This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Bloom's Critical approach to the Romantic Poetry
Bloom's Critical approach to the Romantic Poetry
Siddhartha Singh Harold Bloom begins his career of antithetical criticism, directly opposing the critical inheritance of T. S. Eliot, in the late fifties with his published dissertation Shelley's Mythmaking (1959). Bloom begins developing his own vision of the nature and value of literature, which is both intellectually unique and socially daring. It is his intense predilection for the Romantic tradition which formulates his entire critical writings. . Unlike his predecessors, who challenged the romantic Inheritance in the name of classical ideals. Bloom installs Romanticism at the centre of post-renaissance English literature. Matthew Arnold advanced critical opposition to the Romantic Inheritance In the 1850s. Some later critics under his Influence, Including the American scholar In/Ing Babbitt, whose book Rousaeau and Romanticism (1919), condemned the Romantic Movement as an Irresponsible "pilgrimage In the void that had licensed self-indulgent escapism and rationalist aggression." (Drabble, 2005: 873)Hls student T.S. Eliot continued the anti-romantic campaign, which was further intensified by Eliot's followers. The basic concern of this paper is to shed light on Bloom's defence of the romantic poetry and consequently to highlight the tendency to humanize and secularize art in Romantic poetry - an endeavour that seems to guide Bloom's critical thought. The concept of humanism, which Bloom explores, is apocalyptic. "Apocalypse", from the Greek word "apokalypsis" meaning "revelation", or "disclosure". Is associated with the New Testament. The Book of Revelation contains a series of visions and prophecies concerning the "end of the world". (A Dictionary, 1989: 492)Bloom intents to highlight the concept of apocalyptic humanism as the strength of the romantic poet. It makes the romantic poet liable to the status and role of the poet seer or poet prophet. In his famous 'Preface' of 1853, Arnold declares that the eternal object of poetry is "action", or more precisely human action (Wimsatt and Brooks,1957: 440) In his Augustan tone, which favours form of poetry, Arnold, as a "strenuous champ of cultural classicism", (ibid., 440) proposes, "All depends upon the subject; choose a fitting action, penetrate yourself with the feeling of its situation; this done, everything else will follow". (Ibid., 438). Arnold's chief critical doctrines as Ut0ny Ptnp0otlv$ Vol. I, No. II, July 2006 30
Saintsburry observes, are in fact a fresh formation of the classical restraint, definiteness, proportion, and form, against the romantic vogue, the Romantic Fantasy. (1911: 477) Arnold was dangerously close to the Romantic poetry of the early nineteenth century to see it impartially. Arnold's emphasis on the classical restraint of form does not allow him to evaluate the imaginative and visionary power of romantic poetry. Harold Bloom does not entirely reject Arnoldian criticism. In Shelley's Mythmaking, Bloom Is quite conscious of the Arnoldian formulation. He begins with the mythopoeic form and craftsmanship in Shelley's poetry, which according to Bloom, reaches a higher level of expression because of the fusion of the poet's vision with it. (Bloom, 1959:1-10) Thus the importance of form is not altogether neglected by Bloom. It is T. S. Eliot who mounts a scathing attack on the romantic poets. T.S. Eliot, echoing Aristotle, proposes an "impersonal" conception of art, which is almost belligerently anti-Romantic. In the famous essay 'Tradition and the Individual Talent", (2001 )which first appeared in the Egoist, Oct-Dec, 1919 (in two parts) and was reprinted in The Sacred M/ood (1920) and Selected Essays (1932), he lays down the concept:
... the poet has not a "personality" to express but a particular medium, which is only a medium and not a personality, in which impression and experiences combine in peculiar and unexpected ways. (2001:7)
Eliot, In the same essay challenges Wordsworthian formula that "emotion recollected In tranquility" Is an Inexact fonmula. For it is neither emotion, nor recollection, nor without distortion of meaning, tranquility, (ibid., 8) Eliot does not leave any possibility for the Romantic poet as he finally concludes:
... poetry is not a turning loose of emotion but an escape from emotion, it is not the expression of personality but an escape from personality.... The emotion of art is impersonal, (ibid., 8-9) Honest criticism and sensitive appreciation is directed not upon the poet but upon the poetry, (ibid., 5)
