Permutating the Vowels

Permutations in the Evolution of the Ego-Pronouns
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Introduction
In the nominative of the Personal pronouns of the First person Singular there are two PIEreconstructions (by Beekes and Sihler): Beekes: *h₁eǵ(oH/Hom) Sihler: *eǵoH Sihler also defines the dual: *weh₁. The plural forms are *uei respectively *we-i. The sky-god's name has been evolving by extensions of the vowel series, which had to be followed by similar extensions of the ego-pronouns, which cannot be explained by the PIE-reconstructions. Both the core for the sky-god and the modern ego-pronouns seem to have designed as series of vowels. The divine name is to be considered as a growing series of vocals, which partly and temporarily also had been followed by the ego-pronouns. The PIE-reconstructions however include consonants “g”, which is a seldom element in modern ego-pronouns.

Capitalization
Although the pronouns use many irregular word-forms Ego only has one form1. This may simplify the research. First of all I had been puzzled by ego's capitalization. Capitalization of pronouns and names often indicates respect. A 19th century German commented that: “The British, who rule the Ocean and despise other European nations, express the Latin ego by ‘I’, always capitalized”2. Wycliffe used an Y also capitalized although nobody misunderstood this prominent character as a lower cap letter “l” or a cipher “1”. Genesis 3-10 “And Adam seide, Y herde thi vois in paradijs, and Y drede, for Y was nakid, and Y hidde me.” Why had Y been abandoned if the interpretation of this character was superior to “i”? Capitalization of an “ego”-word is disrespectful to others, unless the Ego is considered as an image of the Creator, which must have impressed medieval believers much more than modern people. The capitalization of Wycliffe's Y seems to indicate the image-character of Y as an image of YHWH respectively Yahweh.

1 Addressing Jupiter and the other Olympian deities at Martianus Capella Marriage of Philology and Mercury 3.325, the personified Grammar draws attention to many irregular word-forms, and asks why ego has only the one form, but Minerva interrupts her for fear that she may bore her audience. Chapter 17 - Classical Latin - JC McKeown 2 Chapter 17 - Classical Latin - JC McKeown

Vowel-words
Obviously genuine vowel-words played a mayor role in the definition of religious symbolism. Now it might be interesting to investigate the number of genuine vowel-words, which may be created by permutating these vowels. How many words may be created by permutating three, four, five or seven vowels? Even the trivial case of one singular vowel seems to be problematic. First of all we must define the number of vowels in the alphabet, which implies solving the following questions: • • • are we supposed to consider the U or V or even the double U (W) as a vowel? Are we going to consider J and Y as vowels? Is Æ to be considered as a vowel combination of A & E or a separate vowel?

These requirements will invite us to define the set of vowels before we start investigations.

Words with even numbers of Vowels
As a remarkable fact we may observe that systems seem to prefer uneven numbers of vowels (1, 3, 5, 7). Even numbers may have developed by erosion, in which for example a Provencal egopronoun “iéu” might loose a vowel u and deteriorate to “je”. The basic fear of even numbers may have lead to concepts with uneven numbers of vowels. In the late-8th century BCE a Roman superstition has been reported that held even numbers to be unlucky. One of the traditional Kings of Rome, Numa Pompilius, decided to reform the calendar to make as few months as possible have even numbers of days. His first reform added two months, January and February, to the end of the calendar, and made all the months, save February, have odd numbers of days. This made the calendar roughly alternate in the number of days in a month: 31, 29, 31, 29, 31, 29, 29, 31, 29, 29, 29, 283. This might have lead to the idea to name the gods with an uneven number of vowels. Still it must have been easy to define a “lucky” name IU for the Roman God Jupiter with an (unlucky) even number of two vowels I and U. IU-piter however has been reported to have been started with a three vowel core IOU4 and cannot be considered as a two vowel word. But how could Romans, who were so superstitious in fearing dual names for their gods choose to abbreviate IOU to IU? But even then we will have to face the fact that there is a considerable difference between IU-piter and IOU-piter. As in Díáús the core's vowels had to be pronounced as long vowels: íóú, íéú respectively íáú. The Roman priests must have lost the symbolism of these long vowels at an early stage by simply skipping the long vowel ó from íóú. In contrast the dialects in remote Italian valleys still honor the long vowel ó in their ego-pronouns and use íóú. The Patois of Villar-St-Pancrace still uses the ego-pronoun iòu më, respectively m' iòu. yiou, including the accent at the (long) vowel ò. The dialect of Nîmes uses the egopronoun“Yiou”, which proves the population did not not forget the symbol “o”.

