Tattva (Jainism) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jain metaphysics is based on seven (sometimes nine, with subcategories) truths or fundamental principles also known as tattva or navatattva, which are an attempt to explain the nature and solution to the human predicament. The first two are the two ontological categories of the soul jīva and the non-soul ajīva, namely the axiom that they exist. The third truth is that through the interaction, called yoga, between the two substances, soul and non-soul, karmic matter flows into the soul (āsrava), clings to it, becomes converted into karma and the fourth truth acts as a factor of bondage (bandha), restricting the manifestation of the consciousness intrinsic to it. The fifth truth states that a stoppage (saṃvara) of new karma is possible through asceticism through practice of right conduct, faith and knowledge. An intensification of asceticism burns up the existing karma – this sixth truth is expressed by the word nirjarā. The final truth is that when the soul is freed from the influence of karma, it reaches the goal of Jaina teaching, which is liberation or mokṣa. Some authors add two additional categories: the meritorious and demeritorious acts related to karma (puṇya and pāpa). These nine categories of cardinal truth, called navatattva, form the basis of entire Jain metaphysics. The knowledge of these reals is essential for the liberation of the soul.
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1 Jīva 2 Ajīva 3 Āsrava 4 Bandha 5 Pāpa and Punya 6 Saṃvara 7 Nirjarā 8 Mokṣa 9 See also 10 References
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Jainism believes that the souls (jīva) exist as a reality, having a separate existence from the body that houses it. Jīva is characterised by cetana (consciousness) and upayoga (knowledge and perception). Though the soul experiences both birth and death, it is neither really destroyed nor created. Decay and origin refer respectively to the disappearing of one state of soul and appearance of another state, these being merely the modes of the soul.
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This is referred to as the stoppage of the inflow of karma (saṃvara).
In many texts punya or spiritual merit and papa or spiritual demerit are counted among the fundamental reals." 
The karmas have effect only when they are bound to the consciousness. it cannot be created nor destroyed. the principle of motion. changes or modifications can be achieved only through time.saṃvara). speech and body. Dharma-tattva (Medium of Motion) and Adharma-tattva (Medium of rest) – They are also known as Dharmāstikāya and Adharmāstikāya. This stoppage is possible by self-control and freedom from
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. According to Jainism. the free encyclopedia
file:///C:/Users/akmoe/Documents/JAINISM/Tattva_(Jainism). and time. They are said to pervade the entire universe. 6:1–2 states: "The activities of body. In Jainism. They are: Pudgala (Matter) –Matter is classified as solid. According to Jains. It combines and changes its modes but its basic qualities remain the same. the yoga or the activities alone do not produce bondage. It occurs when the karmic particles are attracted to the soul on account of vibrations created by activities of mind. the time is likened to a wheel with twelve spokes divided into descending and ascending halves with six stages. passion is considered as the main cause of bondage. Kāla (Time) – Time is a real entity according to Jainism and all activities. matter. Ākāśa (Space) – Space is a substance that accommodates souls. The first step to emancipation or the realization of the self is to see that all channels through which karma has been flowing into the soul have been stopped. Out of the many causes of bondage. This three-fold action results in āsrava or influx of karma. fine Karmic materials and extra-fine matter or ultimate particles.
Main article: Samvara Saṃvara is stoppage of karma. Without dharmāstikāya motion is not possible and without adharmāstikāya rest is not possible in the universe. However. But in Tattvārthasūtra the number of tattvas is seven because both punya and papa are included in āsrava or bandha. liquid.
The āsrava is the influx of karmas. so that no additional karma can accumulate. One of the qualities of the Paramānu and Pudgala is that of permanence and indestructibility. This binding of the karma to the consciousness is called bandha. They are unique to Jain thought depicting the principles of motion and rest. Both punya and papa are of two types — dravya type (physical type) and a bhava type (mental type).Wikipedia. and that which refers to the removal of karmic particles (dravya. energy. Dharma-tattva and adharma-tattva are by themselves not motion or rest but mediate motion and rest in other bodies. It is all-pervading. gaseous. The karmas are literally bound on account of the stickiness of the soul due to existence of various passions or mental dispositions. infinite and made of infinite space-points. sorrow increases at each progressive descending stage and happiness and bliss increase in each progressive ascending stage. There are two kinds of saṃvara: that which is concerned with mental life (bhava-saṃvara). each of immense duration estimated at billions of sagaropama or ocean years.htm
Ajīva are the five non-living substances that make up the universe along with the jīva. Tattvārthasūtra. Paramānu or ultimate particles are considered the basic building block of all matter.Tattva (Jainism) . speech and mind is called yoga. the principle of rest.
