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Manoj Prabhakar and Manoj Kumar

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HCTL Open IJTIR, Volume 3, May 2013

e-ISSN: 2321-1814

ISBN (Print): 978-1-62776-443-8

Impact of Image

Processing in Saving the

Human Life By

Automating Trafc

Signals

Manoj Prabhakar

Abstract

T

Time is of the essence when it comes to saving something as

valuable as the human life. In the modern congested cities of

today, the dierence between life and death could very well be

the few minutes of delay in getting appropriate medical attention.

Each second an ambulance spends waiting in the piled up trac

increases exponentially the threat to the patients life. This paper

explains about a novel Image Capturing System (ICS) based trac

routing approach to address the serious issue of saving human life

which otherwise would be lost during the transferral to a hospital

by means of an ambulance. The ICS will be used to trigger the

connected trac signal on recognizing an ambulance coming towards

manojkrishs@gmail.com

manojkumars.msec@gmail.com

Manoj Prabhakar and Manoj Kumar

Impact of Image Processing in Saving the Human Life By Automating Trac

Signals

Page 1 of 16

HCTL Open Int. J. of Technology Innovations and Research

HCTL Open IJTIR, Volume 3, May 2013

e-ISSN: 2321-1814

ISBN (Print): 978-1-62776-443-8

it by means of changing the signal automatically to green in favor of

the ambulance. This in-turn will signicantly reduce the time spent

by them near the intersections thereby saving precious human lives

which otherwise would have been lost.

Keywords

Image Processing, Trigger, Ambulance, Human Life

Introduction

An image is nothing but the subset of signal. Generally a signal is used to

convey the information form one end to other end. These sort of signals can be

used in many ways. Electrical signals are used in television, radio, etc, which is

transmitted by electrical quantities. Here the digital processing is the process

of extracting information from the signals. Every signals will have certain

information which is to be transmitted to the other end.

The digital signal processing is mainly related representing and processing

of the numbers (sequence) and symbols. The signals have many characteristics

such as its shapes, time durations, amplitudes and etc. These signals can be

classied as continuous and discrete time signals based on sampling. There are

two types of signals, Analog and digital signals. If the signals are repeating

after some period, they are called periodic signals. Every signal can be xed by

Mathematical functions. The signals are classied into three types according to

its dimensions. They are 1D (One-Dimensional), 2D (Two-Dimensional), 3D

(Three-Dimensional).

The One Dimensional signals will be using time waveforms x(t) or f(t). Two

dimensional signals will be used two axis such as (x,y) 2D signals are the

function of two independent variables called as (x,y) and has been projected in

x,y plane. The 2D signals will be projecting the images and still photographs.

The Three dimensional signals will be plotted in (x,y,z) plane. It represents

the images in sequences and in dynamic manner, which in turn called as video

signals. Here, we are using the digital image processing to transmit signals

to trac signals and thereby triggering the Signal to green for ambulances.

This can be done by using the placing the motion camera in all trac signals,

which captures the video signals and when there in ambulance in the road, it

automatically changes the signal green according to the speed and time where

ambulance has been placed. Also we will be keeping signal transmitter in all

Manoj Prabhakar and Manoj Kumar

Impact of Image Processing in Saving the Human Life By Automating Trac

Signals

Page 2 of 16

HCTL Open Int. J. of Technology Innovations and Research

HCTL Open IJTIR, Volume 3, May 2013

e-ISSN: 2321-1814

ISBN (Print): 978-1-62776-443-8

ambulances, which emits the signals in particular frequencies to the receiver

that has been placed in trac signals. These signals will be unique for dierent

ambulances which consist of all the details of ambulances. The receiver that

has been placed in the trac signals will receive the signals transmitted by

ambulance. In this paper, we will be discussing about how the images will be

recognized and how the signals will be transmitted.

In order to provide the clear image we will be using smoothing lter and

sharpening lter which reduce the distortion and interference while capturing

the images and in order to provide enhancement for the images for better

accoutrement, basic morphological algorithms will be used and for pattern

recognition, clustering algorithm is used and for determining shortest path,

Djikistra shortest path algorithm will be implemented.

