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A STUDY ON PERFORMANCE INDICATOR OF CONTAINER TERMINAL WITH REFERENCE TO CHENNAI PORT TRUST INTRODUCTION Around 90% of world trade

is carried by the international shipping industry and without shipping; the import and export of goods on the scale necessary for the modern world would not be possible. Seaborne trade continues to expand, bringing benefits for consumers across the world through competitive freight costs. Thanks to the growing efficiency of shipping as a mode of transport, the prospects for the industrys further growth continuing to be strong, increased economic liberalization and increasing industrialization which have all fuelled free trade and enhanced the demand for consumable products and the prospects for the industrys further growth continue to be strong. There are different types of vessels in the world merchant fleet. Some of them are Container vessels, bulk carriers, tanker vessels, passenger vessels, Ro-Ro vessels, etc., There are many types & sizes of containers specifically designed to stuff the cargo and container vessels modernized to suit the present days needs with higher carrying capacity. Turn Round Time (TRT) is the time taken for a vessel from the time of declaration of its readiness by the Chief Mate (Captain) of the vessel to get berthed after passing through all the Customs priorities till the time the vessel is set to sail after completion of its import and export operations.

INDUSTRY PROFILE
A port is a location on a coast or shore containing one or more harbors where ships can dock and transfer people or cargo to or from land. Port locations are selected to optimize access to land and navigable water, for commercial demand, and for shelter from wind and waves. Ports with deeper water are rarer, but can handle larger, more economical ships. Since ports throughout history handled every kind of traffic, support and storage facilities vary widely, may extend for miles, and dominate the local economy. Some ports have an important, perhaps exclusively military role.

Ports often have cargo-handling equipment, such as cranes (operated by longshoremen) and forklifts for use in loading ships, which may be provided by private interests or public bodies. Often, canneries or other processing facilities will be located nearby. Some ports feature canals, which allow ships further movement inland. Access to intermodal transportation, such as trains and trucks, are critical to a port, so that passengers and cargo can also move further inland beyond the port area. Ports with international traffic have customs facilities. Harbour pilots and tugboats may maneuver large ships in tight quarters when near docks.
The terms "port" and "seaport" are used for different types of port facilities that handle oceangoing vessels, and river port is used for river traffic, such as barges and other shallow-draft vessels. Some ports on a lake, river, or canal have access to a sea or ocean, and are sometimes called "inland ports".

A seaport is further categorized as a "cruise port" or a "cargo port". Additionally, "cruise ports" are also known as a "home port" or a "port of call". The "cargo port" is also further categorized into a "bulk" or "break bulk port" or as a "container port".

5.1.1 PORT PERFORMANCE INDICATORS The operational performance of a port is generally measured in terms of the speed with which a vessel is despatched, the rate at which cargo is handled and the duration that cargo stays in port prior to shipment or post discharge. However, a progressive port manager would also wish to know how extensively and intensively its assets are being utilized as well as how well the operations perform financially. Indicators to measure these performances are determined generally in relation to the tonnage of shipping calling at the port and of the volume of cargo handled since port services in the main are rendered to ships and cargo. This note discusses the main indicators used by ports, and for ease of reference tabulation is presented at the end of this note, which briefly describes how the indicators are determined. 5.1.2 OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE INDICATORS Primary measures of vessel performance are the ship turn-round time and the tonnage handled per ship day in port. The ship turn-round time is the duration of the vessel's stay in port and is calculated from the time of arrival to the time of departure. Traditionally expressed in days, it is now common to express turn-round time in hours. The port authority would normally compile statistics that would provide monthly and annually average turn-round times. The average turn-round time per ship is determined by dividing the total hours by the total number of ships calling at the port. In its basic form, ship turn-round time does not mean much, as the length of stay of a vessel is influenced by (a) the volume of cargo, (b) the facilities made available and (c) the composition of the cargo itself. Thus it becomes necessary for the port to break the basic ship turn-round time down for tankers, bulk carriers, container vessels and

