Z and Z which may be i n t e g r a t e d t o y i e l d M T the missile trajectory using proportional navigation:
2

Bryson, Denham, and Dreyfus (1963); Denham and Bryson (1964) ; and D e n h a m (1964) were among t h e f i r s t t o c o n s i d e r o p t i m i z a t i o n techniques In a series a p p l i e d t o m i s s i l e guidance problems. of p a p e r s t h e y f o r m u l a t e d and s o l v e d t h e o p t i m a l c o n t r o l problem with i n e q u a l i t y c o n s t r a i n t s , and then a p p l i e d t h e r e s u l t t o t h e t r a j e c t o r y shaping o f a s u r f a c e - t o - s u r f a c e missile f o r range maximization. S r a l l a r d (1968) gave a good t u t o r i a l review of c l a s s i c a l and modern methods f o r homing i n t e r c e p t o r I n an e a r l i e r paper (1966), h e d e a l t missiles. w i t h an a u t o p i l o t d e s i g n . I n a 1972 p a p e r , h e a p p l i e d d i s c r e t e o p t i m a l control t o a m i s s i l e system w i t h u n d e s i r a b l e s t a b i l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and t h e n modified t h e dynamics t o y i e l d a new problem w i t h more d e s i r a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .

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Td ZM dt 2

dZM
gkTX

+ -d =t -

~(3)
t=o

An e x c e l l e n t r e v i e w of d e t e r m i n i s t i c o p t i m a l c o n t r o l and i t s a p p l i c a t i o n s , w i t h an e x t e n s i v e b i b l i o g r a p h y , i s found i n an IEEE p a p e r by Athans (1966). Another e x c e l l e n t review w i t h e x t e n s i v e references is i n B 1965 A I A A p a p e r by Paiewonsky. Kokotovic and Rutman (1965) provided a s u r v e y of s e n s i t i v i t y methods drawing h e a v i l y upon S o v i e t literacure.
Some e a r l y a u t h o r s , i n a n a t t e m p t t o j u s t i f y t h e r e s u l t i n g guidance laws achieved v i a l i n e a r o p t i m a l c o n t r o l , showed t h a t t h e i r r e s u l t s were an e x t e n s i o n of PNG. Axelband and Hardy (1969, 1970) used l i n e a r o p t i m a l c o n t r o l t o develop what t h e y c a l l e d quasi-optimum PNG. As w i t h a l m o s t a l l l i n e a r o p t i m a l schemes, time-to-go i s r e q u i r e d f o r implementation. Lee (1969) d e s c r i b e d s e v e r a l t e c h n i q u e s i n n o n l i n e a r c o n t r o l which extended t h e l i n e a r rcgul a t o r t h e o r y and d r e w h e a v i l y upon r e c e n t d i s s e r t a t i o n s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f Minnesota. Deyst and P r i c e (1973) used l i n e a r dynamics w i t h a p l a n a r engagement t o develop o p t i m a l c o n t r o l laws where the t a r g e t a c c e l e r a t i o n was a f i r s t o r d e r Markov p r o c e s s , and found t h a t t h e s a t u r a t i o n of c o n c r o l s u r f a c e s was an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n modeling a maneuver l i m i t e d m i s s i l e . Nazaroff (1976) f o m l a t e d an I Q G approach i n which h e assumed e x t r e m e l y s i m p l i f i e d m i s s i l e dynamics b u t i n c l u d e d t a r g e t a c c e l e r a t i o n and j e r k terms. Stockum and Wiener (1976) assumed exponent i a l l y correlated t a r g e t accelerations i n generati n g an I Q G guidance law. The feedback t h e y o b t a i n e d on p r o j e c t e d m i s s d i s t a n c e and r a t e was analogous t o t i m e - v a r y i n g PNG. They compared t h e i r guidance N G law. scheme a g a i n s t an augumented P Asher and Matuseewski (1974) c o n s i d e r e d t h e o p t i m a l c o n t r o l problem where t a r g e t a c c e l e r a t i o n was accounted f o r a s an e x t e r n a l d i s t u r b a n c e , r e s u l t i n g i n a t r a c k i n g f o m l a t i o n of t h e regulat o r problem. They c o n s t r a i n e d t h e f i n a l miss d i s t a n c e t o be z e r o b u t , t o a c h i e v e t h i s , needed t o know t h e t a r g e t a c c e l e r a t i o n h i s t o r y p r e c i s e l y .

