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1 SndorFerencziandtheBudapestSchoolofPsychoanalysis

JuditMszros,Ph.D. Thisistrulyanexceptionaloccasion:theopeningoftheSndorFerencziCenterattheNew SchoolforSocialResearch.Itcallstomindtwomomentsinhistorythathavemadeitpossible forustocelebrateheretoday.ThefirstisthefoundingoftheNewSchool,whichhasindeed beena flagshipofprogress in its90 yearsofexistence. AndtheCentercertainlyrepresents partofthis spiritofprogress.Theothermomentisthe firstlatterday internationalFerenczi conference held inNewYorkCity in 1991, initiatedbytwoofourcolleaguespresenthere, 2 AdrienneHarrisandLewisAron. HereagainweseethemeetingofNewYorkandBudapestatthisgreatevent,aswedoat another:astheSndorFerenczi SocietyinBudapestishonoredasrecipientofthe2008Mary S.Sigourney TrustAwardforour20yearsof contributingtothefieldofpsychoanalysis. Wehavereasontocelebrate.Afterhalfacenturyofapparentdeath,theintellectualspiritof Ferenczihasbeenrevivedbytheunwaveringcommitmentandhardworkoftwogenerations ofprofessionalsthroughouttheworld. Ferenczideveloped innovativeconceptsonscholarlythinking,andonthe meetingpointsof cultureandpsychoanalysis.HeandthemembersoftheBudapestSchoolrepresentednotonly Hungarianroots,butalsothevalues,thescholarlyapproach,andthecreativitycharacteristic th ofCentralEasternEuropeinthefirsthalfofthe20 century.Thesehavebeenfundamentalin supplyingtheworldwithagreatmanyscholarsandartistsamongthem nuclearphysicists Edward Teller and Leo Szilard, mathematician John von Neumann, father of the modern computerandwriterAlexanderMarai bothofthem wereclosetoFerenczi. Ferenczi energized the psychoanalytic movement. He launched the paradigm shift that still affectspsychotherapeutictheoryandpracticetoday. Atthesametime, he alsoproposedthe setting up of key institutions. For example, it was on his recommendation that the International Psychoanalytical Association (IPA) was formed in 1910, an institution which continues to play the same role today. Ferenczi founded the Hungarian Psychoanalytical Society in1913.Hebecametheworlds firstappointedprofessorofpsychoanalysis in1919 andplayedasignificantroleinthedevelopmentoftheBudapestSchoolofpsychoanalysis. DidtheSchoolreally exist?Canonetrulyspeakofaschoolwithnowalls,nodirector,andno students?Andifso,whatorganizingprinciplesprovidethecommongroundthatdistinguishes theprofessionalphilosophyofitsmembers?HowdidtheBudapestSchoolofPsychoanalysis take shape? What was the role Sndor Ferenczi played in it? What significance did this intellectual grouping hold for the evolution of modern psychoanalysis and psychotherapy? th Howdidthedefiningmomentsofearly20 centuryHungarianandEuropeanpoliticsimpact bothpsychoanalysisandtheanalyststhemselves?

Budapestiswellonitswaytobecomingthecenterofourmovement.(Freud,1918)
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ReadontheoccasionoftheopeningceremonyoftheFerencziCenterattheNewSchoolforSocialResearchon January12,2009. 2 Manypapersoftheconferencewerepublishedin1993:TheLegacyofSndorFerenczi.EditedbyLewisAron &AdrienneHarris.

