Preface _____________________________________________________________________

Good films-those that effectively communicate the desired message, be it factual, emotional, persuasional, or whatever are the result of an almost magical blend of ideas and technology. If any of these ingredients is not fully understood by the filmmaker the outcome could be a film that falls short of the mark. The "idea" ingredient is well documented, for beginner and professional alike. Books covering virtually all aspects of the aesthetics and mechanics of filmmaking aboundhow to choose an appropriate film style, the importance of sound, how to write an effective film script, the basic elements of visual continuity, etc. The "technology" ingredient is a little harder to get to because, although equally important, it is less glamorous and may even intimidate the uninformed. With that very real possibility in mind, we have produced this guide, EASTMAN Professional Motion Picture Films (Her). In it you will find technical but easy-to-readand-apply facts applying technical film data to your particular situation, the best ways to use filters, how sound tracks are made, arranging for safe projection and storage, etc. And finally, we have provided you with a broad overview of the services offered by your motion picture film laboratory. This final section will give you a better understanding of what happens (and why) during this final phase of the Filmmaking process. For those of you who need the ultimate in technical film facts, the appendices are filled with detailed listings of national and international film standards, publications, and even a lengthy glossary/index that is crossreferenced to the text. And so, regardless of whether you are a student or savant of filmmaking, whether you are creating or commissioning films, whether your budget is meager or multimillion, this guide will help you choose the films you need to get the best results possible.

Introduction ______________________________________________________
silently toward the camera was sufficient to draw large crowds. The real power of this fledgling medium, that of telling a story with moving images, was just being discovered by innovative still photographers such as George Méliés. This sometime political cartoonist, actor, and magician was intrigued by the storytelling potential of film and, in the early 1900s, he developed the concept of "artificially arranged scenes." Taking his guide from the world of theatre, Méliés created the events he needed to tell his story with actors and appropriate settings rather than relying upon randomly recorded events. This new approach to "reality" opened the doors to creative storytelling worldwide and resulted in a prolific and successful career for Méliés His 400th film, A Trip to the Moon (1902), was enormously popular in the United States. Another facet of motion picture production that we take for granted today involves the creative use of film editing. Until Edwin S. Porter came on the scene in the early 1900s, no one had "edited" their films. They simply shot their footage and projected the results. Inspired by the innovative use of theatrical staging techniques and varied camera angles he observed in Méliés films, Porter set out to tell a story using footage he had already shot. He recognized that the filmmaker had the same freedom in developing a fictional world that had long been available to the novelist and dramatist the ability to change scenes quickly, to flash backward and forward in time, to show simultaneous actions, etc. With this new-found flexibility in film editing came another revelation that simplified the production processthe scenes in a particular film do not have to be shot in projection sequence because they can always be reassembled later for maximum impact. Porter, a significant innovator in the early days of the motion picture industry with films such as The Great Train Robbery, went on to direct some of the world's greatest stars (Mary Pickford, for example), make spectaculars on location (The Eternal City), and, in general, leave his indelible stamp on this fast-growing business before retiring in 1915. This fruitful collaboration of art and technology, where each technical advance opened additional creative doors, resulted in an evolving cycle of continuous improvements and has characterized the film industry from the very beginning. In fact, the process is still under way today with the producers of films such as Star Wars and Terminator 2 relying heavily upon computers and other allied space-age equipment to produce exacting special visual effects. Two major technical advances that dramatically reshaped the creative directions of the film industry in the 1930s should be mentioned briefly at this point synchronized sound and color images. Experiments in the optical recording of sound on film were reported as early as 1901, but The Jazz Singer (1927) with Al Jolson was the first commercially successful production that blended motion, voice, and music so effectively that they were integral to the cinematic message. Many in the industry believed that "talkies" were a momentary diversion, a gimmick. Within a year, however, the major studios were preparing for all-sound productions, the equipment manufacturers were producing a wide array of recording devices, and the skeptics were stilled. The artistic requirement for color in films was also heard, but the development of the necessary technology took a bit longer. Many early filmmakers tinted portions of their films for dramatic impact. D. W. Griffith's Birth of a Nation showed the burning of Atlanta in the glare of a red tint that emphasized the horror of the scene. But emulsion tinting was, at best, an expensive and time-consuming technique. With the introduction of Technicolor's two color process, color began to have real impact on film audiences. Douglas Fairbanks chose the new process for his The Black Pirate because he believed that color

Thomas Alva Edison, the worldrenowned inventor, involved with an unsavory peep show parlor on New York City's fashionable Park Avenue? A shocking revelation that made all the gossip columns in the summer of 1884? Hardly. But, these questions do highlight the fact that Edison's creative genius enabled the budding science of still photography to move into commercially viable "motion pictures" by the late 1800s. Working closely with another celebrated inventor of that day, George Eastman, Edison was able to combine Eastman's new EASTMAN Transparent Film (a strip of clear cellulose nitrate coated with black-and-white photographic emulsion) and a heavily modified Kodak still camera to produce the first real motion picture. A device for viewing these moving images, the Kinetoscope, was also developed and first shown at the 1893 Chicago World's Fair. The public reaction to this exciting new medium was overwhelming-Kinetoscope parlors sprang up in all major cities worldwide, and the demand for new titles seemed insatiable.

Figure 1 Kinetoscope

In those early days, the fascination of viewing unstaged "captured motion" waves breaking on the shore, people milling in a city square, a locomotive thundering

Figure 2 Atlanta burns in Birth of a Nation

could capture the true spirit of the pirate story as black-and-white never had. When the film was released in 1925, it was a smash hit with the critics and public alike. As time went on, more and more producers tried out the gradually improving process. The Gold Diggers of Broadway, The Rogue Song, The Vagabond King, and Whoopee (Eddie Cantor) were all produced with the two color process. By 1932, Technicolor announced a new three-color process that was simpler and less expensive than the earlier two-color process. At this point, Walt Disney turned to the Technicolor process for his animated films. In 1933, he produced his Three Little Pigs, and who hasn't seen that big, bad wolf blowing himself blue in the face trying to demolish the brick house built by the wisest of the three pigs? Gone With the Wind arrived in 1939, and this time the burning of Atlanta was shown in full color with such frightening reality that everyone clung to the edge of their seat waiting to see if Scarlett really could drive her

wagon through the flames and escape. The bulky filming equipment and complicated processing requirements of the Technicolor three-color imbibition process produced excellent results, but remained technically troublesome. In 1952, Kodak announced its first EASTMAN Color Negative Film (and a complementary positive print film) that could record all three primary colors on the same strip of film. Since then, color motionpicture production has literally been available to anyone with a camera, and theatre-going audiences expect the reality of color. The effectiveness of motion picture film as a communication medium capable of accurately conveying "reality" to an audience is undeniable in the realm of commercial motion pictures. Outside of the theatre, where the impact of motion pictures is a little less obvious, films are being widely used to inform, persuade, motivate, and educate. Regardless of the discipline involved, film can capture lifelike motion and then speed it up, slow it down, magnify or reduce the image, isolate a discrete moment within a continuous action-now you see it, and now you see it again. The power of film to communicate is limited only by the imagination of its producer. What exactly gives way first when an automobile crashes into a wall at 20 mph? High-speed photography can tell you. How do bacteria multiply? A hundred people can find out simultaneously if the event has been filmed. Sixth graders can watch the growth of a mold magnified to look like a magical cartoon forest. Medical

students can observe the fine points of a surgical technique again and again until they are confident enough to try it themselves. On our way to the stars, the experts at NASA can use film to analyze exactly how well a rocket performed at each stage-on the ground and in the air. Even in the area of commercial television, where the demise of film as a recording medium has been forecast repeatedly for at least 40 years, film is still a powerful force. About 80 percent of all prime-time programming in 1991 was originated on film, and a significant number of commercials were shot on camera-original film. Directors, producers, and even some of the viewing public still call for that finished look they have come to expect on the movie screen-the "film look." As with most new technologies that have come along over the years, television has become a complementary partner to the more mature motion picture industry. Where the mix of film and video technology will go in the future is yet to be determined. One fact remains: Film will continue to play an important role in the production of programming material for tomorrow's electronic society. In summary, film is communication at its best. From the zany antics of Donald Duck's nephews, to the excitement of the "Little-500" bicycle race of Breaking Away to the drama of microscopic crystals growing before our eyes in a darkened classroom, to the latest episode of your prime-time sitcom, film speaks to us as no other medium can.

Selecting Your Films _____________________________________________________
should the film convey? The sharp distinctions in hue and density provided by a color film image can convey more information than the same image composed of shades of gray. Filmmakers should not assume, however, that color is always more interesting, or that black-and-white is always less expensive. Should the film be silent or should it have sound? Answers to these questions depend on the purpose of the film and the audience it is geared toward. Lighting Will the subject be filmed indoors or out? Can you control the light? Some films are designed specifically for low levels of light. All films are balanced for particular kinds of lighting. Will your film give you an accurate record of the colors in the scene if you make the motion picture only in the light available to you? Filtration If you have to use several filters to compensate for uncontrolled elements in the scene or in the lighting, will the film be fast (sensitive) enough to record a high-quality image? Processing and Printing Facilities Few laboratories process every type of film. If your laboratory processes only color film, you will have to send your black-and-white film to another lab. You can avoid much anxiety by getting to know the personnel at the laboratories and explaining your special needs to them. It may be worthwhile to select films that you can have processed by a laboratory familiar with your needs.

Before selecting a specific film, you will have to answer a number of basic technical and aesthetic questions about the entire production. The answers you provide will help greatly in the selection of the films that will best translate your concepts into moving pictures on a screen that convey your intended message accurately, completely, and effectively. You should consider the following factors because they directly affect your choice. Format Will the finished prints be 70 mm, 35 mm, or 16 mm? who will be the audience? What quality do we want? Will it be shown only in a theatre or on television too? Number of Finished Prints If you need only one finished print and you need it fast, a reversal film designed for direct projection is ideal. If you are producing several prints, select the camera film with an eye toward the economics of the various film printing systems. The Finished Form of the Picture Should the finished film be in color or in black-and-white? What feeling

Film Datasheets _______________________
Kodak film datasheets are the best source for technical information about EASTMAN Motion Picture Films. Each datasheet consists of four or more pages of detailed technical information for a particular film. These sheets provide much useful information for the careful and knowledgeable reader. In general, the discussion of professional motion picture films in this guide follows the structure of a film datasheet Figure 3 is a typical datasheet that provides information about motion picture film applications. Datasheets differ for negative and laboratory films. A camera film datasheet, for example, does not contain paragraphs titled "Printing Conditions" because printing conditions are only relevant to laboratory and print films. A single free copy of any film datasheet is available from Eastman Kodak Company, Dept. 412L, Rochester, NY 14650-0532. Outside the U.S., see the nearest Kodak office in your country.

TECHNICAL DATA / COLOR NEGATIVE FILM

June 1999 • H-1-5289

KODAK VISION 800T Color Negative Film / 5289™ / 7289™
THE FILM YOU WISHED FOR
Here’s the film you wished for…for those times when you need to dig deeper into the shadows…when you’d like the sky to hold the daylight just a little bit longer…when you want more play in the depth of field. Now there’s KODAK VISION 800T Color Negative Film. With an exposure index of 800 in tungsten light, this is the world’s fastest color negative motion picture film—a film worthy of the KODAK VISION Film family name. It delivers the speed and latitude you need; the color reproduction that enables you to intercut it with other Kodak film products; and the sharpness and grain structure you would expect only in products of a slower speed. So, use the speed for any purpose you choose. To use ambient light as fill. To capture fast action. To manipulate your exposure. To increase the depth of field. To work longer into the magic hour. And do it all without compromise because you are working with a KODAK VISION Film. Of course, this film (like other members of the family of KODAK VISION Films) is made in the most advanced Kodak sensitizing complex in the world. So you can trust its consistency – emulsion to emulsion, roll to roll, batch to batch. And, because it’s from Kodak, it’s available when you need it, where you need it, virtually everywhere in the world. KODAK VISION 800T Color Negative Film. In gold cans, with scannable bar codes, and peelable labels. Fast. Flexible. And a proud new member of the Kodak motion picture film family for filmmakers who need to turn wishes into reality.

EXPOSURE INDEX
Tungsten (3200 K) — 800; Daylight (5500 K) — 500 (with KODAK WRATTEN Gelatin Filter No. 85).

LABORATORY AIM DENSITY
Time negative originals relative to Laboratory Aim Density (LAD) Control Film supplied by Eastman Kodak Company.

COLOR BALANCE
This film is balanced for exposure with tungsten illumination (3200 K). You can also expose it with tungsten lamps that have slightly higher or lower color temperature (± 150 K) without correction filters, since final color balancing can be done in printing. For other light sources, use the correction filters in the table below.
LIGHT SOURCE Tungsten (3000 K) Tungsten (3200 K) Tungsten Photoflood (3400 K) Daylight (5500 K) White-Flame Arcs Yellow-Flame Arcs

KODAK FILTERS ON CAMERA*
WRATTEN Gelatin No. 82B None None WRATTEN Gelatin No. 85 WRATTEN Gelatin No. 85B WRATTEN Gelatin / Color Compensating 20Y None WRATTEN Gelatin No. 85 WRATTEN Gelatin No. 85 + 10M WRATTEN Gelatin No. 85C + 10R WRATTEN Gelatin No. 85

EXPOSURE INDEX 500 800 800 500 320 500 800 500 320 500 500

BASE
Acetate safety base with rem-jet backing.

OPTIMA 32 VITALITE Fluorescent, Cool White Fluorescent, Deluxe Cool White Metal Halide (H.M.I.)

DARKROOM RECOMMENDATIONS
Do not use a safelight. Handle unprocessed film in total darkness.

PROCESSING
ECN-2

* These are approximate corrections only. Make final corrections during printing.

STORAGE
Store unexposed film at 13˚C (55˚F) or lower. For storage of unexposed film longer than 6 months, store at -18˚C (0˚F). Process film promptly.
©Eastman Kodak Company, 1998

DIFFUSE RMS GRANULARITY CURVES
To find the rms granularity value for a given density, find the density on the left vertical scale and follow horizontally to the sensitometric curve and then go vertically (up or down) to the granularity curve. At that point, follow horizontally to the Granularity Sigma D scale on the right. Read the number and multiply by 1000 for the rms value.
3.0

SENSITOMETRIC CURVES
The point “N” on the x-axis corresponds to a normal exposure of an 18-percent gray card in the red, green, and blue layers of this film. To determine optimum lighting levels for your particular production, shoot an exposure series and establish the density of a normally exposed 18-percent gray card. Use the sensitometric curves to estimate density changes caused by altered exposure conditions. Note that a one stop exposure change corresponds to a 0.3 log exposure change to the film, and a change of 0.025 in density is approximately equal to one printer light in laboratory color timing.
LOG EXPOSURE (lux-seconds) 4.0 3.0 3.0 2.0 1.0 0

Process: ECN-2
B G
2.0
.100

R B
1.0

.050 .040 .030 .020 .010 .008 .006 .005 .004 .003 .002

GRANULARITY SIGMA D

DENSITY

DENSITY

Exposure: 3200 K Tungsten, 1/50 second Process: ECN-2 Densitometry: Status M
2.0

B G

G R

R

1.0

0.0 0.0
F002_0968AC

.001

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

LOG EXPOSURE (lux-seconds) 0.0 8 6 4 2 N 2 CAMERA STOPS 4 6 8

MODULATION-TRANSFER CURVE
This graph shows a measure of the visual sharpness of this film. The x-axis, “Spatial Frequency,” refers to the number of sine waves per millimetre that can be resolved. The y-axis, “Response,” corresponds to film sharpness. The longer and flatter the line, the more sine waves per millimetre that can be resolved with a high degree of sharpness — and, the sharper the film.
200 100
70 50 30
RESPONSE (%)

F002_0970AC

SPECTRAL-SENSITIVITY CURVES
These curves depict the sensitivity of this film to the spectrum of light. They are useful for adjusting optical printers and film recorders and for determining, modifying, and optimizing exposure for blue- and green-screen special-effects work.
3.0
YellowForming Layer MagentaForming Layer CyanForming Layer

B
2.0

20 R

10
7 5 3 2

LOG SENSITIVITY *

G

1.0

0.0

1
1 2 3 4 5 10 20 50 100 200 600
1.0

Effective Exposure: .013 seconds Process: ECN-2 Densitometry: Status M Density: 0.4 above D-min
250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600
2

SPATIAL FREQUENCY (cycles/mm)
F002_0969AC

650

700

750

WAVELENGTH (nm)
*Sensitivity = reciprocal of exposure (ergs/cm ) required to produce specified density
F002_0971AC

2

KODAK VISION 800T Color Negative Film / 5289™ / 7289™ • H-1-5289

SPECTRAL DYE PEAKS
The net negative densities for the cyan dye curve are a natural consequence of the level of the magenta masking coupler. The level was chosen to give flat correction averaged over a range of wavelengths—there will be a slight overcorrection at some wavelengths and a slight undercorrection at others.
1.0
DIFFUSE SPECTRAL DENSITY

SHARPNESS
The “perceived” sharpness of any film depends on various components of the motion picture production system. The camera and projector lenses and film printers, and other factors, play a role, but the specific sharpness of a film can be measured and charted in the Modulation-Transfer Curve.

STANDARD PRODUCTS AVAILABLE
KODAK VISION 800T Color Negative Film / 5289 / 7289 Identification # Length in Feet (Metres) 200 (61) 400 (122) 1000 (305) 1000 (305) 100 (31) 400 (122) 100 (31) 400 (122) Description On Core On Core On Core On Core Camera Spool On Core Camera Spool On Core, Winding B Perforation BH-1866 BH-1866 BH-1866 KS-1866 2R-2994 2R-2994 1R-2994 1R-2994

0.8

0.6

Yellow

Magenta

Cyan

35 mm VCN718
0.4

35 mm VCN718 35 mm VCN718 65 mm VCN332 16 mm VCN449 16 mm VCN451 16 mm VCN455 16 mm VCN457

0.2

0.0

Process: ECN-2
0.2 300
F002_0972AC

400

500

600

700

800

WAVELENGTH (nm)

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION POST-PRODUCTION INFORMATION
When you transfer this film directly to video, set up the telecine using negative KODAK Telecine Analysis Film (TAF) for use with all KODAK VISION and EXR Negative Films (except KODAK PRIMETIME 640T Teleproduction Film). For assistance, call the Kodak Information Center in the U.S. at 1-800-242-2424 between 9 a.m. and 7 p.m. (Eastern time), Monday–Friday; or in Canada at 1-800-465-6325 between 8:30 a.m. and 5 p.m. (Eastern time). Films Cinematographer’s Field Guide KODAK Publication No. H-2 Processing Manual for Processing KODAK Motion Picture Films, Process ECN-2 Specifications, Module 7 KODAK Publication No. H-24.07 or see our website at www.kodak.com/go/motion

RECIPROCITY
No filter corrections or exposure adjustments for exposure times from 1/1000 to 1 second. If your exposure is in the 10-second range, increase your exposure 2/3 stop.

IDENTIFICATION
After processing, the Kodak internal product symbol (R), product code number 5289 (35 mm) or 7289 (16 mm), emulsion and roll number identification, and EASTMAN KEYKODE Numbers are visible along the length of the film.

Image Structure
KODAK Motion Picture Film KODAK Publication No. H-1 Storage KODAK Motion Picture Film KODAK Publication No. H-1 LAD LAD—Laboratory Aim Density KODAK Publication No. H-61 Transfer KODAK Telecine Analysis Film User’s Guide KODAK Publication No. H-822 KODAK Telecine Exposure Calibration Film User’s Guide KODAK Publication No. H-807

GRAIN
The “perception” of graininess of any film depends on scene content, complexity, color, and density. Other factors, such as film age, processing, exposure conditions, and telecine transfer may also have significant effects.

KODAK VISION 800T Color Negative Film / 5289™ / 7289™ • H-1-5289

3

KODAK VISION 800T Color Negative Film / 5289™ / 7289™
KODAK LOCATIONS
FOR DIRECT ORDERING IN THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA: 1-800-621-FILM ATLANTA, GEORGIA 4 Concourse Parkway, Suite 300 Atlanta, Georgia 30328-6105 Information: (800) 800-8398 CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 815 West Van Buren, Suite 320 Chicago, Illinois 60607 Information: (312) 492-1423 DALLAS, TEXAS 11337 Indian Trail Dallas, Texas 75229 Information: (972) 481-1150 or (312) 492-1423 HOLLYWOOD, CALIFORNIA 6700 Santa Monica Boulevard P. O. Box 38939 Hollywood, California 90038-1203 Information: (323) 464-6131 NEW YORK, NEW YORK 360 West 31st Street New York, New York 10001-2727 Information: (212) 631-3450 LATIN AMERICAN REGION 8600 NW 17th Street, Suite 200 Miami, Florida 33126 Information: (305) 507-5146 MONTREAL, CANADA Kodak Canada Inc. 4 Place du Commerce Ile des Soeurs, Verdun Quebec, Canada H3E 1J4 Information: (514) 761-7001 TORONTO, CANADA Kodak Canada Inc. 3500 Eglinton Avenue West Toronto, Ontario, Canada M6M 1V3 Information: (416) 761-4922 VANCOUVER, CANADA Kodak Canada Inc. 4185 Still Creek Drive, Suite C150 Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada V5C 6G9 Information: (604) 570-3526 KODAK ON LINE AT: http://www.kodak.com/go/motion

Professional Motion Imaging
KODAK VISION 800T Color Negative Film / 5289™ / 7289™ KODAK Publication No. H-1-5289 Kodak, Vision, 5289, 7289, Wratten, EXR, Primetime, Eastman, Keykode, and Shootsaver are trademarks Revision 6-99 Printed in U.S.A.

Film Types, Names, and Numbers _______________________
Film production-from recording motion with a camera to projecting the image on a screen or television-often involves three different kinds of film. Camera film is used to record the scene. Many kinds of camera films are available for the many conditions under which subjects must be filmed. Laboratory films are used to produce the intermediate stages needed in the lab for duplicating special effects, titling, etc. Making and working with intermediates also protects your valuable original footage from potential damage. Print film, on the other hand, is used for both the first workprint and for as many copies as are needed of the final edited version of the project. Many people in the motion picture industry refer to films by code number (5296, for example) rather than by name (EASTMAN EXR 500T Film). This four-digit number is displayed on the film datasheet with the name. The first of the four digits indicates the width of the film. When the first digit is 5, the film is 35 mm or wider; a 7, on the other hand, indicates an 8 or 16 mm film or a film that will be slit down to narrower gauges. The first digit of ESTAR Base film is a 2, for all widths. When a film is available in both the 16 mm and 35 mm widths, both appear on the datasheet. The name also indicates properties of the film. EKTACHROME indicates a reversal color film. If the film name includes a number, like EASTMAN EXR 500T Film, the number designates the exposure index-500 in this case. The letter-T in this example-indicates color balance. EASTMAN EXR 500T Film, therefore, is tungsten balanced. The important thing to remember about the name and number is to use both accurately when ordering film or film datasheets.

Film Descriptions _______________________
The first paragraph of a typical datasheet is a brief description of the overall characteristics of the film. Negative Camera Films Negative films produce the reverse of what our eye sees in the scene and must be printed on another film stock or transferred to videotape for final viewing. Since at least one intermediate stage is usually produced to protect the original footage, negative camera film is an efficient choice when you are planning significant editing and special effects. Printing techniques for negative-positive film systems are very sophisticated and highly flexible; hence, negative film is especially appropriate for complex visual impact. All negative films can go through several "generations" without pronounced image deterioration. Flowcharts that illustrate the most common printing approaches, from camera films to laboratory films to print films, appear in the section discussing printing.

Base _______________________
Manufacture of Film Base The film base is the flexible support on which the light-sensitive emulsion is coated. Requirements for a suitable film base include optical transparency, freedom from optical imperfections, chemical stability, photographic inertness, and resistance to moisture and processing chemicals. Mechanical strength, resistance to tearing, flexibility, dimensional stability, and freedom from physical distortion are also important factors in processing, printing, and projection. Two general types of film base are currently used by Kodak-cellulose triacetate (acetate) and a synthetic polyester polymer known as ESTAR. (The words triacetate and acetate will be used interchangeably throughout this guide.) Cellulose triacetate photographic film base is made by combining the cellulose triacetate with suitable solvents and a plasticizer. Most current EASTMAN Motion Picture Films are coated on a cellulose triacetate base. ESTAR Base, a polyethylene trephthalate polyester, is used for some EASTMAN Motion Picture Films (mostly intermediate and print films) because of its high strength, chemical stability, toughness, tear resistance, flexibility, and dimensional stability. The greater strength of ESTAR Base permits the manufacture of thinner films. ESTAR Base films cannot be spliced with readily available commercial film cements. Splicing of these films must be done with transparent tape or an ultrasonic or inductive heating current to melt and fuse the film ends.

Antihalation Backing Light penetrating the emulsion of a film can be reflected from the base/ emulsion interface or the base itself back into the emulsion. As a result, there is a secondary exposure causing an undesirable reduction in the sharpness of the image and some light scattering, called halation, around images of bright objects. A dark layer either on or in the film base will absorb and minimize this reflection, hence it is called an antihalation layer. Three methods of minimizing halation are commonly used: Rem Jet: A black-pigmented, nongelatin layer on the back of the film base serves as an excellent antihalation and antistatic layer. This layer is removed during photographic processing. Antihalation undercoating: A silver or dyed gelatin layer directly beneath the emulsion is used on some films. Any color in this layer is removed during processing. This type of layer is particularly effective in preventing halation for high-resolution emulsions. An antistatic layer is sometimes coated on the back of the film base when this type of antihalation layer is used. Dyed film base: Film bases can also transmit or "pipe" light that strikes the edge of the film. This light can travel inside the base and fog the emulsion (Figure 4). A neutral density dye is incorporated in some film bases and serves to both reduce halation and prevent light piping. This dye density may vary from a just-detectable level to approximately 0.2. The higher level is used primarily for halation protection in black-and-white negative films. Unlike fog, the gray dye does not reduce the density range of an image, because it, like a neutral density filter, adds the same density to all areas. Therefore, it has no effect on picture quality.

Edge Numbers-Key Numbers Prior to 1990 Edge numbers (also called key numbers or footage numbers) are placed at regular intervals along the film edge for convenience in frame-for-frame matching of the camera film to the workprint. The numbers are latentimage, printed along one edge outside the perforations on 35 mm and 65 mm film and between the perforations on 16 min film. Most numbers are sequential, occurring every 16 frames on 35 mm and 65 mm film, and every 20 frames (or 6 inches) on 16 mm film. Until a new edge-numbering system was devised, 35 mm film had five sequential latent-image footage (key) numbers. A series of letters and numbers appeared to the left of the footage number that were a manufacturer's code (Figure 5). On 16 mm, there were either five or seven digits. The 16 mm footage number appeared every foot until the 1970s when it appeared every six inches (20 frames) .

EASTMAN KEYKODE Numbers In 1990, Eastman Kodak Company introduced a new edge-numbering system that was included on all Eastman camera films. The new system incorporates EASTMAN KEYKODE Numbers (Figures 6 to 9) which are also in machine-readable bar code. A variety of commercially available scanners can read the standardized bar code. In this improved format, the human-readable key number consists of 12 highly legible characters printed at the familiar one-foot interval (16 frames, 64 perforations) on 35 mm.

Figure 6 EASTMAN KEYKODE Format

Figure 5 Latent image

All current Eastman camera films and some Eastman laboratory films are edge numbered at the time of manufacture by exposure to light. Some black-and-white laboratory films are numbered with ink.

The same human- / machinereadable system is available for 16 mm, but at six-inch (20 frame) intervals. On 65 mm, the number repeats every 16 frames. Another method of edge numbering is very often used by motion picture laboratories. Processed film is sometimes numbered on the base with ink. This numbering does not interfere with the manufacturer's edge numbers because the lab numbers are ordinarily printed on the opposite edge of the film. Normally, both the original camera film and the workprint are identically edge-numbered for later ease in matching. Each laboratory will use these additional numbers for their own or the customer's particular needs.

_____________
Figure 4 Light piping * Latent image: The film edge is exposed by a printer mounted at the perforator to produce an image visible only on processed film.

Below is a sample of ink edgenumbered film by a laboratory (Figure 10). With double-system sound, both the film and the magnetic tape are often ink edge-numbered for maintaining synchronization during editing.

Figure 10 EASTMAN KEYKODE Format

Dimensional Change Characteristics Motion picture film dimensions are influenced by variations in environmental conditions. The film swells during processing, shrinks during drying, and continues to shrink at a decreasing rate throughout its life, to some extent. This is generally not significant if the film is properly stored. These dimensional changes in film are either temporary (reversible) or permanent (irreversible). Temporary dimensional changes are caused by a modification in the moisture content or the temperature of the film. The extent of both temporary and permanent size alterations is largely dependent upon the Film

support. However, since the emulsion is considerably more hygroscopic than the base, it can have a marked influence on dimensional variations caused by humidity. Permanent shrinkage of film on cellulose triacetate support is usually due to loss of residual solvents or plasticizers and, to a slight extent, the gradual elimination of strains introduced during manufacture or processing. ESTAR Base has no residual solvent or plasticizer and absorbs less moisture than cellulose triacetate; consequently, its size changes due to aging are less. Values for the dimensional change characteristics of current EASTMAN Motion Picture Films are given in the table below.

Approximate Dimensional Change Characteristics of Current KODAK and EASTMAN Motion Picture Films
Humidity Coefficient of Expansion, % per 1% RH* Length Width 0.007 0.008 Thermal Coefficient of Expansion, % per1ºF† Length Width 0.0025 0.0035 Processing Shrinkage, Potential Aging Shrinkage, %§ Length 0.20 Width 0.25

Film Black-and-white camera negative, duplicating negative, color negative, color internegative, color intermediate and EKTACHROME Camera Films Black-and-white release positive, duplicating positive, sound recording and EASTMAN Color Print EASTMAN Color Print and some Intermediates

Base

%‡
Length 0.03 Width 0.05

Triacetate

Triacetate ESTAR

0.005 0.003

0.006 0.003

0.0025 0.001

0.0035 0.001

0.03 0.02

0.05 0.02

0.40 0.04

0.50 0.04

* Measured between 15 and 50% RH at 21ºC (70ºF). † Measured between 49ºC (12ºF) and 21ºC (70ºF) at 20% RH.

‡ Tray processing. Measured at 21ºC (70ºF) and 50% RH after preconditioning at low relative humidity.
§ Over a period of years at normal conditions, and shorter times at elevated temperatures or humidities.

Temporary Dimensional Change Moisture. The relative humidity of the air is the major factor affecting the moisture content of the film, thus governing the temporary expansion or contraction of the film (assuming a constant temperature). Both base and emulsion are affected by humidity. The coefficients given in the table ‘ Approximate Dimensional Chang Characteristics of Current KODAK and EASTMAN Motion Picture Film’are averages for the range of 15 to 50-percent RH, where the relationship between film size and relative humidity is approximately linear. Temperature. Photographic film expands with heat and contracts with cold, however slightly Dimensional change characteristics for current EASTMAN Motion Picture Film supports are listed in the table mentioned above. Rates of Temporary Change. Following a shift in the relative humidity of the air surrounding a single strand of film, size alterations occur rapidly in the first 10 minutes and continue for about an hour. If the film is in a roll, this time will be extended to several weeks because the moisture must follow a longer path. In the case of temperature variations, a single strand of film coming in contact with a hot metal surface, for example, will change almost instantly. A roll of film, on the other hand, requires several hours to alter size. Swell During Processing. All motion picture films swell during photographic processing and shrink during drying (Figure 11). The swell of acetate films is initially rapid and depends upon the temperature of the processing solutions, time, and film tension. Acetate films swell more in width than in length. The change for films on ESTAR Base is much smaller. The effects of drying upon the final dimensions are discussed in the section on permanent size change. Permanent Size Change Permanent size change is the combination of the shrinkage of the raw film due to processing and the long-term shrinkage of the processed film. These are discussed in turn:

Raw Stock Shrinkage. Immediately after slitting and perforating, the unexposed motion picture film is placed in cans that are sealed with tape. Until the film is removed from the can, solvent loss from acetate RIM is extremely low. The lengthwise shrinkage will rarely exceed 0.5 percent during the first 6 months in a 100-foot can of 35 mm film at room temperature or below. Films on ESTAR Base will not shrink more than 0.2 percent under the same conditions. Processing Shrinkage. The net effect of processing acetate-base film is normally a slight shrinkage unless the film has been stretched. Some processing machines have high tension that stretches the wet film (particularly 16 mm film); consequently, a lower net processing shrinkage or even a slight permanent stretch may result. Because of its greater strength and resistance to moisture, the overall size change of films on ESTAR Base is much less. Aging Shrinkage. It is important that motion picture camera negatives and intermediates have low "aging shrinkage" so that satisfactory prints or duplicates can be made even after many years of proper storage. With motion picture positive film intended for projection only, slight shrinkage is not especially critical because it has little effect on projection.

