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PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT
AFTAB JALIL AHMED
ROLL NO:-13 FY BBA
IHTM SYDENHAM COLLEGE OF COMMERCE & ECONOMICS
Q 1:-What is controlling? Explain various principles and steps in controlling process?
Q 2:-What is social responsibility of the business? Explain the responsibility of business towards owner, employees, customers and society in detail?
Q 3:-Who is the leader of the business? Explain in detail the various qualities of the leader and the various types of leaders and leadership?
Solution 1, Definition:-“Controlling is a process of monitoring and performance and taking corrective measures, if required.” According to George Terry, “Controlling is determining what is being accomplished that is, evaluating the performance and if necessary applying corrective measures, so that the performance takes place according to the plans.”Another example of controlling in the word of Robert, “Management control is the process by which managers assure that resource are obtained and used effectively and efficiently in the accomplishment of organization objectives.” Various principles of controlling:-A good control system offers the following principles.
Guide to operation:-Control system guides the action of the organization.
Activities are undertaken in the right direction. It acts as a traffic signal post and keeps the activities moving on the right track.
Facilitates performance:-Controlling system facilitates employee appraisal.
The actual performance is measured in the light of the plans. The superior can easily measured the performance of his subordinates and provide them necessary performance feedback.
Improves morale:-Employees are aware that their performance is reviewed
periodically. They will put in their best efforts to show better performance. Thus, employee morale is improved because those employees who show better performance are normally rewarded.
Facilitates coordination:-Controlling facilities coordination among the
various department of the organization. Whenever there are any deviations, the concerned departments come together to review and to take collective and corrective measures.
Higher efficiency:-Controlling brings in higher efficiency to the
organization. This is because of optimum utilization of resource and
minimization of wastages. Again, the right corrective measures are taken at right time.
Steps in the control process:-Managers control activities by monitoring the performance and checking it against planned targets. Thereby taking corrective measures, if required. The steps in the control process are as follows.
Setting Targets:-While planning, managers, fix, targets that are to be
achieved by individuals and departments. Specific targets are generally set for a definite period. For instant, the marketing department may set the target to sell 10,000 units of a product during the month of March, 2007.
Implementation of Targets:-The manager must make arrangement to
implementation of targets.
Implementation involves:i) Organizing resource
ii) Directing the subordinates
Measurement of performance:-Performance of individuals departments is
measured periodically. Necessary reports are prepared to indicate the performance of individuals. The reports may be prepared section wise, activity wise, and period wise.
Finding the cause of deviations:-The manager may study the cause of
deviations, especially, when there are negative deviations. For instance, there can be shortfall in sales. This may be due to any or many of the following reasons. i) Poor advertising campaign. ii) Poor dealer relationships. iii) Problems with the quality of product etc.
Review or follow-up:-The manager needs to review the corrective measures
to find out whether the corrective measures taken are in a position to correct the deviation, if necessary. Additional, corrective measures may be taken, or the targets may be set again.