The p e r f o r m a w e and implementation of t h e g u i d a n c e l a w are b e s t a p p r e c i a t e d i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t w o o t h e r guidance laws which are s i m i l a r i n i n t h a t no r e q u i r e m e n t i s e s t a b l i s h e d f o r range o r range r a t e i n f o r m a t i o n . V e l o c i t y p u r s u i t and a t t i t u d e p u r s u i t a r e i n t h i s c a t e g o r y w i t h PNG. The p e r f o r m a n c e i s i n d i c a t e d i n F i g u r e s 6 , 7 , and 6.
O p t i m a l L i n e a r Guidance

'4

S i n c e the mid-1960's t h e m i s s i l e g u i d a n c e l i t e r a t u r e h a s become i n c r e a s i n g l y permeated by t e c h n i q u e s based upon o p t i m a l c o n t r o l . The g r e a t s u c c e s s found by l i n e a r - q u a d r a t i c r e g u l a t o r t h e o r y a i d i t s d u a l a n a l o g , Kalman f i l t e r i n g , p l u s t h e a t t r a c t i v e and e a s i l y determined form of a f c e d back s o l u t i o n h a s l e d t o a l m o s t a l l work i n t h i s a r e a b e i n g based upon l i n e a r model dynamics, w i t h q u a d r a t i c c o s t s and a d d i t i v e G a u s s i a n n o i s e (LQG). Most f o r m u l a t i o n s c o n s i d e r t e r m i n a l m i s s d i s t a n c e and r u n n i n g c o n t r o l e f f o r t o n l y i n t h e c o s t funct i o n a l . Unlike the S t a n d a r d r e g u l a t o r f o r m a t , a r u n n i n g c o s t on t h e s t a t e i s g e n e r a l l y n o t approp r i a t e i n t h i s framework. The g e n e r a l o p t i m i z a t i o n problem t h e n becomes