The rate at which shrinkage due to aging occurs depends upon the conditions of storage and use. Shrinkage is hastened by high temperature and, in the case of acetate films, by high relative humidity which aids the diffusion of solvents from the film base. The potential aging shrinkage of current motion picture films is given in the table ‘ Approximate Dimensional Chang Characteristics of Current KODAK and EASTMAN Motion Picture Film’. This very small net change is a considerable improvement over the shrinkage characteristics of negative materials available before 1954 and permits good printing even after long periods of keeping. The lengthwise shrinkage of release prints made on acetate supports is about 0.1 to 0.3 percent for 35 mm film and 0.1 to 0.4 percent for 16 mm film during the first 2 years if properly processed and stored. Higher shrinkage can occur over a longer period, as indicated in the table ‘ Approximate Dimensional Chang Characteristics of Current KODAK and EASTMAN Motion Picture Film’. Shrinkage of films on ESTAR Base is unlikely to exceed 0.04 percent with proper storage. Although aging shrinkage of motion picture film is a permanent size change, humidity and thermal size changes can either increase or decrease the observed size change.

Figure 11 Swell during processing

Other Physical Characteristics Aside from image quality considerations, other factors can affect the satisfactory performance of motion picture film. Curl. Film curl is defined as the departure from flatness of photographic film (Figure 12). Curl toward the emulsion is called positive while curl away from the emulsion is termed negative. Although the curl level is established during manufacture, it is influenced by the relative humidity during use or storage, processing and drying temperatures, and the winding configuration.

Adelstein, P.Z. and Calhoun, J.M., "Interpretation of Dimensional Changes in Cellulose Ester Base Motion Picture Films," Journal of the SMPTE, 69:157-63, March 1960. Adelstein, P.Z., Graham, C.L., and West, L.E., "Preservation of Motion Picture Color Films Having Permanent Value," Journal of the SMPTE, 79:1011-1018, November 1970. Calhoun, J.M., "The Physical Properties and Dimensional Behavior of Motion Picture Films," Journal of the SMPTE, 43:227-66, October 1944. Fordyce, C.R., "Improved Safety Motion Picture Film Support," Journal of the SMPTE, 51:331-50, October 1948. Fordyce, C.R., Calhoun J.M., and Moyer, E.E., "Shrinkage Behavior of Motion Picture Film," Journal of the SMPTE, 64:62-66, February 1955. Miller, A.J. and Robertson, A.C., "Motion Picture Film-Its Size and Dimensional Characteristics," Journal of the SMPTE, 74:3-11, January 1965. Noblette, C.B., Photography-its Materials and Process, Chapter 11, D. VanNostrand Co., Inc., 1962. Ram and McCrea, "Stability of Processed Cellulose Ester Photographic Films," Journal of the SMPTE, 97:4 74, June 1988. Lee and Bard, "The Stability of Kodak Professional Motion-Picture Film Bases," Journal of the SMPTE, 97: 911, November 1988. Brems, "The Archival Quality of Film Bases," Journal of the SMPTE, 97: 991, December 1988.

Darkroom Recommendations _______________________
Effective safelighting deserves careful attention due to its far-ranging effects on product quality, worker safety, and overall productivity Darkroom illumination should provide comfortable levels of lighting for safe, efficient work while producing no photographic effect on the film. The term safelight is in a sense a misnomer as there really is no "safe light." All sensitized photographic materials will become fogged when exposed to any light for an indefinite amount of time. Safelight, therefore, describes a light that will not produce any photographic effect for a particular length of time at a particular intensity. KODAK Safelight Filters are made to precise spectral absorption standards corresponding to the spectral sensitivities of the photographic materials. It is unsafe to improvise lights or filter materials for safelights, because while they may appear to be the right color, they may actually fog the film by transmitting unwanted wavelengths. The following KODAK Safelight Filter recommendations are based on directilluminating safelights with 15-watt incandescent lamps placed no closer than 4 feet from the film. See KODAK Publication No. K-4, How Safe is Your Safelight? KODAK Safelight Filter OA (Greenish Yellow). For use with bluesensitive films. KODAK Safelight Filter No. 3 (Dark Green). For use with panchromatic films. KODAK Safelight Filter No. 8 (Dark Yellow). For use with Eastman color print and intermediate films.

Figure 12 Curl

At low relative humidities, the emulsion layer contracts more than the base, generally producing positive curl. As the relative humidity increases, the emulsion layer expands relative to the support, producing negative curl. Film wound in rolls tends to assume the lengthwise curl conforming to the curve of the roll. Buckling and Fluting. Very high or low relative humidity can also cause abnormal distortions of film in rolls. Buckling, caused by the differential shrinkage of the outside edges of the film, occurs if a tightly wound roll of film is kept in a very dry atmosphere. Fluting, the opposite effect, is caused by the differential swelling of the outside edges of the film; it occurs if the roll of film is kept in a very moist atmosphere. To avoid these changes, do not expose the film rolls to extreme fluctuations in relative humidity. For more detailed information on the complex subject of dimensional changes, refer to the articles listed below.

Safelight Filter Testing Due to the heat and light generated by the light source, most safelight absorption filters gradually fade with use. Test safelight filters regularly and change them on a periodic basis. Replace safelight filters that are used 8-12 hours a day on a yearly basis. Photographic safelight testing should be conducted annually or whenever a new film product is introduced into the laboratory. The American National Standards Institute has written a standard (PH2.22-1988) on the methods for determining the safe times of darkroom illumination. A program of periodic maintenance and evaluation of the darkroom illumination is the best way to protect against product loss caused by safelight fogging.

Exposure Information _______________________
Film datasheets for camera films give exposure information under these headings: Exposure Indexes, Filter Factors (black-and-white film) or Color Balance (color films), Exposure Table, Lighting Contrast Ratios, and Reciprocity Characteristics. Explanations of each of these elements of exposure information, and instructions for using the data presented, begin below. Exposure Index/DIN The film exposure index (EI) is a measurement of film speed that can be used with an exposure meter to determine the aperture needed for specific lighting conditions. The indexes reported on film datasheets for EASTMAN Motion Picture Films are based on practical picture tests but make allowance for some normal variations in equipment and film that will be used for the production. There are many variables for a single exposure. Individual cameras, lights, and meters are all different. Lenses are often calibrated in T-stops. Coatings on lenses affect the amount of light that strikes the emulsion. The actual shutter speeds and f-numbers of a camera and those marked on it sometimes differ. Particular film emulsions have unique properties. Camera techniques, as well as the lens and lighting, can also affect exposure. All of these variables can combine to make a real difference

between the recommended exposure and the optimum exposure for specific conditions and equipment. For these reasons, it is always wise to test several combinations of camera, film, and equipment to find the exposures that produce the best results for your operation. Datasheet exposure index figures are applicable to meters marked for ASA speeds (American Standards Association), ISO (international Standards organization) or DIN speeds and are used as a starting point for an exposure series. When it comes to measuring exposure, there are three kinds of exposure meters: The averaging reflection meter and the reflection spot meter are most useful for daylight exposures, while the incident-light exposure meter is designed for indoor work with incandescent illuminations. The two reflection meters are sometimes used with the KODAK Gray Cards. One side of the card has a neutral 18-percent reflection which can be used indoors to aid in measuring the average reflection for a typical subject. You can also use this side of the card outdoors by increasing the exposure 1/2 stop above the calculated exposure. The other side of the card has 90-percent reflection for use at low-light levels. The use of this card and appropriate adjustments for aperture and exposure time is covered in KODAK Publication No. R-27, KODAK Gray Cards. Exposure Latitude Exposure latitude is the range between overexposure and underexposure within which a film will still produce usable images. Color Balance Color balance relates to the color of a light source that a color film is designed to record without additional filtration. All laboratory and print films are balanced for the tungsten light sources used in printers, while camera films are nominally balanced for either 5500 K daylight, 3200 K tungsten, or 3400 K tungsten exposure. When filming under light sources different from those recommended, filtration over the camera lens or over the light source is required. Camera film datasheets contain starting-point filter recommendations for the most common lighting sources. Always make on-site tests.

Exposure Table/Filter Factor Use the exposure table in the datasheet for average subjects that contain a combination of light, medium, and dark colors. Filter Factor Published filter factors apply strictly to the specific lighting conditions under which the measurements were made. Therefore, it may be desirable, especially for scientific and technical applications using reversal films, to determine the appropriate filter factor under actual working conditions. To determine a filter factor, place a subject with a neutral-gray area, a KODAK Gray Card, or a photographic gray scale in the scene to be photographed. Shoot the scene without filtration. Then, with the filter or filter pack in place, shoot a series of exposures at 1/2-stop intervals ranging from 2 stops under to 2 stops over the exposure determined using the published filter factor. Compare the (neutral-gray) density of one frame in the unfiltered scene with the density of one frame in each one of the filter series either visually or with a densitometer to find the filtered exposure that equals the unfiltered exposure in overall density. The filter factor is the ratio of the filtered exposure to the unfiltered exposure with equal densities. Exposure with filter Filter factor = -----------------------------Exposure without filter Since a filter absorbs part of the light that would otherwise fall on the film, the exposure must be increased when a filter is used. The filter factor is the multiple by which an exposure is increased for a specific filter with a particular film. This factor depends principally upon the absorption characteristics of the filter, the spectral sensitivity of the film emulsion, and the spectral composition of the light falling on the subject.

Conversion of Filter Factors to Exposure Increase in Stops Filter Filter Stops Stops Factor Factor 1.25 + 1/3 6 + 22/3 1.5 + 2/3 8 +3 2 +1 10 + 31/3 2.5 + 11/3 12 + 32/3 3 + 12/3 40 + 51/3 4 +2 100 + 62/3 5 +21/3 1000 +10
Each time a filter factor is doubled, the exposure needs to be increased by one stop. As an example, a filter factor of 2 requires a one-stop exposure increase. A filter factor of 4 requires a two-stop exposure increase. Use this example for filter factors not listed in the above table.

Illumination (incident Light) Table When the illumination is very low or where reflected-light measurements cannot be made conveniently, you can use an incident-light meter to read the illumination directly in footcandles (lux*). The illumination Table gives the correct aperture setting for a given exposure index and a given footcandle (lux) reading. The values are intended for use with tungsten light or with daylight, depending on the balance of the film. The values given refer to measurements with a meter held at the subject position and the integrating sphere pointed directly toward the camera. The values assume exposure by the recommended illuminant (daylight or tungsten) without filtration. In the following summary of illumination tables from the datasheets, the films are listed in decreasing order of exposure index (EI).

Reciprocity Characteristics Reciprocity refers to the relationship between light intensity (illuminance) and exposure time with respect to the total amount of exposure received by the film. According to "The Reciprocity Law," the amount of exposure (E) received by the film is proportional to light intensity (i) on the film multiplied by the exposure time (t). Therefore, E=it. In practice, any film has its optimal sensitivity at a particular exposure (i.e., normal exposure at the film's rated exposure index). This sensitivity varies with the exposure time and illumination level and is called "reciprocity effect." Within a reasonable range of illumination levels and exposure times, the film produces a good image. At extreme illumination levels or exposure times, the effective sensitivity of the film is lowered so that predicted increases in exposure time to compensate for low illumination-or increases in illumination to compensate for short exposure time-fail to produce adequate exposure. This condition is called "Reciprocity Law Failure" because the Reciprocity Law fails to describe the film sensitivity at very fast and very slow exposures. The Reciprocity Law usually applies quite well for exposure times of 1/5 to 1/1000 second for black-and-white films. Above and below these speeds, black-and-white films are subject to reciprocity failure. When the law does not hold, underexposure and change in contrast occur. For color films, the photographer must compensate for both film speed and color balance changes because the speed change may be different for each of the three emulsion layers. However, color contrast changes cannot be compensated for and contrast mismatch can occur.

________________ * Lux is the term used to describe the intensity of the exposing light in the current international standards for determining film speed. Most existing incident-light meter scales are still marked in footcandles. A footcandle is approximately equal to 10 meter candies or lux.

Illumination (Incident Light) for Camera Films Using Recommended Illuminant Exposure Time 1/50 second (24 fps) Exposure fl 1.4 fl 2 fl 2.8 fl 4 fl 5.6 fl 8 fl 11 fl 16 Index 500 5 10 20 40 80 160 320 640 400 6.3 12.5 25 50 100 200 400 800 320 8 16 32 63 125 250 500 1000 250 10 20 40 80 160 320 640 1280 200 13 25 50 100 200 400 800 1600 160 16 32 63 125 250 500 1000 2000 125 20 40 80 160 320 640 1280 2560 100 25 50 100 200 400 800 1600 3200 64 40 80 160 320 640 1280 2560 5120 40 63 125 250 500 1000 2000 4000 8000 25 100 200 400 800 1600 3200 6400 12800
Values are given in footcandles.

Lighting Contrast Ratios When using artificial light sources to illuminate a subject, a ratio between the relative intensity of the key light and the fill lights can be determined. First, the intensity of light is measured at the subject under both the key and fill lighting. Then the intensity of the fill light alone is measured. The ratio of the intensities of the combined key light and rill lights to the fill light alone, measured at the subject, is known as the lighting ratio. Except for dramatic or special effects, the generally accepted ratio for color photography is 2:1 or 3:1. For example, if the combined main light and rill light on a scene produce a meter reading of 6000 footcandles at the highlight areas and 1000 footcandles in the shadow areas, the ratio is 6:1. The shadow areas should be illuminated to give a reading of at least 2000, and preferably 3000, footcandles to bring the lighting ratio within the preferred range. Image Structure The sharpness of image detail that a particular film type can produce cannot be measured by a single test or expressed by one number. For example, resolving power test data give a reasonably good indication of

image quality. However, because these values describe the maximum resolving power a photographic system or component is capable of, they do not indicate the capacity of the system (or component) to reproduce detail at other levels. For more complete analyses of detail quality, other evaluating methods, such as the modulation-transfer function and film granularity, are often used. An examination of the modulationtransfer curve RMS granularity, and both the high-and low-contrast resolving power will provide a good basis for comparison of the imaging qualities of different films. Understanding Graininess and Granularity The terms graininess and granularity are often confused or even used as synonyms in discussions of silver or dye-deposit distributions in photographic emulsions. The two terms refer to two distinctly different ways of evaluating the image structure. When a photographic image is viewed with sufficient magnification, the viewer experiences the visual sensation of graininess, a subjective impression of a random dot-like pattern in an image. This dot-like pattern in the image structure can also

be measured objectively with a microdensitometer. This objective evaluation measures film granularity. Motion picture films consist of silverhalide crystals dispersed in gelatin (the emulsion) which is coated in thin layers on a support (the film base). The exposure and development of these crystals form the photographic image, which is, at some stage, made up of discrete particles of silver. In color processes, where the silver is removed after development, the dyes form dye clouds centered on the sites of the developed silver crystals. The crystals vary in size, shape, and sensitivity, and generally are randomly distributed within the emulsion. Within an area of uniform exposure, some of the crystals will be made developable by exposure; others will not. The location of these crystals is also random. Development usually does not change the position of a grain, so the image of a uniformly exposed area is the result of a random distribution either of opaque silver particles (black-and-white film) or dye clouds (color film), separated by transparent gelatin (Figures 13 and 14).

Figure 13 Grains of silver halide are randomly distributed in the emulsion when it is made. This photomicrograph of a raw emulsion shows silver-halide crystals.

Figure 14 Silver is developed or clouds of dye formed at the sites occupied by the exposed silver halide. Contrary to widely help oppinion, there is little migration or physical joining of individual grains. Compare the distribution of silver particles in this photomicrograpoh with the undeveloped silver halide in Figure 13.

Although the viewer sees a granular pattern, the eye is not necessarily seeing the individual silver particles, which range from about 0.002 mm down to about a tenth of that size. At magnifications where the eye cannot distinguish individual particles, it resolves random groupings of these particles into denser and less dense areas. As magnification decreases, the observer progressively associates larger groups of spots as new units of graininess. The size of these compounded groups gets larger as the magnification decreases, but the amplitude (the difference in density between the darker and the lighter areas) decreases. At still lower magnifications, the graininess disappears altogether because no granular structure can be detected visually (Figure 15). Randomness is a necessary condition for the phenomenon. If the particles were arranged in a regular pattern, like the halftone dot pattern used in graphic arts, no sensation of graininess would be created. When a halftone is viewed at a magnification sufficient for the dots to be distinguished, the eye notices the pattern and does not group dots into new patterns. Even though the dot pattern can be seen, the eye does not perceive graininess because the pattern is regular, not random. At lower magnifications-where the dots can no longer be resolved-the awareness of pattern ceases, and the image areas appear uniform. When a random pattern of small dots is viewed with sufficient magnification to resolve the individual dots, no orderly or intelligible pattern can be recognized. When the magnification is decreased so the dots cannot be resolved, they appear to blend together to form an image whose surface is nonuniform or grainy.

Figure 15 (a) A 2.5X enlargement of a negative shows no apparent graininess. (b) At 20X, some graininess shows. (c) When a segment of the negative is inspected at 60X, the individual silver grains start to become distinguishable. (d) With 400X magnification, the discrete grains are easily seen. Note that surface grains are in focus while grains deeper in the emulsion are out of focus. The apparent "clumping" of silver grains is actually caused by the overlap of grains at different depths when viewed in two-dimensional projection. (e) The makeup of individual grains takes different forms. This filamentary silver enlarged by an electron microscope, appears as a single opaque grain at low magnification.

KODAK T-GRAIN® Emulsions In recent years a new type of emulsion has been incorporated into some Kodak films. If we view conventional silver-halide grains (described above) under the scanning electron microscope, they appear as eight-surface solid cubes or irregularly shaped pebbles. The faster the film, the larger the grain-which gives the so-called "grainy" look. Kodak scientists have discovered that if the grain shape is changed to a flatter shape, the crystals intercept more light but the total amount of silver does not increase, allowing for an increase in speed with less noticeable grain. The new emulsions are called T-GRAIN Emulsions because of the flat, tabular shape of the grains. In 1991, Eastman Kodak Company's Motion Picture and Television Imaging received an Oscar from the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences for incorporating T-GRAIN Emulsion technology into motion picture films. By incorporating T-GRAIN Emulsions into film structures, Kodak can achieve overall improvements in the film quality, not just speed and grain. Not all T-GRAIN Emulsions perform better than conventional ones. Therefore, some film emulsions are a combination of both conventional and T-GRAIN Emulsions. If the uniform dot pattern of a conventional halftone is used to reproduce a scene, the eye accepts the image as a smooth, continuous-tone rendition. This happens because the dots are regularly spaced. However, when halftone dots are distributed randomly in an area to reproduce a changing scene the image looks "grainy." Graininess in the image is due, in part, to the random distribution of the individual elements which make up that moving image.

Figure 16 A stylized segment of a processed black-and-white emulsion is shown here with spheres representing the metallic silver grains of various sizes. Most modern emulsions are relatively thinner than the model suggests. Think of the circular plane area as the scanning aperture with granularity is measured.

Measuring RMS Granularity. The attributes of the photographic image which cause the human eye to perceive graininess can also be measured (and simulated) by an electro-optical system in a microdensitometer. These measurements are analyzed statistically to provide numerical values that correlate with the visual impression of graininess. The two major advantages of objective measurement are that instruments can be devised to make rapid and precise measurements and that these measurements can be manipulated readily by mathematical means. Ordinary densitometers measure density over areas much larger than those of individual silver particles. Since there are so many particles in the aperture area of an ordinary densitometer, small variations in the number of particles measured will not affect the reading (Figure 17). Just as higher magnification increases the apparent graininess, a decrease in the aperture produces higher granularity values. When the aperture of the densitometer is considerably reduced, fewer particles are included and a small change in their number is recorded as a variation in density. Analysis of the magnitude of these variations gives a statistical measure of the granularity of a sample. In practice, an area of apparently uniform density is continuously scanned by the small aperture usually 48 microns in diameter. The transmitted light registers on a photosensitive pickup; the current produced is then fed to a meter calibrated to read the standard deviation of the random-density fluctuations (see Figure 18). Standard deviation describes the distribution of a group of values (in this case, variations in density) about their average. The square root (R) of the arithmetic mean (M) of the squares (S) of the density variations is calculated-hence, the term RMS granularity For ease of comparison, this small decimal number is multiplied by a factor of 1,000, yielding a small whole number, typically between 5 and 50.

Figure 17 A large aperture “ sees”a vast number of individual silver grains. Therefore, small local fluctuations have practically no effect on the density it records. Small apertures (about one-twentieth of the larger aperture diameter) detect random differences in grain distribution when they sample the large “ uniform”area.

Figure 18 The signal form a continuous density scan of a grainy emulsion appears the same as random electrical noise when displayed on an oscilloscope. The rms voltmeter gives a direct readout of “ noise level.”

The RMS granularity instrument used at Kodak is calibrated to measure American National Standard Institute (PH2.19-1986) diffuse visual density. The granularity values for Kodak black-and-white and color negative films are determined at a net visual density of 1.0, while the values for reversal and direct duplicating films, both black-and-white and color, are determined at a gross visual density of 1.0. EASTMAN Motion Picture Films are read with a circular aperture 48 microns in diameter. This aperture size gives meaningful readings over the widest range of film samples. Factors That Affect Graininess Different developers and different amounts of development affect the graininess of black-and-white films. The amount of exposure, which

determines the densities of various areas, also affects the graininess of all films. Because the development processes of color films are rigidly fixed, the effect of development is rarely a factor in their graininess (however, force processing does cause an increase in graininess). Because many color films are made with emulsion layers of varying graininess levels, increasing the exposure (up to a point) places more of the density in the finer-grained layers, which actually reduces the overall graininess of the observed images. Granularity and Color Materials. One might expect a photographic image made up of cyan, magenta, and yellow dye clouds to appear more grainy than the corresponding silver

image. In fact, close to its resolution limit, the eye sees only brightness differences and does not distinguish color in very small detail. When color films are projected, the dye-cloud clusters form groups similar to silver-grain clusters in black-and-white films. At high magnifications, these clusters cause the appearance of graininess in the projected screen image. The illustration of cyan layer dye clouds (Figure 19) shows how the dye clouds are formed around the developing silver grains and how the dye clouds visually associate into clumps when there are several development centers close to each other.

Figure 19 The above illustrations are 1200X photomicrographs of a special cyan color film layer with incorporated coupler made very thin to permit showing the structure. The upper left picture is the film after color development and shows the metallic silver grains surrounded by dye clouds. The upper right picture shows another area of the same film after bleaching and fixing with the grain removed. The lower two pictures show the same type of film developed with a color developer containing a completing coupler which reduces the size of the dye clouds; hence, reducing the graininess.

Some Practical Effects of Graininess and Granularity The photographer wants a fine-grain film but not at the expense of sensitivity or film speed. Faster films usually have larger grains because larger silver-halide crystals have a greater probability of being struck by light and made developable. Large silver-halide crystals normally develop to larger particles of metallic silver. Thus, the selection of a film is usually a compromise between available speed and tolerable grain. With today's Eastman films, grain size no longer seems to be a problem. Kodak photographic scientists are constantly seeking more favorable speed-grain ratios. But the relationship of emulsion speed to the grain structure is also a vital concern to the photographer because the speed-grain relationship indicates whether the emulsion will detect light and, if detected, will form a recognizable image. If a biologist needs to record the life processes of an amoeba on film, the amount of allowable light is partly limited by the temperature tolerance of the amoeba. If fast film is used to compensate for limited light, the granularity must be low enough for the film to record the detail required by the application. Certainly the viewer should not have to wonder whether the movement on the screen is the amoeba's digestive process or "crawling" grain clusters. As you may recall, choosing a film with T-GRAIN Emulsions could be very beneficial in this type of photography. Graininess is most evident in the midtones of a print (i.e., densities of about 0.6 to 0.9). The light tones of the print are on the toe of the characteristic curve where the slope is very much lower than unity Hence, the contrast with which the graininess is reproduced is very low-decreasing its visibility. In dark tones, the eye is less able to distinguish graininess. The eye easily detects density differences as low as 0.02 in the average highlight density, but can detect density differences only on the order of 0.20 in the average shadow density. In the midtones, where the slope of the curve is constant, the print material has its maximum contrast and the eye can more readily distinguish small density differences; therefore, the

granularity can be most easily detected by the eye as graininess. Another factor in perceiving graininess is the amount of detail in a scene. Graininess is most apparent in large areas with fairly uniform densities and is much less evident in areas full of fine detail or motion. It is difficult to predict the magnification at which projected print images will be viewed since both the projection magnification and the distance from the observer to the screen can vary. Both factors affect the picture magnification, and thus the sensation of graininess. When a motion picture film is seen at great magnification (as from a front-row theatre seat), the viewer may be aware of grains "boiling" or "crawling" in uniform areas of the image. This sensation is caused by the frame-to-frame changes of grain positions, which make graininess, because of the motion, more noticeable in a motion picture than in a still photograph. Conversely, the moving image of the scene tends to distract the viewer's attention away from this sensation, and graininess is, therefore, usually noticed only in static scenes. Resolving Power. The resolving power of a film emulsion refers to its ability to record fine detail. It is measured by photographing resolution charts or targets (see Figure 20) under exacting test conditions. The parallel lines on resolution charts are separated from each other by spaces the same width as the lines. The chart contains a series of graduated parallel-line groups, each group differing from the next smaller or next larger by a constant factor. The targets are photographed at a great reduction in size and the processed image is viewed through a microscope. The resolution is measured by a visual estimate of the number of lines per millimeter that can be recognized as separate lines.

Figure 20

This drawing shows a standard resolvingpower test object

This is an enlarged view of the film images of a five-line resolving-power target imaged in the optical field by a photographic lens. Astigmatism causes the resolving power to be slightly lower in one direction than the other.

The measured resolving power depends on the exposure, the contrast of the test target, and the development of the film. The resolving power of a film is greatest at an intermediate exposure value, falling off greatly at high- and low-exposure values. Obviously, the loss in resolution that accompanies under- or overexposure is an important reason for observing the constraints of a particular film when making exposures. Resolution also depends on the contrast of the image, hence, the contrast of the target. Test exposures are usually made with both a highcontrast (luminance ratio 1000:1) and a low-contrast (1.6:1) target. A film resolves finer detail when the image contrast is higher. Both high- and low-contrast resolving-power values determined according to a method similar to the one described in ANSI No. PH2.33-1983, Method for Determining the Resolving Power of Photographic Materials, are given on the datasheets. The resolving power reported is based on film exposed and processed as recommended. The maximum resolution obtainable in practical photographic work is limited both by the camera lens and by the film. The formula often used to predict the resolution of a camera original is: 1/RS2 = 1/RF2 + 1/RL2 RS = Resolution of the system (lens + film) RF = Resolution of the film RL = Resolution of the lens In practice, other external factors, such as camera movement, focus, aerial haze, etc., also decrease the resolution from the possible maximum.

Processing _______________________
General The datasheets for black-and- white films give the times, temperatures, replenishment rates, and names of solutions used in continuous processing of the films. Datasheets for color films give the name of the process used. An extended discussion of processing and other laboratory operations begins in the ‘ Dealing with a Laboratory’section. Force Processing Force processing is the technique of overdeveloping film that has been underexposed intentionally or not. This industry-wide practice is considered a normal working tool by many cinematographers. Many commercial film laboratories offer force processing of both negative and reversal camera films. The following tips will make your use of force processing more successful: • Discuss your needs (in advance of your assignment, when possible) with the customer service representative or the lab manager. A quick phone call usually gets an answer. Don't forget to ask about the cost involved. • The lab may give filter recommendations. This helps to avoid unwanted color balance shifts that may occur due to the over development. • Be aware of the limits of the process. Decide beforehand whether you can accept the loss in image quality that usually results from force processing. Consult the processing lab personnel. Laboratory Aim Density (LAD) Control Method To assure optimum quality and consistency in the final prints, the laboratory must carefully control the color timing, printing, and duplicating procedures. To aid in color timing and curve placement, time the negative originals relative to the Laboratory Aim Density (LAD)* Control Film. The LAD Control Film provides both objective sensitometric control and subjective verification of the duplicating procedures used by the laboratory.

There are specific LAD values for each type of print or duplicating film onto which the original can be printed. Film-to-Video Transfer Transferring film from a negative directly to videotape is a universal process. For video release, transferring images produces excellent quality, while still maintaining an image originated on film (a worldwide standard), that can be used anywhere, including theatrical release. NTSC (North American Television Systems Committee) video images are not conducive to producing the best transfer quality to systems (PAL, SECAM) other than the North American standard, NTSC. There is a difference in frame rates as well as other factors. When transferring film directly to video, typical flying spot scanners or solid-state imagers may be set up with the appropriate Telecine Analysis Film (TAF)†. This film is supplied by Eastman Kodak Company as a negative, intermediate, or print, and consists of a neutral-density scale and an eight-bar color test pattern with a LAD gray surround. The TAF gray scale can provide the scanner operator (colorist) with an effective way to evaluate subcarrier balance and to center the telecine controls prior to timing and transferring a film. The TAF color bars are intended to provide the utility of electronic color bars. With proper color matrixing in the telecine for the film type being transferred, TAF color bars should closely match in phase, electronic color bars, but at a reduced chroma level. Use of TAF will help obtain optimum quality and consistency in the film-to-video transfer.

_______________ * For more information, see KODAK
Publication No. H-61, LAD-Laboratory Aim Density. † For more information on TAF and its features, see KODAK Publication No. H-9, TAF User's Guide.

Storage of Raw and Exposed Film _______________________
The sensitometric characteristics of virtually all unprocessed photographic materials gradually change with time, causing loss in sensitivity, a change in contrast, a growth in fog level, a color balance shift, or possibly all of these. Improper storage will cause much larger changes in color quality and film speed than do variations in manufacturing. Scrupulous control of temperature and humidity, thorough protection from harmful radiation and gases, and careful handling are important to long, useful film life. This section explains how to store raw film stock and exposed, unprocessed film. Storage of film after processing is discussed at the end of the ‘ Getting the Most from your film section. The chart in the ‘ Storage of Raw and Exposed Film’section summarizes storage conditions. Raw Stock in Original Package. In general, the lower the temperature at which a film is stored, the slower its rate of sensitometric change during aging will be. For periods up to three months, store motion picture raw stock at a temperature of 13ºC (55ºF) or lower, and a relative humidity of 60% or lower, during the entire storage period to retain optimum film properties. Store raw stock at -18 to -23ºC (0 to -10ºF) if you must keep it longer than three months or if you intend to use it for a critical use that requires uniform results. Sensitometric change cannot be prevented by such storage, but it will be minimized.

unseal the can. This will prevent telescoping of the roll during handling because of possible cold-induced looseness between the layers; it will also prevent moisture condensation and spotting of the film. Radiation. Do not store or ship unprocessed film near x-ray sources or other radioactive materials. Some scanning devices used by postal authorities and airlines may fog the film. Take special storage precautions in hospitals, industrial plants, and laboratories where radioactive materials are in use. You should also label packages of unprocessed films that must be mailed across international borders as follows: "Contents: Unprocessed photographic film. Please do not x-ray." Airports. For the protection of travelers, all domestic airports use electronic devices and x-ray equipment to check passengers and hand-carried luggage. Film can tolerate some x-ray exposure but excessive amounts will result in objectionable fog (increase in base film density) and noticeable grain increase. This is particularly true for very high-speed films. In the United States, passenger inspection results in very low level rates of x-rays, which should not perceptibly fog most films. However, the effects of x-rays are cumulative, so repeated x-ray inspections can lead to an increase in fog and grain. Be cautious. You can avoid this danger to unprocessed film by hand carrying film, including film in cameras, and asking the attendant to inspect it, thus avoiding x-rays. Carry your film in a clear plastic bag for easy inspection. Foreign Travel. Security measures at airports other than those in the United States can pose a threat to unprocessed film. Not only is there a danger from x-rays, but security and customs agents may open containers of unprocessed film, ruining weeks of work. Also, baggage x-rays may be at a higher level than x-rays used for passengers. The best protection, when traveling abroad, is to write to the airport manager well in advance of your arrival and explain the relevant details of your trip. Give your arrival time, flight number, and departure.

List the equipment and film you're bringing with you. Ask if there are any steps you can take to expedite matters and ensure the safety of your film. Repeat the process before leaving the foreign country Speak with the airport manager and customs people, if possible, to confirm the advance arrangements you made. For international travel, you may find it worthwhile to work with an export company or customs broker. There are private companies that expedite the handling of international shipments and do all the necessary paperwork for you. Check the telephone directory yellow pages under "Exporters." Another way to avoid problems is to have the film processed in the country where you expose it. Kodak can help you find a local laboratory. Just consult the Kodak office nearest you. Ambient Background Radiation (effects on rawstock). Ambient gamma radiation is composed of two sources: a low energy component which arises from the decay of radionuclides and a high energy component which is the product of the interaction of cosmic rays with the earth's upper atmosphere. The radionuclides responsible for the low energy photons exist in soil and rock and are carried into earth-derived building materials, such as concrete. Upon exposure to ambient background radiation, photographic materials can exhibit an increase in minimum density, a loss in contrast, and an increase in granularity. The change in film performance is determined by several factors, such as the film speed and length of time the film is exposed to the radiation before it is processed. A film with a speed of 500 can exhibit about three times the change in performance as a film with a speed of 125. While this effect on a film product is not immediate, it is one reason why we suggest exposing and processing the film as soon as possible after purchase. A period of about six

Typical Type of Warm-Up Times KODAK (Hours) Film For For Package 55ºC 14ºC (25ºF) (100ºF) Rise Rise 16 mm 1 1 1/2 35 mm 3 5
IMPORTANT: After a package of raw stock has been removed from cold storage, allow it to warm up to room temperature (70 ±5ºF) before you

months from time of purchase can be considered "normal" before exposure and processing, provided it has been kept under specified conditions. Extended periods beyond six months may especially affect fast films, as noted above, even if kept frozen. The only way to determine the specific effect of ambient background radiation is with actual testing or measurements and placing a detector in the locations where the film was stored. The most obvious clue is the observance of increased granularity, especially in the light areas of the negative. Gases and Vapors. Gases (such as formaldehyde, hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, ammonia, coal gas, engine exhaust, hydrogen peroxide) and vapors (from solvents, mothballs, cleaners, turpentine, mildew and fungus preventives, and mercury) can change the sensitivity of photographic emulsions. The cans in which motion picture films are packaged provide protection against some gases, but others can slowly penetrate the adhesive-tape seal. Keep film away from any such contamination-for example, closets or drawers that contain mothballs-otherwise, desensitization of the silver-halide grains or chemical fogging can occur. Relative Humidity. Since a small amount of vapor leakage through the closure of a taped can is unavoidable, use additional water-vapor protection if you are going to keep motion picture films longer than a month in an area having high relative humidity (60 percent or higher), such as home refrigerators or damp basements. Tightly seal as many unopened rolls as possible in a second plastic container or can. Note: It is the relative humidity, not the absolute humidity, that determines the moisture content of film. Relative humidity is best measured with a sling psychrometer. In a small storage chamber, a humidity indicator, such as those sold for home use, is satisfactory. Handling. Design storage rooms for motion picture raw stock so that accidental flooding from storms, water pipes, or sewers cannot damage the product. Keep all film at least 15 cm (6 in.) off the floor for storage.

