Latest Developments in Cine Optics

Most of the currently used 35mm cine optics are not capable to resolve a resolution equivalent to 4K (>= 90LP/mm) across the entire image. Latest developments such as the Cooke S4 series and the Arri / Zeiss Master Primes show a tremendous improvement in optical performance. These new cine optics are in particular more homogenous across the entire image in terms of resolution and illumination! In order to be capable to resolve 4K resolution with a film camera and 35mm film it is required to use the appropriate optics.

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Latest Developments in Cine Optics
ARRI / ZEISS Master Primes (Source: ZEISS)

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The Arri / Zeiss Master Primes series 35mm cine optics are the equivalent to the Digi Primes for HDTV in terms of performance parameters. 12 new high speed (T1.3) optics with fixed focal lengths Improved overall optical performance & higher speed! – Improved resolution and improved contrast – Even illumination & resolution to edges – No optical distortion Basic set (18, 25, 35, 50, 75, 100) available April 2005 Extended Set (16, 21, 27, 32, 40, 65) available July 2005 Average price per lens: 14,500 EUR

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Latest Developments in Cine Optics
ARRI / ZEISS Master Primes

Courtesy of Arri / Zeiss
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Latest Developments in Film Scanning

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Latest Developments in Film Scanners

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ARRI ARRISCAN Cintel Data Mill FilmLight NorthLight Imagica Thomson Spirit 4K …….

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ARRISCAN
Source: ARRI

LED illumination • RGB + IR • Narrow spectral bands (good color reproduction) • No thermal stress for film → flashing • Diffuse light → integrating sphere • Long live expectation CMOS area sensor • Custom design → synergy with D20 project, size 25x 19mm (with overscan area) • Extended dynamic range • Resolution: 2k and 4k with oversampling Film Transport: • Mechanical pin registration with electronic control for steadiness • Exchangeable gates: 35mm, 16mm

Scanning Speed • 1 fps @ 3k, 3K 2k • 4 s/frame @ 6k, 6k 4k, 6k
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2k

Keycode reader

ARRISCAN
Film Transport (Source: ARRI)

Pins can be removed during shuttle

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ARRISCAN
Double Exposure

Second exposure

-2.0D D NEG

(a)
First exposure

Log E

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ARRISCAN
Double Exposure (Source: ARRI)

2

~3 bits more information

2nd Exposure
Original Negative 1

computing

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Density above Base

1st Exposure 14 bit file

ARRISCAN
Double Exposure (Source: ARRI)

2

1 Original Negative

ARRISCAN result True 16 bit linear file

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Density above Base

ARRISCAN
Piezo Controlled Micro Scanning (Source: ARRI)

3K image (half pixel) 6K Micro shift

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FilmLight NorthLight
Source: FilmLight

Pin registered film transport with fast spooling 16/35/65mm film scanning 700W metal halide diffuse illumination 8K tri-linear CCD sensor 4K 35mm: 4.7seconds per frame (6K x 4.5K) Oversampling at all output formats Optional KC reader 16bit linear data output (OpenEXR) planned

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FilmLight NorthLight 2
Source: FilmLight IBC 2004

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Planned to be released in May of 2005 Will use a 9k (!) CCD sensor in order to always scan at 8k resolution (output in 4K & 2K) Scanning speed: 2frs in 2K and 1frs in 4K Signal processing upgrade will increase the data throughput by a factor of x10 Scanning speed is limited by the mechanical transport Light source will remain the same Also planned is infrared scanning for scratch and dirt detection (it will always take twice the scanning time per frame ) Upgrade of Northlight 1 is possible (new optical block, new CCDs and new signal processing )

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Thomson Spirit 4K
Source: Thomson

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Line array CCD scanning sensors Dual CCD arrays per color – 2K & 4K Native – Also scan 4K with downconvert to 2K Scans film formats from 8mm to 70mm 3 x 16-bit wide signal processing path Kodak optical system Diffuse Xenon light source Matching/primary color correction Optional secondary color correction Optional 4K grain reduction Optional SDTV and HDTV outputs 2k (real time) and 4k (7.5 frames/sec) data output SXGA monitoring of images during data transfer

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Spirit 4K Light Path and Sensing
Source: Thomson

Film plane

Object Lens

N.D. calibration Filter

2K 4K 2K 4K 2K 4K

A/D A/D A/D

16-bit red 16-bit green 16-bit blue

diffuse light chamber

special effects filter holder

RGB Beam Splitter & CCDs

A/D conversion

Illumination control feedback

lamp PSU
fast aperture control
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high speed safety shutter

Filter wheel

D-min calibration filter

condenser optics & filters

Xenon lamp (700w)

start here!

