An Introduction to

Mechanical Engineering

Part 1

Michael Clifford, Richard Brooks, Alan Howe, Andrew Kennedy, Stewart McWilliam, Stephen Pickering, Paul Shayler & Philip Shipway

An Hachette UK Company

Orders: please contact Bookpoint Ltd, 130 Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4SB. Telephone: (44) 01235 827720. Fax: (44) 01235 400454. Lines are open 9.00 – 5.00, Monday to Saturday, with a 24-hour message answering service. You can also order through our website at www.hoddereducation.co.uk If you have any comments to make about this, or any of our other titles, please send them to educationenquiries@hodder.co.uk British Library Cataloguing in Publication SD A catalogue record for this title is available from the British Library ISBN: 978 0 340 93995 6 First Edition Published 2009 Impression number 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Year 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 © 2009 Richard Brooks, Alan Howe, Andrew Kennedy, Stewart McWilliam, Stephen Pickering, Paul Shayler, Philip Shipway. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or under licence from the Copyright Licensing Agency Limited. Further details of such licences (for reprographic reproduction) may be obtained from the Copyright Licensing Agency Limited, of Saffron House, 6–10 Kirby Street, London EC1N 8TS. Hachette UK's policy is to use papers that are natural, renewable and recyclable products and made from wood grown in sustainable forests. The logging and manufacturing processes are expected to conform to the environmental regulations of the country of origin. Cover photo from Raw Paw Graphics/Digital vision Typeset by Tech-Set Ltd., Gateshead, Tyne & Wear Printed in Italy for Hodder Education, an Hachette UK Company, 338 Euston Road, London NW1 3BH The publishers’s would like to thank the following for use of photographs in this volume: Figure 2.17a © J Orr/Alamy; Figure 2.17b © Kernal Eksen Photography, photographersdirect.com; Figure 2.46 © Alexis Rosenfield/Science Photo Library; Figure 2.48 © David Hoffman Photo Library/Alamy; Figure 2.53 © aviation–images.com All illustrations in this volume by Barking Dog Art. Every effort has been made to trace and acknowledge ownership of copyright. The publishers will be glad to make suitable arrrangements with any copyright holders whom it has not been possible to contact.

Contents

Introduction v

**Unit 1 Solid mechanics
**

Richard Brooks 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Basic design analysis Stress, strain and elasticity Beam bending Multi-axial stress and strain Torsion

01

**Unit 2 Materials and processing
**

Andrew Kennedy and Philip Shipway 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 Introduction The structure and properties of materials Properties of materials Selection of materials in engineering design Materials processing Failure of materials

59

**Unit 3 Fluid dynamics
**

Stephen Pickering 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Introductory concepts Fluids at rest – hydrostatics Fluids in motion Fluids in motion – linear momentum

135

Unit 4 Thermodynamics

Paul Shayler

213

4.1 Introduction 4.2 The first law of thermodynamics, conservation of energy, work and heat transfer 4.3 The second law of thermodynamics, heat engines, the Clausius inequality, entropy and irreversibility 4.4 The properties of perfect gas, water and steam 4.5 Types of process and their analysis for work and heat transfer 4.6 Modes of heat transfer and steady-state heat transfer rates 4.7 Cycles, power plant and engines

An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1

**Unit 5 Electrical and electronic systems
**

Alan Howe 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.10 5.11 Introduction Direct current circuits Electromagnetic systems Capacitance Alternating current circuits Three-phase circuits Semiconductor rectifiers Amplifiers Digital electronics Transformers AC induction motors

283

**Unit 6 Machine dynamics
**

Stewart McWilliam 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 6.10 6.11 Introduction Basic mechanics Kinematics of a particle in a plane Kinematics of rigid bodies in a plane Kinematics of linkage mechanisms in a plane Mass properties of rigid bodies Kinematics of a rigid body in a plane Balancing of rotating masses Geared systems Work and energy Impulse, impact and momentum

405

Questions Index

491 505

Introduction

Engineering is not merely knowing and being knowledgeable, like a walking encyclopaedia; engineering is not merely analysis; engineering is not merely the possession of the capacity to get elegant solutions to non-existent engineering problems; engineering is practicing the art of the organized forcing of technological change. Dean Gordon Brown This book is written for undergraduate engineers and those who teach them. It contains concise chapters on solid mechanics, materials, fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, electronics and dynamics, which provide grounding in the fundamentals of mechanical engineering science.An introduction to mathematics is covered in the companion publication, An Introduction to Mathematics for Engineers by Stephen Lee, also published by Hodder Education. The material in this book is supported by an accompanying website: www.hodderplus.co.uk/mechanicalengineering. The authors have over 120 years' experience of teaching undergraduate engineers between them, mostly, but not exclusively, at the University of Nottingham.The material contained within this textbook has been derived from lecture notes, research findings and personal experience from within the lecture theatre and tutorial sessions. We gratefully acknowledge the support, encouragement and occasional gentle prod from Stephen Halder and Gemma Parsons at Hodder Education, without whom this book would still be a figment of our collected imaginations. Dedicated to past, present and future engineering students at the University of Nottingham.

v

This page intentionally left blank

Solid mechanics

Unit 1

Solid Mechanics

Richard Brooks

UNIT OVERVIEW

■ Basic design analysis ■ Stress, strain and elasticity ■ Beam bending ■ Multiaxial stress and strain ■ Torsion

**1.1 Basic design analysis
**

Forces, moments and couples

A force arises from the action (or reaction) of one body on another.

Although a force cannot be directly observed, its effect can be. A typical example is a force arising from the surface contact between two bodies, e.g. one pushing against the other. Two forces actually occur in this situation as shown in Figure 1.1. One is the ‘action’ of the man on the wall and the other is the ‘reaction’ of the wall on the man.

Newton’s third law tells us that the action and reaction forces in this situation (and generally) are equal and opposite.

Wall

Equal and opposite ‘reaction’ of wall on man Action ’ of man on wall

Man

**Figure 1.1 Newton’s third law
**

1

An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1

Such contact forces occur where bodies interact with each other; however, they can also occur internally within a single body. In this case, it is the microscopic particles, e.g. molecules, atoms, etc. which contact each other and interact with forces between themselves. For this chapter, we will generally be dealing with macroscopic bodies where the interaction forces occur at external surface contacts. Another type of force occurring is that which arises from the remote influence of one body on another, such as the force of gravity. The Earth’s gravity acting on a person gives rise to a force acting at his or her centre of mass. This type of force is termed the person’s weight and acts vertically downwards or towards the centre of the Earth. Magnetic attraction is another example of a remote (or non-contact) force arising from the influence of a magnetic field on a body.

The SI unit of force is the newton (N).

A force of 1 N is that force which, when applied to a mass of 1 kg, will result in an acceleration of the mass of 1 m sϪ2. Thus, in general, a force applied to a body tends to change the state of rest or motion of the body, and the relationship between the resulting motion (acceleration, a) and the applied force, F, is given by Newton’s second law, i.e. F ϭ ma where m is the mass of the body. However, in this chapter, we will generally be concerned with bodies in equilibrium, where there is no motion, i.e. static situations. For this to be the case, all forces acting on the body must balance each other out so that there is no resultant force (see the next section on ‘equilibrium’). A force has both a magnitude and a direction and is therefore a vector quantity which can be represented by an arrow as shown in Figure 1.2. The magnitude of the force is represented by a label, e.g. 5 N as shown, or, alternatively, when solving problems graphically, by the length of the arrow. The direction of the force is clearly represented by the orientation of the arrow in space such as the angle to the x-direction. Thus, when considering problems in two dimensions, two scalar quantities are required to describe a force, i.e. its magnitude and direction – in the above case 5 N and ° respectively. To aid the analysis of systems with several forces, the forces are often resolved into their components in two perpendicular directions, as shown in Figure 1.3 for the force F. The x- and y-directions are commonly chosen, although resolving in other (perpendicular) directions relevant to the boundaries of a body may be more convenient for a specific problem. From Figure 1.3 the magnitudes of the two components in the x- and y-directions are given by: Fx ϭ F cos Fy ϭ F sin (1.1)

F 5N θ

Figure 1.2 Force as a vector

Fy =F sin θ

y F x

θ Fx =F cos θ

Figure 1.3 Resolving the force vector into components

With this representation there are still two scalar quantities describing the force, in this case, Fx and Fy.

The moment of a force about a point is equal to the product of the magnitude of the force and the perpendicular distance from the point to the line of action of the force.