Eliot fixes the guideline for critics also: Eliot sees progress of an artist in his complete surrender of the self to "the tradition". He wants to propose that if the poet does not surrender to the tradition he is immature. Thus Eliot declares that romanticism is an immature form of art as it puts the poetic self at its at its center. (See "What is a Classic"). Eliot proposes that romanticism, being opposite to classicism, lacks in classicist qualities such as maturity of mind, manners and language. Eliot finds classicism leading to "the perfection of the common style" (Ibid.,102). Eliot's apposition between the poet and his poem can be seen as a leading idea that governs the
Literary Perspectives Vol. I, No. II, July 2006 31
Tennyson.. readers need to focus on the "system of relationships" that are operating within the text. who possessed a unification of sensibility over the English poets of the eighteenth and nineteenth century: "In the seventeenth century a dissociation of sensibility set In. (Ibid. who might unquestionably havs been a consummate master of minor forms. No.. As for Keats and Shelley. II. associated with the New Criticism.. Wordsworth and Browning hammered out forms for thcmMlvet personal forms. It modified his sensibility". After Eliot the New Critical theory contributes significantly to damage the romantic Inheritance." Eliot says. The second ground. II. Thus the poet's role Is pushed back and what remains is the autonomy of the literary text and Its language. and a more important one for the New Critics. New Criticism Is a practice that Is expressed most cogently In Uttnry P»r$p»otlvt$ Vol. Once the text's boundaries were threatened. Intention." and In "one or two passages of Shelley's THumph of Ufa. In The Intantlonal Fallacy (1948) Wimsatt and Beardsley argued that what an author intended was Irrelevant to Judgment of a literary text. Thus the feeling. removing authorial intentlonallty is a part of the strategy of sealing off the boundaries of the text and ensuring that only the words on the page are the true focus of the critical judgment. the Invention of a personal form. feeling becomes crude or sometimes some poets think and feel by fits. (Ibld. It means that. rather than on those that may operate between the text and the world beyond Its boundaries. and Tennyson and Browning ruminated". Matterson further explains. (Ibid.. this system ensures that the literary artifact Is autonomous. whose endeaveour Is to show that fomi In the romantics Is a trope. Structuralists and post-structuralists develop this idea of the removal of authorial intention to the extreme of the "death of the author".. for Eliot form Is a prerequisite for the content. In 'The Metaphysical Poets". In the Second Hyperion. was that to Invoke Intention was to threaten the Integrity of the text by Introducing the figure of the author. (2006: 170-171) Thus for the New Critics the poem cannot be translated from one medium to another. If language of the poets Is "refined". there are traces of a struggle toward unification of sensibility. Bloom from the very beginning attempts to demonstrate that the feeling of the romantic poets was visionary and the language and form were "Invented" according to that vision. The New Critics emphasize that readers need to adjust their reading strategy to accommodate the difference between literary and non-literary language. 77)Contrary to Eliot. Stephen Matterson puts it thus% When approaching the text. tooK to tuming out large patterns on a machine." (Cuddon..A. That Is. whereas In the romantic poetry content Is the prerequisite to the form. then the text could not to be seen as a system of language operating with its own rules. (Ibid.76) Thus. These are foundational texts in their shared insistence on the special nature of the literary artifact.. But Keats and Shelley died. the creation of a taste for It and the perfection of the personal form. 171) Thus for the New Critics. therefore unbalanced. Matterson nicely summarizes their arguments: The tttiolc on both of that* paroalvad fallacies' was very much In Una with the Naw Critical ballaf In the autonomy of the text. "A poem's meaning is specific to the system of relationship within that poem". and they were trying one after another. from which we have never recovered". areata a tastt tor It. but no man can Invent a form. attack the romantic theory of poetic selfhood. This Issue Is the starting point of Bloom. 