Market Survey

By: Dr A.T.N. Abubacker

export potential of ginger
Why does India account for only 6 per cent of ginger trade, though it contributes 36 per cent of the world production?

G

inger is a tropical species native to South East Asia. It belongs to the family Zingiberaceae. The English term ‘ginger’ originated from Sanskrit word ‘Sringavera.’ Botanically known as ‘Zingiber Officinale,’ it is the most popular hot spice in the world. The useful part of this plant is the underground rhizome. Ginger has a long and well-documented history of both culinary and

medicinal use throughout the world, especially in Chinese, Indian and Japanese medicinal care. In Indian ayurvedic medicine, ginger is used as an anti-inflammatory herb. It was introduced to Africa and Caribbean countries in the 16th century. Ginger has a long history of use in South Asia both in dried and fresh form. The Hindu epic ‘Mahabharta’ describes a meal where meat was stewed with ginger and other spices. In the ‘Manassllasa’ literature writ-

Table I

Ginger Root, Raw Nutritional Value per 100g
Nutritional value Carbohydrates Sugars Dietary fiber Fat Protein Thiamin (Vit. B1) 0.025 mg Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.034 mg Niacin (Vit. B3) 0.75 mg Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.203 mg Vitamin B6 0.16 mg Folate (Vit. B9) 11µg Vitamin C 5 mg Calcium 16 mg Iron 0.6 mg Magnesium 43 mg Phosphorus 34 mg Potassium 415 mg Zinc 0.34 mg Quantity 17.77g 1.7g 2g 0.75g 1.82g 2% 2% 5% 4% 12% 3% 8% 2% 5% 12% 5% 9% 3%

Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults; Source: USDA Nutrient database

India’s share in ginger export is estimated at 13,000 tonnes per year, which is only two per cent of its production

ten in the 11th century AD, ginger is mentioned as a flavouring agent for buttermilk drink. Its use as a food became much more widespread by the 13th century AD with advent of the Muslim rule in India. Ginger was exported from India to the Roman Empire 2000 years ago. Arab merchants controlled the ginger trade. Ginger became one of

Arunachal Pradesh. Kerala.537 more priced for its sut2006-07 105.091 Area and production Area.40 4. but productivity is very poor compared to USA. West Bengal.503 1.288 6.387.6 252. The largest area under ginger cultivation is in Nigeria.580.59 2. Out of the total production. while 50 per cent is consumed Year Area Production as green ginger and the rest as seed (hect) (mt) materials.445 mt in 2007.445 Table IV Export of Ginger from India During 1997-98 to 2008-09 Year 1997-98 1998-99 1999-2000 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 Quantity (tonnes) 28. a major share of which is exported. 2003-04 85.1 301.50 5.185 155. Source: FAO Estimates Cultivation and consumption Ginger is cultivated in India. World production of ginger was 1.2 3.73 4.222 Table II 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 305.340.296.0 3.70 Value (lakhs) 7.632 124.992 311.055 243.360 341.268 8. India is the largest producer and consumer of ginger in the world.109. Kerala World trade World trade in ginger is estimated at $190 million per year. Cochin ginger is popular and it fetches a premium price because of its superior quality.183 429.08 1. The table shows that area and production of ginger in India have continuously increased over the years.Market Survey is the largest ginger producing state. which is about 55 per cent of the total area under ginger cultivation in the world.173 249.923 6.922 135.933 290.833 1.319 1.396.387. Production and Yield of Ginger for about 33 per cent of in India the total production in Year Area Production Yield India.908.923 317.000 14.0 3. China. Nigeria and West Indies islands. In ginger oil and oleoresin trade India dominates with 50 per cent share.951 1.32 3.487 253.05 2. Indonesia.341 world market.337.55 2.630 385.484 379. Japan.335 Ginger (NUBK) are the 1998-99 77.141. In- dia’s share in ginger trade is only 6 per cent.8 318. Area under ginger cultivation in the world was 429.576 125. Fresh Table III ginger is used as a vegetable.392 two popular varieties 1999-2000 80.481 hectares in 2007.619 319.8 317. Cochin Table V Export of Ginger in the World Year 1997-98 1998-99 1999-2000 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 Quantity (tonnes) 174.007. Ginger is 2001-02 90. Garbled/ungarbled and bleached/unbleached variants occupy predominant position in ginger export.6 263.0 3.229.311.271 414.8 282.058.985 204. 1999 308.502 available in the forms of oil.253.108 864.3 359.2 288.084 131.77 3.332.2 3.891 1.91 3.0 3.464 8.406 Value (’000$) 142.9 370.000 tonnes per year.461 5. The estimated world import of ginger is 300.264. ground 2002-03 90.481 953. Karnataka. Dark ginger has more heat Source: Spices Board.683 8. production and yield of ginger in India are shown in Table II.581.34 8.1 3.789 122.682.6 3. India has a predominant position in ginger production contributing 36 per cent of the total world production.13 10.498 of Indian ginger in the 2000-01 86. about Area and Production of 30 per cent is converted into dry ginGinger in the World ger.3 3.188 1.548 Light-coloured ginger 2004-05 95.500 ginger and fresh ginger.59 4.262.767 has traditionally been 2005-06 110.631 952.497 ble lemony aroma.777. accounting Area.75 Source: Spices Board.152 988.099 341.47 2.405 291.43 9.6 391.760 mainly in Kerala. Source: FAO estimate the most commonly traded spices during the 13th and 14th centuries.603 277. India’s share in . (’000 hect) (’000 tonnes) (kg/ha) Cochin Ginger (NUGC) and Calicut 1997-98 75.829 372. In India ginger is produced in the states of Orissa. Area and production of ginger in the world are shown in Table III.315 107.9 3. Australia. oleoresins.890. while China’s share is 57 per cent. Cochin and is favoured for extraction purposes. Sikkim and Madhya Pradesh. Dry ginger is produced 1998 312.696 310.929.661.

00 90.20 194.60 305. Introduce short-duration variety 5. Table IV shows the export of . which is only two per cent of its production.69 155.64 38.43 2.11 101. Global ginger export is shown in Table V . Introduce the HYV in ginger 2.Market Survey Table VI Top 15 Importers of Indian Ginger Country USA Bangladesh UK Spain Morocco Saudi Arab Germany Australia Netherlands Yemen Republic Japan Malaysia Canada Belgium Israel Value (Rs lakh) 2007-08 2008-09 (Apr-Jun) 419.00 ginger from India during 1997-98 to 2008-09.46 117.08 47. Suggestions Ginger cultivation can be improved provided the following measures are taken: 1.75 1.76 4.254.23 269.28 205.54 180.06 106.51 20.94 118.24 122.32 24.62 92.39 66.000 tonnes per year.62 45. Supply planting materials in time 3.62 136.69 144.02 408. Tamil Nadu Source: Ministry of Commerce. Strengthen agricultural research  The author is head of Department of Economics at Dr Zakir Husain College.65 282.45 18.346.79 234.37 121.00 95.59 2.17 123. Nigeria and Thailand.77 16.61 137.17 139. Popularise fresh ginger processing 6.78 79. Ileyangudi.38 7.87 115. Country-wise export of Indian ginger is shown in Table VI. Reduce the yield gap 4.86 198.61 Quantity (’000) 2007-08 2008-09 (Apr-Jun) 588.93 354. Encourage organic ginger cultivation 7.82 184.07 459.69 6.96 36.91 71.24 81.79 178.40 25.57 196. New Delhi ginger export is estimated at 13.19 116.58 71.77 60.10 69. The main competitors in ginger export are China.76 210.43 66.87 70.06 63.53 60.