**This is illustrated in Figure 1.4, where the moment, M, of force F, about point O, is given by: M ϭ F.d (1.2)
**

O

d F

An example of a device which creates a moment is a spanner, also shown in Figure 1.4. The hand applies the force, F, at one end and imparts a moment, M = F.d, on the nut at the other end, O. A couple is a special case of a moment of a force and arises from a pair of equal and opposite parallel forces acting on a body but not through the same point, as shown in Figure 1.5. If the two forces, F, act at a distance d apart, then the magnitude of couple C, about any point, is given by: C ϭ F.d

2

F O

Figure 1.4 Moment of a force applied by a spanner

(1.3)

Solid mechanics As the two forces, F, in Figure 1.5, are equal and opposite, their sum is zero and the body on which they act is not translated. However, they do create a couple which tends to rotate the body. Therefore, a consequence of a couple acting on a body is to impart pure rotation. For this reason, the term ‘pure moment’ is often used instead of ‘couple’.

d/2 F O d/2 F

An example of a device which creates a couple is a wheel nut wrench, also shown in Figure 1.5. Here, the hands apply forces, F, in and out of the page at both ends of one arm of the wrench, imparting a turning couple on a locked nut at O. When a couple or moment is applied at a point on a body its effect is ‘felt’ at all other points within the body. This can be illustrated with the cantilever beam shown in Figure 1.6 where a couple of 5 kN m is applied at end A. If we assume that the couple is created by the application of two equal and opposite 5 kN forces, 1 m apart, acting through a rigid bar attached to the beam at A, we can determine the influence that these forces also have at points B and C, at 5 m and 10 m from A respectively. Taking moments about B: MB ϭ 5 kN.(5 m ϩ 0.5 m) Ϫ 5 kN.(5 m – 0.5 m) ϭ 27.5 Ϫ 22.5 ϭ 5 kN m Taking moments about C: MC ϭ 5 kN.(10 m ϩ 0.5 m) Ϫ 5 kN.(10 m – 0.5 m) ϭ 52.5 Ϫ 47.5 ϭ 5 kN m In both cases the effect, i.e. a 5 kN m turning moment, is felt at B and C. In other words, the turning moment felt on the bar is independent of the distance from A.

5 kN 5m 5m

Figure 1.6 Influence of a moment or couple acting at a point

F

Moment/couple of 5kNm felt at both B and C and all points along the beam 1m 5kN

O

F

Figure 1.5 Couple and wheel nut wrench (forces act in and out of page)

A

B

C

Conditions of equilibrium

For a body to be in equilibrium, it must not translate or rotate. Considering movement in one plane only (i.e. a two-dimensional system), this means the body must not move in the x- or y-directions or rotate about its position. Three conditions are required of the applied forces for this to be the case.

These three conditions of equilibrium are: (i) the sum of all the acting forces in the x-direction must be zero, i.e. ⌺Fx ϭ 0. (ii) The sum of all the acting forces in the y-direction must be zero, i.e. ⌺Fy ϭ 0. (iii) The sum of all the moments about any point must be zero.

Resultants of forces

When a number of forces act at a point on a body, their resultant force can be determined either algebraically or graphically.

Algebraic method

The algebraic method for determining the resultant of a number of forces has the following steps: ii(i) Resolve all forces into their x- and y-components. i(ii) Sum the x-components (⌺Fx) and the y-components (⌺Fy). (iii) Determine the magnitude and direction of the resultant force from ⌺Fx and ⌺Fy.. The following example illustrates the method. Figure 1.7 shows three forces FA, FB and FC acting at a point A. Determine the magnitude and direction of the resultant force at A.

3

FB =8kN Firstly.2° and direction ( ) may be measured off from the scale vector diagram. following on from each other. ⌺Fy ϭ tanϪ1 ᎏ ⌺Fx ϭ tanϪ1 Ϫ1.) FA =4kN A Figure 1.064kN 1.196 ϭ Ϫ1.196 kN (note the Ϫve values indicating that the resultant forces act in the Ϫve x and Ϫve y directions) The magnitude. FB and FC.8 for the problem given above. FR.196 kN Summing these components in the x.8 Resultant of forces acting at a point – graphical method The graphical method is useful to give a quick approximate solution. whereas the algebraic method normally takes longer but will yield an exact result.196kN FC = 6 kN Figure 1. (with respect to the x-axis). is the single vector force that joins the start point A to the finishing point B. as shown in the figure.196) ෆ ϭ 11.196 ᎏ Ϫ11 ϭ 6.e.064kN B (NB: it does not matter in which order the three vectors are drawn in the diagram.064 kN The angle. that closes the polygon of forces.7. FA = 4 kN 11kN FB = 8 kN 60° y A x 6.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 The components of the forces are. draw to scale each of the three vector forces. 4 . of the resultant of ⌺Fx and ⌺Fy is. i. FR ϭ ͙ ෆ ( ෆ ϩ ( ⌺Fy ෆ ෆ )2 ⌺Fx)2ෆ 2 ϭ ͙( ෆ Ϫ11)2ෆ ϩ (Ϫ1. of the resultant force is. FAx ϭ 0 FBx ϭ Ϫ8 kN FCx ϭ Ϫ6. FA. The resultant FC =6kN force.and y-directions.sin60° ϭ Ϫ5. Its magnitude 6.7 Resultant of a number of forces acting at a point Graphical Method The procedure for the graphical method of determining the resultant of a number of forces is shown in Figure 1. FR. ⌺Fx ϭ 0 Ϫ 8 Ϫ 3 ϭ Ϫ11 kN ⌺Fy ϭ 4 ϩ 0 ϩ Ϫ5.2° to the negative x-direction as shown in Figure 1.cos60° ϭ Ϫ3 kN FAy ϭ 4 kN FBy ϭ 0 FCy ϭ Ϫ6.2° FR =11. FR =11.

a block. (ii) a normal force. In general. FA.e. FA.4) still applies. F: (i) F cannot exceed N. . As the body is in equilibrium.g. F. e. the frictional force will be negligible and there will be a normal reaction force only.e. at which point F ϭ N. exists because of the rough nature of the contact surface between the body and the ground. the coefficient of dynamic friction (also called the kinetic frictional coefficient. W. it is normal to break down the problem into separate free bodies. Figure 1. k) is usually marginally lower than the coefficient of static friction. F.e. Thus.g. Up to this point of ‘slip’ between the surfaces. if slip does occur. This reaction force has two components as follows: i(i) a tangential force. the magnitude of F is independent of the velocity of sliding between the two contact surfaces. FA.At some point the applied force will become sufficiently large to overcome the frictional force and cause movement of the body. termed the friction force. contact surfaces in a lubricated bearing.9. (iv) if slip does occur. To analyse this problem for forces. body A positioned on top of body B which itself is located on the ground. Free body diagrams To analyse the forces in more complex systems. (iii) the magnitude of F is independent of the size of the contact area between the contacting surfaces. This limiting condition is the point of slip. as shown in Figure 1. Although in this chapter we will be concerned primarily with static friction up to the point of slip.9 Frictional force (F) and normal force (N) at point of contact between a block and the ground If the applied force. i. i.1 – 1. The aim is to solve for the unknown reaction forces between the two bodies and between body B and the ground. where the contact is smooth or lubricated. where a lower value indicates a smoother surface and reduced friction.Solid mechanics Frictional forces Consider a solid body. 5 . The constant of proportionality. Mg and acts at the centre of mass. can have values in the range 1–10. the frictional component. lubricated surfaces can have values lower than 0. weight W. is proportional to N. resting on the ground but in equilibrium under the action of an applied force. to prevent any movement. such as rubber on a hard surface. A number of important observations can now be stated about the frictional force. and the weight of the body. F ϭ kN. F.4) Note the ‘less than or equal to’ sign indicates that a limiting condition can occur.Values outside this range can occur for some material contact surfaces e. is slowly increased. i.10 shows two bodies. i. will also increase to maintain equilibrium.1 while stick-slip surfaces. (NB: the body’s weight is given by its mass ϫ the acceleration of gravity. FA G W F N Figure 1. the maximum value of F. N. This is a special case only found under certain circumstances. In the sliding (i. these two components of the reaction force counterbalance the applied force. (ii) the direction of F always opposes the direction in which subsequent motion would take place if slip occurred. such as assemblies of components or structures containing many different elements.0. In some cases.e.) The frictional force. a relationship exists between the frictional force and the normal reaction force as follows: F р N (1. slipping) condition the limiting form of equation (1. we separate the two bodies and draw on each all the external forces acting as shown in the figure. Typical values are in the range 0. is termed the coefficient of static friction and its value depends on the roughness of the two contacting surfaces and hence the contacting materials. where the body contacts the ground there will be a reaction force (from the ground) acting on the body. the limiting frictional force.e.

is a diagram of a free body which shows all the external forces acting on the body. acting upwards from the ground. ⌺Fy ϭ 0 and for body B ⌺Fy ϭ 0 І RG ϭ RA ϩ WB ϭ RB ϩ WB ϭ WA ϩ WB It is no surprise that the reaction force at the ground is equal to the sum of the weights of the two bodies. F Push Figure 1.g) and the vertical reaction force. the action force. b a A WA B WB A WA RB RA B WB RG Figure 1. Such load systems are termed statically equivalent. The diagrams of each separate body are referred to as freebody diagrams (FBDs). allowing us to solve for the unknown reaction force between the bodies. although static equilibrium is the same in each case. the internal forces within the body will be different. We can now look at the equilibrium of each body in turn: І RB ϭ WA For body A. provided the static behaviour of the body on which they act is the same. It should be pointed out that. and interacting bodies should be replaced at their contact points with suitable reaction forces and/or moments. RB.‘for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction’.g. Figure 1. WA. Although this is a simple problem. the external forces are its weight. (ii) Where several bodies (or subcomponents) interact as part of a more complex system. In this section we will consider several of these principles. there is also its weight. Key points about free body diagrams: (i) A free body diagram. WB ϭ MB. from body B. This principle of transmissibility is illustrated in Figure 1. each body should be drawn separately. There is no horizontal friction force at the contact between the bodies because there are no horizontal forces acting. This is necessary to maintain the system in equilibrium.12 shows a number of loads (five in total) each of 5 kN acting on a beam structure in such a way as to be evenly distributed along the length of the beam.11 where the equilibrium of the body is the same whether it is subjected to a pushing force or a pulling force acting along the same line of action. Newton’s third law tells us that RA ϭ RB. Principle of transmissibility A force can be moved along its line of action without affecting the static equilibrium of the body on which it acts.11 Principle of transmissibility = F Pull Statically equivalent systems A load system can be replaced by another one. again acting at its centre of mass. For body B. it clearly illustrates the value of separating the two bodies. as the name implies.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Thus. acting at its centre of mass (WA ϭ MA. If we are not interested in 6 . RG. i.e. acting downwards from A and the reaction force.10 Free body diagrams General design principles A number of general principles related to force analysis can be applied in design to simplify problems. for body A. RA.

