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UNIT 1 TOP MARKS 2

Relative clauses

Exercise 1.- Fill in the blanks with who/whom/which/that/where/ whose. More than one correct answer is possible. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. That man is the writer ................................................................ wrote a best-selling novel. Here is the CD .......................................................................... you thought you had lost. A professor is someone ................................................................. teaches in a university. What is the address of the woman ....................................................... dog bit ours? We live in a city ................................................................... new restaurants open every day. What do you know about that woman.........................................................son won the lottery? This is the place ............................................................................I hurt myself last week Ciros was the best club................................................................................... I have ever seen. The tower .....................................................................blew down in the storm was over 100 years old. The test for ............................................................................. you are studying will be easy. The bed on ......................................................................... he was lying collapsed. The man for ....................................................................... I am knitting this scarf is an uncle of mine. The boy to ............................................................................... I sent a note is smiling at me. Here is the magazine ................................................................ you have been looking for. The director .........................................................................Jean works for is very demanding. The person to .................................................................Jill spoke yesterday was very rude. The painting ................................................................ you are looking at is an original Czanne. The girl ....................................................................... you are going out with is very attractive. Dinosaurs, ......................................were such enormous creatures, died out about 65 million years ago.

Exercise 2.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Join the sentences and make relative sentences.

I was reading a book. It was a detective story. The man has died. I gave the book to him. This is the room. I first met my husband in this room. The shop is closed. We buy our cakes there. Mr. Brown often met his friends in that pub. His house was quite near. Bring me the cigarettes. I left them on the table. These plants cant have too much water. They will grow in pots. Do you know the woman? Tom is talking to her. I met a man. His sister knows you. The hotel wasnt very clean. We stayed in that hotel. Use your own ideas to complete these sentences. 4. I had a dog.................................................................. 5. A church is ......................................................

Exercise 3.1. 2. 3.

I met a woman ............................. A pencil is something ............ A doctor is.........................

Exercise 4.1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Combine the following pairs of sentences by means of relative pronouns

Julius Caesar came to Britain in 55 BC. He was a powerful Roman general. Helicopters can land near the centre of a large city. They do not need a long runway. This is the man. I gave money to him this morning. Bring me the cigarettes. I left them on the table. The table stands by the window. The pelican is a strange bird. His beak is enormous. His stepmother was not very kind to him. He was living with her. Last week I went to see the country town. He used to live in that town.
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Profesora: M Concepcin Fernndez Agero

8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

Ann Boleyn was Henry VIIIs second wife. Henry executed her in 1536. What was the name of the girl? She came here last night. Steven lives in Bradford. It is a city in the north of England. A girl was injured in the accident. She is now in hospital. A man answered the phone. He told me you were away. A waitress served us. She was very impolite and impatient. A building was destroyed in the fire. It has now been rebuilt. Some people were arrested. They have now been released. A bus goes to the airport. It runs every half hour.

Exercise 5.- Combine the following pairs or groups of sentences by means of relative pronouns. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. She was dancing with a student. He had an enormous nose. This is the story of a man. His wife suddenly loses her memory. The car had bad brakes. We were in this car. This is Mr. Jones. His son won the championship last year. I missed the train. I usually catch this train and I had to travel on the next. This was a slow train. His girlfriend turned out to be an enemy spy. He trusted her absolutely. Romeo and Juliet were lovers. Their parents hated each other. I was waiting for a man. He didnt come. A man answered the phone. He said Tom was out. He was with Lucy. He was particularly anxious to impress her.

Exercise 6.- Fill in: which or whose. Broadstairs, 1) which is a town on the south coast of England, is famous for its Dickens Festival, 2) ..................... is held every June. Dickens, 3) ................................... first name was Charles, was a famous English writer 4) ...................................most famous books are "A Christmas Carol" and "Oliver Twist". "A Christmas Carol", 5) ..................................... is about a mean man 6) .............................. life is changed by the visits of three ghosts, has been made into several films 7) ........................... are often shown at Christmas on television. Another one of his novels is called "Bleak House", 8) ............................. is actually the name of the house in 9) ..................... Dickens lived in Broadstairs. The people of Broadstairs all love the festival, 10) ....................... brings a lot of money to the town and is fun for everyone. I'm sure Dickens, 11) .................................... life and books are celebrated, would have loved it too.