general cargo vessels, and even subdividing these into domestic trade, regional trade and ocean going vessels. Since the duration of a vessel's stay in port is influenced by the volume of cargo that it works, a more useful measure of vessel performance is the tonnage handled per day or hour that the vessel is in port. The average tonnage handled per ship day or ship hour would be obtained by dividing the total tonnage of cargo that is loaded and discharged by the total number of hours that all vessels spend in port. In compiling data that would enable the port to determine ship turn-round time or the tonnage handled per ship day (or ship hour), a port would normally split total time in port into time at berth and time off the berth and within each, the opportunity would be taken to record for each service activity the amount of delay (idle time) as well as the reasons for the delay (e.g., waiting for cargo, opening/closing hatches, waiting for gears, rain, waiting for berth, etc). In particular, the ratio between the waiting time for berth and the time spent at berth, known as the waiting rate, is a significant indicator of possible congestion status. While the tonnage handled per ship day (or hour) is a measure of the volume of cargo handled per unit of time of the vessel in port, productivity in ports is generally measured in terms of the tonnage of cargo handled per unit of work station per hour. In the case of general cargo, the work station is the gang, with containers; it is the crane (or hook). Thus productivity is measured in terms of (a) tons per gang hour for general cargo and (b) TEUs/per crane (or hook) hour. With tons per gang hour, the size of the gang is a material factor, as generally and up to a point, the larger the gang size the greater its output. Hence a more useful indicator of productivity for general cargo is the tonnage handled per man hour. In establishing the size of the gang, it should be noted that some ports have separate stevedoring and wharf gangs while some have an integrated gang that works on board vessels (stevedoring) as well as at

the apron (wharfingering). It should also be pointed out that very often the size and nature of the consignment has an influence on gang performance. Generally, the larger and more homogeneous the consignment the greater is the productivity. The assessment of a port's performance from the point of view of the exporter/importer is quite basic in that there is only one indicator of interest, the dwell time of cargo in port measured in terms of the number of days that a ton of cargo remains in port. A high dwell time is generally an indication that all is not well with the port. It does not, however, identify areas where improvements may be sought since, unlike ship time in port, it does not have a breakdown according to the various procedures that have to be gone through before cargo can be shipped or delivered (e.g., customs clearance, waiting for instructions, waiting for ship, waiting for transport, etc.). The importance of dwell time also obviously varies with the nature of cargo. COMPANY PROFILE

6. COMPANY PROFILE - CHENNAI PORT:


6.1 HISTORY OF CHENNAI PORT: Chennai Port, the third oldest port among the 12 major ports, is an emerging hub port in the East Coast of India. This gateway port for all cargo has completed 128 years of glorious service to the nations maritime trade. Maritime trade started way back in 1639 on the sea shore Chennai. It was an open road -stead and exposed sandy coast till 1815. The initial piers were built in 1861, but the storms of 1868 and 1872 made them inoperative. So an artificial harbour was built and the operations were started in 1881.The cargo operations were carried out on the northern pier, located on the northeastern side of Fort St. George in Chennai. In the

first couple of years the port registered traffic of 3 lakh tonnes of cargo handling 600 ships. Being an artificial harbour, the port was vulnerable to the cyclones, accretion of sand inside the basin due to underwater currents, which reduced the draft. Sir Francis Spring a visionary skillfully drew a long-term plan to charter the course of the port in a scientific manner, overcoming both man-made and natural challenges. The shifting of the entrance of the port from eastern side to the North Eastern side protected the port to a large extent from the natural vulnerabilities. By the end of 1920 the port was equipped with a dock consisting of four berths in the West Quays, one each in the East & South Quay along with the transit sheds, warehouses and a marshalling yard to facilitate the transfer of cargo from land to sea and vice versa. Additional berths were added with a berth at South Quay and another between WQ2 & WQ3 in the forties. Indias Independence saw the port gathering development, momentum. The topography of the Port changed in 1964 when the Jawahar dock with capacity to berth 6 vessels to handle Dry Bulk cargoes such as Coal, Iron ore, Fertilizer and non hazardous liquid cargoes was carved out on the southern side. In tune with the international maritime developments, the port developed the Outer Harbour, named Bharathi Dock for handling Petroleum in 1972 and for mechanized handling of Iron Ore in 1974. The Iron ore terminal is equipped with Mechanized ore handling plant, one of the three such facilities in the country, with a capacity of handling 8 million tonnes. The Chennai ports share of Iron ore export from India is 12%. The dedicated facility for oil led to the development of oil refinery in the hinterland. This oil terminal is capable of handling Suezmax vessels.

In 1983, the port heralded the countrys first dedicated container terminal facility commissioned by the then prime minister Smt.Indira Gandhi on 18th December 1983. The Port privatized this terminal and is operated by Chennai Container Terminal Private Limited. Having the capability of handling fourth generation vessels, the terminal is ranked in the top 100 container ports in the world. Witnessing a phenomenal growth in container handling year after year the port is added with the Second Container Terminal with a capacity to handle 1.5 M TEUs to meet the demand. To cater to the latest generation of vessels and to exploit the steep increase in containerized cargo the port is planning to welcome the future with a Mega Container Terminal, capable of handling 5 Million TEUs expected to be operational from 2013. The Chennai port is one among the major ports having Terminal Shunting Yard and running their own Railway operations inside the harbour on the East Coast. The port is having railway lines running up to 68 kms and handles 25% of the total volume of the cargo, 4360 rakes (239412 wagons) during 2009-10. The port with three Docks, 24 berths and draft ranging from 12m to 16.5m has become a hub port for Containers, Cars and Project Cargo in the East Coast. The port has handled an all time high of 61.06 Million tonnes of cargo registering an increase of 6.2% over previous year. An increase of 10.14% in handling of cars from 273917 Units in the year 2009-10 when compared with 248697 Units in the year 2008-09 and an increase of 6.39% in handling of containers from 1143373 TEUs in the year 200809 to 1216438 TEUs in the year 2009-10. The long term plan for Chennai Port envisages that the Port will mainly handle 4Cs i.e Containers, Cars, Cruise and Clean Cargo.