A solution can be obtained algebraically or graphically. Not in equilibrium a Body B F1 O F2 Pin-jointed structures A pin-jointed structure. comprises an assembly of several members. not acting along the same line of action. and this is achieved by considering equilibrium of individual members and the structure as a whole. The two load systems are statically equivalent and the equilibrium conditions for the beam will apply. Such a joint cannot transmit moments due to the free rotation of the pin. This simplification is found in practice to be valid for many structures and enables the analysis of forces within the structure to be significantly simplified. as shown in Figure 1.e. F2 and F3 not acting along the same line of action. b F2 In equilibrium (providing magnitude of F1 = F2) Figure 1. F1 must equal F2.14 where Body A is subjected to three forces. then this loading system can be replaced by a simpler point load of 25 kN applied at the centre of the beam. the vector sum of F1. F1 O d F2 F3 This is illustrated in Figure 1. This is the case for Body B. it is clear that there is a resultant moment and the body cannot be in equilibrium. both forces must act along the same line of action. In addition.Solid mechanics the internal forces developed within the beam but only the equilibrium of the beam as a whole.13 Two-force principle Body A Three-force principle The three-force principle states that for a three-force body (i.14 Three-force principle 7 .e. the lines of action of these forces must pass through a common point. Taking moments about point O. F2 and F3 meet at O and there cannot be a resulting moment. Taking moments about point A. the application point for F1. This is the case for Body B. F2 and F3 must be zero. a body with forces applied at two points only) to be in equilibrium. where the lines of action of F1. it is clear that there is a resultant moment arising from F3 and the body cannot be in equilibrium. where the lines of action of F1 and F2 meet.12 Statically equivalent Body B F1 Two-force principle A The two-force principle states that. whichever of the loading systems is assumed. F1. 5 kN 5 kN 5kN 5 kN 5 kN 25kN Body A F1 A d = a B Not in equilibrium F2 Figure 1. the distance d must be zero. which are joined together by frictionless pin joints. For it to be in equilibrium. The objective is usually to determine the forces occurring at each of the pin joints in the structure. a body with forces applied at three points only) to be in equilibrium. B This is illustrated in Figure 1. For it to be in equilibrium. In addition. where F1 and F2 act along the same line and cannot therefore generate a moment. F3 In equilibrium b (providing the vector ∑ (Fi)=0) 1 3 Figure 1.15. for a two-force body (i.13 where Body A is subjected to two forces. the distance d must be zero. F1 and F2.

result in a negative magnitudes for the forces. as we are solving the problem algebraically. as shown in Figure 1. BC.16. Moving to member BC.75P 8 . This is not a problem.25P and VC ϭ 0. however. The weights of the members may be ignored. we will not do so. say in compression rather than tension. Now looking at the equilibrium of BC: horizontal forces vertical forces HC Ϫ RB cos45° ϭ 0 І HC ϭ 0. as shown in Figure 1. Both members are of equal length and inclined to the horizontal at 45°.e. also shown in Figure 1. acting half way along its length.16.707 RB VC Ϫ P ϩ RB sin45° ϭ 0 І VC ϭ P Ϫ 0.L ϭ 0 2 І RB ϭ 0. we will give it two unknown components. HC ϭ 0. HC and VC. in that case. B and C in terms of the applied load P. As AB is clearly in tension. must be along the same line.6) moments about C Both RA and RB act at 45° to the horizontal. because if the forces are drawn incorrectly.cos45° Ϫ RB. acting at the centre of the member.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Figure 1. As we do not know the direction of the force at C. ᎏᎏ . and the lower member. Note that for some problems it may not be possible to establish on simple inspection whether a member is in tension or compression. The three-force principle could be used for this member to establish the directions of the forces. RB acting on BC at joint B must be equal and opposite to RB acting on AB at joint B (Newton’s third law). ABC. the directions are as indicated in the figure. this is a three-force member with forces acting at both ends and the third force. Member AB is a two-force member as forces act only at the two ends of the member. P. Substituting for RB into (1.5) (1. The first stage is to draw the freebody diagrams for the two members. i. RA and RB.354P Figure 1. P. The joints at A.6) gives. i. along the line of AB.707 RB L P.354P and RA ϭ RB ϭ 0. along the axis of the member.16. the analysis will.15 A pin-jointed structure Algebraic solution to a pin-jointed structure problem Consider a wall bracket comprising a simple two-bar pin-jointed structure. For equilibrium of a two-force member.e. B and C are all pin joints. the directions of the forces.16 Pin-jointed structure – algebraic solution (1. is subjected to a vertical downward load. The aim is to determine the forces at A.5) and (1.

From a scale drawing. Then the line of action of RA must also pass through the point O to satisfy the three-force principle. ␣ can be measured as 44°. the line of action of P should be extended to intersect the line of action of T at point O. drawn following on from each other to form a closed triangle as shown in Figure 1. P. RA.17. To draw the triangle.5m 2. However. Its Free body diagram magnitude and the magnitude of the tension T are still required. in terms of P. These c two lines intersect at the third point of the triangle and the lengths of the Figure 1.At the other end of P. P.17. allowing the two unknown sides to be determined using the sine rule (see ‘Trigonometry’ overleaf). all three forces must meet at a point. part way along its length at position B. To find this. B and C have been determined. draw a line representing the direction of RA (NB: it does not matter which end each of the force Force polygon directions are drawn from. T. shown in the figure as the angle ␣ to the horizontal. The freebody diagram should include all forces acting on the member.ABC. as. AO therefore defines the direction of RA. also shown in Figure 1. or alternatively this value can be calculated by trigonometry in triangles ABO and BCO. the direction of RA is not known. A. Its end points define two points of the triangle. RA. as long as it is a different end for each force). Thus. draw a line 44° P representing the direction of T.5m O T A RA 1. the three-force principle can be used because the member has three forces acting on it and. for equilibrium.75P tan C ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 3 HC 0. but the general term is ‘force polygon’. The 60° triangle must close as the member. is in equilibrium under the action of 74° the three forces and their sum must be zero. and a cable attached to the other end.9P These magnitudes can alternatively be found by using trigonometry as one side and three angles of the triangle are known. Geometrical solution to a pin-jointed structure problem Figure 1. T ϭ 0. The triangle 30° T comprises the vectors of the three forces. The member is assumed to be weightless but carries a vertical downwards load. A B P a Cable 30° C 1.75P)2 ϭ 0. at one end of the vector P. in the cable and the magnitude and direction of the reaction force. To find these.75P and RA ϭ 0.5m α B 30° 2. 9 . The aim is to determine the tension.6° Thus.5m C P The above stage only yields the direction of the unknown force. the magnitudes and directions of all three forces at the joints A.Solid mechanics The magnitude of the resultant force RC is: 2 ϩ (0ෆ (HC)2 ϩෆ (VC)2 ϭ ͙(0. In this case it is actually a force triangle as there are only three forces. inclined at an angle of 30° to the horizontal. Next. T. Note graphical solution also that the direction of RA is upwards as it must close the triangle.25 ෆ P) ෆ . b a ‘force polygon’ is drawn.17 shows a schematic model of a crane boom supported by a pinjoint at one end.25P C ϭ 71.791P R C ϭ ͙ෆ and the angle of RC with respect to the horizontal is: VC 0. firstly draw RA 46° the vector representing P vertically downwards.17 Pin-jointed structure – other two sides (not P ) give the magnitudes of T and RA respectively. T and RA. C. are known and can be drawn in immediately. The directions of P and the cable tension. The first stage is to draw the freebody diagram (to a suitable scale) of the member ABC. Measuring the force triangle gives the magnitudes of T and RA.

18 Useful trigonometric relationships 10 .18. Sine rule A b c a b c ——=——=—— sin A sin B sin C Cosine rule C a a b B a2 =b2 +c2 –2bccos A Figure 1. These rules are given in Figure 1. Both the ‘sine rule’ and the ‘ccosine rule’ may be needed to solve for unknown sides and angles in vector polygons (or triangles).An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Trigonometry Trigonometry is often needed to solve pin-jointed structure problems.