51) Eliot raises very significant Issues. Eliot proves the supsriorlty of ths metaphysical poets. there were two grounds for the attack on Intentlonallty. But Structuralism and Post-Structuralism differ from New Criticism in the sense that in Literary Perspectives VoL I. 76). was neither available nor desirable In the formation of literary judgement. the "intentional fallacy" and the "affective fallacy" developed in the essays published in 1946 and 1949 by Wimsatt in collaboration with Monroe Beardsley." Is cruder than that In 'The Coy Mistress'. 1996:108).. by this criterion Donne is being canonized: "A thought to Donne was an experience. I.. and Understanding Poetry (1938) by the Americans Cieanth Brooks and Robert Penn Warren. they said. Eliot says in "The Possibility of a Poetic Drama": . No. The first is that authorial intention Is never clear and may always be a matter of dispute. (Ibid.(2001:76) The phrase "dissociation of sensibility" Is seen In the poets who 'Ihink" but "do not feel their thought Immediately as the odour of rose".. Thus Eliot becomes a new prophet of the "canonization". "the sensibility expressed In the 'Country Churchyard'. (A phrase made famous by Roland Barthes). (Ibid. The \em usually refers to biblical writings accepted as authorized. they were too young to be Judged. The temi Is applied to authors' work. "Canon Is a body of writing established as authentic.. It Is a rhetorical or figurative device. It implies that the act of "paraphrasing is a heresy".siddhartha Singh Bloom's Critical approach to the Romantic Poetry New Criticism. and perfect It too. which art accepted as genuine.. July 2006 33 . Eliot can be considered a precursor of the New Criticism. 171 )This idea is an anathema to Harold Bloom who later develops a full-fledged theory of "intertextuallty" of other major textual approaches. Thus Bloom follows a different parameter to grade the romantic poetry and emerges as a critic antithetical to the earlier critical taste. July 2006 32 the three important books: Principles of Literary Criticism (1924) and Practical Criticism (1929) by the English critic. But after Donne. Richards. I.
and the languages outside the text. Shelley's Mythmaking. study of the growth and development of a language". a story of the god. just as it is outside and this mythopoeic mode of poetry unites his experience with a greater power. and the fusion of the subject and object (as well as mind and nature). Frye maintains that though the romantic poet imitates nature but nature is inside him. Here lies the origin of what Harold Bloom would later call the "Internalization of Quest Romance" in his book The Ringer in the Tower(^ 971:1). The Visionary Company (1961) and Blake's Apocalypse (1963) are devoteH to tlie study of English Romantic tradition. Throughout his critical project Bloom maintains this aspect of romantic poetry where the poet is a prophet or a seer. metaphysical wit. During this process the poet reveals his own apocalyptic vision of the "revolutionary disillusionment and despair". Frye suggests that this is a revolutionary element in the Romantic poetry. It is through the power of his imagination that he perceives the vision.'lor myth is the language of concern: It Is cosmology in movement. 1998:869) it will be ." (Ibid. especially in the context of Wordsworth. from militant external action to an imaginative act. engaged with and united to a creative power greater than his own because it includes his own self. which is achieved at the highest level of experience.. reacting against the eighteenth century emphasis on reason. Abrams provides a deep Literary Perspectives VoL /. Bloom is not all alone in this defence of Romanticism. the mythic creation of the poet is different from the already established creations because he does not project his myth within the limited penumbrae of any orthodox religion. No. July 2006 34 psycho-spiritual vision of romantic poetry. Mythopoeic. which creates a new world out of the old world of senses. 'The great Romantic poems. The use of the Jewish theology of Martin Buber and the dialogic readings of Shelley's poem in Shelley's Mythmaking stand in defiant contrast to the New Criticism's praise of verbal iconism.. Frye proposes that the romantic poet is a part of the total process. There is a kind of conscious effort to save primitivism. Thus myth. is also a story of a sun god or tree god or ocean god or more precisely of the human in the form of god. 59)Abram thus puts the focus on the individual. which has been decreasing in the world in which the romantic poet lives. Indeed the romantic poet sustains belief in the basic human values. The entire romantic poetry is mythopoeic and the tone of primitivism Is dominant in it. Eliot and the New Critics. However. Leaving aside or more precisely. and the consequent devaluation of Shelley and the Romantics." Abrams says in his great essay "English Romanticism: The Spirit