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HCTL Open Int. J.

of Technology Innovations and Research HCTL Open IJTIR, Volume 3, May 2013 e-ISSN: 2321-1814 ISBN (Print): 978-1-62776-443-8

Automated Crawler with Robotics Techniques and Sensors in Non Destructive Modeling for Pipeline Health Monitoring In Oil and Natural Gas Reneries
Vimal Upadhyay , Shuchi Sharma
vimalupadhyay2002@gmail.com and 303shuchi@gmail.com

Abstract
n-service inspections are used in many elds of industry. One application is monitoring the inside and outside surface of turbine, pipes and tubes and solving problem through the crawler and non destructive testing. In, addition many sensors are used on these non destructive testing to improve the quality of inspection, such as vision and non destructive testing apparatuses. In this work, an inspection crawler with ability to move outside horizontal and vertical

Research Scholar, Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India M.Tech. Scholar, RTU, Rajasthan, India

Vimal Upadhyay and Shuchi Sharma Page 1 of 10 Automated Crawler with Robotics Techniques and Sensors in Non Destructive Modeling for Pipeline Health Monitoring In Oil and Natural Gas Reneries.

HCTL Open Int. J. of Technology Innovations and Research HCTL Open IJTIR, Volume 3, May 2013 e-ISSN: 2321-1814 ISBN (Print): 978-1-62776-443-8 pipes has been designed. Furthermore, dierent units are installed on this crawler, and their functions are examined. Control and guidance of crawler in the rectangular and circular pipes are discussed. Experiments are arranged to evaluate the thickness of rectangular and circular pipes with the help of ultrasonic testing and crawler. Inspection crawlers are kinds of mobile robots which make it possible to inspect inaccessible places by crawling into it and being controlled remotely. This system is highly integrated designed and fully supported to the wireless operations allows in-service inspection at an excellent rate. These robotics onsite inspections bypass the manual one where we need installation such as pipe supports, thus facilitating the eective monitoring of a huge amount of pipelines. In case of hanging pipes and uplifted pipes inspection remote pipe scanner system becomes a successful tool now days. In this paper we especially focused on the comparative readings of conventional ultrasonic and phased array ultrasonic testing with the help of crawler.

Keywords
Control, Monitoring, Inspection, Non Destructive Testing (NDT), Crawler, Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducer.

Introduction
Most of peoples familiar with the medical applications of ultrasonic testing, in which high frequency waves used to create cross sectional view of internal organs. Same concepts are used in pipeline where Pipeline deterioration occurred in thermal and nuclear plants by stress corrosion crack become a challenge for pipeline industry. Thats why researchers targeted this problem as a hot topic for research and they works to develop a stable solution for the present and future. A robotics inspection service is the innovative technique in non destructive testing to meet the desirable output. Boiler and turbine failures caused due to forced outages in boiler and turbine. A new robotic wall crawler makes use of ultrasonic testing to inspect pipes, boilers and turbines. Localized wall thinning in the form of corrosion is a signicant concern for inspection of boiler, pipes and turbine. During their rst couple of decades, commercial ultrasonic instruments relied entirely on single element transducers that used one piezoelectric crystal to generate and receive sound waves, dual element transducers that had separate transmitting and receiving crystals, and pitch-and-catch or through transmission systems that used a pair of single element transducer in tandem. There are

Page 2 of 10 Vimal Upadhyay and Shuchi Sharma Automated Crawler with Robotics Techniques and Sensors in Non Destructive Modeling for Pipeline Health Monitoring In Oil and Natural Gas Reneries.

HCTL Open Int. J. of Technology Innovations and Research HCTL Open IJTIR, Volume 3, May 2013 e-ISSN: 2321-1814 ISBN (Print): 978-1-62776-443-8 four most common methods of ultrasonic testing are: (1) spot check UT (2) A-Scan UT (3) EMAT and (4) Scanning Thermography. Spot check UT used for thickness measurement and its coverage area is very less. A Scan UT is used for inspecting a large area, in this case steady ow of water used as a couplant. In EMAT techniques we use a probe for taking accurate readings. EMAT is not inherently getting good area coverage. Scanning thermography is the recent technology method of UT for the inspection in petrochemical plant; however, it is not yet commercially available in good capacity.

Working Model of Conventional EMAT


EMAT Technology is a type of ultrasonic non destructive testing method. The traditional ultrasonic and conventional ultrasound dier in the way of sound generated. In EMAT piezoelectric crystal is used to convert electrical energy into mechanical energy. The mechanical energy transferred into test piece in the form of vibration. EMAT is insensitive with respect to surface of test piece. The working principle of EMAT shown in gure 4, Rapid ultrasonic sampling is used for 100% volumetric pipe inspection; sensor is moved around steel pipe circumference. A minimum clearance required for EMAT around pipe is 250 mm. EMAT Circumferential Pipelines Monitoring Techniques: Rapid ultrasonic sampling is used for 100% volumetric pipe inspection; sensor is moved around steel pipe circumference. A minimum clearance required for EMAT around pipe is 250 mm. This technique mainly used to monitor test piece volumetric like boilers and turbines. EMAT Axial Pipelines Inspection Techniques: for monitoring a long range pipes (vertical/horizontal) we use axial method for accurate readings. In this case crawler moves at the speed of 6 meters/minute in one shift, Phase shifted with respect to time for detecting defects, pits, wall loses. Guided waves are travelling parallel to the geometry of test piece. In axial method guided wave transmitted in directions, clockwise (S1) and anticlockwise (S2) direction. 100% volumetric inspection achieved by rapid ultrasonic sampling test piece circumference, sensor also move along the test piece, rapid ultrasonic sampling gave 400 readings per second.

