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13.0 Introduction

Our motivation is to obtain a distribution
system branch model for use in phase-
frame studies, in contrast to sequence-
frame studies. Phase-frame models for
distribution system analysis are only
appropriate for computer studies. Before
computers, sequence-frame models were the
common approach. The advantage of phase-
frame modeling is improved accuracy, since
we may easily represent variability in the
elements of the primitive impedance matrix
(rather than requiring equal diagonal
elements and equal off-diagonal elements in
order to achieve decoupling of the sequence
circuits and the resulting ability to perform
per-phase analysis of each sequence circuit).

Up until now, our interest has been entirely
focused on the series impedance part of the
2
distribution branch model. This is the part of
the distribution branch for which a voltage
voltage drop always leads the current that
caused it (or the current lags the voltage).

Another effect is that leading current is
produced as a function of the voltage at a
bus. This effect is caused by capacitance. In
the case of overhead lines, the capacitance is
between phases. In the case of underground
cables, the capacitance is between each
phase conductor and its outside shield.
Which do you think is larger, on a per mile
basis?

Recall the relation for capacitance of a
parallel plate configuration:
d
A
C

= == =
(1)
where is the permittivity of the medium
between the plates, A is the area of one of
the plates, and d is the distance of separation
3
between them. Note that as d decreases, C
increases. For overhead lines, the separation
is on the order of several feet. In contrast,
for cables, the separation is usually less than
an inch. As a result, underground cable
capacitance is typically much larger than

What does this do to currents? Recall that
X
c
=1/C, so as C goes up, reactance goes
down. For a shunt capacitor, the current is
given by V/jX
C
, so for greater capacitance,
we get more charging currents.

So it is common to neglect capacitance for
overhead lines, but not for cables. And even
for lines, particularly if they are long, it can
be important to model capacitance.

In our case, however, since we intend to
embed our phase-frame models in computer
programs, there is no reason not to go ahead
4
and model the capacitance, despite the fact
that its effects are relatively small.

13.1 Distribution branch model

It is useful at this point, before we proceed
to describe how to obtain the distribution
branch capacitance model, to answer the
question, What will we do with it when we
get it?

To answer this question, Fig.1 shows a
distribution branch model. Note the
similarity between this model and the -
equivalent model presented in EE 303 (and
EE 456) for transmission lines, with the
main difference being that here we see all
three phases.

Note the presence of the shunt components
characterized by the Y
abc
matrix (half on left
and half on right). Also note that n and m
indicate nodes (not neutral conductors).
5
+
+
+
+
+
+
- - -
[Yabc]
2
1
[Yabc]
2
1
- - -
Vag
n
Vcg
m
Vbg
m
m
Node - m
Vag
m
Ia
m
Ib
m
Ic
m
Z
aa
Z
bb
Z
cc
Z
ab
Z
bc
Z
ca
a
Iline
b
Iline
c
Iline
Ia
n
Ib
n
Ic
n
Node - n
Vbg
n
Vcg
n
[ICabc]
n
[ICabc]
Fig. 1

We can relate voltages on the left to voltages
on the right using KVL according to:
( (( (
( (( (
( (( (

( (( (

( (( (
( (( (
( (( (

( (( (

+ ++ +
( (( (
( (( (
( (( (

( (( (

= == =
( (( (
( (( (
( (( (

( (( (

c
b
a
cc cb ca
bc bb ba
ac ab aa
cgm
bgm
agm
cgn
bgn
agn
Iline
Iline
Iline
Z Z Z
Z Z Z
Z Z Z
V
V
V
V
V
V
(2)

We can also relate currents to the left of
node m to currents to the right of node m
using KCL at node m according to:
( (( (
( (( (
( (( (

( (( (

( (( (
( (( (
( (( (

( (( (

+ ++ +
( (( (
( (( (
( (( (

( (( (

= == =
( (( (
( (( (
( (( (

( (( (

cgm
bgm
agm
cc cb ca
bc bb ba
ac ab aa
cm
bm
am
c
b
a
V
V
V
Y Y Y
Y Y Y
Y Y Y
I
I
I
Iline
Iline
Iline
2
1
(3)
Substituting eq. (3) into eq. (2) yields:
6

) )) )