InalettertoKarlAbrahaminAugust1918,FreudsaidhebelievedthatBudapestiswellon itswaytobecomingthecenterofourmovement(LetterfromFreudtoKarlAbraham,[1918] 2002). How is it that, a mere decade after Freud and Ferenczi first met in 1908, Budapest wouldbesuitedtosucharole? The main characteristics of the Budapest School can be tied to the figure of Ferenczi but beyond him it also stems from the interdisciplinarity of psychoanalysis: how it became th interlinkedwiththeprocessesofmodernizationinearly20 centuryHungarythroughfigures in literature, the arts, and the social sciences. Ferenczis innovative and liberal personality madeitpossibleforagreatmanycreativepeoplefrom avarietyofscholarlyfieldstobecome closely associated with psychoanalysis and to enjoy greater freedom in their work in such areasasethnography,pedagogy,literatureandeveneconomics. Thecatalyst: Ferenczi wasacatalystforthedevelopmentofpsychoanalysis.Throughhistireless workin teaching and public speaking in Hungary, the new human view, as Ignotus, a contemporary literary figure, called psychoanalysis (Ignotus, [1933] 2000, 39), was soon embracedbyreceptivemodernistintellectuals. Theroleofmediaforumsforpsychoanalysis Avantgarde intellectuals set up their forums. Hungary saw both the creation of the Free University for the Social Sciences, the medical weekly Gygyszat (Therapy), and the foundingofjournalsforliterarycriticism,suchasNyugat(TheWest),andforsociology,such as A huszadik szzad (The Twentieth Century), all with the goal of passing on the new intellectualcurrents.Similarly,aforumwaslaunchedbymedicalstudents,AGalileikr(The Galileo Circle). And all of these were eager to spread the ideas of psychoanalysis. In other words,bothuniversitystudentsandthe youngavantgardeintelligentsiahadtheopportunity notonlytofollow, butalsotoplayapartinthe developmentofpsychoanalysis. Allofthis provedasoundintellectualinvestment.FerenczisappointmentasfullprofessorinBudapest in1919andtheconcurrentestablishmentofthe firstdepartmentofpsychoanalysiswithina medicaluniversity(Ers,KapsandKiss,1987)representedthefulfillmentofthesestudents efforts. Therefore,thecontemporarymediaplayedanessentialroleinthefactthat,tenyearsafterthe firstFreudFerenczimeeting(1908),psychoanalysisinBudapesthadbecomefarmorethana new method for treating patients with neuroses. Ignotus described early psychoanalysis as spread by Ferenczi in this way: the next day we were already thinking differently than we had beentheday before(Ignotus,[1933],2000,38).Psychoanalysiscould be found inthe conversationsinthecafsofBudapestandeveninfolksongparodies. Ereszalattfszkelazsztn GtlsomatFerenczinl Hfehrrefrsztm. (Hegeds[1932]1988,28,idziValachi,2008) Withmyprettylittleinstinct Nestinginthetrees, Iscrubmyinhibition CleanatFerenczis.

(translatedbyThomasWilliams)
th The position of Budapest was further strengthened by the fact that the 5 International 3 Psychoanalytical Congress was held there in 1918. During the Congress, Antal Freund of Tszeg the brewery owner who was the first patron of the psychoanalytic movement pledged what would be the equivalent today of half a million dollars to establish an internationalpsychoanalyticpublishing houseand library in Budapest.Atthesametime, he planned to back the setting up of a psychoanalytic outpatient clinic and the teaching of psychoanalysis as part of the university curriculum. Thus, the growth of a strong, diverse system had begun, one which included plans to expand psychoanalytic publishing, teaching psychoanalysisatthemedicalcurriculum,andopportunitiesforlowfeehealing.

Unlike the hostile indifference of the learned and educated [] in Vienna as Freud bitterly described his situation (Freud, 1914, 40) Budapest offered tempting prospects for theentirepsychoanalyticmovement.

