Fakultät Architektur Institut für Landschaftsarchitektur, Professur Landschaftsbau Kent State University Urban Design Collaborative

I B A Emscher Park –
a beacon approach, dealing with shrinking cities in Germany
Claudia Schreckenbach, Christel Teschner

Dresden, 15.05.2006

contents
1 the Ruhr Valley 2 the International Construction Exhibition „IBA Emscher Park“ 3 the Emscher landscape park – the leading project 4 the treatment of rainwater – a focal point 5 summary and outlook

IBA Emscher Park

1 the Ruhr Valley
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 location industrial development structural change state of the landscape

IBA Emscher Park

1.1 location
situated in the west of Germany area between the rivers Ruhr (in the south) and Lippe (in the north) Emscher river in the center land area: 4432,77 km² ≈ 1710 mi²
Berlin

Ruhr Valley

IBA Emscher Park

Emscher Area a so called „backyard of the Ruhr Valley" land area: 800 km² ≈ 310 mi² about 2,5 Mio. inhabitants 17 cities ► highest density of population in Ruhr Valley ► part of Ruhr Valley most influenced by the industrialization period ► most ecological and social problems

IBA Emscher Park

Emscher Area

Quelle: Industrienatur

IBA Emscher Park

1.2 industrial development
sparsely populated until 1800 rapid expansion during the era of industrialization developed from south to north to form an industrial metropolitan area ► coal and steel power house of Germany ► large industrial landscape; industrial villages

Quelle: Industrienatur

IBA Emscher Park

armament production before and during the I. and II. world wars ► high economic growth about 1950: expansion of infrastructure ► highest concentration of motorways in Europe about 1960: highest level in production and employment ► the Ruhr Valley is the biggest industrial area in Europe

IBA Emscher Park

1.3 structural change
„change without growth" Ruhr Valley on the way to a post industrial era about 1950: coal crisis about 1970: steel crisis until today continuous drop of employment in coal mining, iron and steel industries loss of inhabitants, regress in population reason: global effects on big industries

Quelle: Industrienatur

IBA Emscher Park

1.4 state of the landscape
torn up landscape with isolated open spaces scattered former coal mines and derelict steelworks high amount of impervious surfaces (about 40 mi² completely sealed)

IBA Emscher Park

degraded stream system of 400 km length; watercourses used for sewage transport (straightened, channalized)

IBA Emscher Park

man made hillsides in the former level Emscher area (dumps and mine spoils of up to 100 m high) tailing ponds throughout the area caused by mining ► artificially stabilized and technically controlled landscape

IBA Emscher Park

environmental pollution starting over 100 years ago: river polution and drinking water pollution causing epidemics air polution through smoke, soot and coal dust

Quelle: Industrienatur

IBA Emscher Park

2 the International Construction Exhibition „IBA Emscher Park“
2.1 structure and organization 2.2 fields of work

IBA Emscher Park

2.1 structure and organisation
period of planning: location: 1989 - 1999 Emscher area/northern Ruhr Valley 310 mi²;17 cities

120 projects: 1 national, 2 regional garden exhibitions, planning for 115 mi² green space, landscape parks reshape of 350 km open sewage channels 17 new technogy centres housing development projects with 2500 new and 3000 existing flats public and private investments of approximately five billion DM

IBA Emscher Park

2.2 fields of work
1. rebuild ecological and scenic qualities through the Emscher landscape park 2. regenerate a system of natural waters; with special focus on the „nature cycle“ treatment of rainwater 3. development of new industries, trade points and technology centers on abandoned industrial sites 4. rehabilitation of historic neighborhoods, new development sites, restorations on brownfields 5. preservation and adaptive uses of industrial structures (industrial archaeology)

IBA Emscher Park

3 the Emscher landscape park – the lead project
3.1 a structure with 3 levels 3.2 selected examples

IBA Emscher Park

3.1 a structure with 3 levels
a connected exhibit park covering the entire Emscher area (east-west-distance 70km) – connecting the remaining open spaces between the industrial cities about 115 mi² (Emscher area = 310 mi²) park development (30-40 years) level 1: level 2: level 3: the exhibit park a regional open space-system individual projects

IBA Emscher Park

level 1:

the exhibit park

integration of open spaces and agriculture east-west-open spaces along the river Emscher development goals for the Emscher area; regional development strategy