` `` `

( (( (
( (( (
( (( (

( (( (

( (( (
( (( (
( (( (

( (( (

+ ++ +
( (( (
( (( (
( (( (

( (( (

( (( (
( (( (
( (( (

( (( (

+ ++ +
( (( (
( (( (
( (( (

( (( (

= == =
( (( (
( (( (
( (( (

( (( (

cgm
bgm
agm
cc cb ca
bc bb ba
ac ab aa
cm
bm
am
cc cb ca
bc bb ba
ac ab aa
cgm
bgm
agm
cgn
bgn
agn
V
V
V
Y Y Y
Y Y Y
Y Y Y
I
I
I
Z Z Z
Z Z Z
Z Z Z
V
V
V
V
V
V
2
1
(4)
We can go further with this, and we will, but
this suffices, for the moment, to motivate
our work on capacitance, which we will
eventually convert to the Y
abc
matrix used in
eq. (4) above.

13.2 Infinite Uniform Charged Conductor

Consider a charge Q on infinitely long
charge on a conductor of length L and radius
r. Then the charge density is
Lq Q
L
Q
q = == = = == =
(5)
7
L
R
+
+
+
+
+
+ +
+
+
+
+
+ +
+
+
+ +

Fig. 2

Now consider a cylindrical surface, Fig. 2,
with a cylinder enclosing the conductor
having surface area A. The radius of the
cylinder is R, where R>>r.

Define E (volts/meter) as the electric field
intensity and D
q
(coulomb/m
2
) as the electric
flux density, both vectors directed radially
outwards from the conductor such that
E D
q
= == =
(6)
Here, r

0
= == =
,where
meter f / 10 85 . 8
12
0

= == =
.
Also define da as a vector of differential
length normal and outwards to the surface of
the cylinder.
8

Then recall Gauss law for electric fields
which says that the surface integral of the
dot product of D
q
and da equals the charge
enclosed, i.e.,
qL Q da D
A
q
= == = = == =

o
(7)
Integrating about the cylindrical surface, we
obtain:
R
q
D qL RL D
q q

2
) 2 ( = == = = == =
(8)
Substituting eq. (6) into eq. (8) results in
R
q
E
2
= == =
(9)
Now recall that potential difference between
two points in space p
a
and p
b
that are located
a distance D
a
and D
b
, respectively, from the
conductor is obtained by

= == = = == =
b
a
D
D
b a ab
dl E v v v o
(10)
9
Since E and dl are both in the radially
outwards direction, and using eq. (9), with R
replaced by l, we have
a
b
D
D
D
D
D
D
b a ab
D
D q
dl
l
q
dl
l
q
dl E v v v
b
a
b
a
b
a
ln
2
1
2
2

= == = = == =
= == = = == = = == =

o
(11)

13.3 Capacitance of a 2-wire line

Consider two straight infinitely long
conductors separated in space by a distance
D
12
1
and r
2
, respectively.
q
2

q
1

D
12

Point a Point b

Fig. 3
10
We desire to obtain the potential difference
between two arbitrary points in space due to
the charges residing on the conductors.

Our approach will be to use superposition
and obtain

) 1 (
ab
v
, the potential difference due to q
1
, and

) 2 (
ab
v
, the potential difference due to q
2
.
Then we will add to obtain the total potential
difference.

From eq. (11), we know that the potential
difference between two points D
1a
and D
1b

away from conductor 1 is given by
a
b
ab
D
D q
v
1
1 1
) 1 (
ln
2
= == =
(12)
Likewise, the potential difference between
two points D
2a
and D
2b
away from conductor
b is given by
a
b
ab
D
D q
v
2
2 2 ) 2 (
ln
2
= == =
(13)
Then, by superposition,
11
) )) )
` `` `

+ ++ + = == =
+ ++ + = == = + ++ + = == =
a
b
a
b
a
b
a
b
ab ab ab
D
D
q
D
D
q
D
D q
D
D q
v v v
2
2
2
1
1
1
2
2 2
1
1 1 ) 2 ( ) 1 (
ln ln
2
1
ln
2
ln
2

(15)
If we wanted to obtain the voltage drop
between the two conductors, we would
simply place point a on conductor 1 and
point b on conductor 2. The result would be
) )) )
` `` `

+ ++ + = == =
12
2
2
1
12
1
ln ln
2
1
D
r
q
r
D
q v
ab

(16)

13.4 Voltage eq. for multi-wire configuration

Consider having N charged conductors
labeled 1,,N. Then eq. (15) generalizes,
and we may obtain the voltage drop between
any two points a and b in space as
) )) )
` `` `