Helpful Hints

When the road is completely lled with trac, it is necessary to have natural

trac signal changes for ambulances that are in very critical in saving human

life. Here the motion camera that has been placed in trac signals will capture

the Three-Dimensional Images of vehicles in roads, and when the ambulance

is captured in camera, it automatically triggers they signals to green in the

distance where the ambulance has been viewed. In order to determine the side

of the ambulance the additional IC HT12E as Encoder, which will be placed in

ambulances and IC HT12D will be placed in all trac signals, which decodes

the signals.

The motion camera will be placed in the trac signals which captures the

3D images in x, y, z plane and determines the location of ambulance and

thereby trigger the trac signal. If there is more number of ambulances in

dierent directions, then we will be determining the shortest path algorithm

and for the ambulance that is present near will receive the green signal rst and

correspondingly. Similarly, in image capturing, the unique thing will be all the

ambulances will have name AMBULANCE in reverse manner such as ECNALUBMA,

this will be used as the primary image recognition pattern.

Motion Camera

The motion camera is the major element which captures the images of ambu-

lance and transmits the signals to trac signals which works on Integrated

circuits. These cameras mainly focuses on the parameters like swing angles,

Manoj Prabhakar and Manoj Kumar

Impact of Image Processing in Saving the Human Life By Automating Trac

Signals

Page 3 of 16

HCTL Open Int. J. of Technology Innovations and Research

HCTL Open IJTIR, Volume 3, May 2013

e-ISSN: 2321-1814

ISBN (Print): 978-1-62776-443-8

actual pan, zooming factor, tilt, and scaled focal length of the camera.

Let (X,Y,Z) be considered as a co-ordinate system of camera . Here the

Figure 1: The camera coordinate system, image coordinate system and perspective

imaging.

image plane will be lying perpendicular to that of Z-axis along with its cen-

ter which has been located at the point (0,0,f). Here, based on perspective

projection P = (X,Y,Z), and the 3D space is projected onto the point, where

p=(x,y) and the values of x and y be fX/z and fY/z receptively. Here we will

be detracting some of the motion parameters such as:

1. Pan angle a: rotation angle around the Y-axis,

2. Zoom factor s: ratio of the camera focal lengths between two image frames,

3. Tilt angle/3 rotation angle around the X-axis,

4. Translation vector t = (t

x

, t

y

, t

z

)T,

5. Swing angle r : rotation angle around the Z-axis

Smoothing Filter

A smoothing lter is mainly used to replace the each pixel values that are

present in input image with its neighbouring images. This in turn will eliminate

the pixel values that are not relevant to its surroundings. This smoothing

lter will be like other kernel lters, which considers the size and shape of its

Manoj Prabhakar and Manoj Kumar

Impact of Image Processing in Saving the Human Life By Automating Trac

Signals

Page 4 of 16

HCTL Open Int. J. of Technology Innovations and Research

HCTL Open IJTIR, Volume 3, May 2013

e-ISSN: 2321-1814

ISBN (Print): 978-1-62776-443-8

neighbourhood to calculate sampling.

The following image will demonstrate the dierence between the normal image

and smoothing image. We also will be using the Gaussian lter for the smooth-

ing the image. The Gaussian lter is the bell shaped hump will screen the high

spatial frequencies along with the noise and thereby produces the smoothing

eect.

The distortion in signal will be reduced by smoothing lter, which focuses

mainly on the primary image and its surrounding, eliminating the unnecessary

surroundings. The Gaussian lter ID is given as:

G(x) =

1

2

e

x

2

2

2

(1)

Where, is standard deviation of distribution in the Gaussian lter.

Figure 2: (a) Before smoothing (b) After smoothing

Sharpening lter

The sharpening lter is used to adjust the contrast of the image and also to

enhance the edges of objects. Generally, the sharpening lters (High-pass lters)

are allowed to pass and delete the low-frequency components. Generally, these

sharpening lters will eliminate the noise distortion and provides the proper

Manoj Prabhakar and Manoj Kumar

Impact of Image Processing in Saving the Human Life By Automating Trac

Signals

Page 5 of 16

HCTL Open Int. J. of Technology Innovations and Research

HCTL Open IJTIR, Volume 3, May 2013

e-ISSN: 2321-1814

ISBN (Print): 978-1-62776-443-8

visibility and image quality, when it is being captured by the camera. The

sharpening lters are generally classied as:

1. Derivative lter,

2. Laplace lter,

3. High Pass lter (HPF),

4. High Boost lter

Here, we are using the high boost lter to enhance the image further by using

low pass.