Photographic Material

Short-Term Long-Term (less than 3 months) (more than 3 months) % Relative % Relative Temperature Temperature Humidity Humidity below 60 below 60 -18º to -23ºC (0º to -10ºF) below 60

Raw Stock* (in original sealed 13ºC (55ºF) cans) Exposed, -18º to -23ºC Unprocessed (0º to -10ºF)†

Not Recommended (see text below)

* After removal from storage, keep sealed (in original cans) until temperature is above the dew point of outside air (See table of warm-up times in the ‘ Storage of Raw and Exposed Film’section.) † Process film as soon as possible after exposure.

Rooms that are artificially cooled should be constructed and insulated so that moisture does not condense on the walls. As indicated, control of relative humidity below 60 percent is not critical as long as the film cans remain sealed. Maintain the temperature as uniformly as possible throughout the storage room by means of adequate air circulation so that sensitometric properties remain consistent from roll to roll. Do not store film near heating pipes or in the line of sunlight coming through a window, regardless of whether the room is cool or not. Unprocessed Film Before and After Exposure General Concerns. Once you open the original package, the film is no longer protected from high relative humidities that can cause undesirable changes. Exposed footage is even more vulnerable to the effects of humidity and temperature. Therefore, process film as soon as possible after exposure. Temperature. Protect film in original packages or loaded in cameras, cartridges, magazines, on reels, and in carrying cases from direct sunlight, and never leave it in closed spaces that may trap heat. The temperatures in closed automobiles, parked airplanes, or the holds of ships, for example, can easily reach 60ºC (140ºF) or more. A few hours under these conditions, either before or after exposure, can severely affect the quality of the film. If processing facilities are not immediately available, store exposed films at -18ºC (0ºF) but only for a few weeks at most.

Gases and Radiation. You must keep films away from the harmful gases and radiation mentioned earlier. Relative Humidity. When handling motion picture film in high relative humidities, it is much easier to prevent excessive moisture take-in than it is to remove it. If there are delays of a day or more in shooting, remove the magazine containing partially used film from the camera and place it in a moisture-tight dry chamber. This prevents any absorption of moisture by the film during the holding period. Immediately after exposure, return the film to its can and retape it to prevent any increase in moisture content. Moisture leakage into a taped can is more serious when the can contains only a small quantity of film. When these circumstances exist, seal as many small rolls as possible in a second moisture-resistant container. Handling. Handle the film strand carefully by the edges to avoid localized changes in film sensitivity caused by fingerprints. Folding and crimping the film also introduces local changes in sensitivity. Keep the surfaces that the film travels over

clean to prevent scratching of the film's base or emulsion. For a more detailed discussion of long-term storage, see KODAK Publication No. H-23, The Book of Film Care.

Sensitometric and Image-Structure Data _______________________
"Sensitometry" is the science of measuring the response of photographic emulsions to light. "Image structure" refers to the properties that determine how well the film can faithfully record detail. The appearance and utility of a photographic record are closely associated with the sensitometric and image-structure characteristics of the film used to make that record. The ways in which a film is exposed, processed, and viewed affect the degree to which the film's sensitometric and image-structure potential is realized. The age of unexposed film and the conditions under which it is stored also affect the sensitivity of the emulsion. Indeed, measurements of film characteristics made by particular processors using particular equipment and those reported on datasheets may differ slightly. Still, the information on the datasheet provides a useful basis for comparing films. When cinematographers need a high degree of control over the outcome, they should test the film they have chosen under conditions that match as nearly as possible those expected in practice. Also, alert the laboratory to this test. Understanding Sensitometric Information Transmission density (D) is a measure of the light-controlling power of the silver or dye deposit in a processed film emulsion. In color films, the density of the cyan dye represents its controlling power to red light, that of magenta dye to green light, and that of yellow dye to blue light. Transmission density may be mathematically defined as the common logarithm (Log base 10) of the ratio of the light incident on processed film (Po) to the light transmitted by the film (Pt). D = log 10 Po/Pt

The measured value of the density depends on the spectral distribution of the incident light, the spectral absorption of the film image, and the spectral sensitivity of the receptor. When the spectral sensitivity of the receptor approximates that of the human eye, the density is called visual density. When it approximates that of a duplicating or print stock, the condition is called printing density. For practical purposes, transmission density is measured in two ways: Totally diffuse density (Figure 21) is determined by comparing all of the transmitted light with the incident light perpendicular to the film plane ("normal" incidence). The receptor is placed so that all of the transmitted light is collected and evaluated equally. This setup is analogous to the contact printer except that the "receptor" in the printer is film. Specular density (Figure 22) is determined by comparing only the transmitted light that is perpendicular ("normal") to the film plane with the "normal" incident light, analogous to optical printing or projection. To simulate actual conditions of film use, totally diffuse density readings are routinely used when motion picture films are to be contact printed onto positive print stock. Specular density readings are appropriate when a film is to be

optically printed or directly projected. However, totally diffuse density measurements are accepted in the trade for routine control in both contact and optical printing of color films. Totally diffuse density and specular density are almost equivalent for color films because the scattering effect of the dyes is slight, unlike the effect of silver in black-and-white emulsions. Characteristic Curves A characteristic curve is a graph of the relationship between the amount of exposure given a film and its corresponding density after processing. The density values that produce the curve are measured on a film test strip that is exposed in a sensitometer under carefully controlled conditions, and processed under equally controlled conditions. When a particular application requires precise information about the reactions of an emulsion to unusual light-filming action in a parking lot illuminated by sodium vapor lights, for example-the exposing light in the sensitometer can be filtered to simulate that to which the film will actually be exposed. A specially constructed step tablet, consisting of a strip of film or glass containing a graduated series of neutral densities differing by a constant factor, is placed on the surface of the test strip to control the amount of exposure, the exposure time being held constant. The resulting range of densities in the test strip simulates most picturetaking situations, in which an object modulates the light over a wide range of illuminance, causing a range of exposures (different densities) on the film.

Figure 21 Totally diffuse density

Figure 22 Specular density

After processing, the graduated densities on the processed test strip are measured with a transmission densitometer. The amount of exposure (measured in lux*) received by each step on the test strip is multiplied by the exposure time (measured in seconds) to produce exposure values in units of lux-seconds. The logarithms (base 10) of the exposure values (log H) are plotted on the horizontal scale to produce the characteristic curve. This curve is also known as the sensitometric curve, the D Log H curve, or the H & D (Hurter and Driffield) curve. † The characteristic curve for a test film exposed and processed as described above is an absolute or real characteristic curve of a particular film processed in a particular manner. Sometimes it is necessary to establish that the values produced by one densitometer are comparable to those produced by another one. Status densitometry is used for this. Status densitometry refers to measurements made on a densitometer that conform to a specified unfiltered spectral response (Dawson and Voglesong, "Response Functions for Color Densitometry," PS&E Journal, Volume 17, No. 5). When a set of carefully matched filters is used with a densitometer, the term Status Densitometry is used. The densities of color-positive materials (reversal, duplicating, and print) are measured by Status A Densitometry. When a different set of carefully matched filters is incorporated in the densitometer for reading the densities of color preprint films (color negative, internegative, intermediate, and low-contrast reversal original), the densities are measured by Status M Densitometry. (Densitometer Filter Sets are purchased directly from the manufacturers of densitometers. For further information, contact the densitometer manufacturer.) Representative characteristic curves are those that are typical of a product and are made by averaging the results from a number of tests made on a number of production batches of film. The curves shown in

Figure 23 Typical characteristic curve

the datasheets are representative curves. Relative characteristic curves are formed by plotting the densities of the test film against the densities of a specific uncalibrated sensitometric step scale used to produce the test film. These are commonly used in laboratories as process-control tools. Black-and-white films usually have one characteristic curve. A color film, on the other hand, has three characteristic curves, one each for the red modulating (cyan-colored) dye layer, the green-modulating (magentacolored) dye layer, and the blue-modulating (yellow-colored) dye layer (see Figures 25 and 27). Because reversal films yield a positive image after processing, their characteristic curves are inverse to those of negative films (compare Figures 26 and 28).

_______________ * One lux is the illumination produced by one
standard candle from a distance of 1 metre. When a film is exposed for 1 second to a standard candle I metre distance, it receives I lux-sec of exposure. † Zwick, D., "The Meaning of Numbers to Photographic Parameters," Journal of the Society of Photo-Optical instrumentation Engineers, Volume 4 (1966), pages 205-211.

Figure 24

Figure 25 Color negative film

Figure 26 Color reversal film

Figure 27 Black-and-white negative film

Figure 28 Black-and-white reversal film

General Curve Regions. Regardless of film type, all characteristic curves are composed of five regions: D-min (minimum density), the toe, the straight-line portion, the shoulder and D-max (maximum density) (Figure 29). Exposures less than at A on negative film or greater than at A on reversal film will not be recorded as changes in density. This constant density area of a black-and-white film curve is called base plus fog. In a color film, it is termed minimum density or D-min. The toe (A to B) is the portion of the characteristic curve where the slope (or gradient) increases gradually with constant changes in exposure (fog H). The straight-line (B to C) is the portion of the curve where the slope does not change; the density change for a given fog-exposure change remains constant or linear. For optimum results, all significant picture information is placed on the straight-line portion. The shoulder (C to D) is the portion of the curve where the slope decreases. Further changes in exposure (log H) will produce no increase in density because the maximum density (D-max) of the film has been reached. Base density is the density of fixed-out (all silver removed) negative / positive film that is unexposed and undeveloped. Net densities produced by exposure and development are measured from the base density. For reversal films, the analogous term of D-min describes the area receiving total exposure and complete processing. The resulting density is that of the film base with any residual dyes. Fog refers to the net density produced during development of negative/positive films in areas that have had no exposure. Fog caused by development may be increased with extended development time or increased developer temperatures. The type of developing agent, ambient radiation, and the pH value of the developer can also affect the degree of fog. The net fog value for a given development time is obtained by subtracting the base density from the density of the unexposed but processed film. When such values are determined for a series of development times, you can plot a time-fog curve (Figure 30) showing the rate of fog growth with development. A base fog increase can also be a result of aging or improperly kept film.

Figure 29 Regions of the characteristic curve

Curve Values. You can derive additional values from the characteristic curve that not only illustrate properties of the film but also aid in predicting results and solving problems that may occur during picture-taking or during the developing and printing processes. Speed describes the inherent sensitivity of an emulsion to light under specified conditions of exposure and development. The speed of a film is represented by a number derived from the film's characteristic curve. Contrast refers to the separation of lightness and darkness (called "tones") in a film or print and is broadly represented by the slope of the characteristic curve. Adjectives such as flat or soft and contrasty or hard are often used to describe contrast. In general, the steeper the slope of the characteristic curve, the higher the contrast. The terms gamma and average gradient refer to numerical means for indicating the contrast of the photographic image. Gamma is the slope of the straight-line portion of the characteristic curve or the tangent of the angle (a) formed by the straight line with the horizontal. In Figure 27, the tangent of the angle (a) is obtained by dividing the density increase by the log exposure change. The resulting numerical value is referred to as gamma. Gamma does not describe contrast characteristics of the toe or the shoulder. Camera negative films record some parts of scenes, such as shadow areas, on the toe portion of the characteristic curve. Gamma does not account for this aspect of contrast. Average gradient is the slope of the line connecting two points bordering a specified log-exposure interval on the characteristic curve. The location of the two points includes portions of the curve beyond the straight-line portion. Thus, the average gradient can describe contrast characteristics in areas of the scene not rendered on the straight-line portion of the curve. Measurement of an average gradient extending beyond the straight-line portion is shown in Figure 31.

Figure 30 Curves for a development-time series on a typical black-and-white negative film

Figure 31 Average gradient determination

The particular gamma or average gradient value to which a specific black-and-white film is developed differs according to the properties and uses of the film. Suggested control gamma values are given on the datasheets for black-and-white negative and positive films. If characteristic curves for a black-and-white negative or positive film are determined for a series of development times and the gamma or average gradient of each curve is plotted against the time of development, a curve showing the change of gamma or average gradient with increased development is obtained. You can use the time-gamma curve (Figure 32) to find the optimum developing time to produce the control gamma values recommended in the datasheet (or any other gamma desired). Black-and-white reversal and all color film processes are not controlled by using gamma values. Flashing Camera Films. Flashing camera films to lower contrast is a technique, that involves the application of a uniform exposure to a film before processing to lower overall contrast of some color films. It is actually an intentional light fogging of

the film. You can make the flashing exposure before or after the subject exposure, either in-camera or in a printer. The required amount of exposure and the color of the exposing light depend on the effect desired, the point at which the flashing exposure is applied, the subject of the main exposure, and the film processing. Because of potential latent-image changes, it's better to use a flashing exposure just prior to processing.

________________
* "Flashing of EASTMAN EKTACHROME Video News Films for Intercutting with EASTMAN EKTACHROME Commercial Film 7252 " by Doody, Lawton, and Perry, Journal of the SMPTE, Vol. 78, June 1978. (EASTMAN EKTACHROME Commercial Film 7252 is no longer being manufactured but the printing practice is valid.)

This fairly common practice is often used to create a closer match of two films' contrast characteristics when they are intercut. It is also used if the print contrast of a projection contrast reversal camera film is deemed too high after being printed. Lower contrast allows for more detail in shadow areas. The hypothetical characteristic curves in Figure 33 show what occurs when one film is flashed to approximately match another film's characteristic curve. The illustration has been simplified to show an ideal matching of the two films. In practice, results will depend on the tests run using the specific films intended for a production.

Figure 32

Figure 33

Modulation-Transfer Curve. Modulation transfer relates to the ability of a film to reproduce images of different sizes. The modulation-transfer curve describes a film's capacity to reproduce the complex spatial frequencies of detail in an object. In physical terms, the measurements evaluate the effect on the image of light diffusion within the emulsion. First, film is exposed under carefully controlled conditions to a series of special test patterns, similar to that illustrated in (a) of Figure 34. After development, the image (b) is scanned in a microdensitometer to produce trace (c). The resulting measurements show the degree of loss in image contrast at increasingly higher frequencies as the detail becomes finer. These losses in contrast are compared mathematically with the contrast of the portion of the image unaffected by detail size. The rate of change or "modulation" (M) of each pattern can be expressed by this formula in which E represents exposure: E max - E min M = ----------------------E max + E min When the microdensitometer scans the test film, the densities of the trace are interpreted in terms of exposure, and the effective modulation of the image (Mi) is calculated. The modulation-transfer factor is the ratio of the modulation of the developed image to the modulation of the exposing pattern Mo, or Mi/Mo. This ratio is plotted on the vertical axis (logarithmic scale) as a percentage of response. The spatial frequency of the patterns is plotted on the horizontal axis as cycles per millimetre. Figure 35 shows two such curves. At lower magnifications, the test film represented by curve A appears sharper than that represented by curve B; at very high magnifications, the test film represented by curve B appears sharper. All photographic modulation-transfer curves in the datasheets were determined using a method similar to that specified by ANSI Standard PH2.39-1984. The films were exposed with the specified illuminant to spatially varying sinusoidal test patterns having an aerial image modulation of a nominal 35 percent at the image plane, with processing as indicated. In practice, most photographic modulation transfer values are influenced by development adjacency effects and are not exactly equivalent to the true optical modulation-transfer curve of a particular photographic product.

Figure 34 Image (b) of a sinusoidal test object (a) recorded on a photographic emulsion and a microdensitometer tracing (c) of the image.

Figure 35 Modulation-transfer curves

Modulation-transfer measurements can also be made for the nonfilm components in a photographic system such as cameras, lenses, printers, etc., to analyze or predict the sharpness of the entire system. By multiplying the responses for each ordinate of the individual curves, the modulation-transfer curve for a film can be combined with similar curves for an optical system to calculate the modulation-transfer characteristics of the entire system. Spectral Sensitivity The term color sensitivity is used on datasheets for some black-and-white films to describe the portion of the visual spectrum to which the film is sensitive. All black-and-white camera films are panchromatic (sensitive to the entire visible spectrum). Some laboratory films are also panchromatic. Some films, called orthochromatic, are sensitive mainly to the blue-and-green portions of the visible spectrum. Films used exclusively to receive images from black-and-white materials are blue-sensitive. While color films and panchromatic black-and-white films are sensitive to all wavelengths of visible light, rarely are two films equally sensitive to all wavelengths. Spectral sensitivity describes the relative sensitivity of the emulsion to the spectrum within the film's sensitivity range (Figure 36). In conventional photographic emulsions, sensitivity is limited at the short (ultraviolet) wavelength end to about 250 nanometres (nm) because the gelatin used in the photographic emulsion absorbs much ultraviolet radiation. The sensitivity of an emulsion to the longer wavelengths can be extended by the addition of suitably chosen dyes. By this means, the emulsion can be made sensitive through the green region (orthochromatic black-and-white films), through the green and red regions (color and panchromatic black-and-white films), and into the near-infrared region of the spectrum (infrared-sensitive film). Three spectral- sensitivity curves are shown for color films-one each for the red-sensitive (cyan-dye forming), the green-sensitive (magenta-dye

forming), and the blue-sensitive (yellow-dye forming) emulsion layers. One curve is shown for black-and-white films. The data are derived by exposing the film to calibrated bands of radiation 10 nanometres wide throughout the spectrum, and the sensitivity is expressed as the reciprocal of the exposure (ergs/cm²) required to produce a specified density. The radiation expressed in nanometres is plotted on the horizontal axis, and the logarithm of sensitivity is plotted on the vertical axis to produce a spectral sensitivity curve, as shown in Figure 37.

Equivalent neutral density (END): When the amounts of each of the components of an image are expressed in this unit, each of the density figures tells how dense a gray that each component can form. Because each emulsion layer of a color film has its own speed and contrast characteristics, equivalent neutral density (END) is derived as a standard basis for comparison of densities represented by the spectral sensitivity curve. For color films, the standard density used to specify spectral sensitivity is as follows: For reversal films, END = 1.0. For negative films, direct duplicating, and print films, END = 1.0 above D-min.

Normal Photographic Section of the Electromagnetic Spectrum

Figure 36 Film Sensitivities

Figure 37 Spectral-sensitivities curves

Figure 38 Spectral-dye-density curves

Spectral-Dye-Density Curves Processing exposed color film produces cyan, magenta, and yellow dye images in the three separate layers of the film. The spectral-dyedensity curves (illustrated in Figure 38) indicate the total absorption by each color dye measured at a particular wavelength of light and the visual neutral density (at 1.0) of the combined layers measured at the same wavelengths. Spectral-dye-density curves for reversal and print films represent dyes normalized to form a visual neutral density of 1.0 for a specified viewing and measuring illuminant. Films which are generally viewed by projection are measured with light having a color temperature of 5400 K. Color-masked films have a curve that represents typical dye densities for a mid-scale neutral subject. The wavelengths of light, expressed in nanometres (nm), are

plotted on the horizontal axis, and the corresponding diffuse spectral densities are plotted on the vertical axis. Ideally, a color dye should absorb only in its own region of the spectrum. However, all color dyes absorb some wavelengths in other regions of the spectrum. This unwanted absorption, which could prevent satisfactory color reproduction when the dyes are printed, is corrected in the film's manufacture. In color negative films, some of the dye-forming couplers incorporated in the emulsion layers at the time of manufacture are colored and are evident in the D-min of the film after development. These residual couplers provide automatic masking to compensate for the effects of unwanted dye absorption when the negative is printed. This explains why camera negative color films look orange.

Since color reversal films and print films are usually designed for direct projection, the dye-forming couplers must be colorless. In this case, the couplers are selected to produce dyes that will, as closely as possible, absorb only in their respective regions of the spectrum. If these films are printed, they require no printing mask. Printing Conditions A representative printer setup is described for each laboratory or print film in each datasheet. Read these printer setups for comparison purposes and use only as a starting point. A detailed description of printers and printing processes begins in the ‘ Motion Picture Printing’section. Use the Laboratory Aim Density (LAD) control method described earlier for determining optimum printing exposure.

Sound-Track Printing The datasheets for print films contain recommendations for printing a photographic sound track. They also recommend the industry-recognized cross-modulation (X-mod) test procedures to determine the density required in the original to produce minimum distortion in the print.*

Sizes Available _______________________
Motion picture film emulsions are coated on a 54-inch-wide continuous web of film base. These 54-inch rolls constitute the master stock rolls that are slit into strips during the finishing process. Each master roll is assigned a number; each strip also has a reference number (see Figure 39). After slitting, the strips are perforated and cut to the designated lengths. EASTMAN Motion Picture Camera Films are then wound onto cores or spools, the outer ends secured, and depending on format, some are put into black plastic bags. Then they are packaged into cans or plastic boxes (16 mm only), and sealed. The bags ensure that the film fits snugly into the container, as well as further protecting the film from light. Some 35 mm Eastman color print film is packaged in compression boxes with individual strips up to 6000 feet long. Each roll of film in compression boxes is in an airtight vacuum bag. The tape used on the outside of a film can serves as a seal between the cover and body of the can. This tape is designed to resist the flow of air and moisture so that the newly manufactured film retains its original moisture content. The tape and the can are both marked to identify the contents. A description of the identifying codes on tape, can label,

and film appears under FILM IDENTIFICATION. The "Available Roll Lengths" section in the datasheet refers the reader to Kodak's Motion Picture Films for Professional Use price catalog. The catalog number (CAT No.) is perhaps the most important piece of information to know when ordering film from Kodak. The catalog number identifies a particular kind of emulsion, film format, and length. For example, CAT No. 840 0525 describes only one film package: 100 feet of EASTMAN EXR Color Negative (16 mm), two rows of perfs (2994 pitch), with a film identification number of EXM449. The film identification number, also found in the price catalog, is a combination of a three-letter film emulsion designation (EXM, in the example above) and three-digit specification number (449, in this case). The number designates film width; perforation type and format; type of core, spool, or magazine length, and winding. This code does not always refer to the film length. Cores and Spools EASTMAN Motion Picture Films are available on several types of cores and spools, each appropriate to the design of the equipment in which the films are to be exposed. The films are connected to the core, by tightly lapping several convolutions of film around the core or inserting the film end into the slot. When the film is wound on the core, the core cannot be removed from the film except by unwinding the film. The standard core and spool types for EASTMAN Motion Picture Films are described below:

Winding When a 16 mm roll of raw stockperforated along one edge and wound emulsion side in-is held so that the end of the film leaves the roll at the top and to the right, it is designated Winding A if the perforations are toward the observer. It is designated Winding B if the perforations are away from the observer (Figure 40). Winding A films are used for making contact prints and are not intended for use in the camera. Winding B is used for camera film, for making optical prints, and on bidirectional printers. Perforations Why All the Sizes and Shapes? In the early days of 35 mm motion pictures, film perforations were round. Because these perforations were more subject to wear, the shape was changed to that now known as the Bell & Howell (BH) or "negative" perforation (see Figure 41). This modification improved positioning accuracy and was the standard for many years.

_____________ * For more information on sound track cross
modulation testing, see J.O. Baker and D.H. Robinson, Journal of the SMPE January 1938, and SMPTE Recommended Practice, RP 104-1987.

Dimension

C D H* R

Perforation Type Kodak Standard Inches mm Inches mm 0.110 2.794 0.110 2.794 0.073 1.854 0.078 1.981 0.082 2.080 0.020 0.510 Bell & Howell

16 Millimetre

Tolerances ±

Inches mm Inches mm 0.072 1.829 0.0004 0.010 0.050 1.270 0.0004 0.010 0.010 0.250 0.0010 0.030

*Dimension H is a calculated value.

Type K Core – 35mm. A plastic core with a 3-inch (76mm) outside diameter. Contains a 1inch (24.5mm) diameter center hole with keyway and a film slot. Used with 1000-foot (305m) and longer lengths of negative, sound, intermediate, and print films.

Figure 38 Film roll lengths

Type T Core – 16mm. A plastic core with a 2-inch (51mm) outside diameter. Contains a 1inch (24.5mm) diameter center hole with keyway and a film slot. Normally used with 16mm films 400 feet (122m) in length.

Type U Core – 35mm. A plastic core with a 2-inch (51mm) outside diameter. Contains a 1inch (24.5mm) diameter center hole with keyway and a film slot. Customarily used with camera negative, sound, intermediate, and positive films. Supplied in a variety of lengths.

Type Y Core – 35mm. A plastic core with the same diamentions as the Type K Core but made of stronger material to hold 1000- to 6000-foot (305-615mm) rolls of color print film.

Type Z Core – 16mm. A plastic core with a 3-inch (76mm) outside diameter. Contains a 1-inch (24.5mm) diameter center hole with keyway and a film slot. Used with camera and print films in roll sizes longer than 400 feet (122m).

R-190 Spool – 16mm. A metal camera spool with a 4.940-inch (125mm) flange diameter and a 1 1/4-inch (32mm) core diameter. Square hole with single keyway, two offset round drive holes, and one elliptical hole in both flanges. Side 1 and Side 2 markings. Will accept 200 feet (61mm) of acetate base film.

R-90 Spool – 16mm. A metal camera spool with a 3.615-inch (92mm) flange diameter and a 1 1/4-inch (32mm) core diameter. Square hole with single keyway in both flanges. Center hole configuration is aligned on both flanges. The standard sales length for this spool is 100 feet (30.5mm) of acetate base film.

S-83 Spool – 35mm. A metal camera spool with a 6.657-inch (93mm) flange diameter and a 31/32-inch (25mm) core diameter. Square hole with single keyway in both flanges. Center hole configuration is aligned on both flanges. Intended for 100 feet (30.5mm) of acetate base film. Used with camera negative materials

Figure 40

Figure 40 Beginning in 1990, Kodak rounded the corners on Bell & Howell perforations to add strength.

During this time, 35 mm professional motion picture cameras and optical printers were designed with registration pins that conformed to negative (BH) perforation. To this day, newly designed professional equipment incorporates registration pins conforming to the negative (BH) perforation. In 1989 Kodak introduced a stronger version of the Bell & Howell (negative) perforation. The radius of each corner was rounded by 0.005 inches. This small difference is almost imperceptible visually, but adds strength where the perforation is most vulnerable to tearing during stress periods while being transported through equipment. This is especially true during highspeed photography. This corner radius change does not necessitate any equipment change worldwide, and yet improves product performance. Another Bell & Howell perforation performance improvement was introduced by Kodak in 1989. This is a

reduction in perforation-dimension tolerance from the ANSI specifications. This tighter tolerance format is used where film registration is very critical, such as in travelling matte photography or separations. The tighter tolerance perforations are standard on all Kodak 16 mm camera films and some 35 mm films. The high shrinkage of older films on nitrate base made the negative perforation a problem on projection films due to excessive wear and noise during projection as the sprocket teeth ticked the hold-back side of the perforations as they left the sprocket. The sharp corners also were weak points and projection life of the film was shortened. To correct this, a new perforation was designed with increased height and rounded corners to provide added strength. This perforation, commonly known as the KS or "positive" perforation, has since become the world standard for 35 mm projection print films.

During the period when the production of color prints involved the multiple printing of separation negatives onto a common print film, a third design, known as the Dubray-Howell perforation, was introduced. It had the same height as the negative (BH) perforation to maintain the necessary registration but had rounded corners to improve projection life. This perforation is still available for special applications on certain films. Because shrinkage in current films is low, the shorter perforation height poses no projection wear problems. In 1953, the introduction of Cinemascope produced a fourth type of perforation. This wide-screen projection system incorporated 35 mm film with perforations that were nearly square and smaller than the positive (KS) perforation. The design provided space on the film to carry four magnetic sound stripes for stereophonic and surround sound.

Perforated one edge

Perforated two edges

Dimension A* B E F G (max) L†

1R-2994 (PH22.109) Inches mm 0.6280 15.950 0.2994 7.605 0.0355 0.902 29.94 760.5

Perforation Type and ANSI Number 1R-3000 2R-2994 (PH22.110) (PH22.110) Inches mm Inches mm 0.6280 15.950 0.6280 15.950 0.3000 7.620 0.2994 7.605 0.0355 0.902 0.0355 0.902 0.4130 10.490 0.0010 0.030 30.00 762.0 29.94 760.5

2R-3000 (PH22.110) Inches mm 0.6280 15.950 0.3000 7.620 0.0355 0.902 0.4130 10.490 0.0010 0.030 30.00 762.0

Tolerances Inches 0.0010 0.0005 0.0020 0.0010 0.03 mm 0.030 0.013 0.051 0.030 0.8

* This dimension also represents the unperforated width. † This dimension represents the length of any 100 consecutive perforation intervals. Figure 42 Examples of ANSI specifications

Except for early experimentation, perforation dimensions on 16 mm and 8 mm films have remained unchanged since their introduction. Each type of perforation is referred to by a letter identifying its shape, and by a number indicating the perforation pitch dimension. Perforation pitch is the distance from the bottom edge of one perforation to the bottom edge of the next perforation. The letters BH indicate negative perforations, which are generally used on 35 mm camera films, intermediate films, and on films used in special-effect processes. The letters KS indicate positive perforations, which are used on most

35 mm positive sound recording films and on print films. The designation BH 1866, for example, indicates a film having negative-type perforations with a pitch dimension of 0.1866 inch (4.740 mm). Sixteen millimetre camera films may be perforated along both edges (double perforated) or along only one edge (single perforated). All 35 mm camera films are double perforated. Some flexibility is possible in selecting double- or single-perforated 16 mm film. You can use double-perforated film in cameras having a single pull-down claw. Also, you can duplicate or print footage exposed on double-perforated film on

single-perforation stock if you are going to add a photographic sound track to the film. Note: Do not use single-perforated film in equipment designed for doubleperforated film. The illustrations below (Figure 42) show examples of ANSI specifications. You can obtain specifications for all film products from the American National Standards institute. The list of Standards and Recommended Practices is reproduced in the ‘ Appendix’section.

Dimension A* B E F G (max) L†

BH-1866 (PH22.93) Inches mm 1.3770 34.975 0.1866 4.740 0.0790 2.010 0.9990 25.370 0.0010 0.030 18.66 474.00

Perforation Type and ANSI Number BH-1870 KS-1866 (PH22.93) (PH22.139) Inches mm Inches mm 1.3770 34.975 1.3770 34.975 0.1870 4.750 0.1866 4.740 0.0790 2.010 0.0790 2.010 09990 25.370 0.9990 25.370 0.0010 0.030 0.0010 0.030 18.70 474.98 18.66 474.00

KS-1870 (PH22.139) Inches mm 1.3770 34.975 0.1870 4.750 0.0790 2.010 0.9990 25.370 0.0010 0.030 18.70 474.98

Tolerances Inches 0.0010 0.0005 0.0020 0.0020 0.015 mm 0.025 0.013 0.050 0.050 0.38

* This dimension also represents the unperforated width. † This dimension represents the length of any 100 consecutive perforation intervals. Figure 42 Examples of ANSI specifications

Optimum Pitch for Printing. Continuous printers used for motion picture film are designed so that the original film and the print raw stock are in contact (emulsion-to-emulsion) with each other as they pass around the printing sprocket, with the raw stock on the outside (Figure 43). To prevent slippage between the two films during printing (which would produce an unsharp or unsteady image on the screen), the original film must be slightly shorter in pitch than the print stock. In most continuous printers, the diameter of the printing sprocket is such that the pitch of the original must be 0.2 to 0.4 percent (theoretically, 0.3 percent) shorter than that of the print stock. With nitrate film and early safety film, this condition was achieved by natural shrinkage of the original during processing and early aging. However, the substantially lower shrinkage of present safety films makes such a natural adjustment impossible; therefore, film used as printing originals is now manufactured with the pitch slightly shorter than the pitch of the print film For 35 mm film, the pitch dimensions are 0.1870 inch (4.750 mm) on print film and 0. 1866 inch (4.740 mm) on original film; for 16 mm film, they are 0.3000 inch (7.620 mm) on print film, 0.2994 inch (7.605 mm) on most camera film.