CHENNAI PORTS MISSION: Achieve excellence in Port operations with State of Art technologies, Enhance competence and enthuse workforce to maximize customer satisfaction, Anticipate and adapt to the changing global scenario, Act as a catalyst for sustained development of the region. CHENNAI PORTS VISION: To the recognized as a futuristic port with foresight. CHENNAI PORTS QUALITY POLICY: Provide efficient, prompt, safe and timely services at optimum cost, Ensure quick turn round of vessels by providing facilities for efficient handling of cargo, Maintain total transparency in all our transactions,

Continually improve our services to meet the expectations of the port users, employees and the society. CHENNAI PORTS OBJECTIVE: To be the most preferred Indian Port ensuring safety of the environment. 6.2 ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE OF CHENNAI PORT: CHAIRMAN

DEPUTY CHAIRMAN

SECRETARY

TRAFFIC MANAGER

DEPUTY CONSERVATOR

FINANCE ADVISOR & CHIEF ACCOUNTS OFICER

CHIEF VIGILANCE OFFICER

CHIEF ENGINEER

CHIEF MEDICAL OFFICER

CHIEF MECHANICAL ENGINEER

DEPARTMENTS OF THE CHENNAI PORT: General Administration Department Finance Department

Traffic Department

Marine Department

Civil Engineering Department

Electrical and Mechanical Engineering Department &

Medical Department

Vigilance Department

SCOPE OF THE STUDY The container terminal in Chennai Port is Indias first dedicated container terminal and is now being operated by a Major Private Terminal Operator called M/s. Dubai Port World under License Agreement on BOT basis (Build, Operate and Transfer) for a period of 30 years. Besides this, the 2 nd container Terminal called M/s. Chennai International Terminal Private Limited is also being operated by another Terminal operator called the Port of Singapore Authority (PSA) in joint venture with M/s. SICAL under license agreement on BOOT basis (Build, Operate, Own and Transfer) for a period of 30 years. Despite the existence of two terminals, the Port has in its future plan to go on for the nations bigger container terminal with a berth length of more than 1 km and draft length of 21 metres called the Mega Container Terminal, also under license agreement to be operated by a private terminal operator Also, we see another container terminal being operated by a giant private Investor M/s. Larsen Toubro (L & T) at Kattuppalli in the northern coast of Chennai. Clearly, with the existence of these container terminals, there is sheer competition neck to neck on who is going to rank on top in terms of service to the trade fraternity and in throughput handling. When it comes to ranking, there are certain parameters set out by the eminent authorities governing the Terminal operations globally. One such parameter is the Turn Round Time (TRT), which is the time taken for a vessel from the time of

declaration of its readiness by the Chief Mate (Captain) of the vessel to get berthed after passing through all the Customs priorities till the time the vessel is set to sail after completion of its import and export operations. Simply to say, the efficiency of a terminal can very well be evident from its TRT. Precisely, the lesser the TRT, the more the efficiency. The existence of three container terminals in the coast of Chennai, the proposal to bring out a Mega Container Terminal and the neck to neck competition between them to emerge on top rank presents a ample scope for the Researcher to pursue with the study.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of the Project is to study on minimizing the Turn Round Time (TRT) of the container vessels calling the container terminal in Chennai Port.

SECONDARY OBJECTIVES: The secondary objectives of the Project is to study on the 1. effect of Pre Berthing Detention caused to the container vessels on the Agent and Port side, 2. effect of optimizing the yard operations management, 3. effect of the introduction of Berth Reservation Scheme to the container vessel operators, 4. the effectiveness of the availability of tug vessels to berth and un berth the container vessels,

5. the effectiveness of the availability of Container Handling equipments on the wharf and yard side. With the investors and global terminal operators showing interest in developing new container terminals under licensed agreement mode and Chennai Ports initiative in the future plan of constructing elevated corridors (EMRIP) to provide better hinterland connectivity to the Port using both the rail and road transport modes which would help greatly in the evacuation of the import containers from the container parking yard and aggregation of export containers to the container parking yard, the scenario presents an ample scope for accelerated growth in the container trade in the future.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