' 4

B a l b i m i e , S h e p o r a i t i s , and Merriam (1975) g a v e a means t o o b t a i n w e i g h t i n g m a t r i c e s which r e s u l t i n " c l a s s i c a l type" c o n t r o l g a i n s i n an LQG f o r m u l a t i o n . S h e p o r a i t i s , B a l b i r n i e , and L i e b n e r (1976) c o n s i d e r e d a q u a d r a t i c c o s t on t h e a n g l e of a t t a c k . They used a second o r d e r Newton-Raphson scheme t o s o l v e t h e r e s u l t i n g o p t i m i z a t i o n problem. Speyer (1976) a p p l i e d h i s l i n e a r - e x p o n e n t i a l Gaussian (LEG) c o n t r o l l e r t o a t e r m i n a l guidance problem. R a t h e r t h a n minimizing t h e e x p e c t a t i o n o f a q u a d r a t i c form J 2 (as g i v e n p r e v i o u s l y ) , ~ p e y e r ' sLEG f o r m u l a t i o n minimizes E ,ex,(lt,J where p i s a scalar. The dynamical model i s a g a i n l i n e a r . Speyer used a Kalman f i l t e r t o o b t a i n e s t i m a t e s of S t a t e v a r i a b l e s f o r feedback. H i s c o n t r o l l e r did not enjoy a separation p r i n c i p a l ; c o n t r o l g a i n s depended upon the f i l t e r s t a t e c o v a r i a n c e . S p e y e r ' s LEG c o s t f u n c t i o n a l had t h e e f f e c t of v e r y h e a v i l y weighing l a r g e e x c u r s i o n s and t h u s reduced t h e t a i l s of t h e t e r m i n a l m i s s distribution. Youngblood (1977) used v e r y s i m p l i f i e d l i n e a r dynamics t o compute i n n e r launch boundaries. Youngblood's r e p o r t c o n t a i n s a d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e F l e t c h e r - P o w e l l f u n c t i o n a l o p t i m i z a t i o n method. F i s k e developed a number of guidance and e s t i m a t i o n schemes based upon LQG f o r m u l a t i o n s w i t h v a r y i n g d e g r e e s of model complexity. The c l o s e d form s o l u t i o n s f o r t h e c o n t r o l l e r s are g i v e n i n t h e r e p o r t , a l l o w i n g one t o examine t h e e f f e c t of model p a r a m e t e r s on t h e g a i n s . F i s k e also p r e s e n t s a s t o c h a s t i c guidance law, wherein the t a r g e t a c c e l e r a t i o n i s assumed t o be a f i r s t o r d e r system d r i v e n by w h i t e n o i s e . In a d d i t i o n , a n o n l i n e a r law, based upon n u l l i n g p r o j e c t e d miss d i s t a n c e over a s i n g l e c o n t r o l i n t e r v a l was given. York and P a s t r i c k (1977) looked a t t h e problem of minimizing t h e t e r m i n a l m i s s d i s t a n c e and t h e d e v i a t i o n of t h e m i s s i l e from a d e s i r e d o r i e n t a t i o n a t t h e f i n a l t i m e . A f o w l a t i o n was g i v e n f o r a s y s t e m t h a t had f i n i t e time d e l a y . In f a c t , t h e i n c r e a s e and d e c r e a s e i n time d e l a y had i n t e r e s t i n g r a m i f i c a t i o n s on t h e s o l u t i o n . The a n g l e of a t t a c k assumption was i n v e s t i g a t e d a n d , a l t h o u g h n o t s o l v e d a n a l y t i c a l l y i n c l o s e d form, t h e system was derived. For completeness, t h e f o l l o w i n g example summ a r i z e s a t y p i c a l o p t i m a l c o n t r o l law f o - l a t i o n . The geometry of t h e t a c t i c a l m i s s i l e - t a r g e t p o s i t i o n i s g i v e n i n F i g u r e 1 0 . Assume t h a t t h e a n g l e o f a t t a c k i s s m a l l and t h u s can be n e g l e c t e d ( t h i s assumption w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d l a t e r ) , and choose t h e f a l l o w i n g set o f v a r i a b l e s :

p o s i t i o n y a r i a b l e of t h e missile p r o j e c t e d on t h e ground; Yd is t h e d e r i v a t i v e o f Yd, t h e missile t o t h e t a r g e t v e l o c i t y p r o j e c t e d on t h e ground;

AL i s t h e l a t e r a l a c c e l e r a t i o n o f t h e m i s s i l e ;
0 is t h e body a t t i r u d e angle of the missile;

and

a is t h e a n g l e of a t t a c k of t h e m i s s i l e shown i n
F i g u r e 10.

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F i g u r e 10, Geometry of T a c t i c a l Missile Target Positions T h i s o p t i m a l c o n t r o l problem w i l l have a cont r o l l e r of t h e form

where Cy, C?,

CO,

are time-varying c o e f f i -

c i e n t s chosen t o minimize t h e c o s t f u n c t i o n a l tf

L /

J = Yd(tf)

yB(tf)

+B
0

u2(t)dt

(12)

For t h e case where t h e a n g l e o f a t t a c k p r o b a b l y c a n n o t be ignored e . g . , f o r t h e l a r g e r t a c t i c a l missile, t h e system of e q u a t i o n s should i n c l u d e t h e a n g l e of a t t a c k a. I n a d d i t i o n , because i t i s f e a s i b l e t o a c h i e v e o n l y a small a n g l e of a t t a c k a t impact, a r e a s o n a b l e performance index t o be minimized would seem t o he
t

f u2(t)dt.