Figure 43 A printing sprocket

Projection Print Aspect Ratios The aspect ratio is the relationship between the width and height of an image. While the image dimensions may vary in size according to projection requirements, the aspect ratio should comply with the cinematographic intent. The industry standard for theatrical motion pictures remained a constant 1.37:1 between the introduction of sound and the introduction of Cinemascope in 1953 when "wide screen" presentations arrived. For those exhibitors unwilling or unable to convert to the new system, alternative "wide screen" presentations were developed. While the original stereophonic (four-track magnetic) Cinemascope presentation had an aspect ratio of 2.55:1, the "flat" or nonanamorphic systems, designed to simulate "wide screen" images, provided several aspect ratios from 1.66:1 all the way up to and including 2:1. During this uncertain period, release prints were often printed with wider frame lines to emphasize that increased ratios were intended. During printing, the frame lines could be varied by printing the lines in to cover some of the original film image. In the 1950s, television's demands for feature films increased. However, because the typical television display provides a fixed ratio of 1.33:1, many of the films shown on television, after adjustment to fill the video screen height, lost a substantial part of the image at the edges. Several approaches to rectifying this incompatibility were tried with various levels of success until the industry came to the current " consensus" that 1.85:1 would be the "normal" theatrical projection ratio but that the print would have an image of greater height so that it could fill a television screen without creating borders. Today, the usual procedure when filming productions for theatrical release and eventual TV showing is to "matte" the camera viewfinder to clearly indicate 1.85:1 and to keep all pertinent action within this area. Nevertheless, the entire 1.37:1 frame is exposed. The cinematographer must make certain no scene rigging, mike booms, cables, or lights are included in the expanded

CAMERA 1.37:1

THEATRICAL 1.37:1

TV 1.33:1

1.85:1
Figure 44 Potential image losses when changing aspect ratios

area. Subsequent release prints, therefore, contain a sufficient frame height to provide normal telecine transmission. In the theatre, the projectionist must use a 1.85:1 aperture plate and exercise some judgment in adjusting the projector framing. This can be done conveniently during the showing of the titles.

Film identification _______________________
Unprocessed Film The many characteristics of a specific roll of unprocessed film are described most completely on the film label. The eleven-digit code on the label in Figure 45 (5296-325-3201) identifies the film type (5296), the emulsion batch number (325), the roll number and the part of the roll (3201) from which this strip of EASTMAN EXR Color Negative Film was cut. When an emulsion batch is put together, it is quite large-too large to

be coated onto only one roll of film base. Therefore, it is necessary to coat more than one roll, and all subsequent rolls are numbered in sequential order. So, in this case, the first two digits identify the roll number of this particular emulsion batch. The last two digits identify the roll part. If one roll is coated onto a 6000-foot master roll, each strip can be cut into many individual parts. As an example, the 6000 feet can be cut into three 2,000-foot rolls-part 1, 2, and 3. The emulsion batch number and roll number also appear on the tape sealing the can. The film identification code (EXH

718) gives the emulsion type (EXH) and film specification number (718), a code describing width, perforation type and format, winding, and type of core, spool, or magazine. The perforation type and pitch are identified in two ways: BH-1866 (or Bell & Howell perforation with a pitch of 0.1866 inch), and N4 740 (or negative perforation with a pitch of 0.4740 centimetres). The film strip reference number identifies the location of a particular strip of film cut from the master roll. This number (1 through 38 for 35 mm and 1 through 83 for 16 mm) appears on a sticker affixed to most cans holding 400 or more feet of film.

UPPER PORTION OF LABEL is peelable. Place it on the film magazine as a reminder of the film you are using.

EXPOSURE INDEX TUNGSTEN RATING With no filter, will give indicated speed ratings.

KEYKODE FILM EDGEPRINT WITH BARCODING

DAYLIGHT RATING With as 85 rating Filter, will give indicated speed rating.

EMULSION POSITION AND WINDING TYPE (EMULSION IN)

METRIC PERFORATION PITCH

EMULSION LETTER DESIGNATION AND FINISHED FILM SPECIFICATIONS

COLOR BAR IDENTIFIES FILM LENGTH OF ROLL IN METRES FILM WIDTH

LENGTH OF ROLL IN FEET

PERFORATION TYPE KIND OF FILM INCH PERFORATION PITCH

CATALOG NUMBER

EMULSION NUMBER

ROLL NUMBER

Processed Film The film strip reference number affixed to the can of raw stock film also appears as a latent image on the film itself. On all camera films prior to 1990 and the usage of EASTMAN KEYKODE Numbers, the combination of manufacturer's code (an uppercase letter for 35 mm or a trailer end marking for some 16 mm), and latent-image edgeprint was placed on the film to help identify processed film. A summary of this information follows. Year of Film Manufacture Date Code Symbols There may be many important reasons for knowing the year an older motion picture film was manufactured. For instance, you may need to know the type of film base, especially if you are sorting between nitrate and safety base film. There is no readable numeric date on Eastman motion picture film products prior to 1990; however, most of our motion picture film products have a date code symbol. A date symbol, designating the year of manufacture, is incorporated into the edgeprint legend of almost all 8 mm, 16 mm, 35 mm, 65 mm, and 70 mm films. Three different sets of symbols, having either one, two, or three characters, were used prior to 1990, the year that KEYKODE Numbers started appearing on all color and some black-and-white motion picture film products, except print films. The only four years with a single character in the symbol were 1916, a circle; 1917, a square; 1918, a triangle; and

1929, a plus sign. For the years 1928 and 1948 there were three circles. All other years until 1982 exhibited two characters which repeated every twenty years. For example, the same symbol appears for 1921, 1941, 1961, and 1981. Starting with 1982, a third character was added that allows for many more years before repetition. Beginning with KEYKODE Numbers (1990), the film date code is represented by two alpha designators. Below are the date code, or yearly, symbols beginning with 1960 and ending with 1991. These may be either open or solid. With the codes prior to 1982 repeating every twenty years, these represent all years beginning with 1919. If the symbol on your Eastman motion picture film does not match those previously described or listed below, please contact your regional Kodak office. Please be aware that color print film does not have KEYKODE Numbers. The symbols as listed below will continue as a part of print film year-of-manufacture identification.

Film Product Edgeprint Identification
To further help identify Eastman motion picture film products without KEYKODE Numbers, each 35 mm product has a letter as the first character of the key number sequence. This corresponds to a particular product code. For example, key number B19X 12345, with the letter B, is either product code 5247 or 5248. Each 16 min product has a three-character designator, such as PXN, ECN, 291, etc. In a following table is a list of symbols for most Eastman motion picture film products prior to KEYKODE Numbers. For all films with KEYKODE Numbers, the product code appears as a four-digit product number, along with the emulsion and roll number on each strip of Eastman motion picture film (see KEYKODE Numbers charts). Please note that there may be more than one product with the same letter. If there is a question about a particular product, please contact one of the Eastman Kodak Company offices.

1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975

Date Code Symbols 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991

KEYKODE Numbers year/alpha designators DE 1989 TM 1994 LE 1990 MN 1995 EA 1991 NK 1996 AS 1992 KD 1997 ST 1993 DF 1998

35 mm (latent image or ink) Letter Edge Products Exhibiting Symbol the Symbol no letter 5247 A 5243, 5251, 7243, S0420 B 5247,5248 C 5222,5250,5297 D 5234,5235,5243, 5366,7234 E 5222, 5254, 5295 SA F 5247,5295 G 5224, 5271, 5294 H 5231, 5247, 5293 J 5296 K 5245 M 5248 (1990) 0 5249,7249 S 5272,7272

Nitrate and Acetate Base All Eastman motion picture film since 1952 has been manufactured on cellulose ester (acetate) safety base. Prior to 1948, all 35 mm motion picture film was on cellulose-nitrate film base. In 1948, Kodak introduced acetate safety base and began the systematic conversion from nitrate to acetate base film, completing that conversion in approximately four years. Some 70 mm black-and-white negative and color print films were also on cellulosenitrate film base. Nitrate was and is relatively unstable while acetate is very stable; therefore, you should never store them together. Acetate base can be chemically attacked by the gases given off by decomposing, unstable nitrate base film. This would shorten the life of any safety film that is stored for extended life expectancy No Eastman 16 mm (or narrower) film was ever manufactured with nitrate base.

16 mm (latent image or ink) Film Designator Product Codes (edge) PXN 7231 DXN 7222 4XN 7224 VND 7239 VNF 7240 EF 7241 EFB 7242 ECN 7247 CRI 7249 VNX 7250 VXD 7251 ECO 7252 ECF 7255 EMS 7256 ER 7257 ERT 7258 PXR 7276 4XR 7277 TXR 7278 291 7291 292 7292 ECH 7293 294 7294 296 7296

Getting the Most from Your Films ______________________________________________________
Test Exposures _______________________
Every production presents a unique set of conditions and demands. A full understanding of the job at hand and careful evaluation of the information in the datasheets should give the filmmaker a good idea of how a chosen film stock will respond to most filming situations. Testing reduces any remaining uncertainties and establishes the reaction of a particular film to a unique situation. The variables that make test exposures worthwhile and the technique of interpreting such exposures are the subjects of this section. Testing is one aspect of professional work which is too often overlooked in practice. When seeking the best possible results, filmmakers should run tests to provide reference points during production and to confirm choices based on previous experience and datasheet information. Below are the principal causes of real or apparent changes in speed in all films, and contrast and color balance in color films. Failure to understand these causes can lead to misunderstanding or misinterpretation of photographic results: • • • • • • • • Slight variations (but within manufacturing limits) among different emulsion batches. Scene illumination of incorrect or mixed color quality Differences in film sensitivity with changes in illumination level and exposure time. Variations in equipment (lenses, shutters, exposure meters, etc.). Adverse storage conditions before processing. Nonstandard processing conditions. Nonstandard viewing conditions. Differences in personal judgment. All except the first are beyond the scope of manufacturing control and cannot be predicted accurately from the datasheets. Furthermore, the variations encountered in practical use are apt to be a great deal larger than those permitted by manufacturing tolerances. That is why you should make a test exposure whenever speed and color-balance requirements are important. Test exposures are necessary for reversal camera materials that will be projected directly after processing-more so than for negative or printed reversal materials-because you do not have the opportunity to make density and color-balance adjustments prior to projection. Most professionals realize the perishable nature of sensitized materials and are careful to avoid subjecting films (especially color) to extreme heat and humidity, either before or after exposure. The other factors listed are equally important, however. Never overlook them when choosing a film or attempting to explain an unexpected result. Two or more causes of variation may influence results at the same time. Often the effects are additive, and minor single variations will, when combined, produce noticeable results unless you make adjustments before filming. Only a test exposure under the practical conditions of use will give you this information.

Knowing what a film is designed and manufactured to do is a large part of the process of film selection-but not all. Actual shooting, projection, and storage conditions also influence film performance and selection. This section won't tell you everything about making motion pictures. Instead, we will concentrate on five areas that can affect your selection of film. First, there is nothing like an on-site test to determine exactly how your film will perform. We discuss six situations under which a film test is a good idea. Suppose your test shows that the film stock being considered produces unattractive results under the lighting you plan to use to illuminate a few scenes. Will a filter correct the situation? Can you change the lighting? Will another film stock work better for those scenes? Our second topic, filtration, covers a range of uses for filters to fill the needs of your unique circumstances. Will you have sound? Our third section covers the process by which the sound you recorded is combined with your images in the final print. Will the film you have carefully created hold up during projection and storage? The last two sections explain how to care for finished films.

Figure 46 Cross section of processed negative film magnified 1000 times. Great technical skill is required to obtain the uniform high quality for which Kodak color films are known. The extremely thin layers, shown above, are precisely coated at high speed on the transparent film base (the broad gray area). Without magnification, the yellow layer, for example, is only 1/10 the thickness of a human hair.

Emulsion Coating A speed variation of 1/3 stop, and sometimes more, usually passes unnoticed when you project black-and-white film. In color film, where the performance of each emulsion layer is evaluated in terms of the other two, a much smaller variation in the relative speed of any one layer is evident to the user. Coating thickness is a manufacturing variable that provides an excellent illustration of the technical accuracy maintained in making color films. Tests have shown that the thickness of each emulsion layer must be controlled within 4 or 5 percent; any larger variation would, by itself, use up the entire color-balance tolerance available. Since a typical color emulsion is only 3 ten thousandths of an inch thick, only 15 millionths of an inch variation is allowable. And this kind of accuracy is maintained in making successive coatings on a thin, flexible base in the dark! At Kodak, the standardization of manufacturing operations is supplemented by an extensive testing and quality-control program. Only film produced within narrow tolerances of the production aim point is shipped from the manufacturing plant. The actual sensitometric tolerances tested include speed, fog, contrast , color-contrast match, and maximum density. Production tests are made at normal room temperature with illuminants equivalent in color quality to tungsten (3200 K or 3400 K) lamps for tungsten films and to average sunlight plus skylight (5500 K) for daylight films. They are exposed at times considered representative of the major applications for the films. In all cases, films are to be processed in accordance with process specifications. Physical characteristics such as curl, perforation pitch, weave, tensile strength, freedom from scratches, etc., are also carefully controlled. The careful cinematographer makes practical picture tests on new film batches with the exposure and filtration to be used for the rest of the production. These tests help determine if any additional filtration and exposure adjustments are needed.

On-Location Lighting Filmmakers are well aware that color films are balanced in manufacture for exposure to light of a certain color quality. Color negative film offers considerable latitude because you can make some adjustments for color balance during printing. Even reversal materials that will be printed offer some latitude because of the printing step. However, when you're not going to print a reversal material, you must compensate if the light source differs in color quality from that for which the film is balanced. Even the "correct" light may be changed appreciably in color quality as it passes from source to subject to film. Discolored or dirty reflectors and camera lenses with a color tint can both change color quality. Furthermore, the color quality of tungsten and fluorescent lamps can change with age and voltage fluctuations. Lighting from mixed sources will also change color renderings. Specific End-Use Appearance Different laboratories can produce variations in image quality and effective film speed, and from time to time, variations can be noted at a single laboratory The conditions under which film is viewed also have a marked effect on the apparent color quality of the picture. The location of the projector, the viewer, and the screen can affect the image quality dramatically. For critical applications you should test film by projecting and evaluating it under the specific conditions in which you will use it. These tests will serve as a base in all future discussions with the laboratory.

Determine the "Look" of the Finished Job Because the viewers' reactions to a projected image involve their psychological responses, a projected image can never be "perfect" in any simple sense. Like all photographic and electronic imaging systems, Kodak color films exhibit small color differences between the image and the subject itself when they are critically compared. Usually these differences are insignificant, but cinematographers have to judge whether the "look" of the film is consistent with their intentions and with the nature of the subject. Since the manufacturer's evaluation of color balance is determined from picture tests judged by a number of observers, it is obvious that an individual cinematographer, producer, or laboratory may prefer a color balance different from one judged desirable by the manufacturer. Because the manufacturer can never judge color balance appropriately for all tastes and all extremes of working conditions, run tests as closely as possible to the conditions of final use before filming critical work. If possible, run the tests on the actual subject. Make the test on the same type of film that you will use for the final exposure, and store it under similar conditions before and after exposure. The exposure time, light source, and processing conditions should also be identical to those planned for the final work, as well as the camera, lens, and filters. Specific Color Reproduction With only three dyes, color films are able to produce a pleasing rendering of most colors. Occasionally, though, some colors present special difficulties in accurate reproduction, even though the film has been manufactured, stored, exposed, and processed correctly. Fortunately, the conditions that produce these effects are not common. Since a large majority of all photographs include people, the

reproduction of flesh tones is a primary consideration in the design of a color film. Also important is the reproduction of neutrals (whites, grays, and blacks) and the reproduction of common "memory" colors, such as blue sky, green grass, etc. Because films are designed to reproduce these colors properly under a variety of conditions, some other colors-such as shades of chartreuse, lime, pink, and orange- may not reproduce as well. (it is possible to design a film that would improve the reproduction of these other colors, but only at the expense of generally more important flesh tones, sky, grass, etc.) More noticeable difficulties may occur

because color films do not have exactly the same color sensitivities as the human eye (Figure 47). For most subjects, the three light-sensitive layers of the film do not have to "see" the subject exactly the same way the human eye does. In most cases, the differences are scarcely noticeable. Sometimes, though, the differences between film sensitivity and visual sensitivity can produce unwelcome results. Since color films are sensitive to ultraviolet radiation, a substance reflecting ultraviolet energy will reproduce bluer on film than it looks to the eye. If it is blue to begin with, this effect is of little or no consequence.

Normal Photographic Section of the Electromagnetic Spectrum

Figure 47 Sensitivity of the eye and a typical color film

With other colors, however, the additional blueness may neutralize the original color or even make it appear blue. Neutral and near-neutral colors are more apt to be affected by such a shift because their saturation is low. For example, a black tuxedo made of synthetic material may appear blue. You can reduce this effect by using an ultraviolet-absorbing filter, such as a KODAK WRATTEN Gelatin Filter No. 2B, over the lens or over the light source when practical. Closely related is the effect of ultraviolet fluorescence. Some fabrics absorb ultraviolet radiation and re-emit it in the near-blue (shortest wavelength) portion of the visible spectrum. Since the eye is not very sensitive in this part of the spectrum, the effect may not be readily apparent until a photograph of the subject is viewed. An analogous visual effect is created by "black light" which makes special paints, some fabrics, etc., "glow" in the dark. Under an ultraviolet lamp, any fabric containing brighteners will fluoresce. Many white fabrics contain brighteners introduced during

manufacture or laundering to give them a whiter appearance. Examination of any suspect fabrics under an ultraviolet source will generally indicate whether there will be a fluorescence problem. In this case, a filter over the lens does not help. A photographic test is the best way to determine whether there may be problems with reproduction in the ultraviolet range. Perhaps most troublesome are the color reproduction problems sometimes called "anomalous reflectance." They arise from high reflectance at the far red and infrared end of the spectrum, where the eye has little or no sensitivity. The heavenly blue morning glory (Figure 48) and ageratum flowers are examples of colors occurring in nature that reproduce poorly because color films are much more sensitive to the far red than the eye. Among artificial materials, some classes of organic dye are notable examples of high reflectance in the far red. These dyes are currently very popular with fabric manufacturers because they are relatively inexpensive and work well

with synthetic materials. While the high reflectance of these dyes in the far red and infrared can be found in all colors, its effect is most noticeable in medium-to-dark green fabrics, where the photographic effect of the far red reflectance is to neutralize the green, making it appear more brown. High reflectance at the far end of the spectrum can be identified by use of a deep red filter such as a KODAK WRATTEN Gelatin Filter No. 70. If the materials are examined under a tungsten light, a green natural-fiber material will appear black, whereas a synthetic material with high reflectance in the far red will appear much lighter. Because the judgment is quantitative, compare a sample of a green fabric known to reproduce well with the test fabric under the filter. If the test fabric appears distinctly lighter in a side-by-side comparison through the No. 70 filter, there may be a reproduction problem. Even then, you should confirm this by conducting a photographic test under actual working conditions, if possible.

Figure 48 A heavenly blue morning glory as seen and photographed

Filtration _______________________
White light is the sum of all the colors of the rainbow; black is the absence of all these colors. For practical purposes, we can consider white light as composed of equal amounts of three primary light colors-red, green, and blue. For example, if green and red are subtracted, we see blue. We see many more colors in nature than these three because absorption and reflection of the primaries are rarely complete. Our perception of a color is influenced by the surrounding colors and brightness level, the surface gloss of an object, and any personal differences in our color vision. Black-and-white and color films also see colors differently due to spectral sensitivity. Filtration used with black-and-white films can control the shades of gray to obtain a technically correct rendition or to exaggerate or suppress the tonal differences for visibility, emphasis, or other effects. Filtration with color films can change the color quality of the light source to produce proper color rendition or to create special effects. Colors as Seen in White Light Red Blue Green Yellow (red-green) Magenta (red-blue) Cyan (blue-green) Black White Gray Colors of Light Absorbed Blue and green Red and green Red and Blue Blue Green Red Red, green, and blue None Equal portions of red, green, and blue

Filters Useful with Camera Films Polarizing Filters. Polarizing filters (also called polarizing screens) are used to subdue reflections from surfaces such as glass, water, and polished wood, and for controlling the brightness of the sky. By reducing glare, polarizing filters also increase color saturation. Using a polarizing filter to control the brightness of the sky has several advantages over color filters: (1) The color rendering of foreground objects is not altered. (2) It is easy to determine the effect produced by the polarizing filter by checking the appearance of the image in the viewfinder (for cameras equipped with reflex-type viewfinders), or by looking through the filter when it is held at the same angle as used on the camera. (3) You can use other filters with a polarizing filter to control the color rendering of objects in the foreground, while the polarizer independently controls the brightness of the sky. The amount of polarized light from a particular area of the sky varies according to the position of the area with respect to the sun, the maximum occurring at an angle of 90º from the sun. Therefore, avoid panning the camera with a polarizer because the sky will become darker or lighter as the camera position changes. The sky may appear lighter than you would expect for these reasons: • A misty sky does not photograph as dark as a clear blue sky. You can't darken an overcast sky by using a filter. The sky is frequently almost white at the horizon and shades to a more intense blue at the zenith. Therefore, the effect of the filter at the horizon is small, but it becomes greater as you aim the camera upward. The sky near the sun is less blue than the surrounding sky and, therefore, is less affected by a filter.

Figure 49

REFLECTION

Object absorbs green and blue, looks red TRANSMISSION

• Filter absorbs green and blue, looks red

Figure 50

Filters always subtract some of the light reflected from a scene before it reaches the film plane in the camera. A red filter, then, is not "red" but rather a filter that absorbs blue and green. Similarly, a yellow filter is one that absorbs blue light. A yellow sunflower absorbs blue light and reflects the other parts of white light-red and green, which we see as yellow or lack of blue.

UNPOLARIZED SUNLIGHT BEFORE IT STRIKES PARTICLES IN THE ATMOSPHERE

POLARIZED SUNLIGHT AFTER IT IS SCATTERED BY PARTICLES IN THE ATMOSPHERE

Figure 51 This illustration shows the area or band across the sky that will darken with a polarizing screen when you take pictures at right angles to the sun with the handle of the polarizing screen –if it has one– pointing at the sun.

Figure 52 When the color of the sky is a lighter blue and not as saturated in color as it sometimes is, a polarizing screen will not darken the sky as much as when it’ a deeper blue to begin with. When the sky is white, as on an overcast s day, a polarizing screen will have no effect. Annisquam Light.Cape Ann, Massachusetts.

Figure 51 A polarizer can eliminate reflections on non-metallic surfaces.

When you begin making exposures with a polarizing filter, remember that this filter has a minimum filter factor of 2.5 (increase exposure by 1 1/3 stops). This factor applies regardless of how the polarizing screen is rotated. In addition to this exposure increase, you must make any exposure increases required by the nature of the lighting. For example, for the dark-sky effect, you must sidelight or toplight the scene, so you will have to add approximately 1/2-stop exposure to the 1 1/3-stop increase required by the polarizing filter factor. Allow an additional 1/2-stop exposure for subjects on which reflections are eliminated by the polarizing filter because reflections often make objects look brighter than they really are. Neutral Density Filters. Neutral density filters, such as the KODAK WRATTEN Neutral Density Filter No. 96, are used to reduce the intensity of light reaching the film without affecting the tonal rendition of colors in the scene. Neutral density filters make it possible to film in bright sunlight using high-speed films without having to use very small lens openings. In color motion picture photography, you can use a combination of filters, such as KODAK WRATTEN Gelatin Filters No. 85BN3 and 85BN6, to convert the color temperature from 5500 K (daylight) to 3200 K; at the same time, these filters provide neutral densities of 0.3 and 0.6. Since a 0.3ND filter causes a 1-stop reduction in exposure, these filters require, respectively, one and two stops of additional exposure. Correction Filters for Black-and-White Films Most panchromatic black-and-white emulsions have a high sensitivity to both ultraviolet and blue radiation. Because this sensitivity is dissimilar to the spectral sensitivity of the eye, blue or violet subjects are often

"overexposed" and rendered too light on the final print. In location work, for example, correction filters are often used to overcome an apparent lack of contrast between blue sky and white clouds. At the red end of the spectrum, certain higher speed panchromatic films possess a marked red sensitivity that, unless compensated for, tends to distort the rendering of red subject matter. Deliberate over-correction is sometimes done to achieve special effects.

Foliage looks slightly darker than we expect when it is photographed on black-and-white film without a filter. By using a yellow or yellow-green filter to absorb some of the unwanted blue and red light, you can record foliage in its proper gray tone. This becomes apparent when the negative is correctly printed (see Figures 54 and 55).

This photo shows the color and tome rendition of the original scene.

Exposed through a No. 11 yellow-green filter

Exposed through a No. 15 deep-yellow filter Figure 51

Figure 55 (a) Here’ how the subset originally looked s under tungsten lighting (b) Without filtration, the abundance of yellow-red in tungsten lighting slightly alters the original brightness relationship. (c) A No. 11 yellow-green filter restores the normal brightness relationships and emphasizes the lips

Filters for Color Films In exposing color films and in making prints and intermediates, you may need to use correction filters to obtain good color rendition. Daylight and artificial light differ from one another in spectral quality and are individually subject to considerable variation. When the actual light is different from that specified for a particular film, correction filters can adjust the color quality of the illumination to that for which the film is balanced. You can refer to filter tables in the film datasheet to help identify the right filters for obtaining optimum color balance; they will be especially useful as a starting point from which to run tests. However, they cannot cover all variables such as high or low voltage, aging of lamps, or color contribution of diffusers. Color temperature meters measuring the three primary colors provide an accurate method of determining the spectral energy distribution of light sources as they relate to the sensitivities of the three layers in color films. Meters such as the Spectra tricolor meter and the Minolta 3-color meter are an excellent means of finding the actual spectral distribution. Some meters give a choice of correcting the balance with either color balancing and conversion filters or color compensating filters. In most instances, making the main correction with color compensating filters requires many filters, while correcting with light balancing and conversion filters requires two at the most. Because the addition of many filters over a camera lens increases flare and decreases sharpness, make color temperature (red-blue) corrections with light balancing and conversion filters; make green-magenta adjustments with color compensating filters.

Neutral Density 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0

KODAK WRATTEN Neutral Density Filter No. 96 Percent Increase in Exposure Transmittance Filter Factor (Stops) 80 1 1/4 1/3 63 1 1/2 2/3 50 2 1 40 2 1/2 1 1/3 32 3 1 2/3 25 4 2 20 5 2 1/3 16 6 2 2/3 13 8 3 10 10 3 1/3 1 100 6 2/3 0.1 1,000 10 0.01 10,000 13 1/3

Selecting Filters for Correcting Color Temperature. The color quality of some illuminants can be expressed in terms of color temperature-a measure of the light irradiated by an "ideal radiator," that is, a blackbody heated to incandescence. When the visual color of the illuminant is the same, or nearly the same, as that of the ideal radiator at a given temperature, the illuminant color is described in terms of the corresponding temperature of the ideal radiator, which is expressed in degrees Kelvin (K). Note: Do not confuse sunlight with daylight. Sunlight is only the light of the sun. Daylight is a combination of sunlight plus skylight. The values

given are approximate because many factors affect color temperature. Outdoors, the sun angle and the conditions of sky, clouds, haze, or dust particles will raise or lower the color temperature. Indoors, tungsten bulbs are affected by age (and blackening), voltage, and the types of reflectors and diffusers-all of which can influence the actual color temperature of the light. Usually, a change of 1 volt equals 10 K. But this is true only within a limited voltage range and does not always apply to "booster voltage" operation since certain bulbs will not exceed a certain color temperature regardless of the increase in voltage.

Light Source Conversion with Filters. To evaluate filter requirements for the conversion of light sources, it is helpful to use the reciprocal of the color temperature. The concept of expressing color temperature in reciprocal form is useful because a given sum of reciprocal units corresponds approximately to the same color difference for most visibly emitting sources (in the range from 1000 K to 10,000 K). The reciprocal color temperature is commonly multiplied by 1,000,000 to give numbers of convenient size. The values obtained by this operation 1,000,000 x 1/TK have, in the past, been called microreciprocal degrees or "mireds." The term reciprocal megakelvins (MK1 ) has been used to replace mireds. The reciprocal color temperature expressed in reciprocal megakelvins has the same numerical value as with mireds, but the value is arrived at by first expressing the color temperature in megakelvins (1 MK = 1,000,000 K) and taking the reciprocal. For example, the reciprocal color temperature for a 6000 K source is 1/0.006 MK = 167 MK-1 Filters such as KODAK Light Balancing Filters and KODAK WRATTEN Photometric Filters modify the effective color temperature, hence the reciprocal color temperature, of any light source by a definite amount. Each filter can be given a visual shift value that is defined by the expression 1/T2 – 1/T1

Color Temperature for Various Light Sources Source Degrees Kelvin Artificial Light Match Flame 1,700 Candle Flame 1,850 40-Watt Incandescent Tungsten Lamp 2,650 75-Watt Incandescent Tungsten Lamp 2,820 100-Watt Incandescent Tungsten Lamp 2,900 200-Watt Incandescent Tungsten Lamp 2,980 1000-Watt Incandescent Tungsten Lamp 2,990 3200 K Tungsten Lamp 3,200 Molarc "Brute" with Yellow Flame Carbons and YF-101 3,350 Filter (approx.) "C.P" (Color Photography) Studio Tungsten Lamp 3,350 Photoflood and Reflector Flood Lamp 3,400 Daylight Blue Photoflood Lamp 4,800 White Flame Carbon Arc Lamp 5,000 High-Intensity Sun Arc Lamp 5,500 Xenon Arc Lamp 6,420 Daylight Sunlight: Sunrise or Sunset Sunlight: One Hour After Sunrise Sunlight: Early Morning Sunlight: Late Afternoon Average Summer Sunlight at Noon (Washington, DC) Direct Midsummer Sunlight Overcast Sky Average Summer Sunlight (plus blue skylight) Light Summer Shade Average Summer Shade Summer Skylight will vary from

2,000 3,500 4,300 4,300 5,400 5,800 6,000 6,500 7,100 8,000 9,500 to 30,000

where T1 is the color temperature of the original source and T2 is the color temperature of the light through the filter (both values expressed in megakelvins). Remember that the concept of color temperature relates to the response of the visual system. To match the actual response of films as opposed to the response of the eye,

some filters are designed empirically to fit existing photographic requirements. These filters may or may not provide a visual shift that relates to the measured photographic effect. The tables on page 61 give filters that provide the desired photographic result when used for the conversion indicated. The shift value given is a nominal value defined by the equation 1/T2 – 1/T1 and is not a measure of the visual shift that might actually be computed for the filter. The light source conversion nomograph shown in Figure 56 is designed to simplify the problem of selecting the proper conversion filter. The original light source, T1 is listed in the left column and covers the practical range of color temperatures from 2000 to 10,000 K. The right-hand column lists the color temperature of the light through the filter-that is, the converted source, T2 The center column shows the scale of reciprocal megakelvin (MK-1) shift values. To find the shift value and, consequently, the filter required for a particular conversion, it is only necessary to place a straightedge on the points corresponding to the color temperature of the available source, T2 and the desired color temperature of the filtered source, T1 respectively The straightedge crosses the center column and indicates the reciprocal megakelvin shift value of the required flier. The zero point on this column indicates that no filter is required, values above zero point (+) require yellowish filters, and those below the zero point require bluish filters. Filters can also be combined, the desired combination being calculated by -1 adding the (MK ) shift values of the filters, with due regard to the sign. If more than one filter is used, remember that there may be considerable loss of illumination and flare due to reflection of the multiple surfaces.

Figure 56 Nomograph for light source conversion

K 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000

Reciprocal Color Temperature (MK-1) for Color Temperatures from 2000 K to 6900 K* 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 500 476 455 435 417 400 385 370 357 345 333 323 312 303 294 286 278 270 263 256 250 244 238 233 227 222 217 213 208 204 200 196 192 189 185 182 179 175 172 169 167 164 161 159 156 154 152 149 147 145
-1

*Values in reciprocal megakelvins (MK ) are equal numerically to values in "mireds.”

Light-Balancing Filters: Color motion picture films are balanced in manufacture for use with either tungsten light sources (3200 K or 3400 K) or with illumination of daylight quality (5500 K). KODAK Light Balancing Filters are used over the camera lens to enable the photographer to make adjustments to the light reaching the film. If the required color-balance adjustment is small, a single bluish filter of the No. 82 series, or a single yellowish filter of the No. 81 series, will be adequate. KODAK Light Balancing Filter No. 82 is intended, in effect, to raise color temperature by 100 K, the 82A by 200 K, the 82B by 300 K, and the 82C by 400 K. Those of the No. 81 series (81, 81A, 81B, 81C, 81D) are intended to reduce color temperature by 100 K steps. For greater color correction, you can combine two filters in the same series. Conversion Filters: If you need even greater corrections in color, you can combine light balancing filters and conversion filters. Conversion filters are used over the camera lens to make significant changes in the color temperature of illumination (e.g., daylight to artificial light). Limits to Color Temperature Measurement. Color temperature refers only to the visual appearance of a light source and does not necessarily describe its photographic effect. Although some light sources emit strongly in the ultraviolet region of the spectrum, the color temperature of such a source does not measure this portion of the emission because

the eye is not sensitive to radiation below 400 nm. Since a film is usually sensitive to ultraviolet radiation, a scene can record too blue unless you filter out the ultraviolet. Also, color temperature does not take into account the spectral distribution of a light source. Unless the light source has a similar spectral distribution to that of a blackbody radiator (e.g., various types of tungsten -filament lamps), its effective color temperature alone may not be reliable as a means of selecting a suitable filter for adapting the source for color photography. Fluorescent lamps, for example, do not have the continuous, smooth spectraldistribution curve that is characteristic of a tungsten- filament source. Although you may describe two different light sources as having the same color temperature, the photographic results obtained with each may be quite different. Ultraviolet-Absorbing and HazeCutting Filters. Photographs of distant landscapes, mountain views, snow scenes, scenes over water, and sometimes aerial photographs in open shade made on color films balanced for daylight are frequently rendered with a bluish cast. This is caused by the scattering of ultraviolet radiation to which the film is more sensitive than the human eye. KODAK WRATTEN Filter No. 1A (skylight filter) absorbs ultraviolet light. By placing this filter over the lens, you can reduce the bluish cast and obtain a slight degree of haze penetration. Color Compensating Filters for Color Correction. A color

compensation (CC) filter controls light by attenuating principally one or two of the red, blue, or green parts of the spectrum. They can be used singly or in combination to introduce almost any desired color correction. You can use CC filters to make changes in the overall color balance of pictures made with color films, or to compensate for deficiencies in the spectral quality of the light to which color films must sometimes be exposed. Such corrections are often required, for example, in making color prints or in photography with unusual light sources. If the color balance of a test is not satisfactory, you can estimate the extent of filtering required to correct it by viewing the test print through color compensating filters. KODAK Color Compensating Filters have excellent optical quality and are suitable for image-forming optical systems-over the camera lens, for example. However, because they are gelatin filters, they are very susceptible to scratches and fingerprints, both of which can affect optical quality to a serious degree. Color compensating filters are available in several density values for each of the following colors: cyan, magenta, yellow, red, green, and blue. The density of each color compensating filter is indicated by the number in the filter designation, and the color is indicated by the final letter. In a typical filter designation, CC20Y represents a "color compensating filter with a density of 0.20 that is yellow."