HistorystepsinforthefirsttimeThefirstwaveofemigrationViennaandBerlin The end of World War I brought with it the collapse of the AustroHungarian Monarchy. Havingbeenonthelosingside,Hungarylosttwothirdsofitsterritoryinthepeacetreatythat followed. Other dramatic changes also took place between 1918 and 1920. In fact, in the spaceofonlyayearandahalf,themonarchycrumbledandthe"AsterRevolution"based 4 on the liberal, radical opposition of the First World War brought aboutthe creation of a shortlived, first Hungarian Republic, which was unable to steady itself amid both the domestic and international political power struggles surrounding it. It thus gave way to a SovietRepublicthatlastedforseveralmonths,whichwas,inturn,followedbyabacklashof rightistWhiteTerror.Againstchangesanddisturbancesofsuchproportions,thepotentialfor Budapestplayingacentralroleinthepsychoanalyticmovementwasutterlylost. The numerous retaliatory measures taken in 1919 and 1920 led to the following losses comparedtotheadvantageoussituationofthepreviousyearandahalf: 1.Ferencziwasdismissedfromhispostasdepartmenthead,and,atthesametime, 2.Psychoanalysislostitspositionwithintheuniversitycurriculum. 3. As a result of pressure put on Freud by Jones (Letter from Jones to Freud, [12 October 1919] FreudJones, 1993, 357), Ferenczi resigned as president of the International Psychoanalytical Association before his term because of the difficult communications from Hungary.Intheinterim(19191920),Jonestookoverthepost. 4.Duetoinflation,aportionofFreundsdonationhadtobetakentoViennaanditwasthus Vienna and not Budapest where the psychoanalytic publishing house and library were establishedin1919. The White Terror period in the early twenties, the attendant antiSemitism and the 6% restriction on Jewish students permitted at universities, or numerus clausus, all sparked the wave of emigration to which the leftist, Jewish, or antidespotic portion of Hungarys
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Thecongresswasheldbetween2829September1918. TiborHajdandZsuzsaL.Nagy:"Revolution,Counterrevolution,Consolidation,"In:PeterF.Sugar,Pter Hank,TiborFrank,Eds., AHistoryofHungary.IndianaUniversityPress,BloomingtonandIndianapolis, 1994.295309.

intelligentsia felt compelled. Outstanding scientists, philosophers and artists left the country 5 then, and the majority of them immigrated to Berlin. As a consequence of the wave of CentralEasternEuropeanemigrationthatfollowedWorldWarI,Berlinbecamefertileground for modern culture and evolved into a city that fully embraced the talented migr intelligentsia(Frank,1999). ItwasthenthatBudapestlostaportionofitsanalystsforthefirsttime.Onequarterofthe18 member Hungarian Psychoanalytical Society left the country. Members who emigrated 6 7 included Sndor Rad (secretary of the society), Jen Hrnik, Jen Varga, Sndor Lrnd 8 andMelanieKlein. Hungarianpsychoanalysiswasthusforcedtoresignitselftothelossof itspromisingyoungpeople,someofwhomMichaelBalint,AliceBalintandEditGymri would actually return to Budapest in the consolidation period between 1925 and 1937. However,soonafterward,theywereforcedtoleaveandthentoemigratepermanentlyinthe secondwave(193841). Thefirstwaveofemigration19191926 Berlin Leipzig Paris MembersoftheHungarianPsychoanalyticalSociety JenHrnik MelanieKlein SndorRad Futureanalysts Michael Balint Therese George AliceBalint Benedek Devereux,alias FranzAlexander GyrgyDob GeorgGer EditGymri (1923)

Vienna JenVarga

NewYorkCity SndorLrnd

Margaret Mahler EditGymri (1919) RenSpitz

The face of Europe had changed. Budapest fell into decline, Vienna and Berlin grew in significance. Berlin was the stronghold of the migr Central and Eastern European intelligentsiaandbecamethehubofEuropeanculture.

TheodorevonKrmn,MichaelPolnyi,LeSzilrd,EdwardTeller,ArnoldHauser,GeorgeLukcsandKarl Mannheim,tomentiononlyafew.
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Sndor Rad took an active role in Hungarys Soviet government. We know from a letter from Ferenczi to FreudthatRadalsohadahandinFerenczisprofessorialappointment.Ferencziwrotethathehadwhippedthe matterthroughtheeducationsection(Ferenczi812,FreudFerenczi,1996,353).
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Having been a part of Bla Kuns government as the peoples commissar for finance and then for social productionaswellaschairmanofthePeoplesEconomicCouncil,JenVargawassentencedtodeathafterthe falloftheSovietRepublic.HefledtoAustriaandtookpartinsessionsoftheViennaPsychoanalyticSocietyfor nd ashortperiodbetweenFebruaryandJuneof1920.Afterward,hetraveledtoMoscowtothe2 Congressofthe Communist Internationale and settled in Soviet Russia where he worked with Lenin and was the director between 1927 and 1947 of the Institute of World Economics and Politics of the Soviet Academy of Sciences (Toegel,2001).
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MelanieKleinbecameamemberoftheHungarianPsychoanalyticalSocietyin1919withherpaperentitledA childsdevelopment.Sheleftthecountryin1921duetoantiSemitism.