+ ++ + + ++ + = == =
Na
Nb
N
a
b
ab
D
D
q
D
D
q v ln ... ln
2
1
1
1
1

(17)
Now lets assume that we place the point a
on conductor i and the point b on conductor
12
j, where k=1,,i,,j,N. Then eq. (17)
becomes

) )) )

` `` `

+ ++ + + ++ + + ++ +

+ ++ + + ++ + = == =
Na
Nb
N
ja
j
j
i
ib
i
a
b
ab
D
D
q
D
r
q
r
D
q
D
D
q v
ln ... ln
... ln ... ln
2
1
1
1
1

(18)
But then D
ib
=D
ja
=D
ij
, and the voltage we are
computing is v
ij
. So,

) )) )

` `` `

+ ++ + + ++ + + ++ +

+ ++ + + ++ + = == =
Ni
Nj
N
ij
j
j
i
ij
i
i
j
ij
D
D
q
D
r
q
r
D
q
D
D
q v
ln ... ln
... ln ... ln
2
1
1
1
1

(19)
A more compact version of eq. (19) is:

= == =
= == =
N
k
ki
kj
k ij
D
D
q v
1
ln
2
1

(20)
where
D
kj
=distance between conductors k and j, ft.
D
ki
=distance between conductors k and i, ft.
D
kk
=r
k
, the radius of conductor k.

13

Although the ground does not contribute
much capacitance for overhead lines, it does
contribute some. To account for this
influence, and the influence from nearby
conductors, we use the method of images.

The method of images proceeds from the
fact that a point or line charge above a
conducting plane, illustrated in Fig 4a, will
produce an electric field exactly the same as
the electric field produced by the same
configuration together with its image, but
without the conducting plane, illustrated in
Fig. 4b.
i
S
jj
/2
S
jj
/2
S
ii
/2
S
ii
/2 S
ii
/2
-q
i

Fig. 4b
-q
i

q
j
q
j

q
i
q
i

S
ij
D
ij
S
jj
/2
D
ij
Fig. 4a
j

14
Note that
The image charges are the negative of the
actual charges
We may apply eq. (20) to the
configuration of Fig. 4b to compute
potential difference between any two
conductors

So lets apply eq. (20) to compute the
potential difference between conductor i and
its image. This will be:

= == =
= == =
N
k
ki
ki
k ii
D
D
q V
1
'
'
ln
2
1

Note that k=1,,4, with
k=1i
k=2i
k=3j
k=4j
| || |
| || |

| || |

\ \\ \
| || |
+ ++ + + ++ + + ++ + = == =
i j
i j
j
ji
ji
j
i i
i i
i
ii
ii
i ii
D
D
q
D
D
q
D
D
q
D
D
q V
'
' '
'
'
'
' '
'
'
'
ln ln ln ln
2
1

(21)
Also note that
D
ii
= D
ii
=S
ii
, D
ii
=D
ii
=r
i
,
D
ji
=D
ji
=D
ij
, D
ji
=D
ji
=S
ij
.
15
Then eq. (21) becomes:
| || |
| || |

| || |

\ \\ \
| || |
+ ++ + + ++ + + ++ + = == =
ij
ij
j
ij
ij
j
ii
i
i
i
ii
i ii
S
D
q
D
S
q
S
r
q
r
S
q V ln ln ln ln
2
1
' ' '

(22)
Now we will use the fact that q
i
=-q
i
and
q
j
=q
j
, resulting in:
| || |
| || |

| || |

\ \\ \
| || |
+ ++ + = == =
ij
ij
j
ij
ij
j
ii
i
i
i
ii
i ii
S
D
q
D
S
q
S
r
q
r
S
q V ln ln ln ln
2
1
'

(23)
Combining logarithms having the same
charge out front, we have:
| || |
| || |

| || |

\ \\ \
| || |
+ ++ + = == =
ij
ij
j
i
ii
i ii
D
S
q
r
S
q V ln 2 ln 2
2
1
'