KODAK Light Balancing and Conversion Filters for Color Films KODAK Light Balancing Filters Exposure To Obtain To Obtain Filter Color Filter Increase in 3200 K 3400 K Nominal Shift Number Stops* from from Value (MK-1) 82C + 82C 1 1/3 2490 K 2610 K -89 82C + 82B 1 1/3 2570 K 2700 K -77 82C + 82A 1 2650 K 2780 K -65 Bluish 82C + 82 1 2720 K 2870 K -55 82C 2/3 2800 K 2950 K -45 82B 2/3 2900 K 3060 K -32 82A 1/3 3000 K 3180 K -21 82 1/3 3100 K 3290 K -10 No Filter Necessary 3200 K 3400 K 81 1/3 3300 K 3510 K 9 81 A 1/3 3400 K 3630 K 18 Yellowish 81B 1/3 3500 K 3740 K 27 81 C 1/3 3600 K 3850 K 35 81 D 2/3 3700 K 3970 K 42 81EF 2/3 3850 K 4140 K 52 Conversion Filters Exposure Nominal Filter Color Filter Increase in Conversion in Shift Value Number Stops* Degrees K (MK-1)* 80A 2 3200 to 5500 -131 Blue 80B 1 2/3 3400 to 5500 -112 80C 1 3800 to 5500 - 81 80D 1/3 4200 to 5500 - 56 85D 1/3 5500 to 3800 81 85 2/3 5500 to 3400 112 85N3 2/3 5500 to 3400 112 Amber 85N6 2/3 5500 to 3400 112 85N9 3 2/3 5500 to 3400 112 85B 2/3 5500 to 3200 131 85BN3 1 2/3 5500 to 3200 131 85BN6 2 2/3 5500 to 3200 131
*These values are approximate. For critical work, they should be checked by practical test, especially if more than one filter is used.

The densities of color compensating filters are measured at the wavelength of maximum absorption (i.e., the density of a yellow filter is given for blue light). That is why the term peak density is used in the table. The density values do not include the density of the gelatin on which the filter dye is coated, nor do they include the density of the glass in which a filter may he mounted. The standardized density spacing of these filter series (5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 in each color) helps predict the photographic effects of filter combinations. The red, green, and blue filters each absorb two thirds of the visible spectrum; the cyan, magenta, and yellow filters each absorb one third of the spectrum. In the red, green, and blue series, each filter contains the same dyes in approximately the same amounts as the two corresponding yellow and magenta, yellow and cyan, or magenta and cyan filters. Combining Color Compensating Filters: A simple way to determine filter combinations is to think of all the filters in terms of the subtractive colors: Red (absorbs blue and green) = yellow (absorbs blue) + magenta (absorbs green) Green (absorbs blue and red) = yellow (absorbs blue) + cyan (absorbs red) Blue (absorbs green and red) = magenta (absorbs green) + cyan (absorbs red)

Use the following method of calculation: 1 . Convert the filters to their equivalents in the subtractive colors-cyan, magenta, and yellow-if they are not already of these colors. For example, 20R = 20M + 20Y. 2. Add like filters together. For example, 20M + 10M = 30M. 3. If the resulting filter combination contains all three subtractive colors, cancel out the neutral density by removing an equal amount of each. For example, 10C + 20M + 20Y 10M + 10Y + 0.10 ND (The neutral density can be eliminated by adjusting the light source.) 4. If the filter combination contains two different filters of equal density, substitute the equivalent single red, green, or blue filter. For example, 10M + 10C = 10B Exposure Allowance for Filters: You must make an exposure allowance for any change in illumination caused by the filters used. The exposure increases for KODAK Color Compensating Filters provide a rough guide to the exposure adjustments required for a single filter. Determine the exposure increase for two or more filters of different colors by practical tests using initially the sum of the suggested increases for the individual filters. Filters for Color Printing Motion picture printers used for printing color films are generally equipped with high-wattage lamps, making it necessary to insert a heatabsorbing glass to protect the mirrors and filters in the printer optical system from damage. Use a dichroic heatabsorbing glass to protect the mirrors and filters in the printer optical system from damage. Use a dichroic heatreflecting glass or a heat-absorbing

Peak Density 0.025 0.05 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50

Yellow (Absorbs Blue) CC025Y CC05Y† CC10Y† CC20Y† CC30Y CC40Y† CC50Y Red (Absorbs Blue and Green) CC025R CC05R† CC10R† CC20R† CC30R CC40R† CC50R

KODAK Color Compensating Filters Exposure Magenta(A Exposure Increase in bsorbs Increase in Stops* Green) Stops* CC025M CC05M† 1/3 1/3 CC10M† 1/3 1/3 CC20M† 1/3 1/3 CC30M 2/3 1/3 CC40M† 2/3 2/3 CC50M 2/3 Green (Absorbs Blue and Red) CC05G CC10G CC20G CC30G CC40G CC50G

Cyan (Absorbs Red) CC025C CC05C† CC10C† CC20C† CC30C CC40C† CC50C Blue (Absorbs Red and Green) CC05B CC10B CC20B CC30B CC40B CC50B

Exposure Increase in Stops* 1/3 1/3 1/3 2/3 2/3 1

Peak Density 0.025 0.05 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50

Exposure Increase in Stops* 1/3 1/3 1/3 2/3 2/3 1

Exposure Increase in Stops* 1/3 1/3 1/3 2/3 2/3 1

Exposure Increase in Stops* 1/3 1/3 2/3 2/3 1 1 1/3

*These values are approximate. For critical work, they should be checked by practical tests, especially if more than one filter is used. † Similar KODAK Color Printing Filters (Acetate) are available.

filter for this purpose. The heatabsorbing filter formally known as number 2043, is now available from Kodak as HOYA HA 50.* An ultraviolet-absorbing filter may also be required, as specified on the datasheets. KODAK Color Printing Filters are made on an acetate film base and are used singly or in combination for color correction of light sources in subtractive color printing. Color printing (CP) filters are similar to color compensating (CC) filters in that they control principally the red, green, or blue parts of the visible spectrum; unlike CC filters, CP filters should not be used in the image-forming beam if optimum quality is desired. They are not as optically distortion free. See KODAK Publication No. B-3, Handbook of KODAK Photographic Filters, for more specific technical information concerning filters.

KODAK Color Printing Filters Cyan Magenta Red Yellow CP05C CP05M CP05R CP05Y CP10C CP10M CP10R CP10Y CP20C CP20M CP20R CP20Y CP40C CP40M CP40R CP40Y

Motion Picture Sound Motion picture sound is more than just transmitting sound from a film medium through equipment put in an auditorium as a picture is being viewed. The sound and the system incorporate the surrounding environment; therefore, it is important to look at the entire design, film and theatre. Shortly we will describe types of motion picture sound, but first the sound environment. Theatres should not be long echo halls, but should have a relatively low background noise, and a relatively low reverberation time. A sound environment is supposed to recreate

______________
*Available from Eastman Kodak Company, international order Services, Rochester, NY 14650 as follows: 2-inch square, CAT No. 132 4755; 3-inch square, CAT No. 132 4797.

sound, not create sound. A theatre environment should be neutral with a "small room" intimacy. The speakers should be loud enough to fill the room, and should meet industry standards. The power supply is very important, and should be relatively large so that the sound does not get "clipped" (clipping occurs when the power amp does not have the ability to reproduce the signal, which becomes distorted, and in many instances sends a DC pulse down the speaker wires, damaging the system). The sound system is a complete system that takes into consideration the film, equipment, and the environment.

Theatrical Sound _______________________
Sound is recorded on a motion picture print in one of two ways, either magnetically on a metallic oxide stripe coated on the film or photographically by an optically modulated light system. A magnetic sound track consists of a stripe of metallic oxide coated along the edge of a motion picture film. Sound is recorded on this stripe by running it past a magnetic recording head that selectively magnetizes the metallic particles in the coating. Since coating formulations have been developed that are not affected by the processing chemicals, they can be applied to the film before (prestripe) or after (poststripe) processing. Seventy millimetre and some 35 mm prints may have multiple stripes for stereophonic sound and special sound effects. Eastman Kodak Company does not pre- or poststripe any motion picture film. A photographic sound track is a record of sound (voice, music, etc.) printed near the edge of a motion picture film. Photographic sound tracks are usually printed on the film at the same time as the photographic image. Photographic sound prints can be made from original films with magnetic sound stripes or from original films and separate magnetic tracks.

A photographic sound track will last the life of the film and cannot be easily damaged through cleaning or other maintenance of the film. There is also no danger of accidentally erasing the track. However, the reproduction fidelity of photographic sound tracks can be degraded by dust particles and scratches. Also, changes cannot be made in a photographic sound track after it has been printed on the film. Magnetic tracks, on the other hand, are less susceptible to dust and dirt distortion and are degraded very little by scratches. The magnetic stripe offers other advantages. The additional height of the magnetic stripe raises the emulsion (image) off the base side of the next convolution of film on a reel, protecting the picture area from frictional damage, emulsion-to-base sticking, etc. Magnetic tracks may also have higher fidelity sound (greater frequency response and better signal-to-noise ratio).

Photographic Tracks A photographic sound-track negative consists of an exposed area whose width and area vary with the volume and frequency of sound recorded. The track looks like one or more narrow, jagged, black-and-white patterns along the edge of the film. For optimum quality on a variable-area sound track, the clear portions should be as transparent as possible, and the dark portions should have a density at wavelengths from 800 to 1000 nm between 1.0 and 1.8. Consequently, emulsions and processes that produce high contrast are generally used to record variable-area sound-track negatives. Basics of Photographic Sound. The reproduction of sound requires that the sound waves be converted into electrical signals which are then recorded. The record can then be played back, generating electrical signals, which can be converted back to sound waves by the speakers. In photographic sound reproduction, the actual sound record on the print is a silver, dye, or dye-plus-silver image along the edge of the film. Figure 57 shows the components which convert the photographic sound track into electrical sound signals. The light energy from the lamp is formed into a narrow beam by a lens and aperture. The beam is transmitted through the sound-track area of the film and then strikes a photocell.

Figure 57 Schematic of optical sound reproduction

Figure 59 Response of a photocell

Figure 58 Light attenuation by a sound track

As the film moves, the sound track itself varies, or modulates, the amount of light that reaches the photocell from the sound lamp. The photocell then converts the light energy into electrical energy. The electrical current produced by the photocell is directly proportional to the intensity of the light that reaches it. Photocells are made out of various photosensitive materials, each having a different spectral sensitivity. Virtually all 16 min and 35 min projectors have S-1 or silicon-type photocells, sensitive primarily in the infrared area. Therefore, all 16 min and 35 mm sound tracks must be able to modulate infrared radiation, which silver and, to a lesser extent, silver sulfide are capable of doing. A sound track made of dye alone will not modulate the infrared radiation as effectively, reducing the signal-to-noise ratio significantly As the film moves past the sound aperture, the variation in the width of the track determines the amplitude of the signal generated, and the speed of the variation determines the frequency of the signal. There are several types of variable-area recordings. A unilateral track consists of modulations that are generated perpendicularly to the longitudinal dividing edge between the opaque and clear portions of the track. A bilateral track uses modulations that are symmetrical about the longitudinal center line of the track. A dual bilateral track has two bilateral images laid side by side; a multilateral track employs several bilateral images. The dual bilateral track is the most widely used because it minimizes distortion or signal loss resulting from any uneven illumination of the optical slit at the reproduction heads.

Figure 60 A sound track as seen through the aperture

The use of dye tracks normally represents some compromise of sound quality unless special attention is given to the response characteristic of the photoreceptor used in the projector. Due to the multilayer construction of most color films, the color of the light that exposes the sound-track image influences the track characteristics and, therefore, is generally specified for the particular film concerned. Silver and silver-plus-dye sound-track images are normally suitable for use with any projector and are printed from a negative sound track. Silver sulfide sound-track images have somewhat lower quality. They are produced on reversal color films only and are themselves reversal images that are printed from a positive sound-track original. Optical Digital Sound A new superior-quality motion picture sound was introduced in 1990. The concept was invented by Eastman Kodak Company and adapted for the theatre by Optical Radiation Corporation, Azusa, CA. Optical non-silver digital sound provides six discrete channels of crystal clear audio, the quality of a compact disc, which surround the audience with dialogue, effects and music. There are major advantages to having sound stored in the digital domain. The information is much less susceptible to damage, and error correction can be applied if damage does occur.

Bilateral sound track

Dual Bilateral sound track Figure 61

Photographic Sound-Track Reproduction. The effectiveness with which a photographic sound track is reproduced is a function of the spectral energy distribution of the illuminant, the spectral absorption of the soundtrack image, and the spectral response of the photoreceptor. The illuminant is usually a tungsten lamp having a comparatively low color temperature that provides relatively more energy in the red and infrared regions of the spectrum.

Projection _______________________
The success or failure of any finished film lies in the viewing. Once a print is made the final responsibility for the quality of the screen image rests with the projection equipment and the people who handle the print. This section covers the inspection of a newly received print for flaws, the most common causes of film damage and abrasion, techniques for lubricating new prints, and techniques for cleaning film.

Handling and Inspection of Prints It is important to establish that previously used prints meet your standards. When you receive a print, inspect it, following the recommendations below. • • Maintain constant tension while rewinding to provide a smooth, tight reel. Hold the film by the edges and wear clean lint-free gloves while inspecting for damage or bad splices. Remake faulty splices correctly, whether cement or tape. Insist on a replacement reel if major cuts and damage are noted during your inspection. Provide some means to maintain adequate relative humidity (50 percent is ideal) to help eliminate static electricity build-up in film transport systems.

Misalignment of Film in the Projector. This problem can cause damage at the corners of the perforations and lead to splitting and breaking at the perforation edge. • • • Check alignment of the film as it enters the feed sprocket or leaves the holdback sprocket. Check alignment of film in the projector gate. Examine the print for damaged perforations before using it. (Order a new reel or print, if necessary)

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Creased Edges. Film edges can become creased if • the projector is improperly threaded so that the pad roller creases the film over the sprocket, or the film is under high tension and binds against some component or one of the roller flanges.

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Is the projection area clean? Especially the floor and rewind bench? Is the film riding correctly between roller flanges? Is the print free of oil and grimy dirt? Are smoking and eating (notorious dirt sources) prohibited in film handling areas? Is there enough tension during rewinding so that the film does not slip on itself during fast starts and stops? (Much abrasion damage is caused by film slippage.) Do you use lint-free clean gloves and hold the film correctly during rewinding and inspection? Do you avoid tightening a loose reel by pulling the film end until it snugs up? (This is another cause of abrasion damage.)

Common Causes of Abrasion and Wear To promote long life for your print, you should be alert to the causes of damage that can occur during projection. The five most common causes are discussed below. Excessive Tension. Too much tension in the film projection transport system usually results in objectionable projection noise and in perforation damage. • Check for deposits on the trap rails and check the gate tension. Adjust gate tension just tight enough to provide a steady screen image. Adjust tension on the projector reel spindles, if possible, to prevent 11 singing" sprockets. Was the film properly lubricated? If all of these points check out satisfactorily, check the 35 mm prints for proper lubrication of the edges. The first step is to vary the gate tension over the entire range. If there is no improvement, there may be inadequate edge lubrication. Sixteen millimetre films should have an overall lubricant.

Run-offs and Roping. This type of damage, often reported as "sprocket marked," is caused when the film partially leaves the sprocket and rides over the sprocket teeth while under tension. • • • • Check for misaligned splices and remake them. Check for fold-over damaged film sections; repair or replace the section (or reel), if necessary. Check to see if any unperforated tape covers perforations and make necessary repairs. Check the projector for proper threading and adjustment.

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Abrasions and Dirt. Primarily caused by careless handling, improper threading, and poorly maintained equipment, this kind of film damage is readily seen by the viewer. If you can answer "yes" to the following questions, you are well on your way to minimizing the problems of dirt and abrasion.

Lubrication Film requires lubrication to perform satisfactorily in a projector. An unlubricated film emulsion becomes tacky when subjected to friction and heat, allowing small deposits of emulsion to collect on the projector gate rails. These deposits increase the force required to move the film. When the tension on the film surpasses the inherent strength of the perforation walls, the image on the screen becomes unsteady, usually followed by perforation breakdown. This problem occurs in all projectors but is considerably more severe in 35 mm and 70 mm theatrical projectors because of their higher tensions, film speeds, and heat from projection lamps. Initial lubrication should be performed by the laboratory This lubrication should be supplemented during the life of the print. Solvent cleaning usually removes the lubricant, and if solvent is used, the print should be relubricated.

35 mm and 70 mm Films. Most films destined for projection require some lubrication to prevent problems during projection life. But the demands imposed on 35 mm release prints during projection require such large amounts of lubrication that the projected image quality would be impaired if there were only a thin transparent layer applied over the entire film surface, like 16 mm prints. Edge-waxing with a paraffin waxsolvent solution currently provides the only simple, inexpensive, and adequate lubrication for 35 mm and 70 mm release prints. We recommend a solution of 50 grams of paraffin wax per litre of methyl chloroform. Be cautious, this chemical may be on a hazardous or restricted list. This is applied to the film edges on the emulsion side with an appropriate applicator. Edge-waxing is performed by the laboratory on equipment designed for that purpose. 16 mm and 8 mm Films. Sixteen millimetre and super 8 films should be lubricated after processing with film cleaner. Films destined for continuous projection as endless loops or cartridges do require additional lubrication to provide slippage between film convolutions. Please refer to Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers Recommended Practice RP 48-1990, Lubrication of 16 mm and 8 mm Motion Picture Prints, and SMPTE RP 151-1989, Lubrication of 35 mm Motion Picture Prints for Projection.

Preservation of Processed Film _______________________
The storage and handling requirements for processed motion picture film differ from those of raw stock because the film is no longer photosensitive. You can store processed film safely for very long periods, if you give proper attention to three conditions. The first is the composition of the film; this is the responsibility of the manufacturer. However, the user should select a film compatible with the intended use and life expectancy of the film The other conditions of processing and storage are controlled entirely by the user, and include temperature and humidity. Composition The only motion picture films that are acceptable for extended life expectancy use are black-and-white silver-halide gelatin films on either cellulose ester or polyester bases. These films must meet the compositional requirements for safety film on cellulose ester or polyester base, as specified in ANSI Standard IT9.1-1989,* Imaging Media (film)-Silver Gelatin Type. Black-and-white films not complying with this standard cannot be considered for extended life expectancy. Because of color dyes, no color films qualify for extended life expectancy, regardless of the base or storage conditions. However, many films will remain in usable condition for many years if the recommendations in the following processing and storage sections are met.

Figure 62 PTR roller on projector

Non-Solvent Cleaning Continuous Film-Cleaning System. An excellent method of keeping projection prints clean is with Particle Transfer Rollers (PTR). These have proven highly effective as a cleaning material in roller form, attached to theatrical movie projectors. The roller assembly (Figure 62) can be mounted on a projector to continuously clean the film during the normal projection period. This "dry" method of cleaning incorporates a specially developed material that picks up dirt, dust, hair, and other unwanted particles from the film by contact. The PTR is made from an inert polyurethane-with no adhesives, silicones or leachable plasticizers and is environmentally sound, unlike liquids. It has a 95% average cleaning efficiency and can itself be easily cleaned with water. This material is available from FPC Inc., 6677 Santa Monica Blvd., Hollywood CA 90038. Phone (213) 465-0609.

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*Write to the American National Standards Institute, 1430 Broadway, New York, NY 10018. Telephone 212-642-4900.

Processing Processing is one of the most important factors contributing to a film's satisfactory extended life expectancy Residual processing chemicals in the film can be detrimental to long life. Residual thiosulfate (hypo) remaining in the processed black-and-white film can fade the silver image by partially converting it to silver sulfide. This is especially true under conditions of high humidity and temperature. Residual silver salts can also cause density changes. If in doubt, the residual hypo content should be determined. The Methylene Blue Method recommended in ANSI PH4.8-1985, Residual Thiosulfate and Other Chemicals in Films, is a worldwide standard test to detect residual hypo. Thiosulfate salts allowed to remain in color film can also fade the dye images; one dye will probably be affected more than the other two, causing an undesirable change in color balance and a deterioration of the image. Therefore, color films require as much care in processing and washing as black-and-white films. Since color films are not acceptable for extended life expectancy, they are not covered in the previously mentioned standard, ANSI IT9.1-1989. Storage This discussion covers two storage conditions defined as "medium-term" and "long-term." These storage conditions are described in detail in the American National Standard Practice for Storage of Processed Safety Photographic Films, ANSI IT9.11-1991. The conditions specified are ideal; however, compromises may be necessary.

Medium-Term Storage. Films stored under these conditions should be usable for a minimum of 10 years, provided they meet requirements of composition and processing. The relative humidity for acetate films should be between 15 and 50 percent, and for polyester films 30 to 60 percent. For black-and-white films, the preferred temperature is 21ºC (70ºF) or lower. The temperature should not exceed 24ºC (75ºF) for extended periods with maximum short-time peaks of 32ºC (90ºF). Store color films at 2ºC (36ºF) or lower, with an RH of 15 to 30%. Long-Term Storage. Many current motion picture films can be considered long-term films-usable for several centuries if stored properly. As discussed under "Composition," only black-and-white silver-gelatin films complying with ANSI Specifications IT9.1-1989 and IT9.11-1991 meet this criteria. However, storage at these conditions will usually improve the keeping properties of all films. The relative humidity range for black-and-white triacetate and polyester films is 20 to 30 percent. The temperature should not exceed 21ºC (70ºF), and you can expect improved protection at lower temperatures. There are two approaches when long-term storage of color film is required. One approach is to store the film at lower temperatures and humidities. The relative humidity is the same as above. The ideal temperature should be 2ºC (36ºF) or lower. Deep freezer temperatures have given good results. You can achieve these temperatures in two ways, but always maintain the film at the proper relative humidity. You can store film in untaped cans in storage vaults or rooms with controlled temperature and relative humidity, or freezers with humidity control. The other approach is to make black-and-white separation positives. Store all three separations together at recommended conditions. More details are given in the Adelstein, Graham and West publication "Preservation of Motion Picture Color Films Having Permanent Value" and other publications listed on page 18.

General Storage. Most libraries store film on metal shelves or in metal cabinets made especially for this purpose. These metal cabinets are usually supplied with adjustable shelving. Wood is not recommended as volatile components can cause image fading. Cans of print film can be stored on edge for easy access for the short term. However, for long-term storage, keep rolls of film that are wound on cores flat to prevent deformation caused by the weight of the roll. Separate the storage cabinets enough to permit free circulation of air on all sides. Be sure storage areas are located on the intermediate floors of buildings, never in damp basements, on the top floors of uninsulated buildings, near radiators, hot air ducts, or other sources of heat and humidity. Keep film storage and handling areas as free as possible from dust and dirt. Ideally, you should supply such rooms with cooled and filtered air. Take precautions to prevent the entrance of dust and dirt through ventilators, heating ducts, and windows. Use the same precautions that apply to the storage of any other safety motion picture film for film with a magnetic coating on which sound has been recorded. Even though a magnetic sound track, as far as we know, may be as permanent as the film base to which it is applied, heat and humidity cause deterioration. Storing the film in a metal container, such as a film cabinet or an aluminum or steel film can, will not adversely affect the recorded sound. Do not store the film near a permanent magnet or near electrical wiring that carries a heavy current. A word of caution about films on cellulose nitrate base. Although cellulose nitrate motion picture films have not been manufactured in the U.S.A. For over 40 years, some may still be present in old collections. The nitrate base deteriorates and becomes a serious fire hazard. Furthermore, the gaseous products of deterioration can damage other films in the same storage area. Cellulose nitrate films require separate and special storage areas. A full discussion of the subject can be found in KODAK Publication No. H-23, The Book of RIM Care.

Dealing with a Laboratory ______________________________________________________
budget. There are a number of trade-offs. Consider the question of size. The big lab can usually offer more complete in-house services, and excellent quality control. The small laboratory usually offers custom handling. But they may have to charge more to support their custom operation or subcontract more of the job. Talk with both. Consider the location. If a laboratory is a significant distance from your place of business, you will be faced with the potential hazards and increased costs of shipping valuable footage to and from the lab. Daily communications with the lab may also be more difficult. Consider your confidence in the laboratory. The selected laboratory should be looked upon as a "silent partner" in the production of a motion picture. The laboratory should be taken into the producer's confidence, kept informed about the film and photographic techniques being used, advised of the specific objectives, and alerted to any problems that might develop. These important steps in your production will run more smoothly if adequate communications are established right from the start. Both you and your laboratory should know what is expected - and when to expect it. • Know your needs. Have a good idea of what you want from a laboratory and then talk about those needs with several laboratories before you make a choice. In your discussions, be sure to relay your ideas about such things as editing, dubbing, special effects, animation, etc., so the lab can help you accomplish these tasks in the best way possible. Get acquainted. Once you have made your choice of laboratories, get to know the people who will do your work as well as possible. Tell them as much as you can about yourself, your needs, and your style. The more you communicate with them about yourself and your production, the better they can serve you. Get it in writing. Face-to-face discussions and telephone calls are necessary for efficient work flow; but when it comes to specifying what you want, when you want it, and how much it will cost, a carefully written document-the purchase order-is a must.

During production and postproduction, you will be spending quite a bit of time and money with a film laboratory. Locating the "right" lab is extremely important. Ideally, you should have some "feeling" for a lab early in the production phase, before you have many hours worth of exposed film on your hands and are wondering what to do with it. How do you find the right lab? The purpose of this section is to explain how laboratory operations fit into your total production. First, some tips on selecting a lab. Next, a walk-through of laboratory operations during a typical production. The section concludes with a description of processing and printing operations and equipment so that you can appreciate the possibilities of what can be done with your film once you've exposed it.

Listed below are some of the principal services offered by motion picture laboratories. A few laboratories will offer all the services listed; most labs will provide a majority of them. • Processing/developing camera film. (Special overnight pickup and delivery, or weekend service is available in some places by prearrangement.) Find out what processes are available, including special techniques (e.g., flashing or force [pushed] processing). Furnishing advice to help with technical or even aesthetic problems. Printing and duplicating from camera films for workprints or release prints. Most laboratories will print or duplicate the camera film after it is processed. They may also hold the original in their vault and forward the print for use as a workprint. Thus, the original is protected from damage in handling until it is needed for final conforming. Black-and-white reversal printing from a color workprint to produce a print for sound editing. Additional ink edge numbering of originals and workprints to facilitate editing. Conforming. Matching the original camera film to the workprint as edited by the producer can be arranged.

Tips on Selecting a Laboratory _______________________
Generally, the laboratory that gets your business will be the one whose capabilities best match the requirements for your particular job. Laboratories differ in terms of the technical services they offer, personnel, track record on similar projects, size and location, prices, and so on. Weigh all of these factors in selecting the right laboratory for the job at hand. Every production has different requirements. The laboratory selected to do a production filmed in 35 min for television distribution may be different from the one you choose to handle a job shot in 16 mm. Find the lab that can satisfy the greatest number of your needs on schedule and within

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Laboratory Services: a Walk-Through _______________________
To help you visualize the way a laboratory's operations interact with you and your production, this walkthrough gives you three views of scheduling. First is a flowchart of operations from preproduction through various laboratory operations to delivery of the edited, printed film. This schematic provides a graphic description of the close

communication between lab and cinematographer that produces a satisfactory final print. Next is a fictional narrative about the production of a film for television that demonstrates the behind-the- scenes laboratory work that keeps a production on schedule. Last is a day-to-day schedule, from shooting to release print, of this hypothetical production. Now, let's describe our show. This weekly one-hour series is produced by a major studio that has a network contract requiring the production of 24

episodes. The show routinely includes practical location photography (day and night). Six to seven days of filming are common for each episode. Here's how the laboratory fits into the production. The production company's exposed 35 mm negative may be at the studio's camera department by 7:00 p.m. A truck from the laboratory picks up the negative along with those of several other productions. Often, the truck makes several trips throughout the evening.

The first batch of negatives arrives by lab truck, is sorted by the directions on the film cans (priorities, etc.), and prepared for processing. The rolls are processed and sent to negative assembly where the out-take negative is removed and stored for safekeeping. Rolls (approximately 1,000 ft) of negatives are assembled. The rolls are ultrasonically cleaned and printed at exposure values that have been derived through a "fine-tuning" of timing information obtained early in the production season or daily on the laboratory's electronic color analyzer. The daily print is developed and screened by the laboratory customer representative, usually between 6:00 and 9:00 a.m. The print is projected full aperture at approximately 120 ft/min (32 frames per second) so any film, camera, or laboratory problems can be seen. The daily prints are communicated to the production company's editors by 9:00 a.m. for syncing with the sound track that has been transferred from 1/4-inch magnetic tape to 35 mm magnetic film. At 1:00 p.m. the director and other production personnel screen the synced dailies on double-system projectors. The laboratory won't be involved in this particular episode in the series for about 2 weeks (sometimes longer, depending on the activities of the production company). During this time, the studio is editing, dubbing and mixing sound, and preparing optical effects. The next job is to assemble all elements and generate the final composite print for this episode, if a print is requested. (it is usually a lowcontrast print.) The print is then transferred to videotape for airing. On most television productions, the program is edited from the negative directly to videotape for airing. If the direct-transfer system is used, intermediates on film, master positive and/or duplicate negative will only be made if there is a long-term need or

Example of Possible Day-to-Day Schedule of the Production Starting on Event Duration 1-6 weeks. Preproduction Depends on how many locations to be scouted and/or how many sets to be constructed. Days 0-6 Photography-6 days. Production Day 2 2-8 weeks. Postproduction Laboratory operations begin during shooting and include processing the negative, daily printing, cutting the workprint into sequences, making optical effects, adding stock footage and sound effects, making titles, and dubbing (voice, sound effects, and music). Optical effects are scheduled whenever the individual scene elements are available. Several labs may be involved in some phase of these operations. Day 12 Includes action and dialogue only, in First Cut rough sequences. No opticals, titles, sound effects, although some opticals and titles are being made. Day 24 Workprint. Final Cut More precisely edited into final form. Some opticals but no titles or sound effects. Days 25-31 Music composed and scored, sound Negative Cut effects made, opticals and titles prepared, editing finished. Camera negative physically cut to conform to final cut of the workprint. Dupe negatives spliced in where there are opticals and title negative footage added. Day 32 1-3 days. Dubbing All sound materials (live music, recorded music, voice, sound effects such as gunshots, footsteps, etc.) combined into a composite magnetic sound track. Magnetic track transferred to optical track. Days 34-36 Film shows aesthetic defects in some First Trial areas. Needs tightening and polishing, slight recutting. Some elements missing in titles. Day 37 Contains everything. Answer Print 35 mm Note: Location shooting can extend this time frame by months.

the production will be aired in countries other than the United States or Canada. Direct transfers from the North American NTSC video system do not produce optimum results on other video systems worldwide. The final phase begins with close communications between the production company's negative cutter, postproduction personnel, and the laboratory. The laboratory may receive the edited negative when only partially complete, to start cueing the scenes for electronic or other color timing. Other elements of the production, such as dissolves, fades, and titles (optical effects), are usually created by an independent optical house. When a composite negative is ready and a print is requested, all elements are then scene-to-scene evaluated on the color electronic analyzer; printed using the electronically derived information: and processed. The answer print is then screened by representatives of the production company for final approval. If the negative was electronically edited for direct transfer, the composite is screened over a closed-circuit video system. Film-to-Video Transfer When a negative is transferred directly to videotape by way of a Telecine transfer unit, the image is electronically changed to a color positive image. During this operation the scanner operator (colorist) must be sure the equipment will produce optimum results. This is usually done with an Eastman product, Telecine Analysis Film (TAF). The TAF is an objective tool for initial setup and centering of the color-grade controls on a telecine before transfer of images from motion picture film to video. Kodak provides TAF as a benchmark and tool for achieving optimum color-timing control. TAF provides a well characterized and widely used test target. After using TAF for setup, the operator is able to transfer many scenes without major equipment adjustment.