Profesora: M Concepcin Fernndez Agero

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CONNECTORS OF ADDITION AND CONTRAST


We use connectors to show the relationship betweeen ideas. Connectors of addition connect similar ideas or information. Connectors of contrast connect contrasting ideas or information.

Example: Their team has got the best players. Moreover, their coach is fantastic. Addition Their team has got the best players. Nevertheless, they lost the last game. Contrast. CONNECTORS OF ADDITION In addition Furthermore Moreover As well as Also And Besides Too (tambin) (Adems) (Adems) (Adems/ por otra parte) (Aparte de/ adems de) (Tambin) (y) (Adems de/ Aparte de) CONNECTORS OF CONTRAST However (No obstante) However + adjective Nevertheless On the one hand/On the other hand (Por una parte/ por otra parte) Although / Even though/ though (Aunque) But In spite of/ Despite While/whereas (A pesar de ...) (Mientras que )

Whats more (Adems)

No matter how/where/who... (No importa cmo, dnde, quin ) Whatever/whenever/whoever... (Cualquier cosa que, siempre que, quienquiera que ...)

Connectors of contrast. Examples Although : Although I dont like football, Ill go with you Though: Though I didnt feel well, I went to work Even though: Even though the weather was bad, we had a good time. While/ Whereas : He is quiet, while/ whereas his sister is talkative (l es callado mientas que su hermana ...) Even if: Even if you dont like him, you can still be polite. However (adverb meaning but) : I feel a bit tired. However, its probably just the weather. (No obstante... However + adj: However hard you study, you wont pass the exam. (Por mucho que estudie...) No matter how/where/who...: No matter how I try, I never win (Por mucho que lo intente...) No matter what: No matter what he says, dont give him the documents (Diga lo que diga...) Whatever: Whatever you do, Ill go to the opera myself. (Hagas lo que hagas...) Wherever: Wherever you are, Ill find you. (Dondequiera que ests...) Whoever: Whoever the murderer is, well find him. (Quienquiera que sea el asesino...) Whichever: Whichever way you go, youll always arrive here. (Vayas por donde vayas/ por cualquier sitio que vayas, ...) Whenever: You can come round whenever you like. (Puedes visitarme siempre que quieras)

Profesora: M Concepcin Fernndez Agero

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Other connectors of contrast In spite of / despite (a pesar de)

+ verb + ing : In spite of being angry, he listened to me // Despite being angry, he listened to me. + a noun phrase: In spite of his anger, he listened to me. // Despite his anger, he ... + the fact that + subject + verb ... : In spite of the fact that he was angry, he listened to me. Despite the fact that he was angry, he listened to me. Though + clause (Aunque) It is informal. We can use though at the beginning or the end of a sentence. Though she has been warned, she wants to take the risk. Shes been warned. She wants to take the risk, though. Connectors of addition. Examples My professor is an extremely fascinating person. She tells some of the most interesting stories I have ever heard. In addition: My professor is an extremely fascinating person. In addition, she tells some of the most interesting stories I have ever heard. Too: My professor is an extremely fascinating person. She tells some of the most interesting stories I have ever heard, too. Also: My professor is an extremely fascinating person. She also tells some of the most interesting stories I have ever heard. Furthermore/ Moreover: My professor is an extremely fascinating person. Furthermore / Moreover , she tells some of the most interesting stories I have ever heard. Besides that : My professor is an extremely fascinating person. Besides that, she tells some of the most interesting stories I have ever heard. And: My professor is an extremely fascinating person, and she tells some of the most interesting stories I have ever heard. As well : My professor is an extremely fascinating person. She tells some of the most interesting stories I have ever heard as well. Not only...but also: My professor is not only an extremely fascinating person but also tells some of the most interesting stories I have ever heard.