Solution 2, Social Responsibility:-Social responsibility is a nebulous idea and hence is defined in various ways. Adolph Berle has defined social responsibility as the manager’s responsiveness to public consensus. This means that there cannot be the same set of social responsibilities applicable to all countries in all times. These would be determined in each case by the customs, religions, traditions, level of industrialization and a host of other norms and standards about which there is a public consensus at any given time in a given society. According to Keith Davis, the term ‘social responsibility refers to two types of business obligations, viz. a) The socio-economic obligation. b) The socio-human obligation. The socio-economic obligation of every business is to see that the economic consequences of its action do not adversely affect public welfare. This includes obligations to promote employment opportunities, to maintain competition, to curb inflation etc.The socio-human obligations of every business are to nature and develop human values (such as morale, copration, motivation and self-realization in work). Every business firm is part of a total economic and political system and not an island without foreign relations. It is at the centre of a network of relationships to person, groups and things, ‘pie business should, therefore, consider the impact of his actions on all to which he is related. He should operate his business as a trustee for the benefit of his employees, investors, to ensure that each gets a square deals and that nobody’s interested are unduly sacrificed to those of others. The changing image of business in recent years has lent further support to the idea of social responsibility. Some public opinion polls of the 1960s and 1970s in the United States have left the businessman disenchanted. These polls have revealed that the businessman is viewed as an individual who does not care for others, who ignores social problems, who preys upon the population, who exploits
labour and who is a selfish money grabber. On the other hand, until these opinions were unveiled, the businessman in America believed that others viewed him as he viewed himself as a practical, down to earth, hard working, broadminded, progressive, interesting, and a competitive free enterpriser. He believed that all others in society looked up to him as a self sacrificing community leader, pillar of society, generous to a fault , great supporter of education ,patron of the arts, and in short ,the salt of the earth. Indeed the businessman in the pre-poll days thought of himself as a happy mix between Plato, Gandhi, and Churchill. Every businessman is at the center of a network of relationships, which consist of those between him at one end and his workers, employees, consumers, shareholders, other businesses, community and the government on the other. A businessman’s social responsibilities to each of these parties are briefly enumerated below. Responsibility towards the Consumer and the Society: Production of cheap and better quality goods and services by developing new skills, innovations and techniques, by locating and markets as proper places and by rationalizing the use of capital and labour.
Leaving out seasonal variations in employment and production through
accurate forecasts, production scheduling and product diversification. Deciding priorities of production in the country’s interest and conserving natural resources. Avoiding ostentation. Honoring contracts and following trade practices.
Some important but dishonest trade practices are making misleading
advertisements calculated to deceive the purchaser, misbranding of articles with respect to their marerial,ingredients quality, origin etc.Selling rebuilt or secondhand goods as new procuring business or trade secrets of competitors by espionage, bribery or other means restraining free and fair competition by entering into combination agreements using containers that do not give a correct idea of the weight and quantity of a product making false claim of
being an ‘authorized dealer’, ‘manufacturer’ or ‘importer’ of certain goods, giving product misleading names so as to give them a value which they do not possess, declaring oneself insolvent through questionable financial manipulations.
Preventing the creation of monopolies. Monopolies are bad in that they
make the community face high price, short supply and inferior quality of goods. Inequalities of wealth distribution are accentuated and the standard of public morality deteriorate as bribing the judges, legislators and the government to gain favors becomes very common. Providing for after sale servicing. Ensuring hygienic deposal of smoke and waste and voluntarily assisting in making the town environment aesthetically satisfying.
Achieving better public relations (that is, creating a more favorable attitude
towards the enterprise) through education and other means. Providing to the community, true, adequate, and easily intelligible information about its working. Responsibility towards Employees and Workers:-
A fair wage to the workers, which is possible only when the businessman is willing to accept a voluntary ceiling on his own profits. Just selection, training and promotion. Satisfying conditions of work and social security measures. Good human relations.
Freedom, self respect and self realization. A businessman should devote his
knowledge and ability not only to making his workers life more affluent, but also to making it more satisfying and rewarding. There should be awareness that the quality of man’s life is as important as the quantity of his material wealth.
Increase in productivity and efficiency by recognitions by providing opportunities for creative talent and incentives.
Solution 3, Definition:A Manager is the original leader of the business. Leadership is the art of influencing others to direct their will, abilities and efforts towards the achievement of leader’s goal. According to R. J. House, leadership is "the ability of an individual to influence, motivate, and enable others to contribute toward the effectiveness and success of the organizations of which they are members". No matter how one defines leadership, it typically involves an element of vision. A vision provides direction to the influence process. A leader (or group of leaders) can have one or more visions of the future to aid them to move a group successfully towards this goal. A manager is chiefly concerned with setting objectives and goals, developing plans, strategies, policies etc.Making job assignment, co-ordinating and controlling. His main task is to integrate the individuals and formal groups with the organization. So, as to optimize their efforts for the achievement of the enterprise goals that depends upon the ability to:
Understand that people are different in their motivational patterns and
individual is also subject to change form time to time. Gain an understanding of group dynamics.