4N ϩ R. above the base point. a 2m A 8m 6m B Solving for the angle 6 sin ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 0. assume friction force ϭ ϫ normal force.661) ϭ 0 І N ϭ 1.20): (i) Draw the freebody diagram of the ladder.8) Figure 1. B. Dimensions are as indicated. (a) ϩ R . assume the man has climbed to a height.8).(0.7) and (1.8 m (i. Determine the maximum height to which a man of weight 1200 N can walk up the ladder before slip occurs.4R.7) μN b a 1200 θ B N h (1.e. when on the point of slip.35 m μR θ θ R 2m A 3m 5m 500 (1. height of man. (vi) Use equilibrium of forces and moments to solve for unknown forces and height h.75 8 І ϭ 48.(0.4R.4.(0. (8) ϭ 0 І a ϭ 5.6° and cos ϭ 0. (iii) Draw frictional forces acting opposite to the direction of slip. (ii) At the point of slip.8 (0.20 Equilibrium and friction worked example 11 .6 N Taking moments about B Ϫ500 cos . 5 Ϫ 1200 cos .9 N and R ϭ 781.75) ϩ N ϭ 0 І N ϭ 1700 Ϫ 0.(0. h.75) Ϫ 0. we obtain N ϭ 948.Solid mechanics Equilibrium and frictional forces Figure 1. h is h ϭ a sin ϭ 5.75) ϭ 4.20 shows the free body diagram of the ladder with all forces acting.661 Equilibrium of vertical forces Ϫ1200 Ϫ 500 ϩ R cos ϩ R sin ϩ N ϭ 0 Ϫ1700 ϩ R.214R From equations (1. Figure 1. (iv) Assume both points A and B slip at the same time.961R Equilibrium of horizontal forces ϪN ϩ R sin Ϫ R cos ϭ 0 Ϫ0. The coefficient of friction at all contacting surfaces is 0. General solution procedure (see Figure 1. (v) At slip.20 shows a ladder of weight 500 N resting on two surfaces at points A and B. distance up the ladder) Therefore.661) ϩ 0.

24° VC 43. T.4 N. VC ϭ Ϫ43.10) Moments about D VB (450) Ϫ VC (300) ϭ 0 І VB ϭ 0. shown in Figure 1.9) and (1. of weight 14. must all meet at a point.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Pin-jointed structure – algebraic solution The pin-jointed structure. Here tension in the cable.667 VC (1.4 N І HD ϭ T ϭ 14.4 N.13). as indicated. Firstly. use an algebraic solution to determine the vertical and horizontal components. Note that the member AFC is a three-force system and the resultants.9) B a A 150 F C 150 300 50 Pulley D E І HB ϭ ϪHC ϩ 14.35 N RA ϭ ͙ෆ 2 2ෆ 2 ϭ 44. E. T ϭ weight of the block E ϭ 14. Equilibrium of the pulley: vertical forces VD Ϫ T ϭ 0 horizontal forces HD Ϫ T ϭ 0 Equilibrium of member BCD: vertical forces VB Ϫ VC Ϫ VD ϭ 0 horizontal forces HB ϩ HC Ϫ HD ϭ 0 І VD ϭ T ϭ 14. HA ϭ 3.2 N (the negative sign indicates that VC acts in the opposite direction to that drawn) Equilibrium of member FBD: vertical forces VC Ϫ VA ϭ 0 horizontal forces T Ϫ HC ϩ HA ϭ 0 І VA ϭ Ϫ43. 12 .8 N The magnitude of the resultant forces at A and C are: (HA) ϩෆ (VA)2 ϭ ͙ෆ (3. RA and RC. and the magnitudes and directions of the resultant forces at the pin joints A and C on member AFC.21.13) From (1.4 N І VB ϭ VC ϩ 14.96° F C c T 75.24° The angles of these resultants with respect to the horizontal are: VA 43.6)2 ϩෆ (43.8) ෆ ϩ (43.12) and (1. supports a block.11) VA HA VD F HC VC VB B C HC VC b From (1.2 tan C ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 4 HC 10.2 N І HC ϩ HA ϭ 14.8 C ϭ 75.11).6 N and HC ϭ 10.21.96° RC Figure 1. These are shown in Figure 1. draw the free body diagrams of each member in the structure.21 Pin-jointed structure – algebraic solution worked example These directions are also illustrated in Figure 1.12) HB T T D HD T D VD HD Moments about F HC (50) Ϫ HA (150) ϭ 0 І HC ϭ 3HA (1.2)2 ෆ ϭ 43. Neglecting the weights of the members of the structure.4 (1.2 tan A ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 12 3.6 HA A ϭ 85.4 (1.52 N ෆ HC)2 ϩෆ (VC)2 ϭ ͙(10.4 (1.and the tension.21.2) ෆ RC ϭ ͙( RA A 85.

Solid mechanics 13 .

it deforms. also known as pascal (Pa). If a stress causes the body on which it acts to elongate or stretch then it is a positive stress and is referred to as tensile. ␦L.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Learning summary By the end of this section you will have learnt: ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ the basic definitions of force.23 Direct stress caused by the action of a force on an area L L + ΔL Figure 1. denoted by the symbol (sigma). Thus. is given by F ϭ ᎏᎏ A The units of direct stress are the units of force divided by area. how to use ‘free body diagrams’ and the basic ‘conditions of equilibrium’ to solve for unknown forces acting on or within a structure. Thus ␦L ϭ ᎏᎏ L Because strain is a ratio of lengths. it will cause the body to change its dimensions. how to analyse frictional forces at the contact between bodies or structures. the body returns to its original shape. F A F Typical magnitudes of stress applied to engineering bodies are in the region of mega (ϫ106) pascals (MPa) or even as high as giga (ϫ109) pascals (GPa).23 shows a force. Figure 1. F. it is considered to be elastic. 14 . When a direct stress is applied to a body. while a negative strain is a contraction of the body. elastic materials are fully recoverable upon unloading. A. a positive strain refers to an elongation of the body. strain and elasticity Direct stress and direct strain Figure 1. Direct strain. If then. i. Elasticity. is a measure of this change and is defined as the ratio of the change in length to the original length (see Figure 1.24). divided by the original length L As for direct stress. denoted by the symbol (epsilon). upon removal of the applied forces.24 Strain as a measure of change in length. general design principles including the two-force and three-force principles which can be used to simplify the solution of specific problems. it has no units. acting perpendicularly to a cross-sectional area. moment and couple. Hooke’s law and Young’s modulus When a body is subjected to a force or forces. analytical and geometrical methods for solving for forces acting on or within pin-jointed structures.e. N mϪ2. then it is negative and referred to as compressive. The average direct stress acting on the area. If the stress causes contraction of the body. 1.2 Stress.

e. It is interesting to note that strain in the lateral direction is created without stress actually being applied in that direction. E. (1. from high values for stiff materials. strain in the elastic region Young’s modulus is also referred to as the elastic modulus of the material and is given the symbol E. we have considered uniaxial loading and deformation only.14). the more stiff or rigid the material and the steeper the gradient in the stress–strain graph (Figure 1. a stretching of the bar longitudinally will result in a contraction laterally.14) This equation is known as Hooke’s law and. He found that. or ϰ This can be shown if one plots stress against strain.1 Some typical values of Young’s modulus for engineering materials Poisson’s ratio So far. Values of E for some typical engineering materials are given in Table 1. F. stress is proportional to strain. it can be seen that the units of Young’s modulus. is constant and called Young’s modulus (after the scientist Thomas Young. do obey the law).15) Young’s modulus (E) GPa 210 69 14 3 0. Thus. and we consider deformation in two dimensions. . i. the units of E are in fact the same as those of stress i. as in Figure 1. to low values for flexible materials. ␦ L.26.01 Table 1. in uniaxial loading (see Figure 1. where a straightline relationship is observed. the gradient of this line. From equation (1. because it describes a straight line. there is quite a range of values for E. such as rubber.25). one occurs in the direction of the applied load/stress along the axis (termed the longitudinal strain) and the other occurs in the transverse direction (termed the lateral strain). Hooke’s law can also be written in terms of the applied force. in the test specimen. Material Steel Aluminium Concrete Nylon Rubber (1. as follows F E ␦L ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏ ᎏ A L or rearranging FL ␦L ϭ ᎏᎏ AE which is a common form of expressing Hooke’s law. however. showed that. such as steel.26 Longitudinal and lateral strains 15 . then there will actually be two strains. As strain has no units.e. within the elastic limit (i. the lateral strain is of the opposite sign to the longitudinal strain. are those of stress divided by strain. Pa. 1773–1829). If. and the change in length. Figure 1. and the direct strain. The higher the value of E.25 Stress v.1. As expected.25. In general. Thus.25). by the eminent 17th-century scientist/engineer Robert Hooke (1635–1703). σ Slope E ε Figure 1. materials obeying it are termed linear elastic (NB: there are some exceptions to this linear behaviour but most engineering solids. whereas a compression longitudinally will give rise to an expansion in the lateral direction. As can be seen. .Solid mechanics Observations of the deformation and recovery of elastic materials under load. The ratio of ᎏᎏ. the elastic deformation region). a bar is loaded along one axis with a resulting stress as shown in Figure 1. at least at small deformations. in mathematical terms: ϭ E. there is a relationship between the direct stress.e.