Exercise 1.- Put in although or in spite of 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. The match went ahead ...................................................................... the bad weather ...................................................................... I told the absolute truth, no one would believe me. Our neighbour goes for long walks ............................................................. being eighty-five years old. I caught the train, .................................................................. I had only a minute to spare. The goods wee never delivered ............................................................................ the promise we had .................................................................... the threats against his life, the minister carried on as normal. The chairman resigned ............................................................ the fact that it wasnt his fault.

Exercise 2.- Underline the correct item. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. However/ Although hard he studies, he doesnt get good marks. My sister is dark, whereas /despite I am blonde. Despite/While going on a diet, she put on five kilos. Clever whereas/as he is, he failed the test. Even though/ despite he had little money, he insisted on paying for the meal. In spite of / whatever you say, I wont believe you. I invited Sue. She didnt come, although/though. My mother is French whereas / even though my father is Polish. Persuasive though/ but he may be, I won't change my mind.
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Profesora: M Concepcin Fernndez Agero

10. Even though / Despite we're good friends, we don't meet very often. Exercise 3.- Choose the correct connector: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Lorena seems to be quite clever. ........................................., she often gets low marks. (Nevertheless /Furthermore) The service at this restaurant is excellent. .......................................... , the food is delicious. (However/ In addition) I've never been to Argentina, ..................................................... having relatives there. (as well as/ despite) Jordi is a careful driver. ............................................., he's had several accidents. (Moreover/ However) Cristina loves playing sport, ................................................. she's not very good at it. (And/but) Anna is talented at music .................................................. art. (as well as/ in spite of)

Exercise 4.- Fill in the blanks with : despite, in spite of, while, whereas, although or though. Dear John, I am having a great time in England, 1) _________________ the bad weather! We arrived safely in London, 2) ____________________ the train was two hours late. 3) __________________ the fact that I miss America, Im still enjoying myself. Tomorrow my friend is leaving for home, 4) ______________________I still have three more days here. I'm going to visit Buckingham Palace, 5) ____________________ the fact that I've been there before. Im looking forward to going home. I think I'll miss England a little, 6) ________________________________ . Love, Sarah Exercise 5.- Underline the correct item. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Despite / Although it was snowing, the road was clear. Although / Despite the traffic, we made it to school on time. In spite of / Although the fact that I didn't study, I passed the exam. I can't stand classical music, whereas / in spite of my mother loves it. Tom loves playing football, while / despite Paul prefers basketball. Although / Despite Johnny eats fish, his brother won't touch it.

Exercise 6.- Look at the example, then rewrite the sentences in as many ways as possible. 1. The weather was bad. The ship departed. Although/ Even though the weather was bad, the ship departed. In spite of / Despite the bad weather, the ship departed. In spite of the fact that the weather was bad, the ship departed. The weather was bad. Nevertheless, the ship departed. ... 2. 3. 4. 5. 2. She had enough money for the dress. She didn't buy it. She is sixty years old. She still goes jogging. Tom arrived early. He didn't find a ticket for the concert. The programme was boring. He continued to watch it. Although she had enough money for the dress, ... Despite having enough... In spite of the fact that she had enough ... Although she is sixty years old, she still goes jogging Despite being sixty years old, she still goes jogging In spite of the fact that she is sixty years old, she still goes jogging Despite her age, she still goes jogging
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Profesora: M Concepcin Fernndez Agero

4.

Although Tom arrived early, he didn't find a ticket for the concert In spite of arriving early, Tom didn't find a ticket for the concert Despite the fact that Tom arrived early, he didn't find a ticket for the concert Despite his early arrival... Although the programme was boring, he continued to watch it. In spite of the fact that the programme was boring, he continued to watch it. The programme was boring; he continued to watch it though.

5.