High boost = A original low pass

High boost = (A-1) original + (original low pass)

High boost = (A-1) original + high pass.

Figure 3: (a) Before sharpening (b) After sharpening

Avoid Image Blur during Image Capture

Three types of blur usually occurred in image processing are motion, Gaussian,

and compression blurs.

Motion blur maybe due to object movement when a camera shutter remains

open for an extended period of time and the object motion within this interval

is visible in a single snapshot. It can also be caused by camera movement.

Manoj Prabhakar and Manoj Kumar

Impact of Image Processing in Saving the Human Life By Automating Trac

Signals

Page 6 of 16

HCTL Open Int. J. of Technology Innovations and Research

HCTL Open IJTIR, Volume 3, May 2013

e-ISSN: 2321-1814

ISBN (Print): 978-1-62776-443-8

Gaussian blur is made by a soft lens to spread out the light on the focal

plane, rather than all going toward a spot. It produces a smoothing eect by

removing image details or noises.

Compression blur is triggered by the loss of high-frequency components in

JPEG compression.

The following image describes the above types of image blurs available while

capturing an image.

Let f(x

i

) denote the IQM score of an image under the degree of blur x

i

.

Figure 4: (a)Original image, (b)motion blur at orientation 45 degrees and magnitude

40, (c) Gaussian blur with a 17 x 17 window, (d) compression blur with

compression ratio of 1:160.

The IQMs used for measuring image blurs must satisfy the monotonically in-

Manoj Prabhakar and Manoj Kumar

Impact of Image Processing in Saving the Human Life By Automating Trac

Signals

Page 7 of 16

HCTL Open Int. J. of Technology Innovations and Research

HCTL Open IJTIR, Volume 3, May 2013

e-ISSN: 2321-1814

ISBN (Print): 978-1-62776-443-8

creasing or decreasing property. That is, if x

i+1

> x

i

, then f(x

i+1

) f(x

i

) > 0

for monotonically increasing or f(x

i+1

) f(x

i

) < 0 for monotonically decreasing

property. The sensitivity of IQMs is dened as the score of the aggregate

relative distance:

i

f(x

i+1

) f(x

i

)

f(x

i

)

(2)

Nine IQMs, which are grouped into three categories based on pixel distance,

correlation, and mean square error, are as follows,

Let F(j,k) denote the pixel value of row j and column k in a reference im-

age of size Mx N, and F(j,k) denote the pixel value in a testing image.

Category I: IQMs based on Pixel Distance

1. AD (Average Distance):

AD =

M

j=1

N

k=1

|F(j, k) F

2. L2D (L2 Euclidean Distance):

L2D =

1

MN

_

_

M

j=1

N

k=1

(F(j, k) F

(j, k))

2

_

_

1

2

(4)

Category II: IQMs based on Correlation

3. SC (Structure Content):

SC =

M

j=1

N

k=1

F(j, k)

2

M

j=1

N

k=1

F

(j, k)

2

(5)

4. IF (Image Fidelity):

IF = 1

_

M

j=1

N

k=1

(F(j, k) F

(j, k))

2

M

j=1

N

k=1

F(j, k)

2

_

(6)

5. NK (N Cross-Correlation):

NK =

_

M

j=1

N

k=1

F(j, k)F

(j, k)

M

j=1

N

k=1

F(j, k)

2

_

(7)

Manoj Prabhakar and Manoj Kumar

Impact of Image Processing in Saving the Human Life By Automating Trac

Signals

Page 8 of 16

HCTL Open Int. J. of Technology Innovations and Research

HCTL Open IJTIR, Volume 3, May 2013

e-ISSN: 2321-1814

ISBN (Print): 978-1-62776-443-8

Category III: IQMs based on Mean Square Error

6. NMSE (Normal Mean Square Error)

NMSE =

_

M

j=1

N

k=1

(F(j, k) F

(j, k))