Telecine Analysis Film originates on EASTMAN EXR Color Negative Film. A frame of TAF contains an 8-color bar test pattern, a neutral-density gray scale, and a neutral-density gray (LAD) surround. Sequential red, green, and blue exposures are made; the film is run through the camera three times for this color- separation technique. The colors represent typical saturated colors that are encountered in motion picture production. TAF color bars will not match electronically generated color bars, but phase relationships should be about the same. For more information about TAF, see Kodak Publication No. H-9, TAF Users Guide.

Not all metals are suitable. Tin, copper, and their alloys may cause serious chemical fog or rapid oxidation when used with developers. Do not use aluminum, zinc, or galvanized iron with developers, bleaches or fixing baths. Transport Design. The film follows a helical path by moving on partially or totally submerged banks of rollers through the various solutions (Figure 63). Squeegees (Figure 64) or wipers located between the different tanks remove most of the liquid from the film surface. The most common method of moving film through a processor is by friction between the rotating spools and the base side of the film. The other major method of moving film is by sprockets incorporated on the spools which engage the film perforations.

Laboratory Operations _______________________
Important when selecting film-too often overlooked-are the processing requirements for a given film and the printing needs for the whole production. One way to better appreciate the sophisticated technology that turns your exposed camera film into good projection film is to understand the processes and equipment in the modern film laboratory. In this section, we will describe the operations and equipment involved in processing and printing your film. Processing Equipment The modern motion picture laboratory uses the continuous processor, a machine that provides the most efficient way of handling long lengths of film. in essence, the continuous processor moves film through the appropriate sequences of developers, fixers, stop baths, washes, and dryer at a carefully controlled speed. The processor also controls solution temperature and agitation to produce optimum results for the particular kind of film being processed. Construction of Containers. Glass, polyethylene, 316 stainless steel, hasteloy C, and titanium are the materials most commonly used in the construction of containers for mixing, storing, and using photographic solutions.

Figure 63 Helical path of film through a single rackand-tank assembly

Figure 64 This type of wiper-blade squeegee assembly is used on some processors.

The film path through the processor's wet sections permits only the base side of the film to contact the rollers. In this way, the emulsion is protected from possible physical damage that might occur if the soft, wet emulsion came in contact with the plastic spool surfaces. However, in some processing machines, there may be emulsion-side rollers. These are usually undercut in the image area and are designed to contact only the edges or perforation area of the film. Some rollers have ridges that touch only the edges of the film; other rollers are flat and covered with "soft-touch" tires for uniform film support across the roller width that prevent scratching of the support in the image area (Figure 65).

Time and Temperature. In black-and-white processing, time and temperature will vary among motion picture laboratories according to the type of film being processed. Each laboratory selects the appropriate development times and temperatures for the films being processed in a particular machine and with a particular formula. This is accomplished by producing a time-gamma curve, as discussed on page 37. For all films, specified temperature tolerances, particularly those for the developers, are critical. Developer tolerances of ±0.3ºC (±0.5ºF) are typical. Appreciable deviation from these limits results in speed and color balance changes. Many motion picture laboratories have found it feasible, in terms of consistent quality, to control the developer temperature to within ± 0.15ºC (± 0.25ºF), or even less. Process ECN-2 requires that the developer temperature be held within ±0.1ºC (±0.2ºF). Controlling processing time is also more critical with color films than with black-and-white films because any changes that occur in color emulsions may not be equal in all layers. Improper color reproduction can result from speed shifts, contrast changes, increased fog, etc., in any of the layers. A good lab adheres closely to the exact processing specifications for the particular equipment and materials. Agitation. If exposed photographic materials are placed in a developer and allowed to develop without any solution movement, the developing action soon slows because the chemicals in contact with the film surface become exhausted and are not replaced. If the film or the solution is agitated, however, fresh solution is continually brought to the emulsion surface, and the development continues.

An equally important effect of agitation is prevention of uneven development that may result in a nonuniform density that could make the film look streaky. If there is no agitation, the exhausted solution, loaded with development by-products, may flow slowly across the emulsion from dense areas to less dense areas and produce uneven streaks. Agitation keeps the solution uniform throughout and avoids uneven development. In color processing, proper agitation is especially critical during the initial development step. The recommended agitation techniques will vary, depending upon the process and equipment being used. The movement of the film as it passes through the developer solution is not usually sufficient to create adequate agitation. Mechanical Specifications If film is to be processed satisfactorily as it moves through the machine, it must be immersed in solutions of the correct temperature for the proper length of time. In addition, processing solutions must be adequately replenished and filtered, and sufficiently agitated. These requirements are commonly called the mechanical specifications. Usually, the only valid major processing change made from the "normal" is for the purpose of force processing (for more camera speed). This involves increasing the time and/or temperature of the developer for negative, or first developer for reversal film. The time that film is immersed in a particular solution depends upon the length of the film path in each tank and the machine speed. Generally, time is fixed by the number of rollers per rack and the number of racks threaded in a tank. Usually, you can change individual rack times by rethreading the rack or using a rack equipped with an adjustable lower shaft assembly.

Figure 65 Roller undercut in image area and roller with soft-touch tire installed

Temperatures on most processors are controlled automatically, often to within ±0.1ºC but can usually be adjusted manually to accommodate any desired temperature changes. The laboratory also keeps a highly accurate thermometer available to double-check the processor temperature gauges. Process Control The degree of development in a negative-positive process or first development in a reversal process is the most important factor in determining the final image quality. Careful control is critical at this point. Development is affected by the temperatures and chemical composition of the developer (or first developer), the time of contact between the film and the solution, and the degree of agitation. The other processing steps are also affected by the same factors. When all is well with the process, the output from the continuous processor will be good pictures. While you can evaluate these pictures subjectively by simply looking at them, the most accurate evaluation is an objective measurement. Sensitometric control strip density values, when plotted in graphic form, give an operator objective information about the condition of the process. These measurements are made before, during, and after a processing run for maximum control of quality. The operator also checks the physical operation of the machine periodically to ensure good results. A quality tab observes the following practices in the physical control of a process: • Use of correct processing temperatures, which are checked often. Thermometers and temperature-controlling devices are calibrated periodically to assure that the instruments are

operating properly. The temperatures of all solutions are kept within specification to minimize dimensional changes in the emulsion. • Use of recommended processing times. Machine speed is checked by carefully measuring the time it takes for a given length of film to pass a specific point. Knowing it is possible to use an incorrect processing time when a machine uses different thread-ups for different film stocks, the careful laboratory checks the solution times every time there is a threading change. Consider that, for black-and-white negative or positive processes, one might run many films having varied development times through Developer D-96 in the course of a few hours. Use of the recommended replenishment rates. Accurate replenishment increases the useful life of solutions to a great extent by replacing ingredients that are depleted; it also maintains the process at a constant, efficient level. To prevent serious out-of-control situations and chemical waste, laboratories routinely check the accuracy of their replenisher delivery systems. Labs keep an accurate daily record of conditions affecting the process, including developer temperature, amount of film processed, volume of replenisher added, and identification numbers of control strips processed at particular times.

The film turned into the lab for force processing is usually underexposed by a known degree. This underexposure can be compensated for in the first developer in a reversal process and the developer in a negative process in one of the following ways: • • • Increase developer temperature. Increase film immersion time. Increase both the developer temperature and the immersion time.

Based on control strip readings obtained from trials, slight time or temperature adjustments may be required to produce the desired picture results. Before force processing is used for regular production work, check out the particular film and process to see if the results meet expectations. Whether time or temperature (or both) are adjusted depends on how easily the changes from the normal mechanical specifications can be made in the processor. What changes (aside from increased film speed) can be expected as a result of force processing? Force processing adds significant flexibility, but picture quality will not equal that of normally exposed film put through a normal process. The sensitometric effect of force processing a negative can be an increase in the overall density, increased speed, contrast, and fog. However, force processing also contributes to an increase in the granularity of the negative, and the increased graininess of projected prints may be objectionable, particularly in 16 mm format. In most cases, force processing improves the quality of prints made from an underexposed negative, although the quality obtained never reaches that of a normally exposed and normally processed negative.

Force Processing A camera operator may elect to shoot film at a higher exposure index (EI) than the film's rating, thus underexposing the film, to obtain usable footage under low-light conditions.

Processes Black-and-White Negative or Positive Processes What happens Develops the exposed silver halide to metallic silver. Time and temperature control are especially important at this stage for optimum image quality. Stops the action of the developer carried over by the film, and cleans the developer from the film. Cleans the developer from the film and stops developer action, but more slowly than a stop. Removes undeveloped silver halide from the emulsion. Removes the fixer from the film. Dries the film for windup and subsequent projection or printing.

Step Developer

Stop Bath (optional) Wash Fixer Wash Dryer

Step First Developer

Wash Bleach Wash Clearing Bath Re-exposure Second Developer Wash Fixer Wash Dryer

Black-and-White Reversal Processes What happens Develops the exposed light-sensitive silver-halide crystals to metallic silver (a negative image). Time and temperature control are critical at this stage in determining the effective film speed. Deliberate increase of time, temperature, or both is called force- processing. Cleans the first developer from the film. Dissolves and removes the metallic-silver negative image produced in the first developer but does not affect the remaining silver halide. Removes excess bleach from the film. Removes the last of the bleach and prepares the film for the following steps. Renders the remaining silver-halide crystals developable. Develops the silver halide exposed in the re-exposure step to a positive metallic-silver image. Removes the second developer. Removes any undeveloped silver-halide grains. Removes fixer from the film. Dries the film for windup and subsequent projection or printing.

Step Prebath Rem-jet Removal Developer

Stop Bath

Wash Fixer Wash Persulfate Bleach Accelerator* Bleach (Ferricyanide, UL, ML or Persulfate) Wash Sound-track Developer

Color Negative or Positive Processes What happens The rem-jet antihalation backing is conditioned. The softened backing is removed from the film and flushed away. Develops the exposed silver halide and reacts with the color coupling agents in the film to create dye layers along with a silver image. Time and temperature control are especially important for optimum image quality. Stops the action of the developer carried over by the film, and removes the developer from the film surface. Removes excess stop bath. Removes undeveloped silver halide from the emulsion. Removes excess fixer. Prepares the film for action of persulfate bleach.

Process

ECN, ECP

Converts the metallic-silver image formed by the developer into silver halide again. Removes excess bleach. Converts the silver halide sound-track area into metallic-silver Wash Removes excess sound-track developer Fixer Removes silver halide formed in the bleach from the emulsion. Wash Removes fixer from the film. Final Rinse Anti-bacterial rinse and wetting agent. Prepares film for drying. Dryer Dries the film for windup and subsequent projection or printing. * For this step, use only with persulfate bleach.

ECP only

ECN, ECP

Step First Developer

First Stop

Wash Sound Fixer Hypo Eliminator Wash Color Developer

Second Stop Persulfate Bleach Accelerator* Wash

Color Reversal Processes What happens Develops the exposed light-sensitive silverhalide crystals to a black-and-white negative silver image. This critical step determines how light or dark (the effective speed of the film) the final pictures will be. Times longer or temperatures higher than normal will increase the effective film speed (exposure index). When these items are deliberately increased, it is known as force processing. Stops action of the first developer carried over by the film; also helps to control emulsion swelling during the next step. Removes the acid stop solution from the film. Removes undeveloped silver halide from soundtrack area. Aids in removing sound fixer from film. Washes sound fixer and Hypo Eliminator from film. This is a multipurpose solution. It contains a reversal agent that chemically exposes, or fogs, the remaining silver halide in the film so that it can be developed. The color developer then develops the chemically fogged silver halide and reacts with the color coupling agents in the film to create positive dye images and silver images in the appropriate layers of the film. Stops action of the color developer carried over by the film and reduces emulsion swelling. Prepares the film for action of persulfate bleach Removes the acid stop solution or bleach accelerator from the film.

Process

VNF-1, RVNP

Print films with double-applicated sound. VNF-1 VNF-1, RVNP

VNF-1, RVNP

Converts the metallic-silver image from both the first developer and color developer into silver halide again. Bleaches use either persulfate or ferricyanicle† to effect the conversion. Wash Removes bleach from the film. Sound-track Converts silver halide in sound-track area to Redeveloper metallic-silver Print films with double-applicated Rinse Removes redeveloper from the sound-track sound area. Fixer Dissolves the silver-halide salts and removes them from the film. Wash Washes fixer from the film. Stabilizer Stabilizes the dye images and promotes VNF-1, RVNP uniform drying. Dryer Dries the film for windup and subsequent projection or printing. * For this step, use only with persulfate bleach. † Not for use in Process RVNP.

Bleach

Processing Solutions Mixing Solutions. When solutions are made up, the constituents must be dissolved in a specific sequence to avoid undesirable reactions and to facilitate complete mixing. Kodak formulas are arranged so that the ingredients are named in the order in which they should be dissolved unless the directions specifically state some exception to this rule. When solutions are made from packaged preparations or from bulk, follow the instructions supplied very carefully, observing all precautionary information on chemical containers and in the instructions. Agitating Solutions. Proper agitation during mixing dissolves the chemicals quickly without introducing excessive air into the solution. Developers are particularly prone to oxidations; a few minutes of violent agitation may weaken the developer noticeably and produce compounds that can stain the film. On the other hand, insufficient agitation may permit the chemicals to settle at the bottom of the mixing vessel and form a hard cake that does not readily dissolve. The solution is stirred thoroughly after the addition of the final volume of water because the concentrated solution at the bottom of the vessel is denser than water and tends to remain at the bottom if it is not thoroughly mixed. Cleanliness. Thoroughly clean all mixing apparatus, pumps, and transport lines immediately after use to prevent the formation of incrustations which may dissolve when a new solution is mixed. Ideally, you should use a separate mixing vessel for each solution. If several solutions are mixed consecutively in the same vessel, the careful lab will prepare them in the order in which they are used in processing. Traces of developer in a bleach or fixing bath will have little or no effect, but small quantities of bleach or hypo in a developer may cause adverse photographic results.

Do not mix chemicals, particularly those in the form of light powder, in the darkroom or in places where sensitized goods are handled because the chemical dust becomes airborne and settles on benches and tabletops. As a result, spots and stains could appear on processed film. Chemical dust can also settle on the surfaces of other processing solutions and cause contamination. For this reason, equip solution storage tanks with dust covers. Storage Conditions. The temperature of processing- solution storage is important. Developers, in particular, oxidize rapidly at elevated temperatures with a resultant loss in activity and an increased propensity for staining. A developer that can be safely stored for 1 or 2 weeks at 180 to 21ºC (65º to 70ºF) may be unsatisfactory in a few days if stored at 32º or 35ºC (90º or 95ºF). (Kodak liquid concentrate developers are quite stable in the original sealed package.) Storage at low temperatures also can be undesirable. Some concentrated solutions crystallize rapidly at temperatures below 13ºC (55ºF) and redissolve with great difficulty or not at all, even when heated. Additionally, repeated changes in temperature may shorten the life of many photographic solutions. Floating lids and dust covers prevent contaminants from entering solutions and help to minimize oxidation and evaporation from the surface of the solutions. Evaporation results in more concentrated and overactive solutions. The temperature drop associated with evaporation can cause precipitation of some less soluble solution constituents. Physical Handling. Photographic chemicals and processing solutions, like all other chemicals, should be handled with care. Professional laboratories observe well-established safety precautions scrupulously to protect both the operators and the film entrusted to their care.

Ecology Over the years, Kodak has produced films, papers, and chemicals that have reduced the environmental impact of photoprocessing. Today, we continue our efforts to further reduce chemical usage. Most countries have passed laws to regulate air emissions, wastewater discharges, and solid-waste disposal. In the United States, these laws are enforced by Federal and State Environmental Protection Agencies and by local authorities. For specific information on local regulations, contact your director of public works. If you have questions concerning chemical handling, or environmental concerns, write to your regional Kodak office. Silver Recovery. The highest concentration of silver is found in the fixer of a negative, positive, or color reversal process and in the bleach of a black-and-white reversal process. Lesser amounts are found in other solutions. Silver recovery has several advantages: (1) cleaner waste water; (2) economy-the recovered silver is valuable, and, in some situations, recovery of the silver permits more efficient use of the fixing bath chemicals; and (3) conservation of silver essential to the photographic industry. There are three common methods of recovering silver from photographic processing solutions: metallic replacement, electrolytic plating, and chemical precipitation. A fourth method, ion exchange, is finding increasing application in removing silver from wash waters. You can use these procedures singly or in combination, depending upon which is most suitable for the particular needs of the user. The choice of the system and the size of the equipment is generally related to the amount and kind of film being processed and the availability of space and chemical control equipment.

Metallic Replacement: The KODAK Chemical Recovery Cartridges function by chemically replacing the silver in solution with iron. Since its introduction, the metallic replacement method of reclaiming silver has gained wide-spread acceptance due to its advantages over other methods: low initial cost, simple nonelectrical installation, high efficiency, minimum space requirements, and little maintenance. This silver recovery process uses two simple nonmoving pieces of equipment: a KODAK Chemical Recovery Cartridge, and the KODAK Circulating Unit, Type P. This equipment efficiently removes valuable silver from used fixing baths, certain silver-bearing stop baths, stabilizers, and wash water. Although the apparatus is primarily designed to remove silver from the overflow streams of automatically replenished processing systems, it is equally acceptable for use with batch-replacement or hand-processing systems. Another benefit of KODAK Chemical Recovery Cartridges is that they do not generate combustible or explosive gases such as hydrogen during the recovery process. Electrolytic Plating. When large amounts of film are being processed, an electrolytic silver-recovery system may be more economical. With this method, silver is removed from fixing baths by passing controlled direct current between a cathode and an anode hung in the solution. Silver is deposited on the cathode in the form of nearly pure silver plate. The cathodes are removed periodically, and the silver is stripped. This method is relatively clean, may allow reuse of the fixing bath, and yields silver having a high degree of purity. Chemical Precipitation: The dichromate bleach in the black-and-white reversal process is not suitable for the metallic replacement or electrolytic plating methods of silver recovery. Silver is recovered from this bleach by precipitation with sodium chloride. The technique has not been popular because of the odor and the difficulty in handling the silver chloride sludge. Ion Exchange: Ion exchange treatment of wash water from

photographic processes is the most economical method presently available for reducing silver to concentrations of less than 0.5 mg/L. An ion exchange installation usually consists of three columns. Two of the columns are used in series while the third is being regenerated or is on standby. A holding tank is used to allow pH adjustment of the wash water entering the columns. Ion exchange resins are placed in columns to adsorb the silver thiosulfate complex. When the resin in the first column is nearly saturated with silver, the column is taken out and regenerated. The second column is moved into the first position and the standby column is moved into the second position. The saturated column is treated with either ammonium thiosulfate or sodium chloride solutions to remove the silver from the resin. The regenerating solution, containing 10 or more g/L of silver is passed through an electrolytic cell to recover the silver and recycle the regenerating solution. More detailed information covering silver recovery can be found in KODAK Publication No. J-21, CHOICES Choosing the Right Silver-Recovery Method for Your Needs. Disposal of Processing Wastes Sewers. Direct discharge of untreated processing effluents to receiving water, or to surface drains or storm sewers that discharge directly to receiving waters, is not recommended or lawful. Septic Tanks. Septic tanks are biological systems, but are not recommended for disposal of photographic processing wastes. Septic tanks may not degrade wastes sufficiently They are generally designed for small volumes, produce odorous products, cannot be installed in all locations, and may contaminate ground waters. Lagoons. Aerated lagoons have been used successfully by some processors to pretreat their wastes to lower the oxygen demand before discharging them into a municipal treatment system. An aerated lagoon is not a practical solution for many

processors, however, because a large area of land is required. Incomplete degradation of wastes, unpleasant odors, and contamination of ground waters may also occur. However, if the lagoon is large enough, is aerated, and has either an impervious liner or is constructed in an area of suitable geologic structure, it may be satisfactory. Check the overflow to make certain that it does not contaminate the stream into which it flows. Biological Treatment Plants. Compared to the effluents from many other commercial wastewater dischargers, the effluents from photoprocessors are relatively low in volume. Because photographic processing chemicals respond well to biological treatment, they are normally not considered to be objectionable to sewage -treatment systems. In the U.S., several environmental regulations have been passed by the Federal government that have a potential impact on photoprocessing labs. These laws are enforced by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Of these regulations, the one that has the greatest impact on most photoprocessing labs today is the Clean Water Act. This law establishes limits on the discharge of materials that the EPA has identified as pollutants. Photoprocessing labs may be required to have a permit to discharge wastewater directly to a publicly owned treatment works. Discharging to receiving bodies of water, such as rivers, lakes, streams, oceans, etc., or to septic systems or leach fields requires a permit. Photoprocessing labs are unlikely to meet the requirements for a permit without pretreating the waste. Most photoprocessing facilities discharge their overflows and wash water to a public treatment plant. They establish limitations on discharge based on EPA guidelines and the ability of the plant to treat the industrial and domestic waste it receives. These limitations are compiled in a sewer code. Many localities consider any photoprocessing lab as an industrial user, which requires that it obtain a permit for chemical discharge and comply with the sewer code.

For additional information on waste disposal, see KODAK Publication No. J-55, Disposal and Treatment Of Photographic Effluent-In Support of Clean Water. Information is also available from motion Picture and Television Imaging offices. Bleach Reconstitution and Regeneration. The regeneration and reconstitution of ferrocyanide- and persulfate bearing bleaches, where practical, is recommended both as an environmental control measure and for economic reasons. The usual method involves collecting the tank overflow and regenerating it to replenisher strength with the required chemicals. This method requires very good analytical control, and is detailed in the Manual for Processing EASTMAN Color Films, Module 5, Chemical Recovery Procedures (KODAK Publication No. H-24). Dichromate bleach is used by processors of Kodak black-and-white reversal film products. Its potential effect on bacteria in a waste-treatment plant may warrant its destruction before it leaves the processing laboratory. By mixing the dichromate bleach with other processing solutions that are alkaline and that contain reducing agents such as thiosulfate, some of the chromium precipitates as trivalent chromium hydroxide. This mixture can then be removed in a primary treatment plant. Often, both chromium and silver are precipitated from dichromate bleach. When this is done, the solution is filtered and the sludge containing silver chloride and chromium hydroxide is sent to a refinery for recovery of the metals. Water Conservation. Significant quantities of water are essential to photographic processing; therefore, the more efficient laboratories examine Their processes and practices for ways to use it economically Although you won't save much by reducing the volume of water needed for making processing solutions, you can save by reducing the many gallons of water that can be wasted in the washing

process without any real benefit. By employing some or all of the following techniques, labs can reduce water volume with little risk of endangering the quality of washing: reusing cooling or heating water, countercurrent washes, controlled wash-water flow, spray-rack control, squeegees, reverse osmosis, increased water temperature, and salt baths. More detailed information on this subject is presented in KODAK Publication No. J-53, The Use of Water in Photographic Processing.

check your local environmental regulations before you use them. Follow all directions closely Be sure to provide adequate ventilation and avoid prolonged or repeated skin contact. If you must liquid-clean a projection print, it must be relubricated prior to being restored to service.

Technical Assistance From Kodak _______________________
The above chemical recovery procedures are presented mainly as suggested outlines. Because of the individualities of processing laboratories and of changing technologies, we suggest that each processing lab contact their local Kodak Motion Picture and Television Imaging products sales and engineering representative (SER) when that laboratory considers any of these recovery procedures. Your SER will be pleased to assist you in obtaining and implementing current technology.

Figure 66 PTR mounted on a Lipsner Smith cleaning machine

Motion Picture Film Cleaning _______________________
Film cleaning should include the removal of dust and other loose particles, gritty dirt, and oil mottle. Dirt can lead to varied film base and emulsion scratches. For occasional cleaning and for small volumes, use a simple cleaning method of moistened pads containing a solvent, not water. If you have never cleaned film before, it is wise to try the technique on some expendable film and check the results with a magnifying glass. Several liquid film cleaners are hazardous or even flammable. Most film cleaners are toxic or restricted;

Non-Solvent Cleaning A "dry" method of cleaning incorporates a specially developed material that picks up dirt, dust, hair and other unwanted particles from the film by contact with one or more "Particle Transfer Rollers" (PTR). The PTR is made from an inert polyurethane-with no adhesives, silicones or leachable plasticizers and is environmentally sound, unlike the liquids. It has a 95% average cleaning efficiency and can itself be cleaned with water. It is available from FPC Inc., 6677 Santa Monica Blvd., Hollywood CA 90038. Phone 213-465-0609. Figure 66 shows a PTR on a Lipsner Smith cleaning machine. A laboratory with suitable cleaning machines and proper techniques can best clean large quantities of film. For more information on film cleaning, refer to KODAK Publication No. H-23, The Book of film Care.

Motion Picture Printing _______________________
Printers Continuous-Contact Printer. In its simplest form, printing consists of exposing the raw stock from an 11 original" or "printing master" to form the image using a light source to produce the exposure. When the image size of the print is the same as that of the original (i.e., 35 mm to 35 mm, 16 mm to 16 mm), the printing is usually done in a continuous-contact printer. The large printing sprocket advances both the original and the print film at a constant rate past the light source. The original and print films are usually positioned emulsion-to-emulsion with the light passing through the original and exposing the stock to be printed. Depending on the application, these contact printers may operate up to thousands of feet per minute. Step-Contact Printer. Step-contact printers advance both negative and print films through the printer gate with an intermittent motion and shutter similar to that of a camera. Close-fitting register pins position the two films with extreme accuracy during exposure, and a pressure plate at the printing gate assures film flatness. Because of the complexity of the machine and the precision of film registration achieved, the speed of a step-contact printer is relatively low (2 1/2 to 40 feet per minute). Stepcontact printers are precision instruments used for making color separations and special-effects printing that may require several passes of the raw stock through the printer (for traveling mattes, master positives, and color intermediates, etc.). Generally, they are designed for roomlight operation to make the necessary operator control easier.
Figure 68 A continuous contact additive panel printer

Figure 67 Schematic of a subtractive contact printer

Step-Optical Printer. The step-optical printer combines the precision of a step-contact printer with optical flexibility Like the step-contact, the step-optical printer finds its main use in the production of intermediates and special effects. Whenever the image size of the print is different from that of the original or certain special effects are desired, an optical printer is used. The optical printer can be thought of as a projector on one side and a camera on the other. The image produced by the projector is focused at the plane of the film in the camera gate. A schematic of an optical printer used for reducing 35mm to 16mm is shown below. Optical printers can be quite complex, providing such effects as blowups, reductions, skip frames, anamorphic compression, zooms, mattes, etc. Continuous-Optical Printer. These printers are used for high-volume reduction printing. Like a continuouscontact printer, the exposure is made through a slit, thus necessitating exactly matched relative film speeds. This is obtained by mounting both the sprocket driving the original Film and the one for the print film on the same shaft. The different diameters of the two sprockets provide the proper filmspeed ratio. The light path from original to print is U-shaped as a result of using the same shaft to drive both films. The addition of image-dividing lenses or prisms permits multirank printing. Wet-Gate Printing One of the most troublesome problems encountered by motion picture laboratory personnel are scratches (digs, abrasions, cinch marks, etc.) sometimes encountered on film from which prints must be made. These scratches print through to the release print and degrade the quality of the projected picture by introducing image elements that have no relationship to the originally photographed scene.

Figure 69 An optical printer

Figure 70 Wet-gate printing

A scratch on the support of a negative film acts as a diffuser that scatters light. Light from the printer passes essentially in straight lines through the undamaged portion of the support and emulsion of the original. When light strikes the scratch, it is scattered and displaced from the straight-line path, reducing the light on the receiving emulsion. Scratches on the support of a negative film printed onto positive film usually produce more objectionable effects on the screen than scratches on reversal originals printed onto reversal print films. This is because scratches on the support of negative films appear white on the positive film and are generally of lower density than any other white in the picture. In reversal printing, scratches on the support of the original appear black on the screen print and generally tend to blend in better with the picture. Scratches on the emulsion side of negative films present another situation. Shallow emulsion scratches on a black-and-white negative will appear white on the positive film. Emulsion scratches that penetrate to the support on a black-and-white negative will print black. Scratches on the emulsion side of color negative films may appear colored on the print, depending upon how deep the scratch is and whether image-bearing layers have been disturbed. When base scratches exist, a "wet" or "liquid" gate is used to minimize or eliminate their effect, depending on severity In a wet gate, liquid having a refractive index close to that of the film base is applied to the original. The liquid fills in the scratches and reduces the light scatter. Wet-gate printing is applicable to any of the printing configurations, step or continuous, contact or optical. Wet printing is of little or no benefit to emulsion-side scratches.

Printing Operations Image Orientation: Choosing a Duplicating Method. The orientation of the image on the final print is an important consideration in choosing a duplicating method. Camera original film is normally exposed with the emulsion side facing the lens of the camera. When the Film is processed, the image reads correctly through the base side of the film. If a typical emulsion- to -emulsion contact print is made, the resulting print will read correctly through the emulsion side of the film. When several stages of emulsion-to-emulsion contact printing are involved, the image orientation changes with each successive stage. In the case of 35mm prints, the image orientation has been standardized. American National Standard PH22.194-1984 specifies, "The photographic emulsion shall be on the side of the film which faces away from the projector lens," (i.e., the image reads correctly through the emulsion side of the film). This is because 35mm productions utilize a negative camera original contact printed to produce prints. In 35mm production, the proper orientation is obtained when prints are made by contact printing the original, or in going through a master positiveto-duplicate negative-to-print duplicating system. When a duplicate negative is made directly from a print, the image orientation must be changed. This may best be done by optical printing through the base of the print. Some laboratories change the orientation by contact printing through the base, which results in a noticeable loss of sharpness.

Sixteen millimetre film started as an amateur medium, using reversal camera original film that was projected after processing. Therefore, the emulsion had to be toward the projection lens for the image to read properly on the screen. American National Standard ANSI/SMPTE IOM-1985 states, "For original reversal film, the emulsion side shall be toward the projection lens. For prints, the emulsion position is dependent upon the process of preparation; however, the preferred position for most uses, including telecine, is also emulsion side toward the projection lens." This permits intercutting of prints and originals without requiring a change of focus during projection. Image orientation is important for intercut materials because of the need to refocus either the printer or the projector (both picture and sound optics) each time the image orientation changes. Failure to refocus will result in an unsharp picture and loss of frequency response in the sound. In 16 mm, the preferred orientation results when the camera original is projected, or contact release prints are made using an internegative or duplicate negative. Contact prints made directly from the camera original, or using the master positive -to -duplicate negative-to-print duplicating system will have to be shown with the emulsion away from the lens for the image to read correctly on the screen. Contact printing through the base to change orientation in 16 mm usually results in unacceptable loss of sharpness. Black-and-White Printing. Blackand-white printing practices are essentially the same as color printing practices. However, the lack of such considerations as color balance, saturation, etc., make black-and-white printing a less complex operation than color printing. The printing flowcharts show some common methods employed by laboratories in producing black-and-white motion picture prints.

Color Printing. A contact printer, with provisions for scene-to-scene density and color-balance changes, is required for color printing. An optical printer is needed to make reductions or enlargements, where appropriate. If it is necessary to create separation negatives or positives for extended keeping purposes, a step-contact printer is required to provide precision in positioning each successive frame of film. Certain kinds of special effects may also require a step-optical printer. The desire for high-volume production in laboratories has led to the use of multirow perforation formats to minimize handling. These systems for producing two or four rows of pictures on 16 mm or 35 mm raw stock require specially designed equipment. With the advent of video techniques, the demand for these formats is minimal. The printing systems shown in Figures 71 to 74 represent those in general use at laboratories; however, they do not include all procedures currently used. Because they are only photomechanical reproductions, these charts are meant to serve as guides to the printing systems and are not intended for use in evaluating picture quality with respect to color balance, saturation, contrast, sharpness, or graininess. For loose-leaf charts and detailed descriptions of the printing systems, see KODAK Publication No. H-25, Motion Picture Prints from Color Originals.

Note: A change in image size requires optical printing. Where reduction stages are called for, it is best – in order to obtain the highest definition in the final print – to postpone reduction until the latest practical stage.

Additive and Subtractive Printing Whenever color printing is involved, the printer or lamphouse must be able to control the red, green, and blue components of the white-light source. Two methods of control are commonly used: additive and subtractive printing. In a subtractive printer, color correction (changing the relative amounts of red, green, and blue light) is achieved by inserting color correcting filters in the light path between the tight source and the printing aperture. Overall light changes (intensity changes) are made either by a variable aperture or a neutral density filter. Subtractive printing is sometimes used for "release" printing (making multiple one-light prints after an answer print has been approved) because there are no scene-to-scene color changes. Printing requiring any scene-to-scene color corrections is not practical on a subtractive printer. The particular filter packs you use for subtractive printing will depend upon the characteristics of the optical system of the printer, the lamp voltage, etc. The filter pack is usually composed of color compensating (CC) filters. Unwanted absorption in the dyes of such filters may modulate exposure of other layers to a lesser, but significant, degree. This makes precise exposure control a more cumbersome operation than it is in a well-designed additive printer. The most popular printing method is additive printing. Instead of a single light source with color- correcting filters, three separate colored sources - red, green, and blue - are combined to form the light source that exposes the film. Modern additive printers separate white light from a tungsten-halogen bulb into its red, green, and blue components by using a set of dichroic mirrors. These mirrors can be made to give sharp cutoffs at specified wavelengths and high efficiency in regions of the spectrum they are intended to reflect.