of the Age" (1963). II.odr that contrary to the New Critics and Structuralists who insist on the synchronic rhetoric. II. 55)Abrams proposes. in the context of romantic poetry. Bloom's contemporaries are also involved in reinterpreting romanticism. However. "were not written in the mood of revolutionary exaltation but in the later mood of revolutionary disillusionment or despair". However. can be defined as the process of the poetic invention of a myth. a creation of a cosmology. He begins his career as a critic of British Romantic literature in the afterglow of the New criticism. humanist and therefore of universal significance. However the mythopoeic element in the romantic poetry has been most brilliantly discussed by Northrop Frye in his book Fearful Symmetry: A Study of William Blake (1947). the historical study and growth of the tropes.S. the imaginative act. When Bloom talks about Shelley's mythopoeic vision or the Imaginative power of the romantic poets he brings out this humanistic approach of the romantic poets. the estimation of the romantic poets as mythopoeic. in which he discusses the mythological concerns of William Blake. Bloom is contrary to T. His first three published books.I I Siddhartha Singh Bioom's Critical approach to the Romantic Poetry the former two the text can be scrutinized in the context supplied by the historical and social discourses. (53) Abrams goes on to say that these Romantic poems 'lurn on the theme of hope and joy and the temptation to abandon all hope and fall into dejection and despair. and therefore revolutionary. Bloom shows a marked tendency to swen/e towards an extended use of diachronic rhetorical terms. which is secular. This is a "by-product of the internalizing of the creative impulse". July 2006 35 . (Cuddan. and "synchronic denoting the study of a language as a • tern at any given moment of Its life". is deeply projected In his famous essay "The Drunken Boat: The Revdiutlonary Element In Romanticism" (1963:1-20). Thus in the romantic poet a myth is a matter of the creation of his own system. a living form and not a mathematical Literary Perspectives VoL I. If we employ the Saussurian distinction between diachronic and synchronic : "diachronic denoting the historical." (Ibid. The romantic poet localizes his vision into a universe of his own mythopoeic creation. the romantic pofet turns to the primitivism and the mythopoeic mode of poetry. that the militancy of the overt political action has been transformed into the paradox of a spiritual quietism or in a wise passiveness and "the hope has been shifted from the history of mankind of the single individual. No. mind and nature. and the marriage between the Lamb and the New Jerusalem has been converted into a marriage between subject and object.
David Fite." who asserts. (Ibid. in Haro/cf Bloom: The Rhetoric of Romantic Vision. what no one denies that there are limits to the sphere of human intelligence.554556) It means that knowledge brings painful experience of maturation. who is to suffer the despair since he cannot achieve the unity of Being and yet he is compelled to repeat the experience. Hartman obsen/es in "Romanticism and Antiself. as Geoffrey H. but only after eating again the fruit of knowledge. This act is bound to cause chanyG in belief and attitude. anything but mythmaking". a solitary or self-alienated figure is to live a purgatorial existence. romantic poetry deviates rrom the eighteenth century emphasis on sense. He neither escapes from this situation nor does yield to it. Bloom elaborates it in Shelley's Mythmaking thaXe^ery romantic poet iias tlie power to create a universe of his own myth." by the heroism. The reality Is apocalyptic revelation of a void and the knowledge and guilt of the fallen state of mankind. Abrams the last two are Bloom's teachers to whom he dedicates respectively Sh0ll9y'a Mythmaking and The Visionary Company. This is a return to a state of innocence. July 2006 37 . Yet his voice of canonization is so passionate and logically applied that from his first book he emerges as a champion of Shelley who has been underrated during the time when T.. The romantic poet does not localize the various levels of reality in the spheres. comments Bloom is drawn to Romantic poetry by the "moral heroism" of its "agnostic faith" In the "mythopoeic mode.." (1969'.