Cameras for Digital Acquisition

ARRI D20 (Source: ARRI)

The ARRI D20 concept: A cine-style digital camera for TV-oriented applications • 35mm film sized single sensor • Optical viewfinder • Output resolution 1080p HD (444) • Variable speed

INSIGHTOUT Academy 2005

Cameras for Digital Acquisition
ARRI D20 (Source: ARRI)

Camera Body • Rotating mirror shutter • PL mount accepts all 35mm cine lenses • Familiar film camera handling • Compatibility to extensive range of cine accessories

INSIGHTOUT Academy 2005

Cameras for Digital Acquisition
ARRI D20 (Source: ARRI)

CMOS sensor image area: 24 x 18 mm pixels: 2880 x 2160 Total: 6.23M Pixels 35 mm film image area:

24 x 18 mm

Typical 2/3" CCD sensor image area: 9.4 x 5.3 mm pixels: 1920 x 1080
INSIGHTOUT Academy 2005

Cameras for Digital Acquisition
ARRI D20

Courtesy of ARRI

INSIGHTOUT Academy 2005

Dalsa Origin

INSIGHTOUT Academy 2005

Dalsa Origin

INSIGHTOUT Academy 2005

Dalsa Origin
Source: Dalsa

• • • • • • • • • • • •

Single 4046 x 2048 CCD sensor with Bayer-mask (8.2M Pixels) – 4.1million green pixels, 2+ million red pixels, 2+ million blue pixels 34mm x 17.2mm sensor size, 8.4um square pixels 12 stops exposure latitude 14bit ADCs “raw” data output: 8million 16bit pixels (approx. 400MB/s) Variable speed: 0-48 frs (sensor designed for up to 60frs) PL-mount for cine-optics Optical viewfinder Data recording gets done with SGI server via 10Gbit/s fiber optic Workflow is challenging Currently the only camera with 4K data output! Build a facility in LA (Woodland) to rent the camera and server

INSIGHTOUT Academy 2005

Dalsa Origin
Image Sensor

Active image area: 34 x 17.2mm

35 mm film image area:

24 x 18 mm

INSIGHTOUT Academy 2005

Kinetta
Source: cml

• • • • •

Single 1920 x 1080 CMOS sensor with Bayer-mask PL-mount for 16mm cineoptics Supposed to be “handcranked” On-board recording onto disk Targeted towards the documentary market

INSIGHTOUT Academy 2005

Panavision GENESIS

Courtesy of Panavision
INSIGHTOUT Academy 2005

Panavision GENESIS
Source: Panavision

• • • • • • • • • •

• • •

Cooperation between Panavision and Sony 24mm x 13.5mm sized single sensor (not a full sized 35mm film aperture!) The format aspect ratio is 1.78:1 (16:9). SMPTE standard camera aperture for 35mm film (SMPTE59-1998, style D), A total of 12.4 megapixel, RGB sensor (not Bayer pattern) 1 to 50 frames per second frame rate Optical viewfinder Output resolution 1080p HD (444), 10bit log 14 bit A/D converter The nominal 27.5mm image diagonal is the largest image diagonal covered by all Panavision 35mm cine Primo™ series lenses, both fixed focal length and zoom optics. On-board SRW-1 digital tape recorder The SRW-1 directly docks to the GENESIS camera using a dedicated multi-pin VTR connector Price not available (only for rent!)

INSIGHTOUT Academy 2005

Panavision GENESIS CCD STRUCTURE
Source: Panavision

Macro Cell R G B R G B
12.3μm□

RG B RG B

1920×3:(RGB)

1080
R G B
RG B RG B RG B R G B RG B R G B

27.3mmφ Total 12.4M Pixels

Unit Cell 4.1(H)×6.15(V)μm

INSIGHTOUT Academy 2005

Panavision Genesis
Source: Panavision

INSIGHTOUT Academy 2005

SONY HDW-F900
HDCam

• •

Introduced in 2000 and used by George Lucas for Star Wars Episode II Camcorder with 3:1:1 subsampling (1440 x 1080 pixels) recorded on tape

INSIGHTOUT Academy 2005

SONY HDW-F950

• • • • • • • •

Not a camcorder anymore Not available (yet?) in Europe The F950 is a more advanced version of the F900. 3Gbit/s fiber optical link from the camera head to the camera control unit 1920 x 1080 @ 24frs, 444 10bit linear output Extended dynamic range compared to F900 Gamma curve editing capability (loadable via memory stick) Used by George Lucas for Star Wars Episode III

INSIGHTOUT Academy 2005

Thomson Viper

Courtesy of Thomson
INSIGHTOUT Academy 2005

Thomson Viper
Source: Thomson

• • • •

• • •

3 x 2/3” Frame Transfer CCDs 1920 x 1080 Each CCD sensor consists of 1920 horizontal pixels and 4320 vertical sub-pixels (total of 9.2M Pixels per CCD). By grouping the vertical sub-pixels to create a single pixel or image cell, the vertical line count can be dynamically set. The cell grouping allows for different aspect ratios: – 1.78:1 (16:9) – 2.37:1 12bit A/D converters “FilmStream” mode: 444 RGB 10bit log signal (additional latitude of around 2-2 ½ fstops) Many cine accessories available – 35mm cine optic adapter (www.pstechnik.de/ products / PRO35 Digital image converter) – Optical viewfinder (reduces latitude by 1 fstop)