ThefirstPsychoanalyticInstitutewasfoundedinBerlinin1920itwouldestablishthebasic structurefortraininginthefield.Thiseffortwasbasedinpartontheexperienceofonetime HungariananalystSndorRad.Adecadelater,itwasthroughRadthattheBerlintraining model movedtotheUnitedStates,wherethegroundworkforthe Americantraining system waslaidintheearly1930sattheNewYorkPsychoanalyticInstituteunderRadsleadership. Owingtoitslimitedopportunitiesinthelate1920s,Budapestwouldonlyseeitsfirsttraining institute established in 1926 and then, in 1931, a polyclinic, which provided lowfee psychoanalytic outpatient therapy, but the city did manage to see the revival of extremely active and creative development in psychoanalytic research and training (Haynal and Mszros,2004). A decade of Berlin flourishing was put to an end with Hitlers rise to power in 1933. This sealedthe fateofpsychoanalysts inBerlin(Brecht,Friedrich,Hermannsetal.,1985).Then, with the spread of fascism and the annexation of Austria, the best and brightest of the Vienneseintelligentsiafounditselfdispossessed(StadlerandWeibel,1995)includingFreud andtheViennesepsychoanalyticcommunity(Molnar,1992).
th FerenczidiedsuddenlyofperniciousanemiainMay1933,notlongbeforehis60 birthday at a time when books were being burned in bonfires on the streets of Berlin in Hitlers Germany.

Itisararemisfortuneindeedforsomeonetosoarfreelyinintellectualterms,buttohaveher orhisemotionaldevelopment/attachmentandherorhisloyaltytoasortoffatherfigurestand in the way of the degree of freedom that she or he needs. This is a sure source of conflict. Indeed,Ferenczisawhisownperniciousanemiaaspsychosomaticinorigin: InmycasethebloodcrisisarosewhenIrealizedthatnotonlycanInotrelyontheprotection of a higher power but on the contrary I shall be trampled under foot by this indifferent powerassoonasIgomyownwayandnothis(Ferenczi,[2October,1932],1988,257). ItwasnotFerenczisdeaththatdisruptedthefurtherdevelopmentoftheBudapestSchoolit wastheurgentneedtofleefromaEuropeheldintheevertighteningstrangleholdoffascism, tofleeifatallpossible,ifhelparrived,andiftherewasaplacetofleeto!

Today we could not speak of the impact of the Budapest School without the invaluable assistanceofthe AmericanPsychoanalytic Association.ItsetupTheEmergencyCommittee on Relief andImmigration on 13 March 1938, a day after the Anschluss (Mszros, 1998). TheCommitteesettheobjectiveofaidingintheescapeandimmigrationofallitsEuropean colleagues by all means possible. They sent affidavits to obtain visas, provided financial support,andsoughtjobopportunities.TheEmergencyCommitteeaided250European people mostlypsychoanalystsinescapingalongwiththeirfamiliesifnecessary.Themajoritywere assisted within a span of three years until the US entered the war in 1941. The Emergency Committeesupportedpsychoanalystsbyvirtueoftheirprofessionitwassufficientmerelyto be a member of the international community of psychoanalysts. The Committees decisions were not influenced by professional achievements, and they rose above conflicts based on professionalrivalries.

(It was a similar effortthe New School undertook in establishing the University in Exile in 1933. It thus supported more than 180 scientists, artists, and their families, threatened by NationalSocialism.)

Hungary:Thesecondwaveofemigration19381941acontinentalshift In the weeks following the Anschluss, the Hungarian Parliament passed its first antiJewish Act(1938)andsoonafterthis followedthe secondone.This facilitatedthesecondwaveof emigration,andtheconsequencewasacontinentalshift. SeetheletterfromGzaRheimtoJohnRickman(slide15) migrsfromHungarybetween19381941bycountryofsettlement UnitedStates Tiborgoston RbertBak SusanDri SndorFeldman FannyHannKende Dezs(David) Rapaport GzaRheim Australia KlraLzrGer UnitedKingdom AliceBalint MichaelBalint Ceylon(SriLanka) EditGymri