Spirit 4K Film Gate Area
Source: Thomson

integration cylinder

– gate block with light scanning slit
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Spirit 4K CCD Architecture
Source: Thomson

2K readout
2K (2048 pixel) line 4K (4096 pixel) line

4K readout 2048 pixels 14µ
• Dual bi-linear line arrays on each chip
• 3 chips used in the scanner – one per colour • Anti-reflection coating on CCD window • 28.7mm nominal CCD scan width • Custom proprietary design

4096 pixels 7µ

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CCD Architecture
Source: Thomson

single 2K / 4K bi-linear CCD mounted on each pre-amplifier

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Projectors

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Currently TI with their 2K DLP technology based projection panels reaches the best image quality – Contrast ratio of 3000:1 JVC and SONY demonstrated prototypes of 4K projectors – Direct comparison in Nov 2004 in Japan – Both systems use LCoS technology SONY moved the launch of the projector already several times Latest information says that they will ship a unit on March 31st, 2005.

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SONY SRX-R110/R105
Source: Sony

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3 x 1.55” LCoS panels 4096 x 2160 pixels on each panel Contrast ratio: 2000:1 R110 (10.000 ANSI Lumen), R105 (5.000 ANSI Lumen), a 20.000 ANSI Lumen model is not available yet, but talked about. Screen coverage: 200 – 700inch (diagonal, viewable area) Lamp: 2x 1KW Xenon lamp (R105), 2x 2KW Xenon lamp (R110) Power consumption: up to 4.5KW (R110) Price (list) – 5K lumen projector: $63k – 10k lumen projector: $93k – 20k lumen projector: tbd

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Postproduction System Concepts

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Concepts
Storage Architecture: What kind of technology is technically and economically feasible?
NAS - Concept
Ethernet Client 3 Unix Fibre Channel

Client 2 Linux Client 1 Win

Gbit Ethernet Switch NAS File Server

Data Backup

NAS Appliance

Fibre Channel

For more Information see: www.flyingeye.de or FKT 4/2004
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Concepts
Storage Architecture: What kind of technology is technically and economically feasible?

SAN - Concept

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Concepts
Storage Architecture: What kind of technology is technically and economically feasible?
NAS / SAN hybrid Architecture
NAS Clients

Ethernet

SAN Clients

NAS Gateway

Fibre Channel Fibre Channel Speichervirtualisierung Fibre Channel Bridge SCSI

Fibre Channel 2 Gbit

Fibre Channel 1 Gbit

Fibre Channel 1 Gbit RAID

RAID S-ATA Nearline Storage

For more Information see:
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www.flyingeye.de or FKT 4/2004

What is Missing?

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What does not get Addressed from DCI & SMPTE so far?

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An optimized workflow for the complete production chain for Digital Cinema in 4k does not exist. The DCI specification only deals with the backend of the chain, from the distribution master to the presentation in the theatre, not the production. Digital Cinema – in particular E-Cinema - is a chance for the European film industry. How can it be integrated? It requires an international consortium to solve together the fundamental issues.

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From the idea to the solution: Technology follows strategy
Integrated concept from acquisition to delivery of material

What do we typically find today? Non – integrated „islands“ solving particular requirements : Film laboratory Film scanning Ingest Dailies Editing (offline / online) VFX Color grading Film recording Scheduling (Disposition) Various video - server technologies Video & data infrastructures Audio MAM solutions ?? ….

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From the idea to the solution: Technology follows strategy
Integrated concept from acquisition to delivery of material

What is the target? Integrated, consistent concept Establishment of new, integrated solutions Acquisition of metadata as early and as transparent as possible Do not do the same work twice Security of the investment (TCO): modular, upgradeable, future proof Enterprise application integration Provision of services Flying Eye follows the classical phase approach to reach this target: Planning Analysis Design Implementation

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European Digital Cinema Research Projects

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CineVision 2006
The Consortium

Co-funded by:

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CineVision2006
National Research Projects

CineVision2006
Consortium: ARRI, FE, FhG HHI, FhG IIS, Kinoton, T-Systems Project management: FhG IIS & FE Project goals
Realization of a complete chain for Digital Cinema following the specs of DCI and SMPTE DC-28 Demonstration of the complete chain during WM2006 Research on technical & economical feasibility Camera technology (Image sensor) Concept for distribution (incl. MXF transport container) Cinema server & automation system Motion interpolation Multiple display projection

Duration: 4/2004 – 9/2006 The system should meet the requirements for E- & D-Cinema More information at: www.cinevision2006.de

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WorldScreen
The Consortium

A Research Project in the 6th Framework of the European Community

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WorldScreen
European Research Projects

WorldScreen
Consortium: ARRI, DigiLab, EDZ, FE, FhG HHI, FhG IIS, Kodak, MOG, S&W, T-Systems, WB Project management: FhG IIS & FE Project goals
Layered scheme coding for Digital Cinema (see DCI and SMPTE DC-28) User requirements Workflows & metadata models Field recorder (based on layered scheme compression) Postproduction (based on layered scheme compression) Distribution (layered scheme vs. simulcast) Quality assurance Standardization