2

M

j=1

N

k=1

F(j, k)

2

_

(8)

7. LMSE (Least Mean Square Error)

LMSE =

_

M

j=1

N

k=1

(F(j, k) F

(j, k))

2

M

j=1

N

k=1

O(F(j, k))

2

_

(9)

8. PMSE (Peak Mean Square Error)

PMSE =

1

MN

M

j=1

N

k=1

_

(F(j, k) F

(j, k))

2

(max

j,k

[F(j, k)])

2

_

(10)

9. PSNR (Peak Signal to Noise Ratio)

PSNR = 20 log

10

_

_

255

(

M

j=1

N

k=1

(F(j, k) F

(j, k))

2

)

1

2

_

_

(11)

Pattern Recognition

In order to recognize the pattern of the ambulance in heavy trac, we will

be using the clustering algorithm, In particular two-pass mode clustering

algorithm. This clustering algorithm will require and process only the reg-

istered multi-spectral image, twice. Here, the pattern of ambulance will be

imparted in the device and such that whenever the motion camera nds the

pattern similar to that of recognized pattern, it will be recognized. In clustering

algorithm, there are two passes available. In rst path, the mean vectors of all

clusters will be generated and in the next pass, each every pixel will be assigned

to a cluster that represents a single type, so as to determine the pattern exactly.

The notations that will be used in this algorithm is given below:

B: It represents the total number of bands used. These numbers are the di-

mensionality in spectral space. Here we are using 3D spectral space. C

max

: It

Manoj Prabhakar and Manoj Kumar

Impact of Image Processing in Saving the Human Life By Automating Trac

Signals

Page 9 of 16

HCTL Open Int. J. of Technology Innovations and Research

HCTL Open IJTIR, Volume 3, May 2013

e-ISSN: 2321-1814

ISBN (Print): 978-1-62776-443-8

represents the maximum number of clusters, r(P,k): the distance between mean

vector of current, cluster (k) and gray value vector of pixel p. It is given as:

r(P, k) =

_

B

i=1

(MEAN

i

(k) P

i

)

2

_

1

2

(12)

Where, 1 k C

max

, MEAN denoted the mean value of cluster k in band

i, Pi denotes the gray value in band I of pixel p. R is the constant radius in

spectral space used to decide the mean vector of new cluster. If the value of R

is lesser then r, then new cluster will be generated. Also, d(k1,k2) represents

the dierence between mean vector of two dierent clusters k1 and k2.

d(k

1

, k

2

) =

_

B

i=1

((MEAN

i

(k

1

) (MEAN

i

(k

2

))

2

_

1

2

(13)

Where, 1 k1, k2 C

max

and k1 = k2, Here, D is the constant radius in

spectral space, which is used to determine whether two distinct clusters k1 and

k2 should be emerged or not. N is the constant that represents the total number

of pixels to be evaluated. n(k) is the total number accumulated in cluster k.

Pass 1: Clusters Mean Vector Establishment

Here, the gray value vector of rst pixel is placed as initial clusters mean of

cluster I. Then Mean is calculated as:

MEAN

i

(k)

new

=

MEAN

i

(k)

old

n(k) +P

i

n(k) + 1

(14)

If the above equation is used,then the values present in the equation n

total

(total number of pixels) and n(k) will be incremented by one. This process

will be repeated until the new image has been placed. If the value of K or N

is lesser than n total and is equal to C

max

, then the process, which has been

repeating will be terminated. The distance between the tow mean vectors will

be used to calculate the recognition pattern. The decision radius nally is

mainly dependent upon the condition to activate the clusters and to merge it

nally. If the value of d is lesser than or equal to decision radius, then two

clusters will be merged and also new mean vector will be determined.