3 Why Are the Number of Days in a Month Not Equal? - wiseGEEK 4 The Latin name Iuppiter originated as a vocative compound of the Old Latin vocative *Iou and pater ("father") and came to replace the Old Latin nominative case *Ious. - from Wikipedia's entry Jupiter

The requirement of unlucky even (2-, 4- and 6-vowel) names however may be unprovable or unrealistic. In fact the Jewish concept also developed 1-, 2-, 3- and 4-character long divine names as derivations from the Tetragrammaton, which had been arranged in a Tetractys shape5. Why then should not the Romans feel comfortable to shorten IOU to IU?

Fig. 1: Tetractys
Published to public domain in Wikipedia's entry Tetractys From diagram by German Hebraist/Cabalist Johannes Reuchlin

5 Tetragrammaton-Tetractys

Three vowels (IAU en IAΩ) IAU
According to a thesis in the Runes-Dictionary by Udo Waldemar Dieterich (1844) the archaic runes had been equipped with only three runes for vowels: A, I, U. Using three vowels (such as for example I, A, U) we may encode 6 three letter-words and additionally 6 two letter-words and 3 one-letter words: IAU, AUI, IUA, AIU, UAI, UIA, IA, IU, AI, AU, UA, UI, A, U, I

IAΩ
In Greek these 3 letters may be transposed to A, I and Ω. For centuries the Tri- and Tetragrammaton YHW, resp. YHWH in Greek language had been translated to IAΩ6. Some of the genuine vowel-words belong to the personal pronouns of the 1 st person singular, which closely resemble to the Creator's name, such as the Provencal iéu and (in Nimes) Yiou, the ióu in the Patois of Villar-St-Pancrace and Nimes7 and the Jauers' pronoun iáú. Many samples for 2-letter- or even 1-letter-ego-pronouns are vowel-words, such as the Sicilian iù, Wycliffe's Y, the modern English I, Spanish yo, Italian io, the French je, Portuguese eu, etc..

Five Vowels (Roman alphabet)
In practice five vowels allow to design a basic communication of the “I Tarzan, You Jane”-type with vowels. In the archaic Roman alphabet these vowels are A,E,I,O and U. The Habsburg emperor Frederick III (1415–1493) designed a mysterious personal motto A.E.I.O.U., which he imprinted on all his belongings, although he never explained its meaning. Of course this motto was also understood as an anagram for the name Ieoua (Jehova). How many permutations may be performed in AEIOU? The standard solution to this question is 5! = 1 x 2 x 3 x 4 x 5 = 120 words8, including Ieoua (Jehova). If we include the shorter words the number will be considerably higher, but we already considered the solutions for the 3-letter-words and will restrict this chapter to 5-letter-words. In the course of history in the Mediterranean area the genuine vowel-words seem to have been extended. The growing number of vowels (for example the Claudian letters) may have forced the priests to extend the divine name and to some extent also the derived ego-pronouns. The ego-pronouns' extensions however seem to have been restricted to the maximum length of 3 or 4 vowels, in which Nimes' ego-pronoun Yiou is the longest so far. The duplicate use of vowels such as the “i” in Norwegan “jei” is rather seldom.

6 The Derivation of European Ego-Pronouns From the Sky-God Dyaus 7 “Yiou” & “Dïou” in the dialect of Nimes 8 factorial

Seven Vowels (the Greek alphabet)
The Greek alphabet has been extending its vowels to seven: ιαωουηε, which in analogy to Ieoua had been used as a translation for Jehova9. It must be noted that the first three letters in ιαωουηε have been chosen to start the word with the archaic vowel-triad IAΩ. These ancient vowels I, A, Ω are still representing a higher priority. An even higher priority must be acknowledged for the I-vowel, which is the initiating symbol for the triad IAU, resp. IAΩ and the main vowel symbol as the smallest letter in the Hebrew alphabet and the Kabbalah's core of Creation.