A performance indicator or key performance indicator (KPI) is industry jargon for a type of performance measurement.. An organization may use KPIs to evaluate its success, or to evaluate the success of a particular activity in which it is engaged. Sometimes success is defined in terms of making progress toward strategic goals,but often success is simply the repeated, periodic achievement of some level of operational goal e.g. zero defects, 10/10 customer satisfaction, etc. A container terminal is a facility where cargo containers are transshipped between different transport vehicles, for onward transportation. The transshipment may be between container ships and land vehicles, for example trains or trucks, in which case the terminal is described as a maritime container terminal. Alternatively the transshipment may be between land vehicles, typically between train and truck, in which case the terminal is described as an inland container terminal. 1.Effect of container terminal concession on port performance Dr. M. Nijdam, supervisor, Erasmus University, 2012 Dr. P.A. van Reeven, LLM Ports are being privatized in the belief that enterprise-based ports can react faster to global change sand are therefore more efficient than public ports. In the past years many concessions have been granted in order to privatize port facilities. However, if

the public authorities and governments want to obtain more benefits from these concessions, more insights into concession characteristics are needed to develop more innovative contractual arrangements.This thesis provides insights into the container terminal concessions by first investigating whether the concessions lead to a better port performance and then focussing on two important characteristics of container terminal concessions, namely the duration of the concessions and the private entities participating in the concession. The port performance is measured in port throughput and in order to get an unambiguous measurement the thesis focuses on one specific terminal. container terminals because containerized trade flows have increased rapidly in the last three decades, implying that it is in an interesting market to observe. By utilizing a dynamic panel model, we try to capture the short- and long-term effects of container terminal concessions on the port performance. The dynamic panel model we used is the Brdsen Error Correction Model. We estimate the Brdsen ECM with the Newey and West standard errors in order to correct for serial correlation and with the Driscoll and Kraay standard errors in order to correct for serial correlation and crosssectional correlation. Only the use of Driscoll and Kraay estimators has shown a positive influence of concessions on port throughput 2. PPRISM Port PeRformance Indicators: Selection and Measurement Coordinator: European Sea Ports Organization (ESPO) With the PPRISM project, ESPO has taken a first step in establishing a culture of performance measurement in European ports. The two year PPRISM project (Port PeRformance Indicators: Selection and Measurement, co-funded by the European Commission) aims to identify a set of relevant and feasible performance indicators for the EU port system. These indicators allow the port industry to measure, assess and communicate the impact of the European port system on society, environment and economy. PPRISM delivers a shortlist of indicators that form the basis of a future European Port Observatory which will take the form of a Port Sector Performance Dashboard. The proposed Dashboard contains well defined indicators, that are accepted by stakeholders and measure performance trends in the European port sector. The Dashboard will not publish or compare the performance of individual ports or terminals, but focus on the performance of the port system as a whole.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY:
Research is defined as a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic. Research is an art of scientific investigation. It is a careful

investigation or inquiry especially through search of new facts in any branch of knowledge. It is the systematized effort to gain new knowledge. It is an academic activity and as such, the term should be used in technical sense. Research is, thus, an original contribution to the existing stock of knowledge making for its advancement. It is the pursuit of truth with the help of study, observation, comparison and experiment. In short, the search of knowledge through objective and systematic method of finding a solution to a problem is research. As a researcher, defining, evaluating and organizing data; making deductions and conclusions; and finally carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating hypotheses is priority. RESEARCH APPROACH: This chapter deals with the Research design, sampling method used, Data collection method used, pre testing adopted, tools and techniques and limitations of the study. RESEARCH DESIGN: The Research Design undertaken by the researcher is descriptive Research. The methodology involved in this design is mostly qualitative in nature.

The major purpose of this descriptive research is the description of the state of affairs as it exists at present. The researcher has no control over the variables and can only report what that has happened or what is happening. The methods of Research utilized in descriptive research are survey methods of all kinds including methods competitive correlation.

POPULATION: A population refers to any collection of specified group of human beings or of non human entities such as objects, educational institutions, time units and geographical areas, prices of wheat or salaries drawn by individuals. Some statisticians call it universe. A population is properly defined so that there is no ambiguity as to whether given unit belong to the population. Interferences concerning a population cannot be drawn until the nature of the units that compose it is clearly identified. If a population is not properly defined, a Researcher does not know units to consider when selecting the sample. It is the aggregate to all units processing certain specified characteristics on which the sample seeks to draw inferences. Population element is the individual participant or object on which the measurement is taken. It is a total collection of elements to make some inferences. SAMPLING: Sampling is the process of selecting units from a population of interest so that by studying the sample we may fairly generalize our results back to the population from which they were chosen. The importance of the theory of sampling lies in the fact

that for a large population , it is neither practical nor possible to collect the date for each and every number of the population. SAMPLING TECHNIQUE: On the representation basis, it is Non probability sampling, which means nonrandom sampling element. convenient sampling technique. As the size of the population is large, we follow