INSIGHTOUT Academy 2005

Thomson Viper

Courtesy of Thomson
INSIGHTOUT Academy 2005

Thomson Viper Production
Collateral

Distribution through DreamWorks Directed by Michael Mann

Courtesy of Thomson
INSIGHTOUT Academy 2005

Field Recording

INSIGHTOUT Academy 2005

Field Recording

Disk based field recording systems – S2 – DVS CineReel – Fraunhofer IIS – ……. Flash memory / RAM based recording systems – Venom – CineRam Tape based recording system – Sony SRW-1

INSIGHTOUT Academy 2005

Thomson Venom

Courtesy of Thomson
INSIGHTOUT Academy 2005

Thomson Venom
Source: Thomson

Key Features:
– Uncompressed recording, duration 10 minutes for FilmStream or 18 minutes for HDTV – Compact, rugged design – Uses solid-state flash memory – Records in MXF file format, Metadata can be entered from the control panel or via secured Bluetooth® access – Mechanical docking allows backwards compatability for existing Viper and for LDK 6000 users with the addition of a mechanical adaptor – Supports multiple image formats and frame rates – Normal use would see two or three recorders in use per camera for a production – Price: approx. €45K
INSIGHTOUT Academy 2005

Field Recorder SRW-1 / SRPC-1

SRW-1 Tape Drive

SRPC-1 I/F Adaptor

INSIGHTOUT Academy 2005

Courtesy of Sony

Recording Format Parameters
Source: Sony
* SMPTE Trial publication

Model Recording format Product type Recording mode Gross data transfer rate Net video data rate Audio Tape travel speed Drum rotation speed Max. recording time/tape Recording tracks / frame Tape width Track pitch Minimum recording wavelength Recording drum diameter Number of recording heads INSIGHTOUT Academy 2005

HDW-F900 HDWHDCAM (D11) Camcorder 185Mbps 142Mbps 20bit / 48KHz x4 ch. 96.7mm/sec 1800rpm 50 minutes 12 12mm 20 µm 0.49 µm 81.4mm 12

SRW-5000 SRWHDCAM-SR (D16*) Editing VTR 593Mbps 440Mbps 24bit / 48KHz x12 ch. 117.6mm/sec 5400 rpm 50 (S) / 155 (L) minutes 24 12mm 13.2 µm 0.29 µm 81.4mm 8

SRW-1 SRWHDCAM-SR (D16*) Portable recorder Standard mode 593Mbps 440Mbps Double speed 1186Mbps 880Mbps

24bit / 48KHz x12 ch. 117.6mm/sec 1800rpm 50 minutes 24 12mm 13.2 µm 0.29 µm 81.4mm 24 235.2mm/sec 3600rpm 25 minutes 24 / 48

SRW-1 Recording Modes
Source: Sony

STANDARD Mode
23.98PsF 24PsF 1920 x 1080 25PsF 29.97PsF 50i 59.94i 1280 x 720 59.94P

Compression ratio 4:2:2 RGB SQ 2.7:1 2.7:1 2.7:1 2.7:1 2.7:1 2.7:1 2.4:1 4:1 4:1 4:1 4:1 4:1 4:1 N.A.

Recording time / tape 50 minutes 50 minutes 48 minutes 40 minutes 48 minutes 40 minutes 40 minutes

NET Video data rate 351.5Mbps 351.9Mbps 366.5Mbps 439.4Mbps 366.5Mbps 439.4Mbps 439.4Mbps

GROSS data rate 474.6Mbps 475.1Mbps 494.9Mbps 593.3Mbps 494.9Mbps 593.3Mbps 593.3Mbps

VARIABLE Mode
1920 x 1080 1 - 59.94P

Compression ratio 4:2:2 RGB SQ 2:7:1 4:1

Recording time / tape 20 minutes+

NET Video data rate 878.8Mbps

GROSS data rate 1186.7Mbps

DOUBLE SPEED
23.98PsF 24PsF 1920 x 1080 25PsF 29.97PsF 50i INSIGHTOUT Academy 2005 59.94i

Compression ratio 4:2:2 RGB SQ 2:1 2:1 2:1 2:1 2:1 2:1 2.7:1 x2 2.7:1 x2 2.7:1 x2 2.7:1 x2 2.7:1 x2 2.7:1 x2

Recording time / tape 25 minutes 25 minutes 24 minutes 20 minutes 24 minutes 20 minutes

NET Video data rate 703Mbps 703.7Mbps 733.1Mbps 878.8Mbps 733.1Mbps 878.8Mbps

GROSS data rate 949.3Mbps 950.3Mbps 989.9Mbps 1186.7Mbps 989.9Mbps 1186.7Mbps

SRW-5000 vs. SRW-1 Drum Layout

HDCAM ADV ADV C D

SR ADV

SR ADV

SR ADV

HDCAM ADV ADV A B

SRW-5000 Drum Layout

SRW-1 Drum Layout

Courtesy of Sony
INSIGHTOUT Academy 2005

Latest Developments in Film

INSIGHTOUT Academy 2005

Latest Developments in Film

Kodak Vision2 500T – Improvements in grain reduction – Tone scale improvements • Enhanced linearity • Improved neutrality • Slightly lower contrast • Better definition of speed • More neutral shadows • More shadow detail – Less correction required in post – Color reproduction enhancements • More natural hue reproduction • Less saturated color reproduction (Lower color saturation usually translates to a higher hue “resolution” in digital processing spaces) • Color Improvements for Special Effects (Less Magenta fringing in blue screen, less Yellow fringing in green screen)

INSIGHTOUT Academy 2005

Kodak Vision2 500T
MTF (Source: Kodak)

Exposure: 3200K Tungsten 1/50 sec; Process: ECN-2; Densitometry: Status M
INSIGHTOUT Academy 2005

Required resolution for 4K: approx. 90LP/mm