unlike in the elastic region. like Young’s modulus.28 shows the variation of nominal stress versus strain during a tensile test on a mild steel bar.27 Tensile test on a round steel bar If the load were removed in the region beyond the yield point. is an important material property. or by bonding electrical resistance strain gauges to the bar to give a direct measure of strain or just simply monitoring the movement of the machine cross head. There is then some loss of linearity as the yield point is approached.2.5. One of the simplest tests to conduct. the deformation in the two transverse directions (for threedimensional deformation) is such as to maintain constant volume.g. the material would not fully recover. Firstly. The theoretical maximum value for Poisson’s ratio is 0. Although the cross-sectional area of the bar does change during the test. the unloading curve would not be a reverse of the loading curve back down to the origin (see Figure 1. The deformation of the bar can be measured in a number of ways.35 0. the material deforms in a linear elastic fashion and the slope of the straight line gives Young’s modulus for the bar material. 16 . In this case.4 ϳ0.e. which can yield a significant amount of information about a material. using a clip-on extensometer to monitor stretching of the bar. due to Poisson’s effects.g.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 The ratio of lateral strain to longitudinal strain depends on the material and. and named after the French mathematician Simeon Denis Poisson (1781–1840).27.28). it has a low value of . i. This always results in a positive value for . Rubber is a special case. This load can then be used to calculate the stress on the bar during the test by dividing by the original cross-sectional area of the bar. A value of ϭ 0. it is their absolute ratio which is calculated.5. Values of Poisson’s ratio for some typical engineering materials are given in Table 1. hence.Whichever method is used. when a longitudinal strain is applied to the material. have values in an intermediate range.2 Some typical values of Poisson’s ratio for engineering materials Stress–strain curve It is important for design that material properties. has no units. are measured accurately so that they can be used in calculations to avoid excessive deformation and/or component failure. Load is applied axially to the ends of the bar and monitored continuously during the test by a load cell in the test machine crosshead. e. e.29 0. an important property in design. Material Concrete Most metals Steel Nylon Rubber Poisson’s ratio ( ) 0. Concrete deforms very little laterally when a longitudinal load is applied. one which is incompressible. The resulting stress is termed the nominal stress. it is more convenient to use the original cross-sectional area for the calculation.e. Consider such a test on a round steel bar as shown in Figure 1. Neck Figure 1. Thus: lateral strain ϭ ᎏᎏ longitudinal strain Έ Έ As the two strains are of opposite sign.5 exactly indicates a material which deforms at constant volume i.25–0. Figure 1. The yield point is the point beyond which permanent deformations occur. in that it has a value of very close to but just less than 0. denoted by the symbol (nu). is the uniaxial tensile test. on the other hand. one end of the bar is fixed while the other end moves with the machine crosshead. During the test. It is called Poisson’s ratio.5 Table 1. Metals. as a ratio of strains is calculated. Also.1 0. such as Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio. The stress at which the yield point occurs is termed the yield stress (or yield strength) of the material. a continuous measure of strain in the bar can be obtained during the test.

Ultimate tensile stress (UTS) Nominal stress (σ ) Yield point Onset of necking Fracture Unloading Slope = E Yield stress Strain (ε) Figure 1. G. is given by F ϭ ᎏᎏ A The units of shear stress are therefore the same as for direct stress. Beyond the UTS is a region of necking of the bar where the cross-section thins down significantly until finally the curve falls off to a point at which fracture and complete failure occurs. the strain to failure. show very high degrees of non-linear recoverable elastic deformation to very large strains. Figure 1. is a measure of the angle of distortion resulting from the applied shear stress as shown in Figure 1. Shear stress. with no yield point. for instance.e. Usually this angle is small (for deformation within the elastic range) and therefore ␥ Ϸ tan ␥ and.29 Shear stress and strain caused by the action of a force parallel to an area (1. where plastic deformation occurs resulting in further permanent deformation until the curve starts to rise again in a region of strain hardening.e. This is the true stress versus strain curve. for instance. the curve reaches a peak which defines the ultimate tensile stress (or strength) (UTS) of the material. it is measured in radians or degrees. which is written as ϭ G␥ Thus. denoted by the symbol (tau). steel bar including Young’s modulus. however. shear strain and shear modulus Whereas direct stress occurs when a force is applied perpendicular to an area … Shear stress results when a force is applied parallel to an area as shown in Figure 1. The average shear stress acting on the area. Other materials.29. Again. shows none of the post yield plastic response of steel or the high level of ductility (large strain to failure). shear strain is given by a ␥ Ϸ tan ␥ ϭ ᎏᎏ b As with direct strain. yield strength. such as rubber. i.28. referring to Figure 1. It is essentially linear elastic almost to failure. The example discussed is a typical curve for mild steel. denoted by the symbol ␥ (gamma). a plateau region. Beyond yield there may be some levelling out of the curve. 17 .Solid mechanics The yield point itself is not always clearly defined. i. i. is termed the shear modulus. within the elastic limit.29. as with direct stress and strain. The strain at which failure occurs. F a γ Because shear strain is an angle. If the actual cross-sectional area could be measured during necking and used to calculate stress. shear stress is proportional to shear strain and the constant of proportionality. N mϪ2 or Pa. Other materials will exhibit different curves. i. Eventually.29.e. which is a brittle material.28 Stress–strain data from a tensile test on a mild The simple uniaxial tensile test can therefore provide useful materials data for design. The apparent reduction in stress before failure occurs is actually a consequence of the plotting of nominal stress based on the original cross-sectional area. of the material is another useful quantity as it indicates the level of ductility of the material or its ability to deform under load.16) The units of G are the same as Young’s modulus. the maximum stress that the material can withstand before failure occurs. i.e. shear stress and strain are related through the shear form of Hooke’s law. b Shear strain. ultimate tensile strength and strain to failure.e. F A The applied shear force tends to cause one part of the body to slide relative to another. the curve would continue to rise as shown by the dashed line in Figure 1. E. shear strain is also a ratio and has no units. stress divided by strain or Pa. it is rarely plotted due to the difficulty in continuously monitoring changes in the cross-sectional area. Cast iron. and a catastrophic brittle fracture at a relatively low level of strain.

An element of material on the surface. The stress–strain relationship will then yield the strains from which the extensions of each part of the bar and the total extension can be determined. These are problems involving statically determinate systems and statically indeterminate systems respectively.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 A typical situation in engineering where shear occurs is the twisting of a shaft. the shear modulus. In such systems. and distorts through an angle. The relationship is as follows E G ϭ ᎏᎏ (1. mainly because shear testing can be quite difficult. within the elastic limit. The slope of this line is G.17). As tensile data is more often available. Assuming a typical value of ϭ 0. a plot of versus ␥ is a straight line. all forces and stresses can be solved for by using the equations of statics alone.31(a) illustrates axial loading of a statically determinate system where two dissimilar bars of different materials (A) and (B) are welded together in series.30.17).3 for a metal. (Torsion theory is dealt with in detail in section 1. A typical value for the shear modulus of steel is 80 GPa and for aluminium is 26 GPa. Mater ial A F Mater ial A a F Mater ial B F F Mater ial B b Rigid plate Rigid plate Fa Fb Fa Free body diagram F Fa Fb F F c Free body diagrams d Figure 1. an estimate of the shear modulus of the material can be obtained by using equation (1. i.18) One-third ϫ Young’s modulus is therefore a rough estimate of the shear modulus of a metal.Young’s modulus (E). shear strain.) If the torque is increased steadily.16). Solving stress–strain problems Stress–strain problems fall into one of two categories depending on the type of system. as shown in Figure 1. a material whose properties are the same in all directions). F. and the structure is loaded at its ends with a known load.When a torque is applied through the shaft.5 of this chapter and shows how to calculate the shear stress from the applied torque and the shear strain from the angle of twist. the equilibrium equations. is subjected to a shear stress.e. i.e. i.e. it can be shown that there is a relationship between the shear modulus and Young’s modulus (this is only the case for an isotropic material.6 3 (1. ␥. Only two of these constants are therefore independent. . By considering the distortion of an element of material under pure shear. and expected from equation (1.3) 2. Statically determinate systems Figure 1.31 Axial loading of (a) a statically determinate system and (b) a statically indeterminate system 18 .30.30 Shear stress in a twisted shaft Thus the three elastic constants. as shown in Figure 1.17) 2(1 ϩ ) τ Slope = G γ Figure 1. it twists about its axis. Poisson’s ratio () and shear modulus (G) are related by equation (1. as shown. the shear modulus is given by E E E G ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ Ϸ ᎏ ᎏ 2(1 ϩ 0.

ϭ ᎏᎏ or extension. that the extensions are the same for all strips. we can find Fa from (1. Aa is the area of one strip only.Solid mechanics Thus. F.22) ΄ ΅ (1. from the free body diagrams in Figure 1. Compatibility tells us that The stress–strain law tells us that FL strain.20) and (1. the extension of part (a) ␦L a ϭ ᎏᎏ AaEa FbLb and the extension of part (b) ␦Lb ϭ ᎏᎏ AbEb La Lb and the total extension of the bar ␦L tot ϭ ␦La ϩ ␦Lb ϭ F ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ AaEa AbEb Equilibrium gives: Statically indeterminate systems Figure 1. knowledge of the way in which the strips deform or elongate are used. In such systems. In this case. the forces and stresses cannot be solved for by using the equations of statics alone. ϭ ᎏᎏ or extension. It is known. the forces and stresses in the bar are found from equilibrium alone. The outer two strips are of material A and the inner strip is of a different material B. Fa and Fb.19) Thus.22) FaLa\AaEa ϭ (F Ϫ 2Fa)Lb\AbEb Rearranging and knowing that L a ϭ L b 2 F 1 Fa ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ AbEb AaEa AbEb Thus. as before. meaning that the extensions of the strips must be compatible.19) into (1. for instance.31(c). the forces and stresses in the bar cannot be found from equilibrium alone.23). FL The stress–strain law tells us that: strain. The stresses. The process is better illustrated by analysis as follows: From the free body diagram in Figure 1. are given by Fa a ϭ ᎏᎏ Aa and Fb b ϭ ᎏᎏ Ab 19 ␦La ϭ ␦L b (1.31(d) illustrates axial loading of a statically indeterminate system where three strips are bonded together in parallel and the structure is loaded at its ends. substituting for Fb from (1. F. and Fb from (1.31(b). through rigid plates connecting the strips.Additional conditions are required. as there are two unknowns.) Now. with a known load. given the applied force. which shows the left-hand part of the bar after cutting: Equilibrium gives F ϭ 2Fa ϩ Fb (1.21) (1. which show the bar cut in several places: F ϭ Fa ϭ F b Fa Fb and the stresses follow: a ϭ ᎏᎏ and b ϭ ᎏᎏ Aa Ab Thus. ␦L ϭ ᎏᎏ E AE Thus.22). This is called a compatibility condition. from (1.21) FaLa FbLb ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ AaEa AbEb (NB: in this problem.23) .20) (1. ␦L ϭ ᎏᎏ E AE FaLa Thus.