SAMPLE: A Sample, as the name implies, is a smaller representation of a large whole. A section of the population selected from the later in such a way that they are representative of the universe called a sample. The group of elements is referred as a sample and the process of selecting a part of a group with a view to obtaining information about the whole is called sampling. Relatively small number of

individuals or measures of individuals, objects or events is selected and analyzed in order to find out something about the entire population from which it was selected. Sampling procedure provide generalization on the basis of a relatively small proportion of the population. JUSTIFICATION OF SAMPLE SIZE: Out of a population of 7800 employees in Chennai Port, it is proposed to have a sample size of 100 covering all the departments. In view of the time constraints, the sample size is considered as 100. TYPES OF DATA:

Data is the basic input to any decision making process in a business. The processing of data gives statistics of importance of the study. The reliability of managerial decisions depends upon the quality of data. The quality of data can be expressed in terms of its representative feature of the reality which can be ensured by the usage of a fitting data collection method. There are two types of data, namely, Primary data Secondary data.

7.1 PRIMARY DATA: Primary data are those which are collected a fresh and for the first time and hence, happen to be original in character. Such data are published by authorities who

themselves are responsible for their collection. The collection of primary data thus requires a great deal of deliberation and expertise. Depending upon the nature of information required, the following methods of collecting primary data are available. They are, Observation Method, Questionnaire Method, Mailed Questionnaire Method, Telephone Interview. The Researcher wishes to do the Questionnaire method of collecting primary data. QUESTIONNAIRE METHOD:

The questionnaire (also called survey) is a set of questions given to a sample of employees. Questionnaires are a popular means of collecting data, but are difficult to design and often require many rewrites before an acceptable questionnaire is produced. The purpose is to gather information about the employees idea about the Ro-Ro vessel operations, implementation of an effective IT solution and about how well the Port can cater the needs of the growing automobile export market. The advantages and disadvantages of Questionnaire method with reference to the Project study is slated below: ADVANTAGES OF QUESTIONNAIRE METHOD

Can be used as a method in its own right or as a basis for interviewing or a telephone survey.

Can be posted, e-mailed or faxed. Can cover a large number of people or organizations. Wide geographic coverage, No prior arrangements are needed, Quick & easy to administer, Can get a large amount of information in a short time, Allows for employee participation, Does not require trained interviewer, Relatively less expensive, Avoids embarrassment on the part of the respondent, Respondent can consider responses,

Possible anonymity of respondent. No interviewer bias.

DISADVANTAGES OF QUESTIONNAIRE METHOD

Design problems, May be difficult to construct, Problems with incomplete questionnaires, Questions have to be relatively simple, Quality of information related to the quality of the questionnaire, May have low response rate. Responses may be incomplete. Responses may be difficult to interpret (open-ended). Historically low response rate (although inducements may help). Time delay whilst waiting for responses to be returned. Require a return deadline. Several reminders may be required. Assumes no literacy problems. No control over who completes it. Replies not spontaneous and independent of each other. Respondent can read all questions beforehand and then decide whether to complete or not. For example, perhaps because it is too long, too complex, uninteresting, or too personal.

PRIMARY DATA COLLECTION: The Researcher has preferred the type of Likert Scale questions and an Open ended question so that the Respondent would be at their liberty to represent their view and the data collection by Questionnaire method is conducted in a fair manner. 7.2 SECONDARY DATA: Secondary data means the data that are already available i.e., they refer to the data which have already been collected and analyzed by someone else. In this case, the Researcher is certainly confronted with the problems that are associated with the collection of the original data. unpublished data. The Secondary data may be published data or

SECONDARY DATA COLLECTION: The Secondary data is collected from the various sources such as the records maintained in the Port, Ports websites and its Annual Reports. 7.3 STATISTICAL TOOLS USED: 7.3.1 APPLICATION OF REGRESSION TECHNIQUES USING THE METHOD OF LEAST SQUARES: Regression is the study of the relationship between the variables. If Y is the

dependent variable and X is the independent variable, the linear relationship suggested between the variables is called the regression equation, of Y on X. Here, the parameters are determined using the principle of least squares. This regression equation is used to estimate the value of Y corresponding to a known value of X. On

the other hand, I X is the dependent variable and Y is the independent variable, then, the linear relationship suggested between the variables is called the regression equation, of X on Y.