You can also combine them with certain KODAK WRATTEN Filters to give the required spectral bands. This allows independent (and often automatic) control of each of the primary colors using neutral density filters and electromechanical light valves. The red, green, and blue beams are then recombined and focused at the printing aperture. Usually, provision is made for the insertion of a filter (such as an ultraviolet-absorbing KODAK WRATTEN Filter No. 2B) in the recombined beam. You can control the electromechanical light valves manually or automatically. The manual control used to set the tight valve is usually called the TRIM setting and is used for overall color correction, for example, when changing print emulsions. A perforated paper tape (Figure 75) is used for automatic control of the light valves, called the TAPE setting. The paper tape, which can be read through a high-speed reader, handles scene-to-scene color correction quickly and effectively. Consequently, almost all intermediates and answer prints are printed on additive printers, while one-light release prints may be printed on either an additive or a subtractive printer.

Color Timing in printing color originals onto color print films, a difference in overall printing exposure as small as 1 printer light (0.025) can be detected in print comparisons. The variations, both in overall printing exposure and color balance that can be tolerated for a particular scene, however, depend on the scene composition, the subject matter, the brightness range of the scene, and whether a deliberate departure from neutral balance is desired. Color timing demands considerable experience in printing a wide variety of scenes and careful observation of scenes along with careful observation of the results obtained in the final picture. In order to "calibrate the eyeball," it is helpful to make a series of picture tests on the equipment used for production printing. These tests, which are kept for reference, show the effects on the print of small changes in overall exposure and color balance.

Figure 75 Perforated paper tape

It is possible to estimate roughly the photographic effect of a given color-balance change in the printer by observing a test print through selected combinations of color balances. Even though each scene may be acceptable in itself, further modification in the scene-to-scene timing may be required when a given scene is assembled with others. Such changes are often necessary to overcome adaptation effects resulting from observation of the scene immediately preceding the scene in question when the print is projected. Often, you can decide these changes only after looking at the first trial print. The most effective way to color-time any material is to use an electronic color analyzer. This instrument displays a positive video image of the original color negative, color reversal, intermediate, or print, and allows the operator to select color printing information. Additive Timing. As described before, the red, green, and blue light valves in the additive printer can be adjusted automatically using the perforated paper tape. The TAPE values usually run 1, 2, 3 ... up to 50 for each primary color and are called printer "points" or printer "lights." The addition of a printer point adds 0.025 Log Exposure, so adding 12 printer points adds a stop (0.30 Log Exposure) of exposure. The standard printer setup for a laboratory is usually 25-25-25 for the red, green, and blue TAPE settings. If the original to be printed was a stop heavier in density than the laboratory's "standard" original, the TAPE setting might be 37-37-37, allowing a one-stop exposure to compensate for the dense original. Differences in the types of films being printed can be accounted for by changing the TRIM, or manual red, green, and blue settings. The TRIM settings can also be changed to adjust for emulsion crossovers and to make minor day-to-day printer control adjustments.

The TAPE settings tell the printer what red, green, and blue valve settings to use for a scene, and the cueing system tells the printer when to make the change. The cueing system to trigger the TAPE can use a variety of methods such as a microprocessor and a frame-count cueing (FCC) system. Subtractive Timing. Scene-to-scene timing of color originals is seldom done on continuous subtractive printers because of the difficulty in making filter changes. On most continuous subtractive printers, one printer light (diaphragm) is equal to 0.05 Log Exposure, and the light is used to make an equal exposure change in all three emulsion layers. The color-compensating filters are used to make an exposure change in each layer. Motion Picture Laboratory Control of Color Duplication Motion picture laboratories balance several sources of variability in producing consistent, high-quality prints through the two-stage master positive and duplicate -negative duplicating system. A paper published in the October 1976 issue of the SMPTE Journal (Vol. 85, No. 10), entitled "A Simplified Motion Picture Laboratory Control Method for improved Color Duplication" by John P. Pytlak and Alfred W. Fleischer, outlines a method for achieving high-quality prints based upon the concept of LAD-Laboratory Aim Density See Kodak Publication No. H-61, LAD -Laboratory Aim Density For more information. In the past, direct printing information has been of little value to a cinematographer since it has usually been reported in terms of numbers on an arbitrary printer scale. In the LAD control method of reporting camera exposure, the printer is adjusted so that the LAD standard negative patch with its specified densities prints to a density of 1.0 END on the print near the center of the printer scale (e.g., 25-25-25). This printer exposure is considered standard. The difference in printer lights (1 printer light = 0.025 Log H) from this standard, necessary to produce a good print, is a reliable and reproducible measure of the

printing characteristics of the negative. The printing characteristic of a master positive or duplicate negative can also be uniquely specified by the timing difference in printer lights for the LAD standard balance. The LAD control method provides a simple and repeatable method of setting the calibration controls on an electronic color analyzer to correlate with the results obtained in printing. The printing exposure required for any printing original can be easily determined by viewing the film on an electronic color analyzer setup using the LAD method. The specific Laboratory Aim Density (LAD) values for different film products are listed on datasheets published by Kodak. Contact your Kodak Motion Picture and Television Imaging engineering representative for details. High Resolution Electronic Intermediate Duplicating System Special effects play an important role in the storytelling process of motion picture films. The use of special effects has increased rapidly with the advances made by the leading companies and individuals in the field. Historically, these effects are produced with the use of film and optical printing equipment. Eastman Kodak Company and others have developed electronic systems to handle all the steps necessary to yield a finished optical effect. This system has a much shorter finishing time and provides overall improved quality.

To create a standard blue-screen composite shot using film products and optical methods may take days or weeks. An electronic system could do the same task in one day, and the quality, with the use of a very highquality intermediate film product, will be better because it will not suffer optical generation losses. This is not to say that traditional film duplicating methods will no longer be used. Electronics will enable the more complicated optical systems to be faster and more cost effective. Applications. The electronics intermediate system, with the use of film, if properly implemented, could enhance the following: Feature Films: There will be -new creative possibilities that up until now have been impractical. Television: The electronics system may allow programs that are now finished on videotape to be finished on film, then released on a medium that is a standard worldwide-film. Scene Salvage: Scenes that are now considered unsuitable because of unwanted artifacts, such as wires or microphones, can be salvaged. Color correction is quite simple. Restoration: Scratch removal and restoration of blotches, damaged frames, and more, are possible. Stock Shots: The electronics system will result in improved quality for background composite uses.

Sound-Track Printing An "optical recorder" is the instrument that transfers the audio information from an electrical signal to an optical image. There are two main types of photographic sound recorders: those that use a combination of a mask and a moving-mirror galvanometer, and those that use a light valve. The recorder's function is to place a uniform exposure over the appropriate area of the film. Using a galvanometer, the exposure is made with a narrow beam of light whose width is made to vary in accordance with the audio signal. In Figure 76, the light path is from the lamp to the film. The lamp, through the condenser, uniformly illuminates the mask. The

mirror on the moving-mirror galvanometer reflects the light transmitted by the illuminated mask. This light is imaged by the lens onto a narrow rectangular slit. Finally, the light beam passing through the slit is imaged by the lens onto the film. The system is adjusted so that half of the aperture is illuminated through the mask when no signal is present. An input audio signal causes the galvanometer to oscillate. The oscillation causes the reflected image of the mask on the aperture to be raised or lowered, thereby varying the width of the illuminated portion of the aperture.

Figure 76 Schematic of a galvanometer-type sound-track recorder

Figure 77 Schematic of a light-valve recorder

A light valve recorder (Figure 77) operates on a similar principle but replaces the mask and galvanometer with two or more metallic ribbons. The metallic ribbons are positioned in the field of a strong magnet, and the audio current is passed through them. A force is always exerted on a current-carrying conductor located in a magnetic field. This force is proportioned to the current and alters the separation of the ribbons in accordance with the audio signal. The variable-area sound tracks produced by these recorders are made up of dense and clear areas. In an ideal track, the dense parts are completely opaque and the clear parts completely clear. If the dense part is not opaque, there is a slight loss in the signal-to noise ratio. However, the clarity of the minimum density (D-min) portions of the track is much more important; the volume output is reduced rapidly as the D-min rises, and if the D-min is grainy, additional noise is produced.

An ideal variable-area track has perfectly sharp edges between the dense and clear areas. In reality, if an exposure is made through a narrow slit composed of two knife edges, the light will spread under the edges, causing some exposure (Figure 78). This exposure produces density in accordance with the film's characteristic curve. Thus, the image recorded is larger than the surface over which the light was incident. When the sound negative is printed onto the print stock, the print exposure is proportional to the negative density. If the negative and print densities are properly balanced, the final print transmittance is proportional to the original exposure (Figure 79). Thus, a two-step system is selfcompensating for the effects of the image spread. Aside from production considerations, this selfcompensation or “ image-spread cancellation," is the major photographic reason for using a two-step system for printing photographic sound tracks.

Figure 78 Image spread

Figure 79 Image spread compensation

Appendix ______________________________________________________
During recent years, the organization for international Standardization (ISO) has been active in the promotion of international exchange of projects and, when possible, reconciling differences among national standards. This group issues recommendations that reflect the consensus of most of the industrial nations of the world. To the extent that it is practical, standards in the United States and ISO Recommendations generally agree. In the United States, American National Standards Institute (ANSI), 1430 Broadway, New York, NY 10036, (212) 642-4900, publishes our national standards for a wide range of industries and products. The Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE), 595 W. Hartsdale Avenue, White Plains, NY 10607, (914) 761-1100, oversees standards in the field of cinematography (PH22). Motion picture standards, therefore, originate and are drafted by the engineering committees of the Society. The administrative procedures require many reviews to provide technical adequacy and to be sure that all groups that may have an interest manufacturers, distributors, vendors, users, and the general public-have a chance to be heard. Thus, American National Standards, when issued, represent a national consensus. All standards, both ISO and ANSI, must be reviewed for withdrawal, reaffirmation, or revision every 5 years. In addition, the SMPTE issues Recommended Practices in cases where general guidance is desirable but the subject matter, for some reason, is not suitable as a formal standard. EASTMAN Motion Picture Films are carefully manufactured to suit the user's needs and generally conform to appropriate ANSI Standards, SMPTE Standards, and Recommended Practices. The list of Standards and Recommended Practices on the following pages shows currently available items that may interest readers of this book. Designers, engineers, and manufacturers who are interested in specific dimensions should consult appropriate standards documents for detailed information. The following list is reproduced with the permission of the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers. You can obtain ANSI Standards from either ANSI or SMPTE. Recommended Practices can be obtained from SMPTE. Index to SMPTE-Sponsored American National Standards and SMPTE Standards, Recommended Practices, and Engineering Guidelines Individual copies of approved standards, practices, and guidelines and loose-leaf binders containing a set of all SMPTE sponsored documents may be purchased from Society Headquarters.

ANSI Standards _______________________
The dimensional aspects of motion picture film - location and size of the picture image, sound track, perforations, etc. - are some of the most completely standardized technical areas in the world. This accounts for the long-accepted international exchange of films and the usual provision that films, cameras, projectors, and other accessory items are interchangeable. This almost universal interchangeability has come about through many years of effort by professional and technical groups throughout the world who recognized the benefits to the user. Usually the standards are intended to make sure that parts of an overall system fit and that particular items are interchangeable. Hence, the standards tend to allow the greatest tolerances, or greatest variability, that will be just acceptable. They do not necessarily relate to the quality of the items; this is a matter for each manufacturer to determine. Most countries have national standardizing bodies. in the United States (and some other countries) compliance or conformity is entirely voluntary in some countries, compliance or conformity to national standards is mandatory.

Subject Audio Photographic Record Super8 Control and Data Spectral Response 16 mm 2 -Track Control and Data Signal-to-Noise Ratio 35 mm 2-Track Control and Data, Release Prints Camera Negatives Reproduction Characteristic Signal-to-Noise Ratio Magnetic Record Super 8 Control and Data Recorded Characteristic Sync Pulse 16 mm 100 mil 200 mil Center Position Head Gaps, 2 Records Recorded Characteristic 35 mm 2, 3, 4 and 6 Records 4-Track Release Data Tracks, Low Dispersion Recorded Characteristic 4-Track Striped Release Prints 70 mm Recorded Characteristic Acoustic Noise Levels, Dubbing Stages Camera Noise Measurement, Field Method

No.

Journal

Subject Channel Assignments Multichannel to 2 Channel 2 Channel to 2 Channel Cross Modulation Dialog Recording Level Electroacoustic Response, Control Rooms and Theatres Masters for Transfer to 16 mm Intermodulation Distortion Noise Levels, Theatres and Review Rooms Photoelectric Output Factor Polarity for Analog Post-Production Recording Level Record Test Position Stereo, Transfer of 2Channel Test Films Audio, Use of Basic Parameters Use and Care Time and Control Code 24, 25 and 30 Frames/sec. Binary User Groups Stripe Super8 Super 8 on 16 mm (1-3) (1-4) Super 8 on 35 mm (5R) 16 mm on 30 mil 50 mil 100 mil 35 mm 4-Track Release 70 mm 6-Track Release Film Dimensions 8 mm, Perforated Super 8, 1R 16 mm, Perforated Regular 8, 2R-1500 16 mm, Perforated Super 8, (1-3) (1-4) 16 mm, 1R 16 mm, 2R 35 mm, Perforated Super 8, 2R-1664 (1-0) 5R 35 mm, Perforated 16 mm, 3R (1-3-0)

No.

Journal

RP 147-1987 RP 150-1988 RP 104-1987 EG 15-1987 PH22.202M-1984

Dec. 1987 Aug. 1988 Sept. 1987 Aug. 1987 Dec. 1984 May 1991† June-1988 July 1984 June 1991 Dec. 1985 June-1986 Dec. 1985 Jan. 1987 Feb. 1991

SMPTE 182-1990 RP 118-1983 R1989 RP 109-1982 R1987 SMPTE 41-1989 SMPTE 204-1987 RP 114-1983 R1989 PH22.211M-1984 SMPTE 40-1991 SMPTE 203-1987 RP 115-1983 R1989 RP 116-1990 SMPTE 214M-1984 PH22.211M-1984 SMPTE 164-1988 RP 117-1989 SMPTE 209M-1991 EG 7-1989 SMPTE 112-1989 SMPTE 97-1989 SMPTE 218M-1985 SMPTE 210M-1990 SMPTE 213M-1984 SMPTE 86-1991 SMPTE 137-1988 RP 137-1986

Apr. 1991 Mar. 1984 May 1983 Jan. 1990 Sept. 1987 Jan. 1984 July 1984 Dec. 1991 Sept. 1987 Jan. 1984 Sept. 1990 Apr 1985 July 1984 Nov. 1988 Apr 1990 Oct. 1991 Nov. 1989 Jan. 1990 Feb. 1990 Dec. 1985 Apr 1991 Jan. 1985 Oct. 1991 Sept. 1988 Aug. 1986 (withdrawn Oct. 1991*) Dec. 1984 June 1985 June 1987 June 1985 Aug. 1987 June-1988

EG 17-1987 RP 120-1983 R1989 RP 141-1990 SMPTE 183M-1985 R1991 RP 134-1986 EG 9-1985 RP 140-1986 R1990 EG 23-1990

EG 13-1986 EG 12-1986 RP 45-1972 R1987 RP 136-1990 RP 135-1990 SMPTE 161-1986 SMPTE 176-1988 SMPTE 162-1986 SMPTE 163-1986 SMPTE 101-1988 SMPTE 127-1989 SMPTE 87M-1985 PH22.177-1990 SMPTE 221-1987

Mar. 1987 Mar. 1987 Aug. 1972

June 1991 June 1991 Nov. 1986 Nov. 1988 Nov. 1986 Dec. 1986 Dec. 1988 Feb. 1990 Nov. 1985 Mar 1991 May 1987

PH22.208M-1984 SMPTE 216-1985 R1991 SMPTE 185-1987 SMPTE 217-1985 R1991 EG 14-1987 EG 16-1987

SMPTE 149-1988 SMPTE 239-1989 SMPTE 151-1987 SMPTE 168-1986 SMPTE 109-1986 SMPTE 110-1986

Mar 1988 Aug. 1989 Aug. 1987 Feb. 1987 July 1986 July 1986

SMPTE 169-1986 Feb. 1987 R1991 SMPTE 165-1988 Aug. 1988 SMPTE 171-1986 Dec. 1986

Subject 35 mm, Perforated 32 mm, 2R 35 mm, BH 35 mm, CS-1870 35 mm, DH-1870 35 mm, KS 65 mm, KS 70 mm, Perforated 65 mm, KS-1870 Film Usage, Camera 35 mm Film Usage, Projector Regular 8 16 mm 35 mm

No.

Journal

Subject Television Alignment Color Bar Signal Density, Films and Slides Digital Control Interface Electrical and Mechanical Characteristics Bit-Parallel

No.

Journal

SMPTE 73-1987 SMPTE 92-1986 SMPTE 102-1986 SMPTE 237-1988 SMPTE 139-1986 SMPTE 145-1988 SMPTE 119-1988

Aug. 1987 Aug. 1986 June 1991† Jan. 1987 June 1988 Jan. 1987 Apr. 1988 Aug. 1988

EG 1-1990 RP 46-1990 SMPTE 207M-1984 SMPTE 125M RP 125-1984 RP 138-1986 RP 113-1983 RP 139-1986 SMPTE 240M-1988 RP 72-1977 R1988 PH22.96-1982 PH22.95-1984 SMPTE 148-1991 SMPTE 94-1985 SMPTE 253 RP 160-1991 RP 157-1990 RP 37-1969 R1982 RP 145-1987 SMPTE 222M-1987 RP 71-1977 RP 154 RP 41-1983 EG 25-1991 RP 9-1986 R1990 RP 27.1-1989 RP 27.7-1987 RP 38.1-1989 RP 27.5-1989 RP 27.4-1985 RP 27.2-1989 RP 27.3-1989

Oct. 1990 Dec. 1990 June 1984 June 1991† Sept. 1991† Apr 1985 Sept. 1991* Sept. 1986 June 1991 ‡ June 1984 June 1991† Sept. 1986 June 1991† Sept. 1989 June 1977

Control Message Architecture Supervisory Protocol

SMPTE 219M-1985

May 1985 Tributary Interconnection HDTV 1125/60 Signal Illuminator for Test Pattern Transparencies Image Area 16 mm Film 35 mm Film Review Rooms Slides and Opaques Interface, 3-Channel Parallel Analog HDTV Key Signals Monitors Color Temperature Colorimetry Electroacoustic Response Setting of White for Reference Signal, 525-Line Review Room Screens Scanning, Film Transfer to TV 2 X 2 Slide Mount Test Patterns Alignment Cameras, Telecine Linearity Mid-Frequency Response Picture Steadiness Registration Safe Areas

SMPTE 232M-1987 SMPTE 10M-1985 SMPTE 194-1991

Nov. 1987 Apr. 1986 Oct. 1991

Image Areas and Film Usage, Camera Regular 8 SMPTE 231-1989 Super8 SMPTE 157-1988 16 mm SMPTE 7-1988 Super 16 SMPTE 201M-1988 35 mm SMPTE 59-1989 65 mm Image Areas, Printer Super 8 on 16 mm (1-3) (1-4) Super 8 on 35 mm 16 mm Contact (positive from negative and reversal) 16 mm to 35 mm Enlargement Ratio Super 16 to 35 Enlargement Ratio 35 mm to 16 mm Prints and Dupe Negatives 35 mm Release Picture-Sound Continuous Contact Image Areas and Film Usage, Projectable 8 mm Release Prints Regular 8 Super8 16 mm 16 and 35 mm TV Review Room 35 mm Stereo Prints 70 mm SMPTE 215-1990

Sept. 1989 Jan. 1989 Feb. 1989 Sept. 1988 Sept 1989 Sept. 1990† Apr. 1991

Dec. 1982 Dec. 1991 † Aug. 1984 Dec. 1991† Dec. 1991 Oct. 1985 Dec. 1991† Aug. 1990† Sept. 1991 Jan. 1991 Sept. 1969 Nov. 1987 May 1987 June 1977 Jan. 1990† May 1984 Sept. 1991* Sept. 1991 Nov. 1986

SMPTE 181-1985 SMPTE 153-1985 SMPTE 179-1985 SMPTE 48-1989 RP 66-1987 SMPTE 210M-1988 RP 65-1987 SMPTE 111-1988

Feb. 1986 Nov. 1985 Feb. 1986 Oct. 1989 May 1988 Sept. 1988 May 1988 Feb. 1989

RP 56-1990 SMPTE 234-1987 SMPTE 154-1988 SMPTE 233-1987

Nov. 1990 Nov. 1987 Jan. 1989 Oct. 1987 Sept. 1990† Dec. 1991 Oct. 1984 Dec. 1991† Dec. 1989

July 1989 Jan. 1988 June 1989 Aug. 1989 Jan. 1986 July 1989 Aug. 1989

SMPTE 148-1991 PH22.195-1984 SMPTE 257 SMPTE 152-1989

Subject Television Recording and Reproduction Audio Channel Assignments, AES/EBU Inputs Channel Allocation, Stereo Device Control Elements Edit Decision Lists Storage Transfer Polarity, Stereo Signals Tape Care and Handling Time and Control Code Recording Requirements Vertical Interval - Longitudinal Relationship Helical Scan Raw Stock, Reference Tape Receiver/Monitor Test Tapes Types E, G and H Reels, 1-in Tape, 1-in Type B, 1-in Basic Parameters Carrier Frequencies and Preemphasis Dropout Frequency Response and Operating Level Record Dimensions Reference Tapes Video and Audio Record Dimensions Recorder Parameters Time and Control Code Recording Requirements Tracking-Control Record Type C, 1-in Alignment Tapes and Procedures Basic Parameters Dropout Frequency Response and Reference Level Record Dimensions Recorder Parameters Reference Tapes Record Dimensions

No.

Journal

Subject Type D-1, 19 mm Audio Control Words, Decoding Audio Levels and Indicators Bar Code Labeling Cue, Time and Control Code Records Helical Data and Control Records Magnetic Tape Nomenclature Tape Cassette Tape Record Transport Geometry Parameters Type D-2,19 mm Audio Levels and Indicators Bar Code Labeling Cassette Cue, Time and Control Code Helical Data, Control Records Index of Documents Nomenclature Records Representation of NTSC Encoded Signal Tape Tape Transport Type E, 3/4-in Carrier Frequencies, Preemphasis, Audio and Control Signals Cassette Dimensions Record Dimensions Small Cassette Type F, 1/2-in Carrier Frequencies and Preemphasis Records and Parameters Type G, 1/2-in Carrier Frequencies, Preemphasis, Audio and Control Signals

No.

Journal

EG 26-1991 Sept. 1991 RP 142-1986 Apr 1987 EG 19-1988 Mar 1989 RP 132-1985 R1989 RP 146-1987 RP 148-1987 RP 103-1982 R1987 SMPTE 12M-1986 RP 101-1991 RP 159-1991 May 1986 Nov. 1987 Dec. 1987 Oct. 1982 June 1986 Aug. 1991 July 1991

RP 161-1991 RP 155-1990 RP 156-1990 SMPTE 228M SMPTE 227M SMPTE 225M EG 21 SMPTE 226M SMPTE 224M EG 10

Dec. 1991 May 1991 Jan. 1991 Mar 1986† Mar 1986† Mar. 1986† July 1990† Mar 1986† Mar 1986† Mar 1986†

SMPTE 26M-1989 June 1989

RP 155-1990 RP 156-1990 SMPTE 226M SMPTE 248M SMPTE 247M EG 22 EG 21 SMPTE 245M SMPTE 244M SMPTE 246M EG 20 RP 87-1991

May 1991 Jan. 1991 Mar 1986† July 1990† July 1990† July 1990† July 1990† July 1990† July 1990† July 1990† July 1990† Aug. 1991

RP 96-1988 Nov. 1988 SMPTE 24M-1985 July 1985 SMPTE 25M-1989 June 1989 SMPTE 15M-1987 Aug. 1987 RP 84-1987 July 1987 RP 121-1988 Sept. 1988 SMPTE 17M-1987 Aug. 1987 SMPTE 16M-1987 Aug. 1987 RP 107-1988 Sept. 1988 SMPTE 30M-1989 July 1989 SMPTE 29M-1989 July 1989 RP 93-1989 Apr 1990 RP 83-1987 July 1987 EG 24 Nov. 1990† V98.18M-1983 Nov. 1983 Nov. 1990† RP 121-1988 Sept. 1988 SMPTE 20M-1985 July 1985 Nov. 1990† V98.19M-1983 May 1984 Nov. 1990† RP 86-1985 Aug. 1985 V98.28M-1983 Dec. 1983 (withdrawn July 1991*) V98.27M-1983 Dec. 1983 (withdrawn July 1991*) RP 85-1985 Aug. 1985

SMPTE 22M-1986 R1991 SMPTE 21M-1986 R1991 SMPTE 31M-1989 RP 88-1986

Apr 1987 Apr 1987 Dec. 1989 Oct. 1986 (withdrawn Dec. 1991 Aug. 1986 July 1991*

SMPTE 23M-1986

RP 119-1984

Cassettes and Tape Records

SMPTE 35M-1991 V98.34M-1984

Nov. 1984 (withdrawn June 1991*) Dec. 1991 Nov. 1984 (withdrawn Nov. 1991 *)

Recorder Parameters

Tracking-Control Record

Subject Type H, 1/2-in Carrier Frequencies, Preemphasis, Audio and Control Signals Records Tape and Cassette Type L, 1/2-in Basic System, Transport Geometry Parameters Records Tapes and Cassette Video, Audio, Time and Control Code and Tracking Control Type M, 2 1/2-in Basic System, Transport Geometry Parameters Electrical Parameters Pulse Code Modulation Audio Records Tapes and Cassettes Quadruplex Audio 2 Level/Response Dropout Detection Headwheel and Guides Leader Monochrome

No.

Journal

Subject Test Tapes Multifrequency 15 in/s 7.5 in/s Video Frequency, 15 in/s, HB Vertical Interval Signal

No.

Journal

RP 112-1983 Feb. 1984 R1988 V98.32M-1983 Feb. 1984 V98.33M-1983 Feb. 1984 RIP 144-1987 Feb. 1988 Apr. 1990† SMPTE 229M-1987 Feb. 1988 Apr-1990† SMPTE 238M Sept. 1991† SMPTE 230M-1987 Feb. 1988 Apr. 1990† RP 158-1991 Nov. 1991 SMPTE 251M-1991 Nov. 1991 SMPTE 252M-1991 Nov. 1991 SMPTE 249M-1991 Nov. 1991 SMPTE 250M-1991 Nov. 1991 RP 102-1991 RP 47-1985 R1989 RP 36-1989 SMPTE 256M V98.2-1982 Aug. 1991 Sept. 1985

SMPTE 8-1989 SMPTE 11-1989 RP 43-1988 RP 57-1974

May 1989 May 1989 Nov. 1988 Jan. 1975 (withdrawn 1990*) Jan. 1991

R1985 Test Materials Medical Diagnostic Imaging Photographic Regular 8 Registration Super 8 Registration 16 mm Buzz-Track Flutter Projector Alignment Registration Scanning Beam Sound Focusing Sound Projector 35 mm Buzz-Track Flutter Projector Alignment Anamorphic Attachments Scanning Beam Sound Focusing Theatre Test 70 mm Projector Alignment Magnetic Super 8 Azimuth Alignment Flutter Multifrequency 16 mm Azimuth Alignment Flutter Multifrequency 35 mm Azimuth Alignment 4-Track Flutter 4-Track Multifrequency 4-Track 70 mm Multifrequency

RP 133-1991 RP 19-1987 RP 32-1987 RP 67-1989 RP 70-1989 RP 82-1990 RP 20-1987 RP 81-1989 RP 63-1989 RP 18-1991 RP 68-1984 RP 97-1987 RP 40-1971 R1977 RP 110-1988 RP 69-1989 RP 64-1987 RP 35-1990 RP 91-1987 RP 61-1989 RIP 62-1989 RP 92-1990 RP 78-1983 RP 76-1983 RP 90-1979 RP 77-1987 RIP 80-1987 RP 75-1989 RP 79-1989 RP 127-1985 RP 143-1990 RIP 128-1985

June 1991 Mar 1988 Apr. 1988 Oct. 1989 Feb. 1990 Sept. 1990 Mar. 1988 Jan. 1990 Sept. 1989 July 1991 May 1985 Oct. 1987 Aug. 1971 May 1982‡ Oct. 1988 Oct. 1989 Oct. 1987 Nov. 1990 Apr. 1988 Sept. 1989 Feb. 1990 May 1991 Sept. 1984 Sept. 1984 Jan. 1980 June 1987 June 1987 Mar 1990 Jan. 1990 Feb. 1986 June 1991 Feb. 1986

Color

Modulation Practices Patch Splices Records, Characteristics of Audio Record Dimensions, Video, Audio and Tracking Control Record, Tracking Control Reels, 2-in 1/2-in Speed Spools, Cartridge Labels Tape Dimensions Tape Vacuum Guide Tape Usage, Cartridge/ Cassette Spools

June 1989 Feb. 1991† Dec. 1982 (withdrawn Sept. 1991*) V98.9-1983 Sept. 1983 (withdrawn Sept. 1991*) RIP 6-1985 Sept. 1985 RP 5-1988 Dec. 1988 R1989 SMPTE 3-1986 Oct. 1986 SMPTE 6-1988 Oct. 1988 RP 16-1988 Dec. 1988 SMPTE 5-1989 SMPTE 14-1988 SMPTE 4-1989 SMPTE 13-1988 RP 60-1991 SMPTE 1-1991 RP11-1984 R1989 EG 6-1982 R1987 Nov. 1989 July 1988 Nov. 1989 July 1988 Aug. 1991 Apr 1991 Feb. 1985 Mar 1983

Subject

No. MISCELLANEOUS

Journal

Subject Conference Audio Reinforcement

No.

Journal

Camera Equipment Space Environment Mounting Connections Cartridge, Super 8 Camera Notches Silent 50 Ft. Model I Aperture, Profile, Pressure Pad, Film Position Camera Run Length, Perforation Cut-Out, End-of-Run Notch Cartridge, Cartridge-Camera Interface, Take-Up Core Drive Model II Cartridge, Cartridge-Camera Fit, Core Film Length, Camera Run Position Speed, Color Balance, Identification Sound 50 Ft. Model I Aperture, Pressure Pad, Film Position Camera-Run Length, Perforation Cut-Out, End-of-Run Notch Cartridge, Cartridge-Camera Interface, Core Drive Pressure Pad Flatness, Aperture Profile 200 Ft. Model I Aperture, Profile, Film Position, Pressure Pad, Flatness Camera-Run Length, Perforation Cut-Out, End-of-Run Notch Cartridge, Cartridge-Camera Interface, Core Drive

EG 8-1984 R1989 SMPTE 220-1985

Jan. 1985 Jan. 1986

Projector Cores for Raw Stock Film Density Measurements Calibration of Densitometers Spectral Diffuse Edge Identification 35 mm Manufacturer-Printed Latent Image 35 mm Release Prints Edge Numbering 16 mm Film 16 mm Release Prints

EG 4-1982 R1987 EG 3-1989 SMPTE 37M-1987

Mar 1983 Nov, 1989 Dec. 1987

SMPTE 166-1988

Mar 1988

RIP 15-1988 SMPTE 117M-1985

July 1988 Oct. 1985

SMPTE 159.2-1986

Sept. 1986

SMPTE 254 RP 152-1989

July 1991† May 1990

SMPTE 200M-1988

Mar 1989 PH22.83-1990 RIP 54-1974 R1989 Apr. 1991 July 1974

SMPTE 159.1-1986

Sept. 1986 Emulsion Orientation Print Winding

SMPTE 190M-1988

Apr 1989

Raw Stock Winding Film Length, 8 mm Camera Spool (25-ft Capacity) Image Quality 70,35,16 mm Jump and Weave 70,35,16 mm

RIP 39-1970 R1987 SMPTE 75M-1988

Apr 1970 Dec. 1988

SMPTE 188M-1988 SMPTE 189M-1988 SMPTE 191M-1988

Apr 1989 Apr 1989 Apr 1989

SMPTE 143-1988

Apr 1988

EG 5-1989

June 1990

RP 105-1989

July 1990

SMPTE 198-1986 SMPTE 200M-1988

Mar 1987 Mar 1989

Leaders Preprint, 8 mm Universal

RIP 49-1986 R1990 PH22.55-1983

Oct. 1986 Sept. 1984

SMPTE 197-1986

Mar 1987

Lenses Focus Scales, 16 and 8 mm Cameras Lens Mounts 16 and 8 mm Cameras 35 and 70 mm Projection. Lubrication, Print 16 and 8 mm 35 mm Nomenclature Cartridge/Cassette Film

SMPTE 74-1988

June 1988

SMIPTE 199-1986

Mar 1987

SMPTE 76-1985 SMPTE 243-1989

May 1985 Aug. 1989

SMPTE 206-1988

Mar 1989

RP 48-1990 RIP 151-1989

Aug. 1990 May 1989

SMPTE 200M-1988

Mar 1989

RP 58-1974 R1990 SMPTE 56-1991

Jan. 1975 Dec. 1991

SMPTE 205-1988

Feb. 1989

Subject Notching Scene Change, 35 mm

No.

Journal

Subject Splices 16 and Regular 8 Projection Tape Transverse Cemented Super8 Cemented Tape

No.