Values for some typical engineering materials are given in Table 1. Principle of Superposition In reality. summing) the results to determine the total effect of all the loads.24) T ϭ ␣. is given by: ␦Lthermal ϭ L ␣ ⌬T (1. A temperature change. However. a problem can be solved by analysing for each individual loading case and superposing (i. which can be stated as follows: ΄ The total effect of combined ϭ loads applied to a body The effects of the individual ΅ Α ΄ loads applied separately ΅ Thus.32 The principle of superposition Thermal stress and strain Stresses and strains generally arise from the application of a mechanical load to a body or structure. is termed the coefficient of thermal expansion and has units degrees KϪ1. subjected to a temperature rise ⌬T. For a bar of length. mechanical) extensions to give the total extension as follows ␦L total ϭ ␦Lelastic ϩ ␦L thermal Thus. (ii) The deformations produced are small. However. they can also arise when no mechanical load is applied. The example shows a case of loading applied in two directions simultaneously.⌬T The constant of proportionality.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 and the total extension of the bar FaLa FbLb ␦L tot ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ AaEa AbEb To summarize.32 illustrates an example of the use of superposition. To overcome this.3. Thus (1. engineering systems generally have more than a single load acting upon them and this adds to the complexity of problem solving.24) that the thermal extension. that is proportional to the magnitude of the temperature change. causes a thermal strain. in that the additional compatibility condition of equal extension of the strips is necessary to solve for the unknown forces and hence stresses. T. FL ␦L total ϭ ᎏᎏ ϩ L ␣ ⌬T AE 20 .25) Material Concrete Steel Aluminium Nylon Rubber Thermal expansion coefficient (␣) 10 ϫ 10Ϫ6 KϪ1 11 ϫ 10Ϫ6 KϪ1 23 ϫ 10Ϫ6 KϪ1 144 ϫ 10Ϫ6 KϪ1 162 ϫ 10Ϫ6 KϪ1 Table 1.e. there are two conditions which must be satisfied for the principle of superposition to apply. ⌬T. L.3 Coefficient of thermal expansion for some typical engineering materials Using the principle of superposition. it can be seen from equation (1. Stresses and strains can be determined in the two directions separately and added to obtain the total stress and strain arising from the combined loading a = b + c Figure 1. thermal extensions can simply be added to elastic (i. A typical situation is when a temperature change occurs. Figure 1. this problem is statically indeterminate. ␣ varies from material to material depending on the molecular structure and is generally small. ␣.e. the Principle of Superposition is often used. These are: i(i) Deformation is linearly dependent on the loads (linear elastic). ␦L thermal.

Solid mechanics 21 .

e.30) Figure 1.36 Free body diagram of the compound assembly (1.31) i.30) into equation (1.36 as follows: Equilibrium condition Fs ϭ ϪFa (1.997 mm diameter and 50. s Ͼ 0 ΄ ΅ i. Direct stress and strain In a uniaxial tensile test experiment. although both bars expand as a result of the temperature change.35 illustrates the relationship between the free extension of each bar and the actu al constrained extension in this example.044 mm gauge length under a load of 20 kN.0 ϭ 0.044 Ϫ 50. one is in compression (aluminium) and one is in tension (steel).29) Fa Rigid constraint Fs Fa Fs Substituting for Fs from equation (1.e.8 ϫ 10Ϫ4 L 50. Substituting for Fs from equation (1.29) and rearranging gives ⌬T(␣a Ϫ ␣s) Fs ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ Aa 1 Aa ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ Ea AsEs ΄ ΅ І As (␣a Ϫ ␣s) Fs ⌬TAa s ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ᎏᎏ As As 1 Aa ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ Ea AsEs ␣s Ͻ ␣a.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 be in tension. Figure 1. changes to 11. Change in length ⌬L ϭ 50. Thus. (Analytical) The compatibility condition is: ␦L steel ϭ ␦Lal FsL FaL І ᎏᎏ ϩ L␣s⌬T ϭ ᎏᎏ ϩ L␣a⌬T AsEs AaEa The equilibrium condition is obtained from the freebody diagram shown in Figure 1.29) and rearranging gives 1 1 L ⌬T(␣s Ϫ ␣a) ϭ FaL ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ AaEa AsEs І As ΄ ΅ ⌬T(␣s Ϫ ␣a) Fa a ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ Aa 1 Aa ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ Ea AsEs ␣s Ͻ ␣a. a steel rod.044 ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 8. the steel bar is in tension. the aluminium bar is in compression.044 mm Strain ⌬L 0. initially 12 mm diameter and 50 mm gauge length. Determine the material properties of Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio.0 22 . a Ͻ 0 ΄ ΅ (1.30) into equation (1.

284 Longitudinal strain 8. The other end of the tube is in contact with a rigid Steel bolt B Nut F Aluminium tube D Steel bolt C Rigid end A Nut E Figure 1.95 GPa E ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ 8.8 ϫ 10Ϫ4 Shear stress and strain The rubber-bearing pad.37 Shear force acting on a rubber bearing pad F 5. B and C. b ؍150 mm and thickness. marked by A in Figure 1. t ؍40 mm and is subjected to a shear force of 5.149 Thermal stress and compatibility The rigid casting.997 T ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 2.38 Aluminium tube and bolt assembly 23 .38.3 MPa 120. G.012)2 4 Young’s modulus 176.37.(0.0 Ϫ 11. determine the shear modulus. of the elastomer (it may be assumed that the rigid steel plates do not deform) Shear stress a b t 5.0 2.5 ϫ 10Ϫ4 Lateral strain ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 0.4 kN. of diameter 20 mm and length 400 mm.84 ϫ 106 ϭ 200.3 NmmϪ2 ϭ 0.5 ϫ 10Ϫ4 d 12.15 40 І ␥ ϭ 8. which has internal and external diameters of 50 mm and 60 mm respectively and length 300 mm. consists of two rigid steel plates bonded to an elastomer.8 ϫ 10Ϫ4 Stress Lateral strain Poisson’s ratio ⌬d 12. is held by two steel bolts.Solid mechanics 20 ϫ 103 Force ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 176. shown in Figure 1.4 ϫ 103 ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 0.149 rad Shear strain Shear modulus 0.53° ϭ 0.01 MPa ␥ 0.The pad has dimensions a ؍120 mm.84 ϫ 106 NmϪ2 ϭ 176.84 MPa Area ᎏᎏ . against one end of an aluminium alloy tube D.150 A 6 tan ␥ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 0.3 G ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 2.4kn Elastomer pad Figure 1.95 ϫ 109 NmϪ2 ϭ 200. Given that the top plate displaces 6 mm with respect to the bottom plate.

34) Figure 1. The following material properties may be used: Esteel ϭ 207 GPa. La ϭ 0. calculate the stresses in the bolts and the tube. Ealuminium ϭ 68.052) ϭ 8.25 ϫ 10Ϫ3 AsEs AaEa Now.40 kN and Fa ϭ Ϫ30.25 ϫ 10Ϫ3 AsEs AaEa Substituting in the given values L s ϭ 0. After the casting has been brought just into contact with the tube. then for stresses for a temperature rise only and finally adding the two cases together. substitute Fa ϭ Ϫ2Fs from (1.81 kN Note that the negative sign indicates that the forces act in opposing directions. 24 ΄ ΅ .25 mm Equilibrium F a ϩ 2F s ϭ 0 (as shown from the FBD in Figure 1.39(a)) Compatibility ␦s Ϫ ␦a ϭ 0.39 (a) Equilibrium of forces and (b) compatibility conditions in the assembly Substituting (1. The solution for the stresses can be arrived at using the principle of superposition by solving for stresses before any temperature rise.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 surface to which the steel bolts are also attached.14 ϫ 10Ϫ4 m2 4 Aa ϭ ᎏᎏ (0.33) FsLs FaLa ᎏᎏ Ϫ ᎏᎏ ϭ 0. ␣aluminium ϭ 23 ϫ 10Ϫ6 °CϪ1. the aluminium tube being in compression and the steel bolts in tension.25 ϫ 10Ϫ3 (as the net deformation to the left is 0. The pitch of each bolt thread is 1 mm.64 ϫ 10Ϫ4 m2 4 We obtain Fs ϭ 15.25 a b (1.32) (1.02)2 ϭ 3. (a) Stresses before the temperature rise (quarter turn of the nuts) Quarter turn ϭ 0.32) Ls 2La Fs ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ ϭ 0.062 Ϫ 0.25 ϫ 1 mm pitch ϭ 0.9 GPa. each of the two nuts E and F are tightened by a further quarter of a turn.39(b)) Stress–strain Fs Fa Fs (1.34) into (1.33) FL ␦ ϭ ᎏᎏ AE δs +ve δa –ve –0. ␣steel ϭ 11 ϫ 10Ϫ6 °CϪ1. The material of the casting may be assumed to have a negligibly small coefficient of thermal expansion.4 m.25 mm as shown in Figure 1.3 m As ϭ ᎏᎏ (0. If the temperature of the whole assembly is then raised by 30°C.