METHOD OF LEAST SQUARES: Suppose the variables x & y are functionally related, i.e., the graph of the relation is a specified curve. Let us further suppose that the relation is suggested for predicting the values of y for known values of x. Then y is a random variable and x is a

mathematical variable. The variable x is then assumed to have no error associated with it. For any arbitrarily chosen value of x, the value of the random variable is determined from the suggested relation. This estimated value of y will have an error associated with it which is of random nature. The curve of best fit is that which makes the errors of estimation known as residuals, as small as possible. Let y = f(x) be the relation suggested between the variables x & y. Let (x i, yi), i = 1, 2, 3 n be n sample values. Then y - yi is a residual. The principle of least squares provides the technique for minimizing the error. The error of estimate y - yi may be positive or negative. Therefore, for the best fitting curve, the sum of the absolute values of errors should be as small as possible. But the sum of the absolute values of errors should be as small as possible. But the sum of the absolute values is not convenient to work with mathematically and this difficulty is

removed by making the sum of the squares of the errors as small as possible. The parameters involved in f(x) can be determined by this minimization principle. 7.3.2 APPLICATION OF ANOVA (2-way classification using Randomized Block Design) In a one way classification of the Analysis of Variance, the treatments constitute different levels of a single factor which is controlled in the experiment. There are, however, many situations in which the response variable of interest may be affected by more than one factor. For example, sales of cosmetics, in addition to being affected by the point of sale display, might also be affected by the price charged, the size and / or location of the store or the number of competitive products sold by the store. Petrol mileage may be affected by the type of car driven, the way it is driven, road conditions and other factors in addition to the brand of petrol used. In the same way, the efficiency in yard operations management can be determined by more than two factors such as the Turn Round Time, Dwell time of cargo, Pre berthing detention, etc., As the views of employees with different years of experience is gathered in the questionnaire method of survey the same is considered as various factors and hence the two way classification of the Analysis of Variance is used. When it is believed that two independent factors might have an effect on the response variable of interest it is possible to design the test so that an Analysis of Variance can be used to test for the effects of the variance. With the two way classification of the Analysis of Variance we can test two sets of hypothesis with the same data at the same time. Randomized Block Design: In a completely randomized design, no local control measure was adopted excepting that units should be homogeneous. Hence in the case

of a large number of experimental units completely randomized design cannot ensure precision of the estimate of treatment effect. A measure to provide error control is necessary with design and this provided in the design called Randomized Block Design. Let there be k treatments. Each of the treatments is replicated the same number of times in this design. Let there be r replications in each treatment. The total number of experimental units is kr. These units are arranged in r groups each of size k. The groups are chosen in such a way that they are homogeneous. The error control measure in this design consists of making the units in each of these groups homogeneous. These groups are commonly called blocks. This type of homogeneous grouping of the experimental units and the random allocation of the treatments separately in each block are the two main characteristic features of randomized block design. For the randomization the treatments are allotted 1 to k in any order and the units in each block are also numbered from 1 to k. Then the k treatments are allotted at random to the k units in each block. The data collected from experiments with randomized block designs form a two way classification, that is classified according to the levels of two factors namely blocks and treatments. The two classification of analysis of variance model can be applied to draw inference on the analysis of variance. MERITS: 1. It has a simple layout.

2. The design controls the variability in the experimental units and gives the treatments equivalence to show their effects. 3. The analysis of the design is simple and straight forward as in the case of two way classification of analysis of variance. 4. The analysis is possible even in the case of missing observations.

DEMERITS: 1. The design is not suitable for large number of treatments since in this case the block size is large and hence homogeneity of units may not be possible. 2. Unequal number of replications for equal treatment is not possible. 3. The shape of the experimental material should be rectangular. 4. It controls the variability in one direction only. 5. The analysis of this decision is not as simple as a completely randomized design.

Format of ANOVA table: Source of variation Sums of squares DF Mean Squares Computed F value

Between Rows Between Columns Residual


Total

SSR SSC SSE SST

R-1 C-1 (R-1)(C-1) N-1

MSSR=SSR/(R-1) MSSC=SSC/(C-1) MSSE=SSE/(R-1)(C-1)

FR=MSSR/MSSE FC=MSSC/MSSE

LIMITATION OF THE STUDY It is believed that there are 21 parameters set out by the governing authorities to assess a terminals performance of which TRT is the key performance indicator. Hence, the Researcher has chosen the same. The time that would be required to assess a terminals performance using all the parameters will definitely be more whereas the Researcher has to conclude the study providing constructive and useful solutions in the development of the Terminal operations and benefit the trade users greatly. Thus, the Researcher has to come up with constructive suggestions and fruitful solutions within in the limited time provided for the study. Hence the limitation to the study.

TABLE:

Sr.No

Age Wise Classification Frequency Particulars 31 - 40 Yrs 41 - 50 Yrs 50 & Above Total 10 60 14 84

Percentage 11.90 71.43 16.67 100

CHART:

INTREPRETATION: From the age wise classification, we can interpret that 71% among the 84 respondent belongs to 41-50 years.