2 J = clYd(tf)

+ c2e2 ( t f ) + c3a2 ( t f ) + c4
to

(13)

The performance o b t a i n a b l e from t h e o p t i m a l guidance l a w formulated and s i m u l a t e d f o r E q u a t i o n (13) was comparabla and even b e t t e r t h a n t h e P N G law i n terms of m i s s d i s t a n c e . A d d i t i o n a l l y , it had t h e added f e a t u r e of meeting a c o n s t r a i n t o r t h e impact a n g l e which t h e F'NG law c o u l d n o t achieve. I n p a r t i c u l a r t h e impact a n g l e was shown v i a s i m u l a t i o n on a n a l l - d i g i t a l 6-DOF m i s s i l e s i m u l a t i o n t o be w i t h i n 1 deg of t h e d e s i r e d impact a n g l e and w i t h i n 1 f t of t h e d e s i r e d m i s s d i s t a n c e . O t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s have c o r r o b o r a t e d t h e s e r e s u l t s .
where Yd is t h e p o s i t i o n v a r i a b l e from t h e m i s s i l e

t o t h e t a r g e t p r o j e c t e d on t h e ground; p o s i t i o n v a r i a b l e of t h e t a r g e t ;

Yt is the

Ym is t h e

The performance of any r e a l i s t i c o p t i m a l cont r o l law i n a m i s s i l e a p p l i c a t i o n i s dependent on t h e e s t i m a t i o n of f i n a l time o r , e q u i v a l e n t l y , o n

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time-to-go. T y p i c a l l y , a n e s t i m a t e o f t h e range between t h e t a r g e t and m i s s i l e , and t h e r a t e o f change of t h i s range are o b t a i n e d from r a d a r or o t h e r r a n g i n g d e v i c e s ; t h e time-to-go e s t i m a t e is t h e n c a l c u l a t e d . T h i s e s t i m a t e works q u i t e w e l l as l o n g a s t h e range and r a n g e - r a t e i n f o r m a t i o n a r e a c c u r a t e . I n many i n s t a n c e s , however, t h e d a t a are contaminated by n o i s e e i t h e r c o v e r t l y , as i n t h e c a s e o f r a d a r j a m i n g d e v i c e s , or by t h e proc e s s i n g e l e c t r o n i c s . T h i s a d v e r s e l y impacts the e s t i m a t e of time-to-go and t h e o p t i m a l c o n t r o l law, and m i s s i l e performance s u f f e r s . P a s t r i c k and Yark (1977) p r e s e n t a d i s c u s s i o n of s e v e r a l a s p e c t s o f t h e problem i n t h e c o n t e x t of a r e a l i s t i c a p p l i c a t i o n and p r o v i d e a n a l y t i c computer a l g o r i t h m s f o r i t s s o l u t i o n , as w e l l as a closed-form r e s u l t . Another more r e c e n t a t t e m p t t o e s t i m a t e t i m e - t o - g o was made by F i s k e . He also a d d r e s s e s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f o b t a i n i n g t h i s v a r i a b l e by a n i n t e n s i t y r a n g i n g technique. Another d i f f i c u l t y w i t h o p t i m a l g u i d a n c e laws i s t h e i r s e n s i t i v i t y t o i n i t i a l c o n d i t i o n s , as shown by York (1978). The p r i m a r y message t h e r e i n i s t h e s t r o n g need f o r a c c u r a t e modeling of t h e s y s t e m and the importance of the s e l e c t i o n of numerical q u a n t i t i e s f o r t h e e l e m e n t s of t h e weighti n g m a t r i c e s i n t h e performance index. O t h e r Guidance Schemes Whiting and Jobe (1972) c o n s i d e r e d u s i n g a " v i r t u a l t a r g e t " approach t o g u i d a n c e f o r a s h o r t range a i r - t o - g r o u n d m i s s i l e . P o u l t e r and Anderson (1976) c o n s i d e r e d a nonl i n e a r d i f f e r e n t i a l game framework t o d e r i v e a n o p t i m a l s t e e r i n g l a w f o r a t e r m i n a l homing m i s s i l e . I n a p r i o r p a p e r , Anderson (1974) gave a method of u p d a t i n g a d i f f e r e n t i a l game s o l u t i o n v i a l i n e a r i z e d two-point boundary v;lue problems.