HungariansatUSpsychoanalyticinstitutions19251942 TheNewYork Psychoanalytic Society SandorLorand SandorRado GezaRoheim SandorFeldman FannyHannKende RobertC.Bak TiborAgoston AndrewPeto 1956 TheChicagoInstitute forPsychoanalysis FranzAlexander ThereseBenedek TheTopekaInstitute forPsychoanalysis DavidRapaport GeorgGer

ExemplaryamongtheheroiceffortsoftheEmergencyCommitteeisthefactthatitwroteover 200lettersinattemptingtoplaceDavidRapaportuntilhemetKarlMenninger,whoinvited himtoworkathisclinicinTopeka,Kansas.

Schoolwithnowalls WhatwasthesignificanceoftheinterwaremigrationoftheHungariananalystsinthe developmentofmodernpsychoanalysis? Therearetwoareasinwhichtheimpactofthiscanbeclearlydemonstrated: theoreticaland therapeutic methods, on the one hand, and training systems and training institutes, on the other. Giventhelengthlimitationsofthispaper,Iwillprovideonlyanindicationoftheirimpact belowandcoveronlythemostdistinguishedinnovations,thoseoriginscanbetracedbackto Budapest. I.Theoreticalandtherapeuticmethods Hungarianswereawarethatpsychoanalysiswasatwowaystreet.9 (PaulRoazen,2001) 1.Countertransferencemutualreflectiverelationship From the early twenties in Hungary, psychoanalysis became a system of multidirectional processes of interpersonal and intersubjective elements. Ferenczis positive thinking as of 1919onthephenomenonofcountertransferencerepresentedafundamentalshiftinviewpoint (Ferenczi [1919] 1980, [1928] 1997, Haynal, 1988, Cabr, 1998) This paved the way for psychoanalysis to become a system of interactive communication, a relationshipbased (Haynal, 2002, xi) process or, as Paul Roazen so aptly put it, a twoway street in psychoanalysis(Mszros,2004a). Psychoanalysis presupposes the simultaneous existence of interpersonal, intersubjective and intrapsychicprocesses,basedonconfidencebetweenanalystandanalysand.Theanalystand analysand enter into a mutually reflective relationship that is realized in the process of transferencecountertransference.Authenticcommunicationonthepartofthepsychotherapist became a fundamental requirement (Hoffer, 1996), as false statements result in dissociation andrepeatthedynamicofpreviouspathologicalrelations.Aswewouldphraseittoday,false reflectionsresultinfalseselfobjects.Bothcountertransferenceandauthenticcommunication were incorporated intothe psychoanalytic method of the majority of the Budapest analysts. MichaelBalintandAliceBalint(BalintandBalint,1939),HannKendeFanny(HannKende, [1933]1933)andThereseBenedek,whowasalsoclosetoFerenczi,wereallguidedbythis conviction from the early 1930s, and it had a strong impact on the development of psychoanalysisaftertheyemigrated.Infact,Benedekwaspracticallyamongthefirsttoteach countertransferencetostudentsunder her supervisionattheChicagoInstitute(Gedo,1993). Through Clara M. Thompson, who was analyzed by Ferenczi, and Harry Stack Sullivan, another American sympathizer, some of his ideas became partof the thinking of Sullivans interpersonalschool,foundedintheUS. 2. Early object relations theories Ferenczi, Michael Balint, Alice Balint, Imre Hermann, MelanieKlein,MargaretMahler,ThereseBenedek,RenSpitzWinnicott
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FilmonSndorFerenczi,HungarianTelevision,2001.