(24)
Equation (24) gives the total voltage drop
between conductor i and its image. The
voltage drop between conductor i and
ground will be one-half of that given in eq.
(24), that is:
| || |
| || |

| || |

\ \\ \
| || |
+ ++ + = == =
ij
ij
j
i
ii
i ig
D
S
q
r
S
q V ln ln
2
1

(25)
In the general case, we will have N
conductors. In this case, the approach above
can be applied, and it will result in:
16
| || |
| || |

| || |

\ \\ \
| || |
+ ++ + + ++ + + ++ + + ++ + + ++ + = == =
iN
iN
N
i
ii
i
i
i
i
i
ig
D
S
q
r
S
q
D
S
q
D
S
q V ln ... ln ... ln ln
2
1
2
2
2
1
1
1

(26)

Define the self and mutual potential
coefficients:
Self:
i
ii
ii
r
S
P ln
2
1

= == =
(27)
Mutual:
ij
ij
ij
D
S
P ln
2
1

= == =
(28)
With
mile F meter F
air
/ 10 424 . 1 / 10 85 . 8
2 12

= == = = == =
eqs. (27) and (28) become:
Self:
i
ii
ii
r
S
P ln 17689 . 11

= == =
(29)
Mutual:
ij
ij
ij
D
S
P ln 17689 . 11

= == =
(30)
where eqs. (29) and (30) are given in units
of mile/F.

Note that we must use consistent units
within the logarithm of eqs. (29) and (30).

17
With the notation of eqs. (29) and (30), eq.
(26) becomes:
( (( ( ) )) )
iN N ii i i i ig
P q P q P q P q V

...

...

2 2 1 1
+ ++ + + ++ + + ++ + + ++ + + ++ + = == =
(31)
Equation (31) can be applied to any

Side question: Do you think eq. (31) is also
good for cables?

Why not? Because eq. (26) assumes that the
electric field from the charged conductor is
not confined, i.e., it emanates in all
directions an infinite distance. Cables, on the
other hand, are purposely shielded to
confine the electric field to the area between
the phase conductor and the shield. If the
phase conductor charge induces equal and
opposite charge on the shield such that the
charge enclosed by a cylinder at the surface
of the cable is zero, then by Gauss Law for
electrostatic fields, E=0.
18
Lets apply eq. (31) to a 4 wire, three phase
overhead line with phases a, b, c, and a
neutral.

We obtain:
( (( ( ) )) )
an n ac c ab b aa a ag
P q P q P q P q V

+ ++ + + ++ + + ++ + = == =
(32)
( (( ( ) )) )
bn n bc c bb b ba a bg
P q P q P q P q V

+ ++ + + ++ + + ++ + = == =
(33)
( (( ( ) )) )
cn n cc c cb b ca a cg
P q P q P q P q V

+ ++ + + ++ + + ++ + = == =
(34)
( (( ( ) )) )
nn n nc c nb b na a ng
P q P q P q P q V

+ ++ + + ++ + + ++ + = == =
(35)
In matrix form, this is:
( (( (
( (( (
( (( (
( (( (

( (( (

( (( (
( (( (
( (( (
( (( (
( (( (

( (( (

= == =
( (( (
( (( (
( (( (
( (( (
( (( (

( (( (

n
c
b
a
nn nc nb na
cn cc cb ca
bn bc bb ba
an ac ab aa
ng
cg
bg
ag
q
q
q
q
P P P P
P P P P
P P P P
P P P P
V
V
V
V

(37)
The primitive potential coefficient matrix is:
( (( (
( (( (
( (( (
( (( (
( (( (

( (( (

= == =
nn nc nb na
cn cc cb ca
bn bc bb ba
an ac ab aa
prim
P P P P
P P P P
P P P P
P P P P
P

(38)
Define the primitive potential coefficient
matrix in terms of its submatrices:
19
| || | | || | | || | | || |
| || | | || | | || | | || |
( (( (
( (( (

( (( (

= == =
( (( (
( (( (
( (( (
( (( (
( (( (

( (( (

= == =
nn np
pn pp
nn nc nb na
cn cc cb ca
bn bc bb ba
an ac ab aa
prim
P P
P P
P P P P
P P P P
P P P P
P P P P
P

(39)
Then we can re-write eq. (37) as
| || | | || |
| || | | || |
| || | | || | | || | | || |
| || | | || | | || | | || |
| || | | || |
| || | | || |
( (( (

( (( (

( (( (
( (( (

( (( (

= == =
( (( (

( (( (

n
abc
nn np
pn pp
n
abc
q
q
P P
P P
V
V

(40)

But [V
n
]=.