25 ϫ 10Ϫ3 (as in solution (a)) (1.69 MPa (compressive) Aa (c) Stresses caused by both tightening of the nuts and the temperature rise Using superposition.24 kN and the stresses due to the temperature rise only are F *s * sϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ϩ14.73 MPa (tensile) a tot ϭ a ϩ *a ϭ Ϫ35. the following solution can be used: Equilibrium F a ϩ 2F s ϭ 0 (as in solution (a)) ␦Ls Ϫ ␦La ϭ 0.71 MPa (tensile) As F *a * a ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ Ϫ10.66 MPa (compressive) Aa (b) Stresses caused only by the temperature rise (⌬T ϭ 30°C) Equilibrium Compatibility * F* a ϩ 2F sϭ 0 * ␦* sϭ ␦a (since both are rigidly attached) (1.35 MPa (tensile) Alternative solution It is possible to arrive at the final stresses in (c) above in a single step without using superposition. the stresses in (a) and (b) can simply be added to give s tot ϭ s ϩ *s ϭ 49.36) * Now.37) Substituting (1.36) Stress–strain F*L ␦* ϭ ᎏᎏ ϩ L␣⌬T AE F *Ls Fa*La ᎏsᎏ ϩ Ls␣s⌬T ϭ ᎏᎏ ϩ La␣a⌬T AsEs AaEa (1.69 ϭ Ϫ46. substituting F * a ϭ Ϫ2F sfrom (1.66 – 10.Solid mechanics The stresses are given by Fs s ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ϩ 49.02 ϩ 14.71 ϭ 63.62 kN and F* a ϭ Ϫ9.38) ΄ ΅ Compatibility (1.39) 25 .35) and rearranging: Ls 2La F *s ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ ϭ (La␣a Ϫ Ls␣s)⌬T AsEs AaEa Now substituting in the given values.37) into (1. So. if the problem requires the final stresses only.35) (1.02 MPa (tensile) As Fa a ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ Ϫ35. we obtain F* sϭ 4.

loaded by forces in one plane.40 Types of beam: (a) simply supported and (b) cantilever beam which is supported at one end only by a built-in support. Types of beam. how to use the principle of superposition to solve problems involving both mechanical and thermal loading. we will deal with prismatic beams. how lateral deformations are quantified by the material property. determining the magnitude of these ‘thermal’ stresses and strains.25 ϫ 10Ϫ3 AsEs AaEa which gives the final forces and and the final stresses Fs ϭ 63.e.e. Poisson’s ratio. operating in the linear elastic region where deflections and strains are small.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Stress–strain Substituting (1. an important material property. often horizontal (but not always). while statically indeterminate problems require further information such as the compatibility of strains or deformations.40) into (1.73 kN Fa ϭ Ϫ44. that there are generally two types of stress–strain problem. the principles of linear elasticity and Hooke’s law which relates stress and strain through the material property Young’s modulus in direct stress conditions. equilibrium and the stress–strain relationship). and shear modulus in shear conditions.3 Beam bending Beams are slender members. i.39) FL ␦L ϭ ᎏᎏ ϩ L␣⌬T AE FL FL ᎏ ϩ L ␣ ⌬T΅ Ϫ ΄ᎏᎏ ϩ L ␣ ⌬T΅ ϭ 0.) The second is a cantilever Figure 1. supports and loading We will consider two main types of beam as shown in Figures 1. The first is a simply supported beam which is supported at both ends by knife-edge simple supports. namely ‘statically determinate’ and ‘statically indeterminate’ problems. those with a constant cross-section. Statically determinate problems can be solved using the equations of statics alone (i.25 ϫ 10 ΄ᎏ AE AE s s a a s s a a s s a s Ϫ3 (1. In this section.38) and rearranging gives Ls La Fs ᎏᎏ ϩ 2ᎏᎏ ϭ (La␣a Ϫ Ls␣s)⌬T ϩ 0. ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ 1.40) Using (1.9 kN s tot ϭ 63. (NB: one of the knife-edge a Simply supported beam b Cantilever beam supports is shown mounted on rollers to indicate that there is no longitudinal constraint acting on the beam.35 MPa (tensile) as before ΄ ΅ Learning summary By the end of this section you will have learnt: ✔ ✔ the definitions of direct stress and strain and shear stress and strain. 26 . how temperature changes can give rise to stresses and strains in bodies or structures even in the absence of any applied loading.73 MPa (tensile) as before a tot ϭ Ϫ46. is the ‘coefficient of thermal expansion’ of the material. perpendicular to the beam axis. both a measure of the stiffness of a material. In such cases.40(a) and (b).

ᎏᎏ. 2 By sectioning the beam part way in from the right-hand end and drawing the free body diagrams of each half of the beam. has units of newtons per metre length of beam (NmϪ1). It acts to ‘bend’ the cross-section of the beam.41(a). and acts over the full span or part of the span. we can deduce that. w w w — 2 w BM w — 2 SF L–x SF x w — L BM w — 2 2 Figure 1. each must have a W magnitude equal to ᎏᎏ.41(b). shortened to UDL. 27 . with a point load. This shear force and bending moment are equal and opposite to those acting on the right-hand face. The knife edge simple support. as shown in Figure 1.43. 2 Looking at the left-hand part of the beam.42. a similar shear force and bending moment must exist on the internal face to maintain this part in equilibrium. either separately or combined. Shear force and bending moment diagrams When a beam bends under load. is modelled with a vertical reaction force and a reaction moment which constrain vertical movement and rotation respectively at the support. an internal force and moment must exist at the cross-section. A bending moment (BM) must also exist to satisfy equilibrium and prevent the beam from W rotating under the action of ᎏᎏ and SF.41(a) and (b). in order to satisfy equilibrium. P(N) Point load a b w (Nm–1) M (Nm) Unifor mly distr ibuted load (UDL) c Point moment Figure 1. Finally. It 2 acts as a ‘shear’ force trying to shear the plane perpendicular to the beam axis. a point moment has units of Nm and again acts at a point along the beam span. Consider a simply supported beam.43 Shear force and bending moment in a simply-supported beam with central point load Looking more closely at the right-hand part of the beam: W A shear force (SF) must exist on the internal face to balance the vertical reaction force. because of symmetry. The simple supports can be represented as vertical reaction forces and. it creates internal forces and moments which are present at every point along the beam span. (b) uniformly distributed load (UDL) and (c) point moment A point load has units of newtons (N) and acts vertically at a point along the beam span.41 Types of beam support: (a) simple support and (b) built-in support The built-in support. W. Figure 1. A beam may be subjected to several different types of loading. Reaction moment Reaction force a b Reaction force Figure 1. A uniformly distributed load.42 Types of beam loading: (a) point load. This type of support is also referred to as encastré. is modelled with a vertical reaction force which constrains vertical movement but allows free rotation of the beam at the support.Solid mechanics The two types of support can be modelled as shown in Figures 1. Various combinations of support and type of loading can exist on any specific beam and a general method of analysis is needed to deal with all possibilities. Figure 1. acting at mid span. The common types of loading are illustrated in Figure 1.

giving W RA ϭ RC ϭ ᎏᎏ 2 Next. A negative bending moment results in hogging of the beam. cut the beam at a cross-section X–X between A and B. ABC. at a distance x from A.41) Equilibrium of moments about X–X W M ϭ ϩᎏᎏx 2 28 (1.44 Sign conventions for shear force and bending moment A positive shear force results in anticlockwise rotation of the face on which it acts. Firstly. These have both been drawn as positive unknowns using our sign convention. The sign convention we use is illustrated in Figure 1.42) .45. and unknown bending moment. It is important to be able to determine the variation (or distribution) of these internal shear forces and bending moments along the beam if we are to be able to analyse for bending stresses within the beam. A negative shear force results in clockwise rotation of the face on which it acts. position B. M. the reaction forces at A and C are determined by considering equilibrium of the whole beam and symmetry. The crosssection carries an unknown shear force. This part of the beam can now be considered as a free body for which equilibrium conditions must hold. The above sign convention is used throughout this textbook. Equilibrium of vertical forces W S ϭ Ϫᎏᎏ 2 (1. at mid span. Sign conventions do differ from textbook to textbook. Sign convention Bending moment Positive BM (sagging) M M Shear force Positive SF (anti-clockwise) SF + Negative BM (hogging) M + SF Negative SF (clockwise) M SF – – SF Figure 1. it is important to define a sign convention for each. so it is important to be clear about the specific sign convention used when reading alternative texts.W. with a point load. S. Point load on a simply supported beam Referring to Figure 1.44. A positive bending moment results in sagging of the beam. Sign convention Before looking at the methodology that we use for determining shear force and bending moment distributions.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Similar shear forces and bending moments exist internally at all sections along the beam span although their magnitudes will vary at different sections. we look at the example of a simply supported beam.