Ιαωουηε and αεηιουω
The number of permutations for the 7-vowel words ιαωουηε is 504010. The alphabetically sorted pronunciation αεηιουω is well known form magical papyri and Gnostic papers such as: “He who has His seat within the Seven Poles— ΑΕΗΙΟΥΩ,” in the Magical Papyri. Mead, G.R.S. (1906).

Cyclical permutations for 7-vowel-words
Cyclical Shifts11 have been proposed by Diederich in his reference to the inscriptions in the theater at Milete: 1. αεηιουω → AEÆIOUΩ (instead of AEEIOYO) 2. εηιουωα → EÆIOUΩA (instead of EEIOYOA) 3. ηιουωαε → ÆIOUΩAE (instead of EIOYOAE) 4. ιουωαεη → IOUΩAEÆ (instead of IOYOAEE) 5. ουωαεηι → OUΩAEÆI (instead of OYOAEEI) 6. υωαεηιο → UΩAEÆIO (instead of YOAEEIO) 7. ωαεηιου → ΩAEÆIOY (instead of OAEEIOY) From here the cycle returns to 1. Other indications are found in another cycle12: 1. ΑΕΗΙΟΥΩ 2. ΕΗΙΟΥΩΑ 3. ΗΙΟΥΩΑΕ 4. ΙΟΥΩΑΕΗ (→ starting with IOU and ending in AEH) 5. ΟΥΩΑΕΗΙ 6. ΥΩΑΕΗΙΟ 7. ΩΑΕΗΙΟΥ
9 10 11 12 In the Jewish-Egyptian magic-papyri it appears as Ιαωουηε. – Names Of God factorial Page 33 in "Eine Mithrasliturgie" (second edition, 1910) Quoted in Les formations géométriques de mots dans la magie ancienne and Le pouvoir de l'écriture dans la magie and Le pouvoir de l'écriture dans la magie (all in French)

Nine Vowels (Scandinavian languages)
In central Norway and Denmark the alphabet contains nine vowels: a, e, i, o, u, æ, ø, å and y. In fact 40 vocal sounds are being used13. The variety of vowels however does not imply prolonged divine names or ego-pronouns. Instead these and other words tend to be shorter. „Å, æ e i A æ å!“ may be translated as: "oh, I am in (class) A, me too!", which may be understood as 14 : • • • • • æ – I (→ the ego-pronoun); e - am (→ the verb); i - in; A – A (→ class A); å – oh, also

13 The Danish language's irritable vowel syndrome: Danish actually has some 40 vowel sounds, says Bleses, depending upon where the vowels are placed in words and sentence strings. Und 5 Cool Features of the Danish Language 14 In the Central Norwegian dialect words have been so shortened that it's possible to construct sentences entirely made of vowels. This is a famous joke:A school kid is walking home after his first day at school. He meets a friend who asks: "Which class do you attend?" The child answers: Æ e i A, lit. "I am in (class) A". Then he asks back: "But what about you?" His friend answers: Å, æ e i A æ å!, lit. "oh, I am in (class) A, me too!"See here the meaning of the single words: æ - I, me; e - am, are, is; i - in; A - (class) A; å - oh, too. Quelle: BBC - Languages - Your Say - Weird words - Other languages

Abundant numbers (more than nine) vowels15
The document Mithras Liturgy in the Paris Codex does contain numerous vowel series with an inflationary vowel usage. Examples have been listed in Vowel-Sequences in Archaic Manuscripts and include the following sequences (just to demonstrate a few samples):

The immortal names in the Mithras Liturgy
• page 10, line 9: -ηεω-οηεω-ιωω-οη-ηεω-ηεω-οηεω-ιωω-οηηε-ωηε(→ EEO OEEO IOO OE EEO EEO OEEO IOO OEEE OEE)