Mahmoud (1977) d e s c r i b e d a d u a l l e v e l , h i e r a r c h i c a l o p t i m i z a t i o n scheme based o n i n v a r i a n t imbedding which is u s e d t o o b t a i n approximate soluConnor t i o n s t o many n o n l i n e a r c o n t r o l problems. and Vlach (1977) p r e s e n t e d a new augmented p e n a l t y f u n c t i o n approach t o o p t i m a l c o n t r o l problems. T h e i r f o r m u l a t i o n i s a p p l i c a b l e t o f i n i t e dimens i o n a l o p t i m i z a t i o n problems with t e r m i n a l constraints. Lansing and B a t t i n (1965) p r e s e n t e d m c h background m a t e r i a l on random processes a p p l i e d t o a u t o m a t i c c o n t r o l . R a d b i l l and McCue (1970) prov i d e d background m a t e r i a l on q u a s i - l i n e a r i z a t i o n methods i n s o l v i n g c o u p l e d n o n l i n e a r two-Point boundary v a l u e problems. C h i n ' s book on m i s s i l e d e s i g n (1961) h a s a s e c t i o n on m i s s i l e t r a n s f e r f u n c t i o n s which i s v e r y u s e f u l i n a s s e s s i n g t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n of aerodynamic f a c t o r s and c o n t r o l s u r f a c e s t o m i s s i l e motion. G o o d s t e i n (1972) provided an overview of m i s s i l e c o n t r o l s y s t e m development and, i n t h e same AGAIU) r e p o r t , Acus (1972) p r e s e n t e d a d e s c r i p t i o n and comparison of i n e r t i a l guidance technology f o r tactical missiles.
111.

Discussion

A s u r v e y h a s been made of guidance laws a p p l i e d t o s h o r t range t a c t i c a l m i s s i l e s , and t h e y have been o r g a n i z e d i n t o f i v e c a t e g o r i e s f o r convenience of discussion. To b e t t e r p l a c e them i n r e l a t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e , F i g u r e 11 p r e s e n t s t h e hardware r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r mechanizing them. Though t h e c o n c e p t s are reasona b l y s e l f explanatory, i t should be noted t h a t t h e BR and CLOS c o n c e p t s are c o n f i g u r e d w i t h a f t sensor and o p t i c s w h i l e t h e o t h e r s are forward. Also, t h e o p t i m a l guidance scheme s u g g e s t s t h e need f o r a m i c r o p r o c e s s o r t o h a n d l e t h e more complex guidance algorithms. Guidance c o n c e p t depicted i n t h e Table o t h e r items t h a t show With t h e e x c e p t i o n of c o n f i g u r a t i o n comparisons f e a t u r e t h e r e l a t i v e c o s t and complexity and performance. t h e m i c r o p r o c e s s o r requirement

F o r background m a t e r i a l , Froning and G i e s e k i n g (1973) gave a d e s c r i p t i o n o f a u t o p i l o t s t e e r i n g mechanisms f o r b a n k - t o - t u r n m i s s i l e s . Gido, J a f f e , and Wilson (1974) p r o v i d e d computer programs t o produce a u t o p i l o t d e s i g n s u s i n g b o t h c l a s s i c a l (PNG) and modern (LQG) f o r m u l a t i o n s . George (1974) d i s c u s s e d t r e n d s i n IMU, g u i d a n c e and c o n t r o l hardware.

OPTICS

r8\

SENSOR AND OPTICS r2DOFGYRO .-MICROPROCESSOR

OPTICS

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-MAIN SENSOR AND OPTICS


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F i g u r e 11.

I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n C o n f i g u r a t i o n Concepts
7

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3Nd

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