Ferenczisensedthesignificanceoftheearlymotherinfantrelationshipearlyon.Itwasthishe wasreferringtoin his ClinicalDiarywhen hewrote:duringanalysiswe mustprobedeep, rightdowntothemothers(Ferenczi,[1932],1988,74). Ferenczi had an impact on two key figures of the model of psychoanalytic development. ThesewereMelanieKleinandMargaretMahler,bothofwhomhadtheirrootsinBudapest. FerencziwasKleinsfirstanalyst,anditwasFerencziwhoinspiredhertodealwithchildren. Ferenczis encouragement was well received. Klein became a member of the Hungarian Psychoanalytical Society with her paper A childs development in 1919. The first conceptualizedobjectrelationstheoryisassociatedwithKleinsname. AmongtheBudapestanalyststherewereseveralwhodidnotagreewithKleinsideasonan infantsinbornprimarynarcissism,sadismandaggressiveurges.CitingImreHermann,Alice Balint and indeed his own research and experience, Michael Balint ([1937] 1949) said that theyhadarrivedattheconclusioninBudapestthattheearliestphaseofthelifeofapsycheis notnarcissistic.Itisdirectedatobjects,andtheseearlyobjectrelationsarepassive.Thegoal isacquiredlovebecausethatisitsdueasaperson:tobelovedandsatisfied,withoutbeing under any obligation to give anything in return (Balint ibid, 269). This is passive love/primary love, an archaic relationship between the mother and child this is the early harmoniousexperienceoftheinfantwiththemother.Ifitisfrustrated,thechildhastolearn howhe/shecansatisfyherorhimself.Inthissense,narcissismisareaction.Balintsconcept is analogous to Kohuts archaic mirroring or idealizing selfobject relationship (Bacal and Newman,1990).AsavisitingprofessorattheDepartmentofPsychiatryinCincinnati,Balint hadaninfluenceonCincinnatians(Ornstein,2002,27). Michael Balint regards the loss of basic trust as one of the early traumas, which has to be restored during the healing process (Balint [1933] 1965). InThe Unwelcome Child and His DeathInstinct,basedonworkwithadults,Ferencziwrotethatarejectionofthebabyoralack ofloveasaconsequenceofsubconsciousactsofselfdestructioncanleadtoalifethreatening condition (Ferenczi, [1929] 1955, 103). Similar ideas were being expressed by another Hungarian, Ren Spitz, in the phenomena known collectively as hospitalization syndrome (Spitz,1945). Like Michael Balint, Therese Benedek uses the term primary object love, as well as passiveobject love, buther idea istousethephenomenologicalterm confidenceasthe basis for the development of a positive object relationship between the mother and child (Benedek, [1938] 1973). Based on her first observations of infants in the early 1920s, Benedek described similar symptoms among mothers and their infants as she explored motherchild communication (Mszros, 2004b). Using the language of current bonding theory,aninfantreflectshismothersmanifestations.Accordingtothebiosocialtheoriesthat govern emotional development, a mother and child create a system of affective communication fromthebeginningof life,one inwhich interactionswiththe motherplaya fundamentalrole inthe modulationofthe infantsaffectivecondition(Gergelyand Watson, 1996Fonagy,2003). Notmorethannecessary,Optimal,Goodenough Ferenczisearliestwritings in1908 dealtwiththesignificanceofrepressionofthe not more than necessary type in a childs development (Ferenczi, [1908] 1955). Margaret

Mahler,whowasclosetoFerenczi,usedthewordoptimalindescribingasolutiontothe individualizationseparation process, and used the expression optimal symbiosis as the cradle of the individualization present. And it was Winnicott who very aptly expressed the notionofoptimalityasaconditionforapositivebackgroundforpsychicdevelopmentwhen hecoinedthewonderfulphraseagoodenoughmother.