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file:///C:/Users/akmoe/Documents/JAINISM/Tattva_(Jainism). meditation. ^ Nayanar. Hermann (2001). When karma is removed by destruction. In Jainism. ^ Tatia. other objectives are contrary to the true nature of soul. no effort is required.routledge.English). A. Retrieved 2008-03-05. Padmanabh (1998). ISBN 0-7619-8993-5.
Jain Philosophy Jain Cosmology
1. ^ Nayanar.com/article/F005SECT1) . the soul shines in its pure and transcendent form. ^ Shah. 2. 45 6. Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy (London: Routledge). Gāthā 16 3. Karma may exhaust itself in its natural course when its fruits are completely exhausted. Such a soul is called siddha or paramatman and considered as supreme soul or God. self-control. New Delhi: Today & Tomorrows Printer and Publisher. Pañcāstikāyasāra of Ācārya Kundakunda. Creation and Cosmology: A Historical and Comparative Inquiry. Lanham. ISBN 81-208-1578-5.rep. K. it is the only objective that a person should have. Volume I and II.
Main article: Nirjara Nirjar ā is the shedding or destruction of karmas that has already accumulated. ^ Kuhn. K.
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. Pañcāstikāyasāra of Ācārya Kundakunda. Edwin Oliver (1969).Tattva (Jainism) . ^ James. ^ *Soni. Gāthā 18 4. http://www. such as hunger. the cycle of birth and death. A liberated soul is said to have attained its true and pristine nature of infinite bliss. and passion stops the inflow of karma and protect the soul from the impurities of fresh karma. Chakravarti (2005).
Mokṣa means liberation. Jainism is also known as mokṣamārga or the “path to liberation”. In this. "Jain Philosophy" (http://www.rep. MD: Rowman Altamira. New Delhi: Today & Tomorrows Printer and Publisher. D. It then attains the goal of mokṣa. Institute of Indology. observance of ten kinds of dharma. p. Nirjarā is of two types: the psychic aspect of the removal of karma (bhāva-nirjarā) and destruction of the particles of karma (dravyanirjarā). Tattvārtha Sūtra: That which Is of Vācaka Umāsvāti. 26 8. It fact. The Jaina Path of Purification. it is the highest and the noblest objective that a soul should strive to achieve. The Mechanism : Create Your Own Fate. Jayandra.Wikipedia. Chakravarti (2005). ISBN 81-7019-436-9. E. ISBN 90-04-01617-1. p. p. 151 9. Ahmedabad: L. Germany: Crosswind Publishing.htm
attachment. It is a blissful state of existence of a soul. Dixit). thirst. Sukhlal (1974) (in trans.com/article /F005SECT1. infinite knowledge and infinite perception. 112 7. . Jainism: The World of Conquerors. Tattvārthasūtra of Vācaka Umāsvāti. Craig (Ed. 5. Nathmal (tr. Sussex: Sussex Academy Press. New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. carefulness. Netherland: BRILL. Karma. knowledge and efforts all souls can attain this state. That is why.) (1998). Prof. A. salvation or emancipation of soul. and the removal of the various obstacles. ISBN 81-7019-436-9. Wunstorf. Natubhai (1998). . The remaining karma has to be removed by means of penance (avipaka-nirjarā).
completely free from the karmic bondage.) (1994) (in Sanskrit . ISBN 1-898723-30-3. With right faith. The practice of vows. ISBN 3-9806211-4-6. Prof. ^ a b Jaini. p. The soul is like a mirror which looks dim when the dust of karma is deposited on its surface. free from samsara.routledge. ^ Sanghvi.
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10. additional terms may apply. No. (Jul. Kalghatgi. G.
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.org/w/index. Vol. a non-profit organization. pp. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. ^ a b T.