Then we can use our Kron reduction
formula to eliminate [q
n
] as follows:
| || | | || | | || | | || | | || | | || || || | | || | | || | | || |
np nn pn pp abc
P P P P P

1
= == =
(41)
so that
| || | | || | | || | | || || || | | || |
abc abc abc
q P V = == =
(42)

Now recall that in the scalar case, C=q/V
V=q/C V=C
-1
q. Comparing to eq. (42),
we see that
| || | | || | | || | | || |
1
= == =
abc abc
C P

| || | | || | | || | | || |
1
= == =
abc abc
P C
(43)
20
So we can obtain the abc capacitance matrix
by inverting the primitive potential
coefficient matrix.

The abc capacitance matrix may be
converted to an abc admittance matrix by
multiplying by j according to:
| || | | || | | || | | || | | || | | || |
1
= == = = == =
abc abc abc
P j C j Y
(44)
This is the abc admittance matrix that we
used in the KCL equation of eq. (3) above,
repeated here for convenience.
( (( (
( (( (
( (( (

( (( (

( (( (
( (( (
( (( (

( (( (

+ ++ +
( (( (
( (( (
( (( (

( (( (

= == =
( (( (
( (( (
( (( (

( (( (

cgm
bgm
agm
cc cb ca
bc bb ba
ac ab aa
cm
bm
am
c
b
a
V
V
V
Y Y Y
Y Y Y
Y Y Y
I
I
I
Iline
Iline
Iline
2
1
(3)
Hurray!
13.6 Example
An overhead 3-phase distribution line is
constructed as in Fig. 5. Determine the
primitive potential coefficient matrix, the
abc potential coefficient matrix, the abc
shunt capacitive matrix, the abc admittance
matrix. The phase conductors are 336,400
21
26/7 ACSR (d
c
=0.721 inches, r
c
=0.03004 ft)
and the neutral conductor is 4/0 6/1 ACSR
(d
s
=0.563inches, r
s
=0.02346 ft).
25.0 ft
4.0 ft
3.0 ft
2.5 ft 4.5 ft
n
c
b
a

Fig. 5
The distances are given as:
S
aa
=58 ft S
ab
=sqrt(58
2
+2.5
2
)=58.0539ft
S
bb
=58 ft S
ac
=sqrt(58
2
+7
2
)=58.42 ft
S
cc
=58 ft S
bc
=sqrt(58
2
+4.5
2
)=58.1743ft
S
nn
=50 ft
D
ab
=2.5 ft
D
ac
=7.0 ft
D
bc
=4.5 ft
We use the above information in eqs. (29)
and (30), repeated here for convenience:
22
Self:
i
ii
ii
r
S
P ln 17689 . 11

= == =
(29)
Mutual:
ij
ij
ij
D
S
P ln 17689 . 11

= == =
(30)
The matrix elements are:
F miles P
aa
/ 56 . 84
03004 . 0
58
ln 17689 . 11

= == = = == =

F miles P
ab
/ 1522 . 32
5 . 2
0539 . 58
ln 17689 . 11

= == = = == =

F miles P
ac
/ 7147 . 23
0 . 7
42 . 58
ln 17689 . 11

= == = = == =

ab ba
P P

= == =

aa bb
P P

= == =

F miles P
bc
/ 6058 . 28
5 . 4
1743 . 58
ln 17689 . 11

= == = = == =

ac ca
P P

= == =

bc cb
P P

= == =

aa cc
P P

= == =

So the primitive potential coefficient matrix
is:
23
( (( (
( (( (
( (( (
( (( (

( (( (

= == =
6659 . 85 6131 . 26 359 . 28 2469 . 25
6131 . 26 5600 . 84 6058 . 28 7147 . 23
359 . 28 6058 . 28 5600 . 84 1522 . 35
2469 . 25 7147 . 23 1522 . 35 5600 . 84

prim
P
miles/F
Now we do the Kron reduction, invert the
matrix, multiply by j377, and we have it!