(1961: vii)And what connects these poets so different in their reactions to the common theme of imagination Is a quality of passion and largeness in speech and response to life: Utarary Panpactlves Vol. should be valued in contradiction to the analytic or purely conceptual mode of thought. of Its refusal "to be anything but poetry.S. The heroism of the romantic poet to face this apocalyptic situation compels Bloom to reconsider the strength of the romantic poetry in order to recanonize it. Since he has lost his "innocent state" he desires a kind of organized innocence. This change is not primarily in belief but in the spatial projection of reality. I.H.Siddhartha Singh Bioom's Critical approach to the Romantic Poetry one. Therefore. II. It means that the strength of the LItanry Pampaotlvaa Vol. which was Innocent before the nrocess of maturation. that Is. says Leslie Stephen. In the "Preface" to The Visionary CompanyBoom frankly declares that the "central contention of the book is that Romantic poets are not poets of nature". Bloom again insists on the freedom of the Romantic poet who creates new myth from "old" or "revises Milton and the Bible" in a transcendent way. Thus the romantic poet is agnostic In the sense that for him the only faith lies In the creation of his own mythopoeic cosmos. (1965: 9) 'The Agnostic is one". July 2006 36 poet's mind depends upon its separation from his life and thus he is to comfort his own self-alienation. He seeks to draw the antidote to self-consciousness from consciousness. No. He relocalizes his experience into an imaginative universe of his own myths. or knowledge and guilt as expressed in the story of the expulsion from the Garden of Eden.Consciousness". Fredrick Pottle and IVI. The romantic poet. Hartman argues that In romantic poetry Intelligence is seen as a perverse though necessary specialization of the whole soul of man. a solitary figure in exile. The sensitive mind of the romantic poet explores this painful experience. (1959:1 -5) Thus the romantic poetry. Bloom. Though Bloom is Indebted to Frye. 559) This apocalyptic vision does not necessarily belong just to one religion but Is a matter of an experience at a higher psycho-spiritual level. Hartman charts out the romantic poet's development of this vision. which are already explained either in theology or in science. The imagination must be separated from nature and Its own lesser form. (Ibid. Art Is seen as a means to ^ist the Intelligence Intelligently. No." (2003:1) It implies that an agnostic believes that nothing can be known about the existence of God or anything except material things. Hartman gives an analogy of the wandering Jew. as a fierce canonlzer of the romantic poets. The Romantic poet Is not enslaved by his self but his vision is extended from consciousness (knowledge) and self-consciousness (guilt). Bloom advances the same subtle critical conception of Romantic vision in The Visionary Company an6 Blake's Apocalypse. It emphasizes the constructive power of the mind where reality Is brought Into being by experience. The same is the destiny of Imagination In the English romantics. projects the aspects of humanizing and secularization of art through mythmaking and visionary imagination.ii). he does not translate the six romantic poets into Blakean categories. Hartman believes that the romantic poet is doomed to live in the "guilt-conscious" fallen state as the process of maturation brings the knowledge of the loss of innocence. must be separated from the selfhood to become spiritually perfect. (1962:553-65) In order to understand Bloom's position there Is need to summarize this discussion of Hartman. Eliot was influential. Hartman explains this process through the dialectical method of Hegel that the guilt-conscious mind. to anti-self-conscious-ness. I. II. (1959:1 -8) it implies that Bloom sees a profound change in the romantic poets' response to reality. rather he seeks out "the crucial analogues and rivalries that connect these poets".
It also incorporates the poet's anxiety of literary influence... that the theory of poetry Is the theory of life". Though their vision faiied but the hope is still alive.siddhartha Singh "All of them knew Increasingly well what Stevens seems to have known best among the poets of our time. If the divine is the human released from every limitation that impedes desire. 