MEAN

i

(k) =

MEAN

i

(k

1

) n(k

1

) +MEAN

i

(k

2

) n(k

2

)

n(k

1

) +n(k

2

)

(15)

Manoj Prabhakar and Manoj Kumar

Impact of Image Processing in Saving the Human Life By Automating Trac

Signals

Page 10 of 16

HCTL Open Int. J. of Technology Innovations and Research

HCTL Open IJTIR, Volume 3, May 2013

e-ISSN: 2321-1814

ISBN (Print): 978-1-62776-443-8

Where, 1k,k1,k2 C

max

and also k1 = k2. Now, the total number of pixels in

the new cluster n(k), will be sum of the n(k1) and n(k2). At last, the number

of clusters are built as the group of individual pixels and its mean vectors will

be determined in the second pass.

Pass 2: Pixel Classication

Pass 2 in mainly used to classify each and every pixel into one of the clusters

that has been built in pass 1. The minimum distance method will be adopted

here, where the clusters wil recognize the images that are present near and by

using the minimum distance method, the pixels with spectral features will be

merged together, so as to ensure the ecient reliability of the merged images.

The pixels will be recognized by the motion camera that has been placed in

trac signals and thereby, the images of ambulance will be clearly recognized

by these pass 2 merged image, with the image that has been present closer to

the camera will be identied rst.

Determine the Nearest Ambulance (Shortest path Algorithm)

The idea behind the shortest path algorithm (Dijkstras algorithm) is to identify

the nearest ambulance in the trac when there is a case of ambulances coming

from more than one side. Since roads come in varying lengths we want to work

on weighted graphs for this problem. A weighted graph is simply a graph where

each edge e is assigned a non-negative value called the weight, w(e), of the edge.

A path is a sequence of vertices p = (v1,...,vn) such that vi vi + 1. Set ei =

(vi,vi+1). The length of a path p is d(p) = &Sigma w(ei). For convenience we

will also write w (u,v) to denote the weight of the edge (u,v). The idea behind

Dijkstras algorithm is breadth-rst search (BFS). This type of search explores

vertices by spreading out as new vertices are found. In our system, we will be

using the algorithm that consists of previous hop-node.

RF Signal Transmitter

The signal generator and transmitter play a very important role here. In case

of heavy trac it is dicult to identify the ambulances presence. In such

scenarios, this helps to identify the ambulance as these signals are transmitted

at a particular frequency and a baud rate. This radio frequency (RF) transmis-

sion system employs Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) with transmitter/receiver

(Tx/Rx) pair operating at 434 MHz. The transmitter module takes serial input

and transmits these signals through RF. The transmitted signals are received

by the receiver module placed away from the source of transmission. The RF

Manoj Prabhakar and Manoj Kumar

Impact of Image Processing in Saving the Human Life By Automating Trac

Signals

Page 11 of 16

HCTL Open Int. J. of Technology Innovations and Research

HCTL Open IJTIR, Volume 3, May 2013

e-ISSN: 2321-1814

ISBN (Print): 978-1-62776-443-8

Figure 5: Dijkstras Algorithm [5]

signal transmitter should be available in all the ambulances so that once the

ambulance is within the range of the receiver it will be able to transmit the

signal to the receiver.

RF Signal Receiver

The receiver will be available in the trac signals which is used to detect the

signal from the nearest transmitter (ambulance) based on the shortest path

algorithm. The receiver, upon receiving these signals, sends them to the decoder

IC (HT12D) through pin2. The serial data is received at the data pin (DIN,

pin14) of HT12D. The decoder then retrieves the original parallel format from

the received serial data. This data will be used to trigger the signal change (if

Manoj Prabhakar and Manoj Kumar

Impact of Image Processing in Saving the Human Life By Automating Trac

Signals

Page 12 of 16

HCTL Open Int. J. of Technology Innovations and Research

HCTL Open IJTIR, Volume 3, May 2013

e-ISSN: 2321-1814

ISBN (Print): 978-1-62776-443-8

Figure 6: Improved Algorithm

it is red to green).

Components used for Signal Transmission

HT12D Decoder

HT12D is a decoder integrated circuit that belongs to 2

12

series of decoders.

This series of decoders are mainly used for remote control system applications,

like burglar alarm, car door controller, security system etc. It is mainly provided

to interface RF and infrared circuits. They are paired with 2

12

series of encoders.