Duration: 9/2004 – 3/2007 The system should meet the requirements for E- & D-Cinema More information at: www.worldscreen.org

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Status on HDTV

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Digital Broadcasting - HDTV

HDTV vs. SDTV HDTV Status & Trends HDTV Formats & Standards
Acquisition / Production Distribution / Consumer

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HDTV vs. SDTV – the Numbers

PAL 720 x 576 4:3

1920 X 1080 16 : 9

NTSC 720 x 480 4:3

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HDTV vs. SDTV – the Viewing Experience

aspect ratio 4:3 625 lines aspect ratio 16:9 > 1000 lines
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HDTV Status & Trends

Japan
1 million HDTV receivers Digital HDTV broadcasting over satellite since 2002 Digital terrestrial HDTV broadcasting since 2003 NHK researches UHDTV (16xHDTV)

U.S.A.
3 million HTDV viewers (1.5 million receivers) today (cable 1.4, terrestrial 1.2, satellite 0.6) Simulcast broadcasting via 205 stations Forecast: 40% HDTV receivers in 2008

Europe
0.07 million HDTV receivers 1 HDTV channel operational, 4 others announced Forecast: > 15 million HDTV receivers in 2008 (4.6 million Datamonitor study) Soccer WM2006 as milestone for HDTV introduction in Europe
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HDTV Acquisition Formats

1080 i/p movies

720 p sports
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HDTV Acquisition / Production - the Role of Compression
Source: Sony

HDCAM
Video Sampling Video Process bit Audio Sampling Video Net [Mbps] Recording time Track pitch Drum rotation speed Tape-to-head speed Tape thickness EDIT Search Pre Read DT CUE Legacy PB Camcorder Portable VTR 3:1:1=1440*1080 8bit 48K*20bit*4ch

D-5 HD
4:2:2=1920*1080 1280*720p 10bit 48K*24bit*8ch

DVCPRO HD
4:2:2=1280*1080 8bit 48K*16bit*8ch

DVCPRO HD-LP
4:2:2=1280*1080 8bit 48K*16bit*8ch

D6
4:2:2=1920*1080 Y=10, Pb/Pr=8bit 48K*16bit*8ch

HDSR
4:2:2=1920*1080 1280*720p 10bit

48K*24bit*12ch 440 (880 DS)
124/40(L/S) (20)

140
124/40 (L/S)

235
124/63/23(L/M/S)

100
46 (L)

100
92 (L)

995
64/28/8(L/M/S)

21.7µ
5400rpm 22.9m/sec.

20.0µ
5400rpm 21.3m/sec.

18.0µ
18000rpm 20.36m/sec.

9.0µ
18000rpm 20.36m/sec.

21.0µ
9000rpm 46m/sec.

13.2µ
5400rpm (3600) 22.9m/sec. ?

14µ
Yes ± x50 Video Audio -1to +2 Yes SP/SX/DB/IMX Yes Yes

11µ
Yes ± x50 CTL -1to +2 Yes D5 No Yes

8.5µ
Yes Yes No No Yes PRO-50/25 Yes No

8.5µ
Yes Yes Yes ? No Yes PRO-HD/50/25 DVCAM YES NO

11µm
Yes Yes No No Yes No No No

11µm
Yes ± x50 Video,Audio -1to +2 No HDCAM / (DB) No Yes

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HDTV Acquisition / Production - the Role of Compression
Source: Sony

Increasing Resolution

1080 60P 1080 60I BT601

MPEG-2

MPEG-4 SP

MPEG-4
Low bit rate 64k 2M 30M 450M 2G

Increasing Bit rates
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HDTV Distribution - the Role of Compression

Advanced compression schemes (MPEG 4, WM-9) provide > factor 2 compression efficiency over MPEG2 which will be replaced over time The transition scenario most likely will see set-top boxes serving all 3 compression standards Experts do expect a 70% to 30% market share distribution between MPEG4 and WM-9, with MPEG4 leading the set-top boxes market and WM-9 dominating the PC-based media consumption MPEG 4 part 10 AVC/H.264 More potential w.r.t. to future improvements Perceived as a European technology Frozen international standard Windows Media 9 Requires less processing power, low decoder cost Less royalty cost End-to-end IT integration

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Who is Using What Format?

U.S.A. CBS 1080i ABC, ESPN and other Disney owned services 720P Fox 720P NBC 1080i HBO and all premium Movie Services 1080I HDNET 1080I VROOM 1080I Discovery HD and other cable services 1080I PBS 1080I MSG 1080I Current transmission format is MPEG-2 at 19.8Mbit/s

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Who is Using What Format?

Europe
EBU is in favor of 1280 x 720 @ 50p HD1 is transmitting in 1920 x 1080 @ 50i

Japan,
1920 x 1080 @ 60i

China, Korea, South America

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Thank you very much for your attention

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