Journal

RP 53-1983 R1988

Apr 1984

RP 130-1990 RP 149-1988 RP 122-1983 R1988 RP 123-1983 R1988 RP 129-1985 R1990 RP 111-1989

Dec. 1990 Aug. 1988 July 1984 July 1984 Apr 1986 May 1989

Raw Stock Identification Container Edge Reels Regular 8 Super8 75 mm Diameter 16 mm 35 mm Shipping 35 and 70 mm Reversal Color Film Speed Safety Film Screens Gain Determination Installation Luminance Drive-in Theatres Indoor Theatres Measurement Review Rooms, 8 mm Television Slides and Film Strips

SMPTE 184M-1987 EG 2-1990

June 1987 Oct. 1990

SMPTE 236-1987 PH22.16OM-1990 SMPTE 212M-1984 R1990 SMPTE 235-1987 SMPTE 192-1985 SMPTE 241-1989

Jan. 1988 Mar 1991 Jan. 1985 Jan. 1988 Jan. 1986 Oct. 1990† Oct. 1989

35, 16 mm and Super 8 Magnetic Tape 70,65 and 35 mm Spools 8 mm, 25-ft Capacity Double 8, 100-ft Capacity 16 mm, Daylight-Loading, 50to 400-ft Capacity Sprockets Regular 8 Super8 16 mm

SMPTE 107-1987 SMPTE 173-1988 SMPTE 174-1988

Dec. 1987 May 1988 Mar 1988

SMPTE 146M-1986 R1991 SMPTE 223M-1985

Aug. 1986 Apr 1986

RP 94-1989 RP 95-1989 RP 12-1988 SMPTE 196M-1986 RP 98-1990 RP 51-1990 RP 41-1983 RP 59-1986 R1990 RP 14-1988 RP 153-1989

Mar. 1990 July 1990 Oct. 1988 Oct. 1986 Aug. 1990 May 1991 May 1984 Sept. 1991* Dec. 1986

35 mm Storage Edit Decision Lists Motion-Picture Films

RP 73-1977 R1988 RP 55-1974 R1989 RP 74-1977 R1988 SMPTE 242-1988

Jan. 1978 Jan. 1975 Jan. 1978 Oct. 1988

RP 132-1985 R1989 RP 131-1985

May 1986 May 1986 July 1991†

Studio Lighting Pivot and Holders

RP 124-1984 R1989

Nov. 1984

Sensitometric Strips Shutter Efficiency Spindles Super 8 Projector 16 mm Camera 16 mm Projector 35 mm Rewind

July 1988 May 1990

Synchronization Sound-Picture

RP 25-1984 R1989

June 1985

RP 50-1985 R1990 RP 24-1989 RP 34-1989 RP 21-1987

Nov. 1985 Dec. 1989 Dec. 1989 Jan. 1988

Tension 35 mm Systems

RP 106-1982 R1987 EG 18-1989

Oct. 1982 June 1990

Theatre Design Unsteadiness High-Speed Camera

RP 17-1964 R1987

May 1964

______________ R = Reaffirmed * Withdrawal notice † Proposal ‡ Proposed technical revision

Glossary ____________________________________________________________
Acetate (cellulose triacetate) A slow burning safety base material used for motion picture films. Also, in sheet form, for overlay cells. Additive Color Color mixture by the addition of light of the three primaries, red, green, and blue. Aerial Image or Virtual Image An image focused by a projection lens near a field or relay lens. A camera lens is then used to form a real image on the film from the aerial image. A cel or another material can be placed at the aerial image location to combine it with the aerial image on film. Agitation Keeping various solutions in motion while developing film. Agitation is necessary to achieve even solution action, or uniformity, and temperature consistency. Anamorphic Lens Designed for wide-screen movie photography and projection. A lens that produces a "squeezed" image on film in the camera. When projected on a screen using an appropriate lens to reverse the effect, the image spreads out to lifelike proportions. Animation The technique of synthesizing apparent mobility from inanimate objects or drawings through the medium of cinematography. The term is also used for the sequence of drawings made to create the movement, and for the movement itself when seen on the screen. Animation Camera A motion picture camera with special capability for animation work, which usually includes frame and footage counters, the ability to expose a single frame at a time, reverse-filming capability, and parallax-free viewing. Answer Print The first print of the cut negative offered by the laboratory to the producer for acceptance. It is usually studied carefully to determine whether changes are required prior to printing the balance of the order. Antihalation Protection A dark layer coated on or in the film to absorb light that would otherwise be reflected from the base back into the emulsion. See Halation. Aperture (1) Lens: The orifice, usually an adjustable iris, which limits the amount of light passing through a lens. (2) Camera: In motion picture cameras, the mask opening that defines the area of each frame exposed. (3) Projector: In motion picture projectors, the mask opening that defines the area of each frame projected. Aspect Ratio (A. R.) The proportion of picture width to height. A. R. for Projection Prints. Average Gradient A measure of contrast of a photographic image, representing the slope of a portion of a characteristic curve. Balance Stripe A magnetic stripe on the opposite edge of the film from the magnetic sound track. Base The transparent support on which the photographic emulsion of a film is coated. Base Plus Fog Density of the film support plus the silver or dye produced by the effects of the developer Pertains only to an unexposed portion of the film. See Minimum Density. Bipack Filming The running of two films simultaneously through a camera or optical printer, either to expose both or expose one through the other, using the one nearest to the lens as a mask. Often used in special effects work to combine live action with animated images. Blackbody Radiator A light source which has a continuous, smooth spectral distribution. Blooping Ink Used to opaque the section of a positive film splice in a sound track; to reduce the noise created as the splice passes over the projector sound head. Blowup (part of frame) In transferring an image by means of an optical printer, it is possible to enlarge a properly proportioned fraction of the original image to full frame size in the copy, or to enlarge an entire frame to a larger format. Boom A long, adjustable arm used to position a microphone during production. Bounce Light Light that is reflected to illuminate a subject indirectly. Broad Light Soft, floodlight-type of illumination unit; usually not focusable.

Buckling The effect of shrinkage of the outside edges of film. Burn-In The photographic double exposure of a title or other subject matter over previously exposed film. Camera Film A product intended for original photography. Catalog Number (CAT No.) Identifies a particular product. Cel A transparent sheet of cellulose acetate or similar plastic serving as a support or overlay for drawings, lettering, etc., in animation and title work. Characteristic Curve A curve showing the relation between the exposure of a photographic material and the image density produced after processing. Claw Mechanism used in most cameras and projectors to move the film intermittently. Coated Lens A lens covered with a very thin layer of transparent material that reduces the amount of light reflected by the surface of the lens. A coated lens usually transmits more light than an uncoated lens at the same fstop, because of less flare. Color Balance Color as seen on a print. Color Correction Alteration of tonal values of colored objects or images by the use of filters, either with camera or printer. The alteration is accomplished by means of color compensating (CC) filters or by color printing (CP) filters, or light valves.

Color Sensitivity The portion of the spectrum to which a film is sensitive. The ability of the eye or photographic stock to respond to various wavelengths of light. Sometimes confused with Spectral Sensitivity. See Panchromatic and Orthochromatic. Color Temperature The color quality - expressed in degrees Kelvin (K) - of the light source. The higher the color temperature, the bluer the light; the lower the temperature, the redder the light. Reducing Color Temperature. Composite A single piece of film bearing both picture and matching sound. Conform To match the original film to the final edited workprint. Contact Print A print made by exposing the receiving material while it is in contact with a negative or intermediate. Images in the print will be the same size as those in the original but with a reversed left-to-right orientation, as viewed through the base. Contrast The brightness range of the lighting on a subject or the scene. Control Strip A strip of film that has been exposed to a stepped density scale under tightly controlled conditions. Such strips are processed with regular production films and compared with a reference strip using a transmission densitometer as a check on the quality of the process. Core A cylinder on which film is wound for transport and storage. Correction Filters A medium enabling a color change.

Countercurrent Wash Wash water that is flowing through several interconnected tanks in the opposite direction to the film travel. The inlet pipe is usually situated near the bottom of the tank and the overflow at the waterline near the film entrance area. Coupler A chemical incorporated in the emulsion of color film stocks which produces a dye image associated with the developed silver image. CRI Color Reversal Intermediate Film and process. Cross-Modulation Test (Cross Mod) A test method for determining the optimum print density requirements for a variable area sound track. Curl The departure from the flatness of photographic film. Curl towards the emulsion side is referred to as "positive curl"; curl towards the base side is "negative curl.” Cyan Blue-green color, the complement of red. Dailies (Rushes) At one time, an untimed onelight first print, made without regard to scene-to-scene color balance, from which the action and exposures are checked. Today, most laboratories color balance all dailies. Datasheet A publication giving technical details of a specific film product. Definition The clarity or distinctiveness with which detail of an image is rendered. Densitometer An instrument for measuring the optical density of a non-opaque material.

Density The light-stopping characteristics of a film or filter It is the logarithm of the opacity of developed photographic film. Visual density is measurement of density approximating the sensitivity of the human eye. Printing density is measurement approximating sensitivity of print stock. A film sample that transmits one-half of the incident light has a transmittance of 0.50, or 50 percent, and a density of 0.30. Depth of Field The distance range between the nearest and farthest objects that appear in acceptably sharp focus. Depth of field depends on the lens opening, the focal length of the lens, and the distance from the lens to the subject. Depth of Focus The distance range over which the film plane could be located inside the camera and still have the subject appear in sharp focus; often misused to mean depth of field. Developer A solution used to turn the latent image into a visible image on exposed films. Diaphragm An adjustable opening mounted behind or between the elements of a lens used to control the amount of light that reaches the film. Openings are usually calibrated in f-numbers. Dissolve An optical or camera effect where two scenes overlap. One scene fades out, the new scene fades in. D Log H Curve The curve showing the relation between the logarithm of the exposure and the resultant density on processed film, See Characteristic Curve.

Double-System Sound The recording of sound on audio tape and picture on film, that can be synchronized in a later process. Dubbing The addition of sound (either music or dialogue) to a visual presentation through a rerecording process, which prepares a complete sound track (usually magnetic) that can be transferred to, and synchronized with, the visual presentation. Dupe A copy negative, short for duplicate negative. Edge Numbers (Key Numbers/Footage Numbers) Sequential numbers printed along the edge of a strip of film by the manufacturer to designate identification. Edgewaxing Enables smoother transport of processed film through a projector. Editing The process of assembling, arranging, and trimming the desired shots and sound tracks to the best advantage of the desired end product. Emulsion A thin coating of light-sensitive material in which the image is formed. Emulsion Side The side of the film base coated with emulsion. Equivalent Neutral Density (END) In a color film, expresses each of the three density numbers in the amount of gray that each component can form. ESTAR Base The trade name applied to the polyethylene terephthalate film base manufactured by Kodak.

Existing Light Available light. Strictly speaking, existing light covers all natural lighting from moonlight to sunshine. For photographic purposes, existing light represents the light that is already on the scene or project and includes room lamps, fluorescent lamps, spotlights, neon signs, candles, daylight through windows, outdoor scenes at twilight or in moonlight. Exposure The quantity of light allowed to act on a photographic material; a product of the intensity (controlled by the lens opening) and the duration (controlled by the shutter opening and frame rate) of light striking the film. Exposure Index (EI) A number assigned to a camera film that expresses the relative sensitivity to light (speed) of that material. The exposure indexes are based on the film emulsion speed, a standard exposure technique, and specific processing solution. Exposure Latitude The range of camera exposure, from underexposure to overexposure, that will produce acceptable pictures from a specific film. Exposure Meter An optical or photoelectrical device designed to ascertain the amount of light falling on a subject for the purpose of determining the correct exposure of the film. Exposure Setting The lens opening selected to expose the film.

Fade Exposure of motion picture film either in the camera or during subsequent operations, so that, for a fade-in, starting with no exposure and extending for a predetermined number of frames, each successive frame receives a systematically greater exposure than the frame preceding it, until full normal exposure for the scene has been attained. From this frame on, successive frames receive identical exposure for the remainder of the take. The procedure is reversed in the case of fade-outs. Fast Used to describe film having great enough sensitivity to light that it can form usable images at low or very low light levels. Can also apply to processing and optical components. See Speed. Field The portion of the scene in front of the camera represented within the limits of the camera aperture at the focal plane. Area of field thus varies with focal length of lens and camera subject distance. In television, one of two complete sequences of raster lines forming an image. Fill Light Light used to soften shadows, especially to reduce lighting ratio. Film A photographic emulsion coated on a flexible transparent plastic base. Film Number An identification code number given to every film product. Film Perforation Symmetrical high precision holes punched at regular intervals along the length of film to accept the pins, pegs, or sprockets of the drive system as the film is transported through the camera, projector, or other equipment.

Filter A piece of glass, gelatin, or other transparent material used over the lens or light source to emphasize, eliminate, or change the color or density of the entire scene or certain elements in the scene. Fixing Bath (Hypo) A solution that removes any nonexposed silver-halide crystals in the film. In addition, with color films, the silver is removed from the exposed area, leaving only the image-forming dyes. Flashing (Fogging) Technique for lowering contrast by giving a slight but uniform exposure to a film before processing. Fluting The effect of swelling of the outside edges of the film. f-Number A number used to indicate the size and light passing ability of the lens opening. Common fnumbers are fl 1.4, fl 2.0 , fl 2.8, fl 4.0, fl 5.6, fl 8, fl 16, and fl 22. The larger the f-number, the smaller the lens opening. In this series, fl 1.4 is the largest lens opening and fl 22 is the smallest. Each f-number is 0.30 Log H different. These numbers indicate the ratio of the focal length to the aperture in an optical system. See Stop and Tstop. Focal Length The distance from the optical center of a lens to the point at which parallel rays of light passing through it converge (the focal point). Focal Plane The area in space on which parallel rays of light refracted through a lens focus to form sharp images.

Focus (1) The point where parallel rays of light refracted by a given lens appear to meet. (2) The degree of clarity of an image refracted through a lens onto a screen or a film emulsion. Fogging Darkening or discoloring of a negative or print or lightening or discoloring of a reversal material caused by (1) exposure to nonimage-forming light to which the photographic material is sensitive, (2) overdevelopment, (3) outdated film, or (4) storage of film in a hot, humid place. See Flashing. Force Processing Increasing the development time or the processing temperatures of a film to increase its effective speed (raising the EI). Forehardened Film Any of the films designed for high-temperature processing. Format The size or aspect ratio of a motion picture frame. fpm Feet per minute, expressing the speed of film moving through a mechanism. fps Frames per second, indicating the number of images exposed per second. Frame One individual picture on a piece of motion picture film. Frame Counter An indicator which shows the exact number of frames exposed. Gamma The measure of contrast of a photographic image, representing the slope of the straight-line portion of the characteristic curve.

Gate The mechanism for a camera or projector for advancing film. Also, loosely, the camera or projector aperture. Graininess The subjective sensation of a random pattern apparent to a viewer seeing small local density variations in an overall uniform density area. Granularity The objective measurement, with a transmission densitometer having a small aperture, of the local density variations that give rise to the sensation of graininess. Gray Card A tool used in photography. See Neutral Test Card. H&D Curve The curve showing the relationship between exposure and density, named after Hurter & Driffield, pioneers in the study of sensitometry. See Characteristic Curve. Halation Unwanted exposure surrounding a photographic image caused by light scattered within the emulsion or reflected from the base. Halide Compound with a halogen, such as chlorine, bromine, iodine. Haze Filters These filters provide varying degrees of blue light and green light absorption. Head-Recording On a tape recorder, printer, or projector, an electromagnet across which the tape or film is drawn and which magnetizes the coating on the tape base during recording. Hertz (Hz) Unit of frequency; 1 Hz = 1 cycle per second.

Highlights Visually the brightest, or photometrically the most luminant, areas of a subject. In the negative image, the areas of greatest density; in the positive image, the areas of least density. HMI Lights Metal halide lamps are fundamentally mercury arcs with metal halide additives to adjust the color balance. Usually rated at approximately 5400 K. For daylight-balanced films. Hypo (Fixer) The name for fixing bath made from ammonium or sodium thiosulfate, other chemicals, and water; often used as a synonym for fixing bath. Illuminant The source of light used to project the film image or the source of light used to expose the film, such as an incandescent (tungsten) bulb. Image Spread An image recorded larger than the surface over which the light was incident. Image Structure Measurement of the capacity of an emulsion to record detail faithfully. Incident Light The light from any source. Infrared Nonvisible radiation from the long wavelength portion of the spectrum. Interlock A synchronous presentation of the workprint and the sound track (on separate films) by means of a mechanical or electrical drive between the projector and the sound reproducer.

Intermittent Movement The mechanism of a camera, printer or projector by which each frame is held stationary when exposed and then advanced to the next. Internegative A color negative made from a reversal color positive or master positive. Interpositive Any positive duplicate of a film used for further printing. ips Inches per second. K Degrees Kelvin, the unit of the color temperature scale. Key Light The main illumination on the subject. Laboratory An establishment organized and equipped to provide services for film processing, duplication, and other film services. Laboratory Film Film products, not intended for original photography, but necessary to complete the production process. Latent Image The invisible image registered on a photographic emulsion due to the reaction produced in the emulsion by exposure to light. Latent Image Edge Numbering Images placed on the edge of film products in manufacturing that become visible after development. Leader A length of film at the beginning and end of a film for identification and handling and for transporting film through a processing machine. Also, black film used for spacing in conforming A&B negatives and workprints.

Lens In optics, any transparent system by which images may be formed through the light refracting properties of curved surfaces. Light Balancing Filter Makes minor color balance adjustments to the light reaching the film. See Color Balance. Lighting Contrast Ratio Relationship between key lights and fill lights. Light Meter An instrument that aids in the determination of the proper camera exposure setting, See Exposure Meter. Light Piping Light striking the edge of film and traveling along the base to expose the emulsion. Light Valve Device for controlling intensity and color quality of light on additive prints; on sound-track recorder. Lubrication To reduce friction, required on processed print film for optimum transport and projection life. Luminance The measured value of brightness; the reflected light measured on motion picture screens. Luminance ratio. Lux A metric measure of illumination approximately equal to 10 footcandles (1 lux = 10.764 fc). Machine Speed The rate at which film moves through the processor, expressed in feet or metres per minute. Magazine A lightproof container which holds raw film stock that is being transported through a motion picture camera, optical printer, or processor.

Magenta Blue-red; the complementary color to green. Magnetic Tape / Magnetic Film Usually 1/4-inch plastic audio tape that has been coated with particles that can be magnetized. As used on tape recorders. In film use, it is also used in various formats compatible with super 8, 16 mm, 35 mm and 70 mm films. Magnetic Track Audio material recorded on a film or tape that has been coated with a magnetic recording medium. Master Being or relating to a material from which duplicates are made. Master Positive (Interpositive) An intermediate made from a negative and from which a duplicate negative is made. Matte Any opaque material used to prevent an exposure. An obstruction to all or part of the field of view. See Traveling Matte. Maximum Density (D-max) The portion of the shoulder of the characteristic curve where further increases in exposure on negative film or decreases in exposure on reversal film will produce no increase in density. Mechanical Specifications The physical characteristics of a process that are designed to produce optimum results when used with specific film and chemical combinations, These include temperature, solution immersion times, replenisher rates, recirculation pump rates, filtration, agitation levels, and other pertinent information.

Minimum Density (D-min) The constant density area in the toe of the characteristic curve where less exposure on negative film or more exposure on reversal film will produce no reduction in density. In black white film, this area is sometimes called base plus fog. Modulation-Transfer Function Curve A graph which describes a film's capacity to reproduce complex spatial frequencies. The measurements indicate the effect on the image of light diffusion within the emulsion. Negative The term "negative" is used to designate any of the following (in either black-and-white or color); (1) the raw stock specifically designed for negative images, 11; (2) the negative image; (3) negative raw stock that has been exposed but has not been processed; or (4) processed film bearing a negative image. Negative Image A photographic image in which the values of light and shade of the original photographed subject are represented in inverse order. Note: In a negative image, light objects of the original subject are represented by high densities and dark objects are represented by low densities. In a color negative, colors are represented by their complementary color. Negative-Positive Process is any photographic process in which a positive image is obtained by development of a latent image made by printing from a negative. Neutral Density Filters To reduce intensity of light.

Neutral Test Card A commercially prepared card: One side has a neutral 18percent reflection that has the appearance of medium gray. The other side has a neutral reflection of 90 percent and has the visual appearance of stark white. Nitrate Film A photographic film with a cellulose nitrate base which is unstable and can be a fire hazard. Not used for any Kodak or Eastman films since 1951-52, but may be present in storage vaults. Nomograph For calculating the effect of a filter on color temperature. Optical Effects The alteration of a motion picture scene, commonly introduced in duplication, including fades, dissolves, and wipes, as well as many more involved effects. Optical Sound Track A sound track in which the sound record takes the form of area variations in a non-pictorial photographic image, also called photographic sound track. "Optical recorder" transfers magnetic sound to an optical image. Optimum Print Density The desired screen quality. Original An initial photographic image or sound recording - whether photographic or magnetic - as opposed to some stage of duplication. Origination Film Camera product used in the initial stage of production. See Camera Film. Orthochromatic (Ortho) Film Film that is sensitive to only blue and green light.

Overexposure A condition in which too much light reaches the film, producing a dense negative or a washedout reversal. Pan A horizontal rotational movement by the camera. Panchromatic (Pan) Film Black-and-white film which is sensitive to all colors in tones of about the same relative brightness as the human eye sees in the original scene. Film sensitive to all visible wavelengths. Peak Density Wavelength of maximum absorption. See Color Correction. Perforation(s) A hole. A means of transporting film. See Film Perforation. Persistence of Vision A time-lag effect between momentary visual stimulation of the eye and cessation of response to that stimulation. Photocell Device for converting variations of light intensity into electrical signals. Pin A component of a camera or printer mechanism that engages with a perforation to secure the film at the time of exposure, or to advance the film for the next exposure. Pitch The distance from the bottom edge of one perforation to the bottom edge of the next. Polarizing Filter Transparent material used to subdue reflections and control brightness of the sky. Positive Film Film intended primarily for making an image opposite of a negative for viewing.

Positive Image The processed image resulting from the negative printing exposure made on positive film. The positive image looks like the original scene. Print A positive picture, usually produced from a negative image. Print Films. Printer Lights On additive printers, incremental steps. Printer Points An increment of light-intensity change. See Printer Lights. Printing Copying motion picture images by exposure to light energy. Printing Flowcharts Diagram of printing sequences showing the steps that can be used to produce a projection print. Processing A procedure during which exposed photographic film or paper is developed, bleached, fixed, and washed to produce either a negative image or a positive image. Description of negative/positive processes; description of reversal processes. Production The general term used to describe the processes involved in arranging for and making all the original material that is the basis for the finished motion picture. Projection The process of presenting an image by optical means and transmitted light for visual review. Causes of projection noise; projection damage to film. Push Processing A means of increasing the exposure index of film. See Force Processing.

Racks A combination of the film rollers, or spools, drive assemblies, rods, frame mechanism, and other pertinent hardware that is put together to make a spiral path of specific length for film that is to be immersed in a processing tank. Raster The lines forming the scanning pattern of a television system. Raw Stock Motion picture film that has not been exposed or processed. Reciprocity The relationship between light intensity and exposure time with respect to the amount of exposure received by the film. Reciprocity Law: Exposure equals Intensity of light striking the emulsion multiplied by exposure Time (E = IT). Reciprocity Effect: phenomenon by which the effect of the relationship between exposure time and light intensity is not a constant or linear one. Reduction Printing The process of photographically producing and recording a smaller image - usually on a smaller film format - from a larger image. Release Print A composite print made for general distribution and exhibition. Rem Jet An antihalation and antistatic layer on the back of the film base which is removed during processing. Resolving Power Ability to visually distinguish repetitive detail. Capacity of an emulsion to record fine detail.

Reticulation Cracking or distorting of the emulsion during processing, usually caused by wide temperature, chemical-activity or pH differences between the solutions. Exhibits a net-like appearance. Reversal Film A film which, after exposure, is processed to produce a positive image that has the same composure as the viewed scene. RMS Root-Mean-Square. This mathematical term is used to characterize deviations from a mean value. The term "standard deviation," which is synonymous, is also used. See Granularity. Rough Cut A preliminary trial stage in the process of editing a film. Shots, scenes, and sequences are laid out in approximate relationship, without detailed attention to the individual cutting points. Safelight A darkroom light fitted with a filter to absorb light rays to which film is sensitive. Safety Film A slow-burning film as defined by ANSI PH1.25-1989. "Safety base film," and "polyester base film" are synonymous with "safety film." Scanning Beam In television, the regular movement of a spot of light or electron beam producing the raster in a television system. In motion picture projection, a narrow slit of parallel rays of light that scans the optical sound track. Scratches Non-photographic blemishes on the film emulsion or base. See Wet Gate Printing.

Sensitivity The capacity to respond to stimulation. The ability of a photographic emulsion to form a latent image when exposed to light. Sensitometer An instrument used to make reproducible exposures on photographic materials for processing and manufacturing control. Sensitometric Curve A graph of the relationship between the amount of exposure given a film and its corresponding density after processing. See Characteristic Curve. Sensitometry The science of measuring the response of photographic emulsions to light. Sharpness Visual sensation of the abruptness of an edge. Clarity. Shot A single run of the camera. Shoulder The high-density portion of the Characteristic Curve. Shutter In a motion picture camera, or optical printer, the mechanical device that shields the film from light at the aperture during the film advance portion of the intermittent cycle. Also, a similar device in projectors for cutting off the projection light during the time the film is advancing at the aperture. Silver Recovery Reclaiming the silver from processing solutions. Primarily from the fix. Single-Frame Exposure The exposure of one frame of motion picture film at a time, in the manner of still photography. Commonly used in animation and time-lapse.

Single-System Sound The simultaneous recording of sound and picture on the same film during the original shooting. Slitting Process by which a film roll is split into narrower widths. Slow Motion Action on the screen slower than the action that was photographed. The effect is produced by shooting at a higher frame rate than that used in the projector. Sound Effects (Foley) Sound from a source other than the tracks bearing synchronized dialogue, narration, or music; sound effects commonly introduced into a master track in the re-recording step, usually with the idea of enhancing the illusion of reality. Sound Track The portion of a length of film reserved for the sound record, or any recording so located. Also, any length of film bearing sound only. Distortion from image spread. Special Effects Any shot unobtainable by straightforward motion picture shooting techniques. Includes shots requiring multiple-image montages, split screens, vignetting, models, etc. Spectral Distribution Range and proportion of wavelengths radiated by a particular illuminant. Spectral-Dye-Density Curve A graph: (1) of the total density of the three dye layers measured as a function of wavelength, and (2) of the visual neutral densities of the combined layers similarly measured.

Spectral Sensitivity The relative sensitivity of a particular emulsion to specific bands of the spectrum within the film's sensitivity range. Sometimes confused with Color Sensitivity. Specular Density Comparing only the transmitted light that is perpendicular to the film plane with the normal incident light, analogous to optical printing and projection. Speed (1) Inherent sensitivity of an emulsion to light. Represented by a number derived from a film's characteristic curve. Relationship between speed and graininess. Manufacturing tests of speed. (2) The largest lens opening (smallest f-number) at which a lens can be set. A "fast" lens transmits more light and has a larger opening and better optics than a "slow" lens. Splice The joint between two pieces of film. Splicer A mechanical device for holding film in alignment and with the correct sprocket hole alignment during the operations required in joining two pieces of film. Spool A roll with flanges on which film is wound for general handling. Stock General term for motion picture film, particularly before exposure. Stop The relationship between the focal length of a lens and the effective diameter of its aperture. An adjustable iris diaphragm permits any ordinary photographic lens to be used at any stop within its range. Sometimes used synonymously with f-number as in "f-stop" A unit of exposure change.

Stop Frame (hold frame) An optical printing effect in which a single-frame image is repeated to appear stationary when projected. Also, camera exposure made one frame at a time rather than by continuous running. Straight-line Portion of the Characteristic Curve where the slope does not change because the rate of density change for a given log exposure change is constant or linear. Strip Part of a wide roll of manufactured film slit to its final width for motion picture use. Stripe A narrow band of magnetic coating or photographic sounddeveloping solution applied to a length of motion picture film. Subtractive Color The formation of colors by the removal of selected portions of the white light spectrum by transparent filters or dye images. Synchronization The positioning of a sound track so that it is in harmony with, and timed to, the picture portion of the film. Time-Fog Curve Plot of the rate of fog growth against a series of development times. Time-Gamma Curve A plot of the rate of gamma change over a series of development times. Used to determine optimum development time for black-and-white negative or positive film. Time-Lapse Movie A movie that shows in a few minutes or a few seconds, events that take hours or even days to occur; accomplished by exposing single frames of film at fixed intervals.

Toe That portion of the characteristic curve where the slope begins to increase gradually with constant changes in exposure. See Minimum Density. Tone That degree of lightness or darkness in any given area of a print; also referred to as value. Cold tones (bluish) and warm tones (reddish) refer to the color of the image in both black-andwhite and color photographs. Transfer Characteristics. See Modulation-Transfer Curve. Traveling Matte (1) A matte film which travels through a printer in contact with the printing film to prevent exposure in certain areas. (2) Involves a technique for combining two or more separate images, moving in relation to each other, on a finished motion picture film so that each image occupies a portion of each frame without overlapping the other image.

T-stop A lens marking which indicates the true light transmission of the lens at a given aperture instead of the approximate light transmission indicated by the conventional f-stop marking. See f-Number or Stop. Tungsten Light Light produced by an electrically heated filament, having a continuous spectral distribution. Ultraviolet Radiation Radiation at the short wavelength end of the spectrum, not visible to the eye. It produces fluorescence in some materials, The effects are more easily registered on film than visually. Some unwanted ultraviolet radiation can be controlled by filters. Underexposure A condition in which too little light reaches the film, producing a thin negative or a dark reversal or print.

Variable-Area Sound Track Optical sound record in which the modulations are represented by the varying width of the image. Visual Density Spectral Sensitivity of the receptor which approximates that of the human eye. Wet Gate Printer Special printer where film is immersed in liquid with refractive index close to the film base, which minimizes the effect of fine scratches on the film base. Winding Designation of the relationship of perforation and emulsion position for film as it leaves a spool or core. Workprint Any picture or sound-track print, usually a positive, intended for use in the editing process to establish, through a series of trial cuttings, the finished version of a film.

More Information _____________________________________________________________________
For more information on Kodak products, in the U.S.A., call the Kodak Information Center at 1-800-242-2424 from 8 a.m. to 9 p.m. (eastern standard time), Monday through Friday. Kodak has many publications to assist you with information on Kodak products, equipment, and methods. You can order the following publications directly from Kodak through the order form in KODAK Publication No. L- 1, KODAK Index to Photographic Information. To obtain a copy of L-1, send your request with $1 to Eastman Kodak Company, Dept. 412L, Rochester, NY 14650-0532, U.S.A. Order film datasheets from the request form in the back of this book.

Indexes and Sources L-1 KODAK Index to Photographic Information General Production H-2 Cinematographer's Field Guide-Motion Picture Camera Rims H-5 EASTMAN Films for the Cinematographer H-23 The Book of Mm Care H-25* Motion Picture Prints from Color Originals R-27 KODAK Gray Cards S-16 KODAK Projection Calculator and Seating Guide for Single- and Multi-image Presentations H-61 LAD-Laboratory Aim Density Processing H-24 Manual for Processing EA EASTMAN Color Dims J-4 Safe Handling of Photographic Chemicals J-4S* Prevention of Contact Dermatitis in Photographic Work J-21 CHOICES- Choosing the Right Silver-Recovery Method for Your Needs Filtration B-3 Handbook of KODAK Photographic Filters K-4 How Safe is Your Safe Safelight? Ecology J-55 Disposal and Treatment of Photographic Effluents-In Support of Clean Water Specific Applications AC-24 Tropical Photography C-9 Photography Under Arctic Conditions H-9 TAF User's Guide
*A single copy is free from Eastman Kodak Company, Dept. 412L, Rochester, NY 14650-0532.

Books of Special Interest _______________________
The Book of Film Care (H-23) This book from Kodak is written for the worldwide motion picture film community who have made film part of their (and our) everyday lives. it covers just about every aspect of storage, preservation, handling and maintenance, projection, restoration, and rejuvenation of motion picture film. in addition, the appendices cover aspects of ESTAR Base and cellulose nitrate film bases, ANSI IT9.1 and ANSI IT9.11 on archival film storage, a method of desiccating film, as well as a comprehensive list of film journals and periodicals, and a reference and bibliography section. Anyone who appreciates the motion picture art or who makes a

living working with film or who simply shoots footage at family gatherings and wants to know how to take care of their films, will want a copy of The Book of Film Care. This book provides an important single source of technical data and practical ideas for extending the useful life of films-whoever and wherever you are! Cinematographer's Field GuideMotion Picture Camera Films (H-2) Now you can take many pages of vital motion picture camera film information with you wherever you go-just slip it in your shirt pocket or camera bag. This new fifth edition of Kodak's Cinematographer's Field Guide has the data you need on all EASTMAN Motion Picture Camera Films ... completely organized in one hardcover book. Code numbers, exposures, processors, illumination, filters-the facts on films are right at

your fingertips! in the section on Film Tips and Techniques, you'll find ideas on force- processing; hints on how to make your films last longer; how to make people look good when you shoot for TV; and a list of equipment and accessories you and your crew need to survive when you shoot on location. Another section explains film packaging and tells you how to decipher film label codes. You'll also rind out how to make ordering easier the next time you need raw stock from Kodak. And if you ever want more technical or film order information, all you have to do is refer to the guide's list of Kodak people worldwide who can answer your questions. Cinematographer's Field Guide - you'll use it again and again whether you're a student, instructor, camera operator, director, or AV manager. it's bound for easy carrying and pocket sized for easy access.