Kron reduction:

| || | | || | | || | | || | | || | | || || || | | || | | || | | || | = == = = == =

np nn pn pp abc
P P P P P

1

| || | | || | | || | | || |
( (( (
( (( (
( (( (

( (( (

= == =
( (( (
( (( (
( (( (

( (( (

( (( (
( (( (
( (( (

( (( (

2923 . 76 7957 . 19 8715 . 15
7957 . 19 1720 . 75 7944 . 26
8715 . 15 7944 . 26 1194 . 77
6131 . 26 359 . 28 2469 . 25 6659 . 85
6131 . 26
359 . 28
2469 . 25
5600 . 84 6058 . 28 2469 . 23
6058 . 28 5600 . 84 1522 . 35
7147 . 23 1522 . 35 5600 . 84
1
The above is the primitive potential
coefficient matrix. We just need to invert it
to obtain the shunt capacitive matrix:
( (( (
( (( (
( (( (

( (( (

= == =
( (( (
( (( (
( (( (

( (( (

0143 . 0 0031 . 0 0019 . 0
0031 . 0 0159 . 0 0049 . 0
0019 . 0 0049 . 0 0150 . 0
2923 . 76 7957 . 19 8715 . 15
7957 . 19 1720 . 75 7944 . 26
8715 . 15 7944 . 26 1194 . 77
1

24
And the above is the shunt capacitive
matrix. Now we multiply it by j, with
mile S
j j j
j j j
j j j
j Y
abc
/
3911 . 5 169 . 1 7034 . 0
169 . 1 9774 . 5 8362 . 1
7034 . 0 8362 . 1 6712 . 5
0143 . 0 0031 . 0 0019 . 0
0031 . 0 0159 . 0 0049 . 0
0019 . 0 0049 . 0 0150 . 0
) 9911 . 377 (

( (( (
( (( (
( (( (

( (( (

= == =
( (( (
( (( (
( (( (

( (( (

= == =

13.7 Concentric Neutral Cable
We recall that eq. (31), and even eq. (26), is
only applicable to overhead lines. To assess
cable capacitance, we must go back before
the point where we used the method of
images (Section 13.5), because it was in
using the method of images that we were
implicitly assuming that the electric field
was not confined.

This would be eq. (20), repeated here for
convenience:
25

= == =
= == =
N
k
ki
kj
k ij
D
D
q v
1
ln
2
1

(20)
where
D
kj
=distance between conductors k and j, ft.
D
ki
=distance between conductors k and i, ft.
D
kk
=r
k
, the radius of conductor k.

Now one thing to remember about eq. (20).
It gives the potential difference between two
points in space, given the presence of any
number of charged conductors. The
individual terms in the summation require
the distances between the two points (point i
and point j) and the various charged
conductors k=1,,N.

Now lets consider carefully the case of the
concentric neutral cable. Fig. 6 illustrates.

We assume that the entire electric field
created by the charge on the phase
conductor is confined to the boundary of the
concentric neutral strands.
26

D
12
i
5
j
4
3
1
2 k
0
12
d
c
R
b
d
s
R
b

Fig. 6

Define the following:
R
b
=radius of a circle passing through the
centers of the neutral strands.
d
c
=diameter of the phase conductors=2r
c

d
s
=diameter of a neutral strand=2r
s

k=total number of neutral strands
We use these definitions to compute the
voltage between the conductor and strand #1
in the presence of the other strands.
27
) )) )
` `` `

+ ++ + + ++ + + ++ + + ++ +

+ ++ + + ++ + = == =
= == =

= == =
b
k
k
b
i
i
b b
S
c
b
p
N
j
jp
j
j p
R
D
q
R
D
q
R
D
q
R
r
q
r
R
q
D
D
q v
1 1
21
2 1
1
1
1
ln ... ln ...
ln ln ln
2
1
ln
2
1

(31)

Assume that the charge on each of the
neutral strands is 1/k of the charge on the
phase conductor and opposite in sign.
Therefore,
q
1
= q
1
= q
i
= q
k
= -q
p
/k (32)
Substitution of eq. (32) into (31) yields
) )) )
` `` `

| || |
| || |

| || |

\ \\ \
| || |
+ ++ + + ++ + + ++ + + ++ + + ++ +

= == =
b
k
b
i
b b
S
p
c
b
p
p
R
D
R
D
R
D
R
r
k
q
r
R
q
v
1 1 21
1
ln ... ln ... ln ln
ln
2
1

Factoring out q
p
, we obtain:

28
) )) )
` `` `

| || |
| || |

| || |

\ \\ \
| || |
+ ++ + + ++ + + ++ + + ++ + + ++ +

= == =
b
k
b
i
b b
S
c
b
p
p
R
D
R
D
R
D
R
r
k
r
R
q
v
1 1 21
1
ln ... ln ... ln ln
1
ln
2
Recalling that the sum of logarithms is the
logarithm of the products, we rewrite the
above as:
) )) )
` `` `

| || |
| || |

| || |

\ \\ \
| || |
= == =
k
b
k i S
c
b
p
p
R
D D D r
k r
R
q
v
1 1 21
1
... ...
ln
1
ln
2
(33)

Now we come to the following question.