Stimulate and inspire employees as individuals and group goals their optimum contribution to organizational efficiency and effectiveness. Make sense of changing environment, interpret it to employees and redirect their efforts to adapt to changing situations. Characteristics of Leader: Leadership implies the existence of follower. As a leader he should have some kind of quality, those are strong commitment. By answering of questions he does have some kind of follower. A leader is always related with upward and downward in his organization. Leadership involves a community of interest between the leader and his followers. The objective of both the leader and his men are one and the same. On the word of G.R Terry, “Leadership is the activity of influencing people to strive willing for mutual objectives.” Unequal distribution of authority among leader and group members. The group members should obey the direction of leader. They can’t similarly direct the leader’s activities Quality of Good Leader: Good Personality:-Personality is the sum totals of physical, mental and social qualities, Successful leader do have good personality. Intelligence:-A leader should have good educational or technical knowledge. He need to have superior knowledge’s than that of his followers. Initiative:-Leaders need to have the quality of initiative. They should be in right position for doing right things at right time. Innovative:-A leader needs to have an innovative mind. He should have the imagination of thinking new ideas. Communication Skill:-Good leaders are effective communicat.His followers should understand his directions by communicating. Human Skills:-The knowledge of human skill is very important to the leader as he constantly interacts with his followers. Administrative Skill:- He should have the ability to plan ,to direct ,to control the activities of his group.
Patience:-He should have to take appropriate decision not hasty. He also
needs to have patience to listen the various complaints of his followers. Types of Leader and Leadership:According to the Fidwin Flippo, “Leadership style is a pattern of behaviors designed to integrate organization and personal interest in percent of some objectives.” Auto critic style :-In this kind of style ,who takes all decision by himself and expect to be obeyed by his subordinators. Burial critic style:-These kinds of styles are more followed by government department. Consultative style:-Lead or consult with his subordinate before taking decision. Participative style:-The leader not only consults the subordinates but also allows them to take part in decision making. Socio critic style:-Socio critic attempts to run their organization like a social club. Situational style:-Now a days in most will managed organization the manager follow situational leadership style ,this means the leadership style various depending upon the situations. Individuality of Successful Leader:-Following are the characteristics of leader. Leadership implies the existence of followers:-We appraise the quality of a person’s leadership in practice by studying his followers. We ask how many and what kind of followers does he have? How strong is their commitment as a result of his leadership? How long wills their commitment last? By answering questions of this nature we get to know the quality of leadership. We must know, however, forget that leaders within organization are also followers. The supervisor work for a branch head, who work for a division manager ,who work for the vice-president of the department and so on.Thus,in formal organization of several levels ,a leader has to be able to
wear both hast gracefully, to be able to relate him self both upward and downward. Leadership involves a community of interest between the leader and his followers:-In other words, the objectives of both the leader and his men are one and the same. If the leader strives for one purpose and his team of workers for some other purpose, it is no leadership. In the word of G.R.Terry, “Leadership is the activity of influencing people to strive willingly for mutual objective.” Leadership involves an imbalanced distribution of authority among leaders and group members:-Leaders can direct some of the activities of group members that are the group members are compelled or are willing to obey most of the leader’s directions. The group members cannot similarly direct the leader’s activities; through they will obviously affect those activities in a numbers of ways. Leadership implies that leaders can control their follower or subordinates in addition to being able to give their followers or subordinates rightful direction:-In the words, leader not only can tell their subordinates what to do by way of command but can also influence by their behavior and conduct.Urwick has rightly said, “It is not what a leader says, still less what he writes, that influences subordinates. It is what he is. And they judge what he is by what he does and how he behaves.
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