Mithras Liturgy16
• • • • • • page 4, line 27: … “god”: ευηυϊαεηια ωειανϊυαϊεω (→ EYEYIAEEIA OEIAYIYAIEO) page 4, line 29: “immortal brilliance”: ωηυ αεω ηυα εωη υαε ωιαε (→ OEY AEO EYA EOE YAE IAE ) page 8, line 20: “Fire-Feeler”: ιαω (→ IAO), page 8, line 21: “Light-Breather”: ωαι (→ OAI)17 page 8, line 24: “Light-Forcer”, ιαιαω (→ AIAIO), page 10, line 1: “Thunder-Shaker” (600), ιηωηιωηιω (→ IEOEIOEIO),

Abacadabra
The permutation of vowels has been applied to generate new words for the purpose of achieving magic spells. The magical formulas are comparable to abacadabra, which has been known as a Kabbalistic formula “I create (A’bra) what (ca) I speak (dab’ra)” , which initially had been used in the third century AD in a book called Liber Medicinalis by Quintus Serenus Sammonicus, who suggested malaria sufferers to wear an amulet with this formula18. The magical formula Abacadabra may also be related to amulets with the divine name ΙΑΩ 19 but also combined with Iao, Eloai, Adonai, Sabaoth, Michael, Gabriel, Uriel, Onoel, Ananoel, Raphael, Japlael, and others. The characters of the word 'Abraxas' The 7 letters spelling its name may represent each of the 7 classic planets—Sun, Moon, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn20, in which each planet represent one of the vowels ΑΕΗΙΟΥΩ. This of course reduces the divine name to a model of the universe, in which the number of vowels had been matched to the number of visible planets.
15 Vowel-Sequences in Archaic Manuscripts 16 Pages refer to: "Eine Mithrasliturgie" (second edition, 1910) Details: Addenda to the Mithras Liturgy's Translations and The Vowels AEEIOYO in the Mithras Liturgy 17 A permutation of the divine name IAO. cf. also AIO (below, line 598). 18 Abacadabra 19 Abraxas 20 “He who has His seat within the Seven Poles—ΑΕΗΙΟΥΩ,” in the Magical Papyri. Mead, G.R.S. (1906). "XI. Concerning the Æon-Doctrine". Thrice-Greatest Hermes 1. London and Benares: The Theosophical Publishing Society. p. 402.

Prior to the introduction of the heliocentric concept each of the seven classic planets had been worshiped in its own weekday, which in English (in analogy to the ego-pronouns Y and I) probably had been capitalized in honor for their divine symbolism: (in order of their listing in the 7 classic planets): • • • • • • • Sunday, Monday, 'Mercurii' (Wednesday), 'Veneris' (Venus, Friday) 'Martis' (Mars, Tuesday) 'Iovis' (Jupiter, Thursday) and Saturn-day

Of course this symbolic universe could not be sustained after the introduction of the heliocentric concept.

Singular Vowels as Words
The application of singular vowels might be most interesting if the vowel is an initial symbol in other divine names such as IAΩ (YHW), Ieoua (Jehova), ιαωουηε (Jehova). The list of personal pronouns of the 1st person singular with initial characters I, J or Y is numerous: I21, Y, io, yo, je, ieu, iou, iau, iu, Jé, jè, respectively jei 22. In analogy to Dyaus en JHVH, Jehova these words all have their initial I-symbol located at the principal position of the vowel-sequence.

Æ
The most economic coding system has been found in Scandinavian languages, in which one vowel symbol æ is used to describe all basic concepts in human life: the personal pronoun of the 1 st person singular, marriage, tradition, eternity... Elementary communication may be performed with singular vowels. The runic symbols for æ have been designed to express eternity and eternal qualities. The vowel æ may have been derived from core of the sky-god's name Dyæus. The Æ-symbol may haven been generated by a synthesis of Ask and Embla23, which in Norse mythology, were the first two humans —male and female respectively—, created by the three gods Óðinn (Odin24), the main deity, Hœnir and Lóðurr.