TAB LE:

Sr.

Qualification Wise Classification Frequency Percentage

N o . Particulars 1 SSLC 2 Diploma 3 UG 4 PG Others 5


Total

2 9 27 40 6 84

2.4 10.7 32.1 47.6 7.1 100

CHART:

INTREPRETATION: From the qualification wise classification, we can interpret that 47% among the 84 respondent belongs to post graduates.

TABLE:

Sr. No. 1 2

Cargo Handling Awareness Frequency Particulars 82 Yes 2 No 84 Total

Percent 97.6 2.4 100.0

CHART:

INTREPRETATION: It can be interpreted that 97% of the respondent known about the container cargo handling in Chennai port.

TABLE:

Sr.No

Awareness About Nations First dedicated Container Terminal Particulars Frequency Percentage

1 2

Yes No Total

70 14 84

83.3 16.7 100.0

CHART:

INTREPRETATION: From the table, it is interpreted that 83% of the respondent aware about nations first dedicated container terminal is Chennai port.

TABLE:

Sr.No

Importance of Containerised cargo in World's Sea Trade Percentage Particulars Frequency

1 2

Yes No Total

79 5 84

94.0 6.0 100.0

CHART:

INTREPRETATION: It can be inferred that 94% of the respondent know the importance of containerized cargo in worlds sea trade.

TABLE:
Opinion on Pre Brething Detention Frequency Percentage Particulars 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree Total 5 47 21 9 2 84 5.95 55.95 25.00 10.71 2.38 100

Sr.No.

CHART:

INTREPRETATION: It can be interpreted that 56% of the respondent agreed that pre berthing detention is higher on agent side due to non availability of required documents.

TABLE:

Sr.No.

Opinion on Increment in TAT due to Pre berthing Detention Frequency Percentage Particulars 9 10.71 1 Strongly Agree 43 51.19 2 Agree 22 26.19 3 Neutral 5 5.95 4 Disagree 5 5.95 5 Strongly Disagree 84 100 Total

CHART:

INTREPRETATION: It can be inferred that 60% of the respondent agree that pre berthing detention increases the Turn Around Time of container vessels.

TABLE:

Opinion on Highness in Pre Berthing Detention on Ports side Frequency Percentage Sr.No. Particulars 7 8.33 1 Strongly Agree 18 21.43 2 Agree 30 35.71 3 Neutral 22 26.19 4 Disagree 7 8.33 5 Strongly Disagree 84 100 Total

CHART:

INTREPRETATION: The above table represents that 34% of the respondents chosen neutral and it means pre berthing detention on port side is higher due to non availability of tug boats.

TABLE:

Sr.No.

Opinion on Effective yard Planing Reducing Unproductive Moves Frequency Percentage Particulars 1 2 3 4 Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Strongly Disagree Total 15 33 34 2 84 17.86 39.29 40.48 2.38 100.00

CHART:

INTREPRETATION:

Among the 34 out of 84 respondents said neutrally that the effective yard planning reduces the unproductive moves.

TABLE:

Sr.No.

Opinion on Reducing Unproductive Items Improves efficiency Frequency Percentage Particulars 1 2 3 4 Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Total 7 51 21 5 84 8.33 60.71 25.00 5.95 100.00

CHART:

INTREPRETATION: It can be interpreted that 60% of the respondents agreed that reducing unproductive items improves efficiency of port.

TABLE:

Minimizing TAT Using Optimal Yard Operation Management Frequency Percentage Sr.No. Particulars 12 14.29 1 Strongly Agree 52 61.90 2 Agree 14 16.67 3 Neutral 5 5.95 4 Disagree 1 1.19 5 strongly Disagree Total 84 100

CHART:

INTREPRETATION: From the table, it is inferred that 62% of the respondents agreed that minimization of TAT can be effected by optimal yard operation management.

TABLE:

Sr.No.

Usage Of OUS through Proper Allocation Of Slots Frequency Percentage Particulars 1 2 3 4 Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Total 4 51 27 2 84 4.76 60.71 32.14 2.38 100.00

CHART:

INTREPRETATION: It can be interpret that 61% of the respondents agreed that proper allocation of slots import and export containers in container parking yard helps in its optimum utilization of space.

TABLE:

Sr.No.

optimization of yard operation helping in reduce dwell time Frequency Percent Particulars 12 14.30 1 Strongly Agree 45 53.60 2 Agree 18 21.40 3 Neutral 7 8.30 4 Disagree 2 2.40 5 Strongly Agree

Total

84

100.00

CHART:

INTREPRETATION: The above table reveals that 53% of the respondents agreed that the optimization of yard operation helps in reducing dwell time.