3.Traumatheory Ferenczisparadigmshiftintraumatheoryisaprocesswhichbeganinthe1920sandhashad alongtermeffect.Essentialelementsofitcanbediscernedinseveralofhisstudieshowever, hismostimportantfindingsaretobefoundinhisConfusionofTonguesbetweenAdultsand theChild(Ferenczi[1933]1955),aswellasinhisClinicalDiary(Ferenczi[1932]1988). Withhisconceptoftrauma,FerencziuntiedtheGordianknot.Freudsdilemmawaswhether traumaticeventswererealorafigmentofapersonsimagination,whichhearticulatedasthe first and second trauma theories. For Ferenczi, it was not a question of whether memories accurately portray real events. He was asking what it was that turned an experience into a traumaticforceforthesubject.Toarriveatananswer,heplacedtheprocessoftraumatization intoafieldofrelations,inwhichobjectiverealityiscoloredbytherelationshipbetweenthe traumatizedindividualandtheaggressoraswellasbyanumberofotherphenomena. He asserted that trauma is founded on real events and that its occurrence is built on the interpersonal and intersubjective dynamic of object relations. In the traumatic situation the victimandthepersecutor/aggressoroperatedifferingegodefensemechanisms.Ferencziwas thefirsttodescribetheegodefensemechanismofidentificationwiththeaggressor.Healso focused on denial and splitting during traumatic experiences (Vikr, 1999). Anna Freud generalized the use of this term to describe identification with the aggressor within the framework of ego defense mechanisms (Anna Freud [1936] 1994). She understood it as an ego defense mechanism for socalled lesser aggression or fantasized aggression (Dupont 1998), but Ferenczi clearly described it as a mechanism/capacity of the ego. Among the Americanpsychoanalysts,ClaraM.ThompsonthoughtalongthesamelinesasFerenczi. Ferenczi stressed the significance of the presence or lack of a trusted person in the post traumaticsituation(Mszros,2002). He also introduced the phenomena of resilience as the possible tool of the personality to balancetheinfluenceoftraumaticevents. AlltheseelementsintegratedintomoderntraumatheoriesandintheapproachesofPTSD.

4.Psychoanalyticpsychosomatics Ferenczi, Lajos Lvy, who was, among other things, the Freuds family physician, and Michael Balint, all incorporated psychoanalytic ideas into the practice of internal medicine from the earliest years onward. For example, Ferenczi held an introductory course on psychoanalytic psychosomatics in 1923 for the Koice Medical Association in todays Slovakia.

MichaelBalintsactivityiswellknowninthefieldofpsychosomatictreatment,researchand training.Inthe1950s,hesetupcasestudygroupsforfamilydoctors,thesocalledResearch cum trainingseminars,or,morepopularly,theBalintgroups(Balint,1968). FranzAlexanderbecameanemblematicfigureinpsychoanalyticpsychosomatics.Hediffered fromFerenczispointofviewinthathenolongersawthebodyasacarrierofsymbols.He sawitasareactivesystem,whichmayreactwithsymbolsbutmayalsoexpressitselfthrough avegetativenervoussystem,whichdoesnotcorresponddirectlytothesymbolizationprocess.

5.Developingpsychoanalyticresearchintegrationoftestsintotheclinicalwork ThedevelopmentofclinicalresearchandtheintegrationofI.Q.andprojectivetestsintothe clinical work of psychologists and psychiatrists are both attributed to David Rapaport. He organized and became the head of the Research Department at the Menninger Clinic in Topeka, Kansas (Gill, 1967). Rapaport exerted a powerful influence on his contemporaries. HelecturedatpsychoanalyticinstitutesthroughouttheU.S.,bringingaboutanappreciationof psychoanalytictheoryandegopsychology.

II.Psychoanalytictrainingandinstitutionalsystems Hungarian analysts had a great deal of experience in developing both a structure for psychoanalytic training and institutional systems, outstanding examples among them being Ferenczi, Michael Balint, Sndor Rad, Franz Alexander and David Rapaport. This is extremely significant because of the importance of a systematic educational program in influencing the next generation. Indeed, those who run institutes bring their intellectual orientationintothecultureoftheinstitute. (1)FerenczirecommendedformingtheInternationalPsychoanalyticalAssociation(1910). (2)Ferencziwasfirsttoconsideritnecessaryforanalyststodotheirowntrainingbecausehe feltdidacticanalysiswaslackingandthusworkoftencametoahalt(Ferenczi,[1932]1988). (3) Vilma Kovcss training analysis construction (Kovcs, [1933] 1993) emerged as the Hungarian model. Accordingtothis,a younganalystcandidates firstsupervision isdone with hisownanalystsothatobstructionsthatstem from hisownpersonality butarenotyet revealedwouldbeabletocometothesurfaceassoonaspossible. (4) Psychoanalytic training first became part of the medical curriculum through Ferenczi (1919). (5)Asof 1922,SndorRadcontributedagreatdealtodevelopingthetrainingsystematthe BerlinPsychoanalyticInstitute. (6)RadtooktheBerlintrainingmodeltoNewYork(1930),thusestablishingthebasicUS systemofpsychoanalytictraining.