Manoj Prabhakar and Manoj Kumar

Impact of Image Processing in Saving the Human Life By Automating Trac

Signals

Page 13 of 16

HCTL Open Int. J. of Technology Innovations and Research

HCTL Open IJTIR, Volume 3, May 2013

e-ISSN: 2321-1814

ISBN (Print): 978-1-62776-443-8

Figure 7: (a) RF Signal Transmitter and (b) RF Signal Receiver

The chosen pair of encoder/decoder should have same number of addresses and

data format.

HT12E Encoder

HT12E is an encoder integrated circuit of 2

12

series of encoders. They are

paired with 2

12

series of decoders for use in remote control system applications.

It is mainly used in transceiving RF and infrared circuits. The chosen pair of

encoder/decoder should have same number of addresses and data format.

Figure 8: (a) HT12D Decoder and (b) HT12E Encoder

Circuit Diagram - RF Transmitter & Receiver

Manoj Prabhakar and Manoj Kumar

Impact of Image Processing in Saving the Human Life By Automating Trac

Signals

Page 14 of 16

HCTL Open Int. J. of Technology Innovations and Research

HCTL Open IJTIR, Volume 3, May 2013

e-ISSN: 2321-1814

ISBN (Print): 978-1-62776-443-8

Figure 9: Circuit Diagram - RF Transmitter & Receiver

Impacts

Current Scenario

Now-a-days due to more luxurious living, more four wheelers have replaced

2-wheelers. Moreover, industrialization (tech-parks) and need for space have

caused more congestion. This in turn increases trac. Amidst all these frenzied

life, one forgets the importance of human life.

Manoj Prabhakar and Manoj Kumar

Impact of Image Processing in Saving the Human Life By Automating Trac

Signals

Page 15 of 16

HCTL Open Int. J. of Technology Innovations and Research

HCTL Open IJTIR, Volume 3, May 2013

e-ISSN: 2321-1814

ISBN (Print): 978-1-62776-443-8 References

After this work

With the implementation of this idea, more lives can be saved. Due to the

implementation of these signal generators in every ambulance and image pro-

cessing techniques, the ambulance would be able to reach the hospital on time

which in turn would save a million lives.

Conclusion

Thus this is just an idea of implementing signal generators in ambulances to

save thousands of serious lives. With further improvements in the technology

used as of now like installing GPS based locators, etc., the process can be made

even better.

References

[1] FRANK Y. SHIH, IMAGE PROCESSING AND PATTERN RECOGNITION -

Fundamentals and Techniques, A JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. Pu-

bilication, 2010.

[2] STrobotix, Chandigarh labs and Chawla Radios, RF based Wireless

Remote.

[3] Yoshihiro Ikefuji, Sadakazu Murakami, Video Signal Generator

circuit and video image processing device using the same,

Patent Number 5311296, Rohm Co., Ltd., May, 1994.

[4] Yap-Peng Tan, Sanjeev R. Kulkarni, Peter J. Ramadge, A NEW METHOD

FOR CAMERA MOTION PARAMETER ESTIMATION.

[5] http://eoinbailey.com/blog/dijkstras-algorithm-illustrated-explanation

This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and con-

ditions of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License (http:

//creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).

c 2013 by the Authors. Licensed by HCTL Open, India.

Manoj Prabhakar and Manoj Kumar

Impact of Image Processing in Saving the Human Life By Automating Trac

Signals

Page 16 of 16

- 73 Amateur Radio Magazine 11_November_1978Uploaded byHolly Golightly
- 243894624-99ebook-Com-Msg00388.pdfUploaded byM Sarmad Khan
- 3&4year OptionsUploaded byLimaxonnnz
- MENG483 Mini BlindsUploaded bycarloncho2012
- c30man-v1Uploaded bygeorge_cpp2
- heart rate monitorUploaded byNeha Dharap
- Analisis Spektrum Sinyal Digital_pertemuan 1.pptxUploaded byAdji Nugroho
- ECT2000 EnglishUploaded byRichard Livellara
- msg00001 (1)Uploaded byPeanut d. Destroyer
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