Mathematical Model of Ultrasonic Testing


Ultrasonic mainly used for aw, corrosion and crack detection. In conventional one it is necessary to put a probe at 90 degree on a sample before making

Page 3 of 10 Vimal Upadhyay and Shuchi Sharma Automated Crawler with Robotics Techniques and Sensors in Non Destructive Modeling for Pipeline Health Monitoring In Oil and Natural Gas Reneries.

HCTL Open Int. J. of Technology Innovations and Research HCTL Open IJTIR, Volume 3, May 2013 e-ISSN: 2321-1814 ISBN (Print): 978-1-62776-443-8

Figure 1: Steps of Ultrasonic Inspection

reading. If probe is inclined with another angle it means reading for location we predicate is not reliable (in technical words we say V-Path error). Sample 1 is a rectangular pipe having an actual thickness 2.25 mm and Sample 2 is a circular pipe having 1.95 mm actual thickness. Linear Ultrasonic Model Output: y (t) = [x(t) + xn (t)] h(t) Mathematical Model: y (t) = [x(t) + xn (t)] h(t) + e(t) MBE Algorithm: y (, t) = e(t ) cos(2fT (t ) + )
2

(1)

(2)

(3)

Page 4 of 10 Vimal Upadhyay and Shuchi Sharma Automated Crawler with Robotics Techniques and Sensors in Non Destructive Modeling for Pipeline Health Monitoring In Oil and Natural Gas Reneries.

HCTL Open Int. J. of Technology Innovations and Research HCTL Open IJTIR, Volume 3, May 2013 e-ISSN: 2321-1814 ISBN (Print): 978-1-62776-443-8

Figure 2: Working Principle of EMAT

Figure 3: Working Principle of Ultrasonic Tool

= (, fc , , , ) Objective Functions: For all echoes min ( yP (t) (yP 1 (P 1 , tP 1 ) + yP 2 (P 2 , tP 2 ))


p 2

) =(,fc ,)

(4)

For each echo min yi (t) (yi1 (i1 , ti1 ) + yi2 (i2 , ti2 ))
2

=(, )

(5)

Page 5 of 10 Vimal Upadhyay and Shuchi Sharma Automated Crawler with Robotics Techniques and Sensors in Non Destructive Modeling for Pipeline Health Monitoring In Oil and Natural Gas Reneries.

HCTL Open Int. J. of Technology Innovations and Research HCTL Open IJTIR, Volume 3, May 2013 e-ISSN: 2321-1814 ISBN (Print): 978-1-62776-443-8

Figure 4: Mathematical Model of Ultrasonic Testing

In objectives functions we implies with the help of Levenberg Marquardt Method.

Results and Discussion


Before making any calculation we need wipe couplant for calibration because it mismatches the value of acoustic impedance of probe and tested sample for reliable readings and it also remove air gap between probe and sample object. Sample 1 is a rectangular pipe having an actual thickness 2.25 mm and Sample 2 is a circular pipe having 1.95 mm actual thickness. We take tested results with the help of crawler based ultrasonic 38DL. Probe (dual element) is carried by a crawler over a rectangular pipe gave a reading shown in table 1. Data of database grid is easily translated into A-Scan and B-Scan for pictorial view representation. In case of A-Scan and B-Scan we x a minimum thickness 0 mm and maximum thickness 10 mm. A scan represent data in intensity form and B-Scan represent data in cross sectional view. In circular pipe we use a single element probe because it is in small size pen like structure and easily set on a circular pipe. Probe (single element) is carried by a crawler over a circular pipe gave a reading shown in table 2. In case of A-Scan and B-Scan we x a minimum thickness 0 mm and maximum thickness 10 mm. A scan represents data in intensity form and B-Scan represents data in cross sectional view of circular pipe. For reliable readings of circular pipe we use low base probe.

Page 6 of 10 Vimal Upadhyay and Shuchi Sharma Automated Crawler with Robotics Techniques and Sensors in Non Destructive Modeling for Pipeline Health Monitoring In Oil and Natural Gas Reneries.