TABLE:

Sr.No. 1

Opinion On introducing BRS Frequency Particulars Strongly Agree 8

Percentage 9.52

2 3 4 5

Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree Total

33 36 3 4 84

39.29 42.86 3.57 4.76 100

CHART:

INTREPRETATION: Among the 36 out of 84 respondents said neutrally that the introduction of BRS will greatly help in berthing of vessels on arrival.

TABLE:

Does The Usage Of BRS Reduce The Pre Berthing Detention? Frequency Percentage Sr.No. Particulars 1 2 Strongly Agree Agree 3 40 3.57 47.62

3 4 5

Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree Total

35 4 2 84

41.67 4.76 2.38 100

CHART:

INTREPRETATION: The above table represents that 48% of the respondent agreed that BRS significantly reduces the pre berthing detention of the vessel on the port.

TABLE:

Sr.No. 1 2 3 4

BRS contribution in reducing TAT Frequency Particulars Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree 8 30 35 9

Percent 9.50 35.70 41.70 10.70

Strongly Disagree Total

2 84 100

2.40

CHART:

INTREPRETATION:

Among the 34 out of 84 respondents said neutrally that the BRS contributing to the reduction of TAT.

TABLE:

Does BRS Facilities Scheduling Of Vessels ? Frequen Percentage c Sr.No. Particulars y 7 8.33 1 Strongly Agree

2 3 4 5

Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree Total

38 31 6 2 84

45.24 36.90 7.14 2.38 100

CHART:

INTREPRETATION: Among the 38 out of 84 respondents agreed that the BRS facilitates scheduling of vessels as regards their berthing.

TABLE:

Opinion On promotion Of Trade Using BRS Frequency Percentage Sr.No. Particulars 9 10.71 1 Strongly Agree

2 3 4 5

Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree Total

33 26 9 7 84

39.29 30.95 10.71 8.33 100

CHART:

INTREPRETATION: It can be interpret that 39% of the respondent agree that BRS increases trade and business volumes from the markets in the hinterland.

TABLE:

Sr.No. 1 2

Increment Of throughput Using BRS Frequency Percentage Particulars Strongly Agree Agree 3 33 3.57 39.29

3 4 5

Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree Total

31 12 5 84

36.90 14.29 5.95 100

CHART:

INTREPRETATION: It can be interpret that 39% of the respondent agree that BRS helps significantly increasing the terminals throughput.

TABLE:

Sr.No. 1

BRS Usage In Catering Neighbor ports Frequency Percentage Particulars Strongly Agree 3 3.57

2 3 4 5

Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree Total

48 24 4 5 84

57.14 28.57 4.76 5.95 100

CHART:

INTREPRETATION: Among the 48 out of 84 respondents agreed that the BRS helps in the catering of its neighbour port.

TABLE:

Ensuring Of Tug Boats Availability By Periodical Maintenance

Sr.No. 1 2 3 4 5

Particulars Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree Total

Frequency 7 46 15 10 6 84

Percentage 8.33 54.76 17.86 11.90 7.14 100

CHART:

INTREPRETATION: Among the 46 out of 84 respondents said agree that the periodical maintenance of tug boats ensures its availability on requirement and this contributes in the pre berthing detention on the whole.

TABLE:

Allocation Of Tug Vessels Eases The Scheduling Frequency Percentage Sr.No. Particulars 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree Total 8 43 27 2 4 84 9.52 51.19 32.14 2.38 4.76 100

CHART:

INTREPRETATION: It can be interpret that 51% of the respondents agreed, allocation of tug vessels eases the scheduling of vessels berthing on first come first serve basis.

TABLE:

Ensuring Timely Berthing Of Vessels By Employing More tug Boats Frequency Percentage Sr.No. Particulars 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree Total 8 34 30 8 4 84 9.52 40.48 35.71 9.52 4.76 100

CHART:

INTREPRETATION: It can be interpret that 40% of the respondents agreed that employing more tug boats would enable the timely berthing of vessels without any delay.

TABLE:

Opinion On Maintenance Of Container Handling Cranes Will Reduce TAT Sr.No. 1 2 3 4 5 Particulars Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree Total Frequency 15 55 9 2 3 84 Percentage 17.86 65.48 10.71 2.38 3.57 100

CHART:

INTREPRETATION: Among the 55 out of 84 respondents agreed that the periodical maintenance of container handling cranes will reduce TAT.

TABLE:

Opinion On Maintenance Of Yard Cranes Ensuring its Availablity Frequency Percentage Sr.No. Particulars 10 11.90 1 Strongly agree 45 53.57 2 Agree 24 28.57 3 Neutral 5 5.95 4 Disagree 84 100.00 5 Total

CHART:

INTREPRETATION: The above table reveals that 54% of the respondents agreed that periodical maintenance of yard cranes and vessel cranes ensures its availability on demand will improve the efficiency of yard vessel operation.