Exercise 7.- Join each pair of sentences. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Dave smokes. He seems to be in good health. (Although) I couldnt sleep. I was tired. (despite) Max didnt notice the sign. It was right in front of him. ( even though) Kate never learnt Spanish. She lived in Spain for years. (although) Joe is a millionaire. He hates spending money. (despite+ ing) A few trains were running. There was a strike. (in spite of) We couldnt get a seat. We arrived early. (in spite of) They have very little money. They are happy. (in spite of) My foot was injured. I managed to walk to the nearest village. (although) I enjoyed the film. The story was silly. (in spite of) We live in the same street. We hardly ever see each other. (despite) I got wet in the rain. I had an umbrella. (even though) Roger works very hard to help his parents. He's also a good student. (In addition) (Two different sentences) I'm keen on ice cream. In addition, I'm keen on chocolate. (as well as)

Exercise 8.- Concessives. Build sentences according to the instructions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. He is very intelligent; he is actually very modest. In spite of +(adj. + noun)... Hes over seventy; he is very high-spirited. Despite +(noun)... She was very narrow-minded; she allowed her daughter to go abroad. In spite of +(adjective + noun) Lineker doesnt know much Japanese yet; he goes to intensive classes. Even though... She pronounces English very bad; people understand her. Despite+ (noun)... Sales are going down, but costs are increasing. While.... Weve reduced our work-force, but weve still got a high wages bill. Despite + (noun) .... Although he was tired, he played well. In spite of + (noun)... It doesnt matter when we arrive, they always offer us a cup of coffee. He did it himself in order not to involve her. (since) I couldnt sleep. I was tired. (despite)

Exercise 9.- Change the sentences from one construction to the other using although/ in spite/despite... Ex. Although he was tired, he went on working = In spite of being tired (in spite of his tiredness) he went on working. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Although he was strong, he could not break down the door. In spite of her rudeness, Im still fond of her. He lost the race, in spite of running so well. Although he is experienced, he is not the person we are looking for. He makes careless mistakes, in spite of his knowledge of the subject. In spite of his great wealth, he still lives in that old house. The plane took off on time, in spite of its being cloudy. Even though he works hard, he doesnt earn much.

Profesora: M Concepcin Fernndez Agero

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Exercise 10.- Fill in: although/though/even though, despite, while/whereas, but, however/no matter how, whatever/no matter what or as. Mary is 16 and at school. 1) Despite being good at most subjects there are some that she still has problems with. 2) ................................................ hard she studies she doesn't seem to get good marks in maths, 3) .............................................. her father sits with her every week to try and help her understand it better. She loves art, 4) .................................................. she always gets good grades, 5) ............................... she doesn't like sports at all 6) ................................................ she's quite athletic. Mary knows that 7)................................................... she's still at school she has to keep working hard in all the subjects she's studying 8) ....................................................... grades she gets. 9) ..................................... , she's optimistic that she'll improve overall. Exercise 11.- Rephrase the following sentences in all possible ways as in the example: 1. Even though the music was quiet, the neighbours complained. Although the music was quiet, the neighbours complained. Despite the fact that the music was quiet, the neighbours complained. In spite of the music being quiet, the neighbours complained. Despite the music being quiet, the neighbours complained. In spite of the fact that the music was quiet, the neighbours complained Geoff has lots of friends but he doesn't go out very often. Although the weather was bad, they enjoyed their day out. This car is very old. However, it still runs well. He looked everywhere for a job, but he didn't find anything. It was raining hard. The aeroplane took off. Richard is very rich, but he isn't happy.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Exercise 12.- Rewrite these sentences using the words given in brackets. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Although food production is rising, there are still too many hungry people (In spite of) In spite of notices being put everywhere, people still spoil the park with their litter (Even though) They werent able to get into the cinema, despite having queued for an hour (Though) We went on playing, although it was raining (Despite) In spite of the increase in production, we have not made a profit. (Although) They hope the students will continue to pay, even though they have raised the fees (Despite)

Exercise 13.1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Rephrase the following sentences using the beginnings given.

Even though he's a millionaire, he hates spending money. (In spite of + ing) She attended the meeting in spite of her illness. (Although) They managed to arrive on time, despite the heavy snowstorm. (Even though) She's a managing director although she's only 25. (Despite the fact) Although he has been told to stop, he still smokes. (In spite of) In spite of losing thirty kilos, she's still overweight. (Although)

Profesora: M Concepcin Fernndez Agero

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