298). early the vision of Blake is later transcended in the much greater and more authentic long prophetic poems whose emphasis Is on "the extent to which nature is fallen". The Romantics were not. Bloom rightly says in Blake's Apocalypse (1970). (Ibid. which reaches its radical limits in the generation after Wordsworth. Eliot down to the American New Critics. Coleridge fails as a poet as hit vision fades very early. Shelley lived and died agnostic. The outward form of the inward grace of the Romantic imagination was the French Revolution which was a failure and so the vision of its followers also failed. Romantic self-exaltation has been viewed by critics like In/Ing Babbitt and T E . It tears out the fake faith in orthodoxy. they make the direct claim that poetry is prior. xxlli) As an assertion. (Ibid. Tha Imagination la radamptlve because it can operate like a later Thus the object of the search of the romantic poet is the self. 7-8) Bloom's Critical approach to the Romantic Poetry For a romantic poet Protestantism provides a vision of secularism. then Blake is a believer in the divine reality. a way of seeing. No." Therefore. The Romantics also expressed their faith in humanism. It a metaphysics. I. and Keats never wavered in believing religion an imposture. as Blake's attempt to build a myth of the man regenerated through the "Human from Divine" of the active imagination. Shelley makes an attempt to live with the world but fails and moves instead with his own conception of it. or as Hartman would say the state of self-consciousness in which there is a oneness with nature. a theory of history. Bloom argues thatWhen the Romantics. I. and of living a more human life".. talk about the relation of poetry to other areas of culture. Wordsworth and Coleridge died as Christians. the prophetic and Protestant line of Spenser and Milton. Blake rejects any such tendency. Bloom says. (Ibid. Bloom confirms that what separates us from the Romantics is our loss of their faithless faith. to a casting-out of remorse and a freedom from outworn conceptions of the self. (1971: 334) rtaaon. The search for the truth begins with the search for the self. which is: one of the great traditions of English poetry. bacausa It can take a momentary apprehension of release and build that apprahanalon into a faith. 3)They are allied by their Protestant temper and what distinguishes Romantic poetry from most of English poetry is the expression of a Radical Protestantism. No. xxiii-xxiv)That vision which is imaginary is the human is "Existence" itself. But the ultimate effect of the revolution was that it left a vast visionary hope In humanism and every nation later on followed its principals. and nature. which is a micro-god. (1970:336)"Unorganized innocence" is the state of l-Thou. which few among them could sustain even in their lives and poems". It is important to refer to the French Revolution. July 2006 39 declaration of mind's autonomy. Byron the most social is the least Romantic. (1961: 5) Utarary Perspectives Vol. It is still solace to a troubled heart. that "visionary forms are not merely projection onto the already given of the phenomenal world". "a vision. from Blake onto Shelley and Keats. All these poets can be put into one category of being "Secular and Humanists". but only after they have died as poets. (1961:1) The term "faithless faith" can be best understood by Keats' notion of the "Negative Capability" appropriated with the visionary hope of humanism. Here again Bloom subverts the New Critics' claim that those Romantic poets long for a oneness with nature that could save them. but not destroyed. But this assertion is not Just an assertion. Wordsworth's movement to tilt interior gradually ends in defeat. to theology or moral philosophy and by 'prior' they mean both more original and more intellectually powerful. The Protestant liberty mingles with a Gnostic theme of the poet's suspicion of both imagination. Hulme and through T S .. Blake understands his own quest as being a displacement of antinomlan desire for an outer actuality that has ceased to be very extraordinary. II. (Ibid. but was not a theist in any orthodox sense. Blake thought himself a Christian.. insofar as the "unorganized innocence" of the state of Beulah depicts to a "limited but genuine extent" a nature that is "paradisal". Byron rejected no belief. at their best. is "dialectical or promised". Keats is free of apocalyptic desire because he has an urgency to create. July 2006 ^ which "the attractions of Beulah" begin "to be eclipsed by its dangers". the extent to Utarary Panpactlves Vol. he is to pass through the l-lt relationship or antiself-consciousness and thus he has to achieve an "organized Innocence. This search does not rely on the rational energy but on the power of Imaginaiton. as mere megalomania. because again it can follow tha Romantic path of moving from the privileged moment to a . shows the life-in-life of vision. II. and the poetry is the sacred shrine. (Ibid. Their poetry never sen/ed any orthodox belief: Spenser and l\^ilton were Christian poets. But when the vision is attained by the romantic poet and there is disillusionment with the "paradise". Of Course the romantic vision failed. and accepted none. Blake's rejection of the natural world.