HCTL Open Int. J. of Technology Innovations and Research HCTL Open IJTIR, Volume 3, May 2013 e-ISSN: 2321-1814 ISBN (Print): 978-1-62776-443-8

Figure 5: Tested sample with crawler and UT

Table 1: Readings of Rectangular Pipe

Database Grid (ID) AA AB AC AD AE AF AG AH

Thickness (in mm) 2.07 2.07 1.89 2.09 2.25 2.65 1.83 2.46

Conclusion
Above readings of table 1 and table 2 indicate the accuracy of crawler based ultrasonic is 10%. In this technique we also measure welded/covered portion with the help of the wedge (place between probe and sample). Wedge increase the reection and receiving coverage area of element by 150 (minimum). In gure 6 and 7 its clear that for circular pipes we use low base probe but in case of rectangular pipes probe base doesnt matter. If we increase the number

Page 7 of 10 Vimal Upadhyay and Shuchi Sharma Automated Crawler with Robotics Techniques and Sensors in Non Destructive Modeling for Pipeline Health Monitoring In Oil and Natural Gas Reneries.

HCTL Open Int. J. of Technology Innovations and Research HCTL Open IJTIR, Volume 3, May 2013 e-ISSN: 2321-1814 ISBN (Print): 978-1-62776-443-8

Figure 6: A-Scan and B-Scan Representation of Rectangular Pipe Thickness

Table 2: Readings of Circular Pipe

Database Grid (ID) AA AB AC AD AE AF AG AH

Thickness (in mm) 1.97 2.01 1.92 1.98 1.83 2 1.97 1.94

of elements it increases the area of detection and probability of detection. In phased array generally the number of elements varies 8 to 128. In C-Scan representation for above system not successful because it represents the only top view no way for height, depth and thickness.

Page 8 of 10 Vimal Upadhyay and Shuchi Sharma Automated Crawler with Robotics Techniques and Sensors in Non Destructive Modeling for Pipeline Health Monitoring In Oil and Natural Gas Reneries.

HCTL Open Int. J. of Technology Innovations and Research HCTL Open IJTIR, Volume 3, May 2013 e-ISSN: 2321-1814 ISBN (Print): 978-1-62776-443-8

References

Figure 7: A-Scan and B-Scan Representation of Circular Pipe Thickness

References
[1] Hideo Nishino, Simple method of generating for circumferential shear horizontal waves in a pipe and their mode identifications, Institute of science and technology, Japan 2006. [2] W. Harara, Pit-Depth Measurement on Large Diameter Pipes by Tangential Radiography Using a Co-60 Gamma-Ray Source, Russian Journal of Non-destructive Testing, Vol. 40, No. 11, 2004. [3] Calkins, F.T., Smith, R.D., and Flatau, A.B., An Energy-based Hysteresis Model for Magnetostructive Transducers, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, submitted 10/97. [4] Dapino, M.J., Calkins, F.T., and Flatau, A.B., On identification and analysis of fundamental issues in Terfenol-D transducer modelling, SPIE 1998, Proceedings on Smart Structures and Integrated Systems, paper no. 23, Vol. 3329, 3/98 [5] Glenn M. Light, Health Monitoring of Piping and Plate Using

Page 9 of 10 Vimal Upadhyay and Shuchi Sharma Automated Crawler with Robotics Techniques and Sensors in Non Destructive Modeling for Pipeline Health Monitoring In Oil and Natural Gas Reneries.

HCTL Open Int. J. of Technology Innovations and Research HCTL Open IJTIR, Volume 3, May 2013 e-ISSN: 2321-1814 ISBN (Print): 978-1-62776-443-8

References

the Magnetostrictive Sensor (MsS) Guided-Wave Technology, South-west Research Institute San Antonio, TX 78228, 2010. [6] K. Imano, Possibilities of non-destructive evaluation of a pipe using air-coupled ultrasonic wave in the MHz range, IEICE 2008. [7] William L. Macmillan, Ezar J. Ahrend, A new approach to boiler, pipeline and turbine inspections, 18th world conference on non destructive testing, 16-20 April 20-12, Durban, South Africa. [8] M. Vossiek, V. Magori and H. Ermert, An ultrasonic multi-element sensor system for position invariant object identification, IEEE Ultrasonic Symposium. [9] A. Vajpayee and D. Russell, Automated condition assessment of boiler water wall tubes using remote field technology - A revolution over traditional and existing techniques, 10th international conference of the Slovenian society for non destructive testing, 2009. [10] Vimal Upadhyay, Ultrasonic Testing System based on Crawler and Sensor for petrochemical nuclear plant inspection accepted in IEEE Conference on Cognizance of Applied Engineering and Research 2012, organized by IEEE Students Branch, UIET, Panjab University, Chandigarh. [11] Vimal Upadhyay, Inspection of wall thickness of pipes in petrochemical plants through WSN, International journal JCER-2012, 2 (1), Jan-Feb 2012, 28-31. ISSN 2250 2637. [12] Vimal Upadhyay, Krishna Kant Agrawal, Mukesh Chand and Devesh Mishra, Ultrasonic Sensors Supervision of Petrochemical and Nuclear Plant, HCTL Open International Journal of Technology Innovations and Research, Volume 1, January 2013, Pages 41-49, ISSN: 2321-1814, ISBN: 978-1-62776-012-6. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License (http: //creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/). c 2013 by the Authors. Licensed and Sponsored by HCTL Open, India.

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