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(7)In1945,RadintroducedpsychoanalysisattheColumbiaUniversityinNewYorkCity, establishingthePsychoanalyticClinic forTrainingandResearch,which is still inoperation todayasColumbiaUniversityCenterforPsychoanalyticTrainingandResearch. (8)AlexanderestablishedtheChicagoInstituteforPsychoanalysis(1932). (9)InMelbourne,KlraLzrsetuptheAustralianPsychoanalyticSociety(1940). AlltheanalystswhohademigratedfromBudapestlaterbecametraininganalystsandthushad an impact on the work of several generations. They managed to win over members of the psychoanalytic community in considerable numbers. Presidents of the New York Psychoanalytic Society included Sndor Lrnd (194748), Rbert C. Bak (195759), MargaretMahler(197173)andAndrewPet(197577).MichaelBalintwasthechairofthe medical section of the British Psychoanalytical Society and from 1968 to his death in 1970 wasitspresident. The member of the Budapest schooltogether of the European migr psychoanalysts using thewonderfulphraseofacolleagueofthattime:Theybecameourteachersandourfriends, andaverypositiveinfluenceonourlives(Mszros,2008).

Closingnotes: TheintellectualsurvivaloftheBudapestSchoolstemsfromtheunparalleledsolidarityofthe AmericancolleagueswhosetuptheEmergencyCommitteeonReliefandImmigration.The Committeenotonlysavedlives,butitalsosalvagedtheperspectivesspecifictoanalystsfrom Budapest and elsewhere in Europe. Following Ferenczis lead, like Andr Haynal said, an unseencallwasmadetothink,feel,andquestionfreely(Haynal,2002). WhywasFerencziimportantnotonlyforpsychoanalysis,butalsoforscholarlythoughtina broader sense and for a way of thinking that embraces interdisciplinary complexity? Internationalresearchhasdonemuchtoanswerthisquestionoverthepast20years.However, there is a question we rarely ask ourselves. Why is all of this important to us personally? Considerthatthespiritof Ferenczi isonethathasdrawntogetherprofessionals fromplaces ranging fromBudapest,throughFlorence,Paris,London,andBuenos Aires,andontoNew York.Ithasdrawnthemtogethertopreservethelegacy,andastheopeningoftheFerenczi CenterinNewYorkandtheplansforaFerencziCenterinBudapestbothdemonstrateithas alsodrawnthemtogethertopassthelegacyontothecominggenerations. ButwhatdoesthisspiritofFerenczirepresent? MaybemanyofyousharesomeofmysenseofwhoFerencziwas.Heknewhowtowatch, howtokeepquiet,andhowtolisten.Hecouldendurethetensioncreatedby uncertainties withoutgivingrapid,prejudicedresponses.Herespectedhumansovereigntyandfocusedthe toolsof psychoanalysisondevelopingan autonomouspersonality.Heavoidedprofessional hypocrisy,andhistoleranceandabilitytocooperatemadeitpossibletocreatereal interdisciplinaryconnections.

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And today it seems we very much need constructive cooperation to make it possible to continuetobuildonasmanysharedvaluesaspossible.TheFerencziCenternowopeningat theNewSchoolwillcertainlyprovidenewopportunitiestowardthisend.

Acknowledgements This paper is based on research funded by the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars(Washington,D.C.),bytheResearchSupportSchemeoftheSorosFoundation,and by the Research Committee of theInternational Psychoanalytical Association. I wish to expressmythankstoNellieL.Thompson,PhD(CuratorofArchives&SpecialCollections, A. A. Brill Library, The New York Psychoanalytic Institute), to Ms Jill Duncan and especially toMsLindaCarterJacksonforhervaluablehelpinmyresearchontheHungary relateddocuments(The ArchivesofThe British PsychoAnalyticalSociety).Iamalso most grateful to Mr. Paul Bunten (Archives of the Payne Whitney Clinic) and Jerome A. Winer, MD(UniversityofIllinoisatChicago).

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JuditMszros,Ph.D. emailaddress:juditmeszaros@tonline.hu Szt.Istvnkrt.13. 1055Budapest,Hungary

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