M. Shelley's Mythmaking. 127) These Ideas and the Bloom's concerns for the mythopoelcprophetlc extremes of Blake and Shelley. Harold. Harold Bloom. Literary Criticism: A Short History. "they have more In common with one another than they have with either the natural religionist or the orthodox Christian". July 2006 41 . (New Haven: Yale University Press. Deconstnictlon and Criticism.siddhartha Singh So It is neltlier nature nor Orthodox Christianity. Bloom manifestly pursues a romantic approach to the subject of romanticism and subtly unravels that the romantic poetry is typically reactionary. Bloom throws light on the complex and skeptical visionary romantic ideals which 'had been deliberately obscured by most modern criticism'. 2006). FIta. sixth ed. A Dictionary of Literary Temns and Literary Theory. Geoffrey H. (New Delhi: Doaba Publloatlona. Maaaachuaatts Review 7. (New York: OUP. 1998. Catherine Judson. Tho Dninkan Boat: 'The Revolutionary Element In Romanticism" Unlvtralty Praas. • "Aftarwarda". trans. Y: OUP.. should be seen as a rejection of any orthodox cosmogony. (New Delhi: Rupa Paperback. 1985) • • • • • • In W o m a n f t e / a m Reeonaldared. revised by C. Margaret. Now Htvoni Y W a University Press. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press. (Ibid. (1997:33) Like a magic lantern. fourth ed. H. once for all. The Visionary Company: A Reading of English Poetry. ed. "Breaking of Form". New York: Columbia Fryo. Paul. IL July 2006 Literary Perapectlvas VoL I. Bloom. V\. 1969). 2005). Bloom emerges not only as an important critic of romanticism but also as a champion of the canon-formation. Harold. Frya. Cuddon. Hartman. J. "Preface". 1963. 1979). ed. 1957). Bloom. 1970). Against T. (Amherst: Unlvaralty of Maiaaohuaatta Press. Bloom. Eliot. Po$^ and Repression: Revisionism from Blake to Stevens. offers a humanistic Qnostlcism as religion of literature and reads philosophy and religion as poetry and thus secularizes poetry. (New York: Columbia University Press. 2000. 1997. 1981). Harold. Harold. 1976. Agon: Towards a Theory of Revisionism. Bloom remarl<s that Wordsworth Is not Rousseau and Blake is not St. Patricia Waugh (New Delhi: OUP. (New Jersey: Princeton University Press. "English Romanticism: The Spirit of the Age. Following the romantic tradition that poetry Is not 'always a countertheology' rather theology is only the 'force' of 'the saving remnant of poetry'.A. Fearful Symmetry: A study of William Blake. Literary Theory and Criticism. Bloom speaks of an 'honest acceptance of an actual dualism as opposed to the fierce desire to overcome all dualism'. S.. Northrop. (New Delhi: Oxforei and IBH. Eliot's critical response to the romantics is deceptive and partial and Is well directed to erect his own stance opposite to them.. • Bloom. Bloom Is consciously engaged 'to thrust aside utterly. 1975). Ttm Anxlaty of Influence.H. 1963) Bloom. which holds Romantic belief. Eliot's and the New Critical dictum. Bloom. Harold. Raising the romantics as canonical. revisionist and self-critical. (Naw York: Continuum Press. 4'" ed. Stephen. Whitman. The Breaking of Vessels. (Ithaca: Cornell University Press. "Romanticism and Anti-self-Consciousness" Centennial Review. Selected Essays. Bloom. Z"' ed. Harold (1963) Blake's Apocalypse. "The New Criticism". Jr.1" Indian ed. 1970). Northrope. AMtpot Misreading. "The Central Man: Emerson. Harold Bloom: The Rhetoric of Romantic Vision. No.(1981:151 -152) Bloom. Stephen. No. Hireld. Harold. (1976:1) Worka Cited: • • A DIctonary for Believers and Nonbelievers. Bloom. (Chicago: Unlvaralty of Chicago Praas. No. ed. Northrope Frye. Harold. Indian Reprint. Matterson. • Bloom. 2003). Abrams. with an • 4 • • • • • • • Bloom. 1971). Bloom.4 (Fall 1962). opposing Eliot's Christian humanism. Harold." Romanticism Reconsidered: Selected Papers from the English Institute. T. 1989). He develops a sophisticated approach to romanticism parallel only to works of Hartman and Abrams. (New 40 Literary Parapaotlvaa VoL I. and Cieanth Brooks. Bloom is pre-occupled with the task of defining a "revisionist" poetics.E. Ed. particularly Christian. Tha RIngara In tha Tower: Studies In Romantic Tradition. • • • 1959). Unlike Eliot. Wallace Stevens". William K. David. S. Winter: 1966. (Moscow: Progress Publication. 2001). (New Delhi: OUP. An Agnostics Apology and Other Essays. Bloom's Critical approach to the Romantic Poetry York: Doubleday:: Ithaca: Comell Press. Leslie. the critical absurdities of the Age of Eliot'(1966: 37). Northrope Frye. Margaret Drabble. ed. Drabble. Preston(New Delhi: Maya Blackwell and Doaba House. N. Rousseau's Naturalism fails here. wimsatt. 1973. 1982). 1932. The Oxford Companion to English Literature. (New York: OUP. Harold.