What are the distances D
21
, ,D
i1
, D
k1
?

These are the distances between strand 1 and
all of the other strands (strand 2, 3, , k).

How to obtain them? Go back to Fig. 6,
repeated here for convenience:
29

D
12
i
5
j
4
3
1
2 k
0
12
d
c
R
b
d
s
R
b

Fig. 6
Question: how to compute D
21
(=D
12
)?
1. Law of cosines:

b
a
c

2.
2
cos 1
2
sin

= == =

From the Law of cosines, wrspt Fig. 6,
( (( ( ) )) )
12
2
12
2 2 2
21
cos 1 2
cos 2
2

= == =
+ ++ + = == =
b
b b b
R
R R R D
(34)
Taking square roots of both sides, we have:
cos 2
2 2 2
bc c b a + ++ + = == =
30
( (( ( ) )) ) ( (( ( ) )) )
12 12
2
21
cos 1 2 cos 1 2 = == = = == =
b b
R R D
Now multiply top and bottom inside the
square root by 2.
( (( ( ) )) )
( (( ( ) )) )
2
cos 1
2
2
cos 1 2 2
12
12
21

= == =

= == =
b
b
R
R D
o
(35)
From trig identity #2 above, we recognize
the square root term as sin(
12
/2), so:
2
sin 2
12
21

b
R D = == =
;
12
=2/k (36)
k
R D
b

sin 2
21
= == =
(37)

But now we have another small problem.

What is D
31
, D
41
, ,D
i1
, D
k1
?

31
There is no reason why eq. (37) will not
apply for the other distances as well, if we
use the right angle.

But the angle is easy, it will just be a
multiple of /k.

And the multiplier, for computing D
i1
, will
just be one less than i. So.
k
i
R D
b i
) 1 (
sin 2
1

= == =
(38)
Recall eq. (33):
) )) )
` `` `

| || |
| || |

| || |

\ \\ \
| || |
= == =
k
b
k i S
c
b
p
p
R
D D D r
k r
R
q
v
1 1 21
1
... ...
ln
1
ln
2
(33)
We can now rewrite the numerator of eq.
(33) using eq. (38), according to:
( (( (

( (( (

= == =

k
k
k
i
k k
R r
D D D D r
k
b s
k i S
) 1 (
sin 2 ...
) 1 (
sin 2 ...
2
sin 2 sin 2
... ..
1
1 1 31 21
(39)

32
Now here is where I pull something out of
nowhere. The term inside the bracket
happens to be.k. Another trig identity.

In that case,
k R r D D D D r
k
b s k i S
1
1 1 31 21
... ..

= == =
(40)
Substitution of eq. (40) into eq. (33) yields:
) )) )
` `` `

| || |
| || |

| || |

\ \\ \
| || |
= == =

k
b
k
b s
c
b
p
p
R
k R r
k r
R
q
v
1
1
ln
1
ln
2
(41)
But we notice now that the R
b
terms cancel,
leaving
) )) )
` `` `

| || |
| || |

| || |

\ \\ \
| || |
= == =
b
s
c
b
p
p
R
k r
k r
R
q
v ln
1
ln
2
1

(42)
Eq. (42) gives the voltage drop from the
phase conductor to neutral strand #1.
Since all the neutral strands are at the
same potential, this is the voltage drop from
the phase conductor to each and every
neutral strand.
Since all neutral strands are grounded,
this is the voltage drop to ground.
33
) )) )
` `` `

| || |
| || |

| || |

\ \\ \
| || |
= == =
b
s
c
b
p
pg
R
k r
k r
R
q
v ln
1
ln
2
(43)
So now recall that C=q/V, so.

| || |
| || |

| || |

\ \\ \
| || |

= == = = == =
b
s
c
b
pg
p
pg
R
k r
k r
R
v
q
C
ln
1
ln
2
(44)
Last issue: what value of permittivity to use?

First of all, recall that 0

r
= == =
, where

mile F m F / 0142 . 0 / 10 85 . 8
12
0
= == = = == =

r

is the relative permittivity of the
medium in which the E-field exists.