IBA Emscher Park

level 2:

a regional open space-system

park project organized in 7 regional greenways (A-G) open space from south to north (parallel to the historical development of industry) 3-5 cities belong to one greenway (common planning, projects and measures)

Quelle: Industrienatur

IBA Emscher Park

level 3:

individual projects

landscape design, biotope management, forest planting, housing construction projects, art projects etc. system of new bikeways and footpaths

Quelle: Industrienatur

3.4 selected examples 1. Landscape Park Duisburg North - landscape park formed by
industry on the former site of a coal mine and a smelter some areas are still used by industry today related to housing projects about 500 acres

Quelle: Industrienatur

IBA Emscher Park

idea: integration of existing industrial plants and buildings into a new landscape small projects, incremental improvements adressing soil contamination reflection of industrial heritage esthetic qualities + using variety

Quelle: Industrienatur

IBA Emscher Park

Quelle: Industrienatur

IBA Emscher Park

places between furnaces used for open air events, cinema, concerts, theater

Quelle: Industrienatur

IBA Emscher Park

derelict smelter used as observation tower - offering prospects of the industrial landscape

IBA Emscher Park

symbolic gardens in abandoned storage bunkers

Quelle: Industrienatur

IBA Emscher Park

playgrounds: climbing in the former ore bunkers and diving in a gas tank filled with water

Quelle: Industrienatur

IBA Emscher Park

lighting project by an English light artist

Quelle: Industrienatur

IBA Emscher Park

3.4 selected examples 2. Ruderal Park Frintrop, Essen - wild industrial forest/
fallow land park at the fallow area on a former goods station park with ruderal pionier vegetation natural succession ca. 60 acres

sparse coverage, regeneration for inhabitants

Quelle: Parkbericht Emscher Landschaftspark

IBA Emscher Park

plant successions and planted vegetation on train tracks

Quelle: Parkbericht Emscher Landschaftspark

IBA Emscher Park

3. coal mine Zollverein XII, Essen - industrial forest growth/
fallow land park abandoned spoil area on a former mining area nature develops by itself with a little human care combination of open space development, art and wildlife conservation open to the public, but with less infrastructure 62 acres size public relations, guided tours, excursions

Quelle: Industrienatur

IBA Emscher Park

successional forest of birch trees and willows

Quelle: Industrienatur

IBA Emscher Park

3.4 selected examples 4. spoil bank – event area „Emscherblick“ in Bottrop spoil areas/landmark

former mine spoil 65 meters high with a system of trail art feature: steel tetrahedron using for recovery and observation tower

Quelle: Industrienatur

IBA Emscher Park

pyramid made of triangles: 50 meters high, sites 60 meters on top: tetrahedron overview platform

Quelle: Industrienatur

IBA Emscher Park

Questions?

Quelle: Industrienatur

IBA Emscher Park

4. Treatment of rainwater - a focal point
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 problems and approaches rainwater in urban planning open space planning and landscape architecture rainwater use in housing developments rainwater at old industrial site

IBA Emscher Park

4.1 problems and approaches
problem: interruption of the hydrologic cycle
runoff in combined sewer systems runoff peaks and flood control Lack of recognition of rainwater as a natural element

approach:

discussions about sustainable development

a new understanding of nature on-site systems of watercycles as a solution

goal:

make rainwater visible

to display the course from the paved surfaces to receiving waters make watercourses visible in an indirect way

IBA Emscher Park

4.2 rainwater in urban planning
possibilties for inclusion
conveyance networks Water surface as a dominant design element

IBA Emscher Park

4.2.1 conveyance networks
Idea: as a spine for the open space structure ranging from private gardens over parks to the undeveloped landscape looking for open conveyance systems to receiving rivers and lakes as a rationale for urban development patterns with a high volume of vegetation

IBA Emscher Park

Garden city WELHEIM BOTTROP
drainage swale retrofitting
miner housing estate (built 1913-1923) block pattern with gardens, yards and public open spaces drainage concept: from rooftops and streets into open trench channels and drainage swales nearly 30% of the paved surfaces are served

IBA Emscher Park

Garden city SESEKE AUE
Open drainage and landscape design
old industrial area since 1995/97 a garden city infrastructure is arranged in a horseshoe pattern many public open spaces function of the rainwater: generation of streams and ponds