I resp. Y
In English the personal pronoun of the 1st person singular consists of one vowel I, which in Wycliffe's Bible originally also had been written as Y. The first ego-pronoun in English however has been documented as “ ic“, which obviously may have been imported from lower German or Dutch language.

21 22 23 24

The ego-pronoun I is also being used in western Norway (Romsdal/Molde) and in Snåsa (in Nord Trøndelag). The Derivation of European Ego-Pronouns from the PIE-Sky-God Dyaus from Old Norse Askr ok Embla Equivalent to Woden

Ich, Ic and Ik

Generating a consonant „c“ in a Germanic ego-pronoun „Ich“ may be derived from lässt sich leicht from the southern German dialect „ih“ if we compare the derivation with the Dutch word „Echt“ (Matrimony) which has been mutated from German „Ehe“ (Matrimony), respectively the old English word æ (matrimony). • • (Old-English) Æ → (German) Ehe → (Dutch) Echt (in which the consonant „c“ has been introduced). (southern German dialect) Ih → (German) Ich → (old-Dutch) „Ic“ → (Dutch) „Ik“ (in which the consonant „c“ has been introduced).

The Vowels' Symbolism
The symbolism of vowel-words seems to rather unknown. In Mediterranean traditions the divine names seems to have been extended from I, via IAΩ, Ieoua, ιαωουηε .... Each vowel carried its own symbolism, which may have been related to the planets and the corresponding weekdays. The most important vowel I represented the “planet” sun, followed by the vowel U (represented by the moon). The sun and the moon were the “lights at the sky's expanse. The third basic vowel may have been A, probably representing the androgynous character of Mercury. Initially the triad I, U, A (sun, moon and Mercury) may have represented the principal religious symbols, in which the sun and the moon were antipodes, whereas Mercury represented the androgynous recombination of male and female elements25. The sun and the moon represented principal symbols. The Romans considered the sun as male and the moon as female. The Germans considered the moon as male and the sun as female. Mercury had been considered as equivalent to Woden. The first known reference to Woden is in Tacitus' Germania, where he is recognized as the Roman God Mercury26: ' Above all other gods they worship Mercury, and count it no sin, on certain feast-days, to include human victims in the sacrifices offered to him'. Celtic traditions have been based on triad-concepts. The trinity in the principal vowel triad IAU (IAΩ) suggests the following interpretation for the symbols: • • • I = male A = androgynous U / Ω = female

In Scandinavian tradition the extension of divine names did not really play any role. The egopronouns I, Y and æ probably related to Tyr, Dis, Ziu or Dyæus, which have not been extended in the course of time. The Germanic ego-pronouns (I, Y, æ) are considerably shorter than the Mediterranean ego-pronouns (ieu, iau, iou), which have been derived from longer divine names such as Dieu, Diau, Diou-piter.

25 Mercury's character represents a dual hermaphrodite nature. C.G. Jung - Psychologie und Alchemie - Geestkunde 26 Woden, Odin and the Runes

Contents
Introduction..........................................................................................................................................1 Capitalization........................................................................................................................................1 Vowel-words.........................................................................................................................................2 Words with even numbers of Vowels...................................................................................................2 Three vowels (IAU en IAΩ)............................................................................................................4 IAU..............................................................................................................................................4 IAΩ..............................................................................................................................................4 Five Vowels (Roman alphabet)........................................................................................................4 Seven Vowels (the Greek alphabet).................................................................................................5 Ιαωουηε and αεηιουω..................................................................................................................5 Cyclical permutations for 7-vowel-words...................................................................................5 Nine Vowels (Scandinavian languages)...........................................................................................6 Abundant numbers (more than nine) vowels...................................................................................7 The immortal names in the Mithras Liturgy...............................................................................7 Mithras Liturgy...........................................................................................................................7 Abacadabra..................................................................................................................................7 Singular Vowels as Words................................................................................................................8 Æ.................................................................................................................................................8 I resp. Y.......................................................................................................................................8 Ich, Ic and Ik...........................................................................................................................9 The Vowels' Symbolism.....................................................................................................................10

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