The medium in which the E-field exists is,
for cables, not air, but rather the insulation
material. Table 1 provides typical values of
relative permittivity for standard insulating
materials.

34
Table 1: Relative permittivities
Material Permittivity
range
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) 3.4-8.0
Ethylene-Propylene Rubber
(EPR)
2.5-3.5
Polyethylene (PE) 2.5-2.6
(XLPE)
2.3-6.0

mile S
R
k r
k r
R
j
C j Y
b
s
c
b
pg pg
/
ln
1
ln
2

| || |
| || |

| || |

\ \\ \
| || |

= == = = == =
(45)

Question:

Three identical concentric neutral cables are
buried in a trench spaced 6 inches apart. If
the admittance of one of them is Y
pg
, write
down the shunt admittance matrix Y
abc
.

35
13.8 Example

Three identical concentric neutral cables are
buried in a trench spaced 6 inches apart. The
cables are 15 kV, 250 MCM stranded all-
aluminum with 13 strands of #14 annealed,
coated copper wires, 1/3 neutral. The outside
diameter of the cable over the neutral
strands is d
od
=1.29 inches, and the neutral
diameter is d
s
=0.0641 inches. Determine the

R
b
=(d
od
-d
s
)/24=(1.29-0.0641)/2=0.6132in

s
=0.0641/2=0.03205in

The diameter of the 250MCM phase
conductor is r
c
=0.567/2=0.2835 in.

We will assume a relative permittivity of
2.3, with
mile F / 0142 . 0
0
= == =
.

36
Substitution into eq. (45) yields:

mile S j
j
mile S
R
k r
k r
R
j
C j Y
b
s
c
b
pg pg
/ 5569 . 96
6132 . 0
) 13 ( 03205 . 0
ln
13
1
2835 . 0
6132 . 0
ln
) 60 )( 2 )( 0142 . 0 )( 3 . 2 ( 2
/
ln
1
ln
2

= == =
| || |

| || |

\ \\ \
| || |

= == =
| || |
| || |

| || |

\ \\ \
| || |

= == = = == =

( (( (
( (( (
( (( (

( (( (

= == =
5569 . 96 0 0
0 5569 . 96 0
0 0 5569 . 96
j
j
j
Y
abc

13.8 Tape shielded cables

Figure 7 illustrates a tape shielded cable
with appropriate nomenclature.

37
AL or CU Phase
Conductor
Insulation
Jacket
CU Tape Shield
R
b
Fig. 7

Recall eq. (45), for the concentric neutral
cable with k neutral strands. Equation (45) is
repeated here for convenience:
mile S
R
k r
k r
R
j
C j Y
b
s
c
b
pg pg
/
ln
1
ln
2

| || |
| || |

| || |

\ \\ \
| || |

= == = = == =
(45)
The tape-shielded cable may be thought of
as a concentric neutral cable with an infinite
number of strands, i.e., k=. Applying this
idea to eq. (45) results in:
38
mile S
R
k r
k r
R
j
Y
b
s
c
b
k
pg
/
ln
1
ln
2
lim

| || |
| || |

| || |

\ \\ \
| || |

= == =

(46)
Eq. (46) is not hard to evaluate because we
know that
as k gets big
the natural log gets big but
much more slowly than 1/k gets small
So the second term in the denominator of eq.
(46) is dominated by 1/k. Therefore this
second term goes to 0 as k gets big.

So we are left with:
mile S
r
R
j
Y
c
b
pg
/
ln
2

= == =
(47)
Equation (47) is what we will use for
computing the shunt admittance for a tape
shielded cable.

Values of permittivity should still come
from Table 1.

39
13.9 Example

Determine the shunt admittance of the
single-phase tape-shielded cable having
outside diameter of 0.88 inch with 1/0 AA
phase conductor. The thickness of the tape
shield is 5 mils.

First, we may obtain the diameter of the
phase conductor from the table of conductor
data. This is read off as 0.368 inches, so that
c
=0.184 inches.

The radius of a circle passing through the
center of the tape shield is
inches
d
R
s
b
4375 . 0
2
1000 / 5
= == =

= == =

Substitution into eq. (47), with 0
3 . 2 = == =

yields
mile S j
j
Y
pg
/ 3179 . 89
184 . 0
4375 . 0
ln
) 60 )( 2 )( 0142 . 0 )( 3 . 2 ( 2

= == = = == =