IBA Emscher Park

Garden city SESEKE AUE
sources

Drainage concept
paved surfaces > drainage combinitation of evaporation, infiltration and retention the treatment train: sedimentation pond cleaning zone retention pond

sedimentation cleaning retention

IBA Emscher Park

Forms of design

left: central pond right: trench systems

IBA Emscher Park

4.2.2 Water as the dominant design feature
idea: opportunities: functions: Revitalization of public spaces integration of big pools structuring of the housing layout accentuating architecture creation of structure

special objective:

maintain a nonfluctuating water level

IBA Emscher Park

Old mine area HOLLAND
visualizing the course of water
now: business- and housing „park“ tracing the way: from the raindrop to the watershed to trench drains to water surfaces

IBA Emscher Park

Old mine area HOLLAND
drainage concept
objective: collect water from roofs, yards, public spaces retention ponds and disposal through evaporation

IBA Emscher Park

Old mine area HOLLAND

formal drainage swale

retention pond

IBA Emscher Park

4.3 open space planning and landscape architecture
Integration of function and design
idea: meeting places and playgrounds accentuating the border between private und public // natural and built form creating biotopes creating a visible „silver string“ or water network improve quality of life and ecology surfaces channel drains swales waterspectacle trenching combinitations

using:

IBA Emscher Park

Examples of measures

IBA Emscher Park

Housing development KÜPPERSBUSCH
green roofs, central swales, trenches
former industrial area now: new housing development flats, row houses, detached houses examples of unusual solutions

IBA Emscher Park

Housing development KÜPPERSBUSCH
typical new garden city independent part of the city

IBA Emscher Park

IBA Emscher Park

4.4 Rainwater use in housing developments
all projects of the IBA are urban many projects continue the tradition of garden cities measures in housing developments: - green roofs as an ecological system - raingardens for owners and tenants - new maintenance responsibilities - public retention- and infiltration areas - restricted automobile access – better infiltration

IBA Emscher Park

SCHÜNGELBERG
rainwater collection; existing and new developments; swales and trenches

IBA Emscher Park

SCHÜNGELBERG
drainage concept
existing neighborhood: infiltration connection of roofs drains to channel garden site into swale-trench-system new neighborhood: swale-trench-system roof drains into street culvert flowing into swales and constructed stream

IBA Emscher Park

4.5 Rainwater at old industrial site
Principles
Idea: Finding new ways for site drainage and ecological treatment of rainwater

guiding principle: maximum infiltration, minimum discharge

IBA Emscher Park

old mine area ERIN

service industries, business- and park New uses and water as a main design element
new uses: civil service, service industries, business park main design element: axis of water

IBA Emscher Park

old mine area ERIN service industries, business- and park

IBA Emscher Park

old mine area ERIN service industries, business- and livingpark
drainage concept
western part: seperate drainage

IBA Emscher Park

5. Results and outlook
„The immense task to change from open sewers in concrete channels to a system of naturalized streams has been brought on its way, and we can now look at the first examples of restord streams. The region has learned that in doing, so it is essential to work with rainwater and sustainable urban drainage systems.“
H. Beierlorzer in: WERNER, Frank R.: Szyskowitz + Kowalski. Räume und Freiräume. Wohnsiedlung Küppersbuschgelände Gelsenkirchen. Graz 1999.

IBA Emscher Park

A conclusion: derelict industrial areas have value protect existing structures new uses are essential new implementation methods are needed establish a financial framework before you start place emphasis on the long range

IBA Emscher Park

Literature
DETTMAR, Jörg; GANSER, Karl (Hrsg.): Industrienatur. Ökologie und Gartenkunst im Emscher Park. Stuttgart 1999. KOMMUNALVERBAND RUHRGEBIET (Hrsg.): Leitplanung Emscher Landschaftspark. Parkbericht Emscher Landschaftspark. Essen 1996. LONDONG, Dieter; NOTHNAGEL, Annette (Hrsg.): Bauen mit dem Regenwasser. Aus der Praxis von Projekten. München, Wien, Oldenbourg 1990. SACK, Manfred: Siebzig Kilometer Hoffnung. Die IBA Emscher-Park - Erneuerung eines Industriegebiets. Stuttgart 1999. WERNER, Frank R.: Szyskowitz + Kowalski. Räume und Freiräume. Wohnsiedlung Küppersbuschgelände Gelsenkirchen. Graz 1999. www.iba-nrw.de

IBA Emscher Park