Considering the cut part of the beam as a free body (NB: the point load case was analysed by looking at the left-hand part of the beam as a free body. cut the beam at a cross-section between B and C. This case looks at the righthand part.42) 2 W WL L S xϭL ᎏ2ᎏ ϭ Ϫᎏ2ᎏ and Mx ϭ ᎏ2ᎏ ϭ ᎏ4ᎏ Now. as we will see in a later section this is where the maximum bending stresses occur in the beam.41) gives the distribution of S at any point along the beam between A and B and equation (1. but shows a step change in sign from Ϫᎏᎏ to 2 W ϩᎏᎏ at the mid span. Equilibrium conditions for this part of the beam give W W (1. and W again between B and C. The crosssection again carries an unknown shear force. The unknown reaction forces at A and B can be found by considering equilibrium of the whole beam Vertical forces RA ϩ RB ϭ wL Moments about A L RBL Ϫ wL· ᎏᎏ ϭ 0 2 wL RB ϭ ᎏ ᎏ 2 M X +w ___ 2 S M 0 Figure 1.45 Determining the shear force and bending moment diagrams for a simply supported beam subject to a central point load І wL ϭ RB ϭ ᎏᎏ . M. L At point B.46 shows a simply supported beam carrying a UDL of w per unit length. position B.44) we can now plot the shear force and bending moment distribution diagrams as shown in Figure 1. at mid span. M. and unknown bending moment. The cross-section carries an unknown shear force. Either can be used in any particular analysis. symmetry could have been used to show that R Equilibrium of vertical forces wL S ϭ ᎏᎏ Ϫ wx 2 (1. S.43) S ϭ W Ϫᎏᎏ ϭ ϩᎏᎏ 2 2 W L W and M ϭ ᎏᎏ x Ϫ W x Ϫ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ (L Ϫ x) (1. position B. L — 2 A w — 2 A w — 2 x XS M X x w — 2 S0 wL ___ 4 M 0 –w ___ 2 w B X S B w L — 2 C w — 2 A Uniformly distributed load (UDL) on a simply supported beam Figure 1.44) 2 2 2 Using equations (1.42) that of M.) Equilibrium conditions show: A alternatively. 2 Next. S. and unknown bending moment. from equations (1. 4 Determining the magnitude and position of the maximum bending moment is important and. where x ϭ ᎏᎏ.Solid mechanics Equation (1. both drawn as positive unknowns. 2 The bending moment is not constant but varies linearly with x between A and B.45.45) 29 .41) and (1. at a distance x from A. and again between B and C.41) to (1. It is zero at the simple supports WL but rises to a maximum value of ϩᎏᎏ at the midspan. A B w C It can be seen that the shear force is constant between A and B. cut the beam at a cross-section X–X distance x from the right-hand end.

the position at which the maximum bending moment occurs is L at the mid-span and its magnitude.46 Determining the shear force and bending moment diagrams for a simplysupported beam subjected to a uniformly distributed load (UDL) Relationship between shear force and bending moment For the beam subjected to a UDL.45).46): dM wL ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ Ϫ wx dx 2 dM L Thus. point A. with x2) (not linearly as it did for a point load). 2 From equation (1.e. S ϭ ϩ ᎏᎏ and when x ϭ L. In general.46). gives dx ϪSdx Ϫ (wdx) · ᎏᎏ ϩ M Ϫ (M ϩ dM) ϭ 0 2 Rearranging gives w dM ϭ ϪSdx Ϫ ᎏᎏdx 2 2 Since dx is small.46. Thus. S ϭ Ϫᎏᎏ. It is zero at the simple supports. given by substituting x ϭ ᎏᎏ into 2 wL2 equation (1. length dx.46) can now be used to plot the shear force and bending moment distribution diagrams as shown in Figure 1. 30 .An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Equilibrium of moments about section X–X wL x M ϭ ᎏᎏ · x Ϫ (wx) · ᎏᎏ 2 2 wx І M ϭ ᎏᎏ · (L Ϫ x) 2 Equations (1.45) and (1. the gradient of M must be zero. A relationship does in fact exist between shear force and bending moment as can be seen in the following subsection. consider a small element.46). when 2 2 L x ϭ ᎏᎏ.47. From equation (1.46) From equation (1. it can be seen that S varies linearly with x (compare this with the fact that S was constant for a point load). it can be seen that M varies parabolically with x (i.e. Figure 1. i. i.47 Element of beam length subjected to a changing shear force and bending moment dM ϭ ϪSdx dM or S ϭ Ϫᎏᎏ dx The shear force is therefore equivalent to the negative of the slope of the bending moment distribution. along such a length dx. ᎏᎏ ϭ 0 when x ϭ ᎏᎏ dx 2 Hence. (1. it can be assumed that the shear force changes from S to S ϩ dS and the bending moment changes from M to MϩdM. wL wL When x ϭ 0. w per unit length. Equilibrium of moments about the right-hand end of the element. S is zero.e. To find the position of the maximum bending moment. This relationship can be used to check shear force and bending moment distribution diagrams for consistency. when x ϭ 0 and L. is ᎏᎏ. 8 wL2 M max ϭ ᎏᎏ 8 Note that the shear force is zero at the point of maximum bending moment. as shown in Figure 1. of the beam span. At mid span. dx2 is negligible and the above expression can be simplified to: Figure 1.

and unknown bending moment. the bending moment is zero. S. both drawn as positive unknowns. By contrast. 31 .49) (1. again at a distance x from the right-hand end C. and unknown bending moment. Equilibrium conditions for this part of the beam give ϪMB S ϭ ᎏᎏ L and MBx M ϭ ᎏᎏ ϩ MB L (1.Solid mechanics Concentrated moment on a simply supported beam Figure 1.50) (1. part way along the span. (c) There is usually a step function in the shear force diagram under a point load. (b) At simple supports. General observations on shear force and bending moment distribution diagrams The following general observations can help in achieving and checking for correct diagrams: (a) Always use a consistent sign convention – see the previous section. (d) There is usually a step function in the bending moment diagram under a concentrated moment. where the L concentrated moment acts. The unknown reaction forces at A and C can be found by considering the equilibrium of the whole beam: Vertical forces Moments about A ϪRCL Ϫ MB ϭ 0 ϪMB І RC ϭ ᎏᎏ L As RC is negative.48. cut the beam at another cross-section between A and B. It can be seen that S has a constant negative value along the length of the beam.48 shows a simply supported beam carrying a concentrated moment. M. M. Next. Considering the cut part of the beam as a freebody equilibrium conditions show: Equilibrium of vertical forces MB S ϭ Ϫᎏᎏ L Equilibrium of moments MBx (1. S. there is a step change in the bending moment equivalent to the magnitude of MB. it must act vertically downwards as shown in Figure 1. The cross-section carries an unknown shear force.48 A simply supported beam subjected to a concentrated moment part way along its span Using equations (1. At built-in ends it is not zero.48. The cross-section again carries an unknown shear force. (e) Between point loads the bending moment usually varies in a linear way. M. cut the beam at a cross-section X–X distance x from the right-hand end.48) M ϭ ᎏᎏ L Now.At position B. the bending moment varies linearly with distance x with a positive slope (as x increases to the left) MB of magnitude ᎏᎏ which is the negative of the shear force as expected. C.47) R A ϩ RC ϭ 0 Figure 1.50) we can now plot the shear force and bending moment distribution diagrams as shown in Figure 1.47) to (1.

which will enable bending stresses to be calculated for a specific beam geometry and applied loading. (g) The position where the maximum bending moment occurs is usually where the shear force is zero.49. one of reduced span/depth ratio. Beam-bending theory The aim of this section is to develop a simple theory of bending which will enable stresses.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 (f) Under a UDL. the shear forces only have limited effect.e. the curvature of the beam is small.50. lines A1A2 and B1B2 remain straight. conditions: (a) positive (sagging) bending and to an extreme tensile stress at the lower surface. It is assumed that the beam is under pure bending (constant bending moment) in each case. both a shear force and a bending moment exist at any particular section along the beam span. (b) negative (hogging) bending 32 .e. more commonly. (NB: for a thicker beam. quadratic). where the bending stress is zero. i. the neutral axis (NA for short). e. This layer is σ NA termed the neutral surface or. even if the UDL is applied only over part of the span. For the sagging beam. upper layers in tension. we make a number of reasonable assumptions: (a) The beam is initially straight.50(a) and (b) show part of a beam under (a) positive bending σ NA (sagging) and (b) negative bending (hogging). called the ‘beam-bending equation’. while the lower a y layers are in tension and subject to tensile bending stress. The neutral axis (NA) compressive (–ve) Figures 1. i. B2 (d) The beam material remains linear elastic during bending. as shown in Figure 1.g. Before bending After bending (e) Etension ϭ Ecompression a b (f) The bending moment acting at all sections along the part of Figure 1. (c) Plane transverse sections remain plane after bending. when looking at a crosssection of the beam. tensile (+ve) There must also be a layer or position through the thickness where the material in the beam is neither in tension nor compression. i. the bending moment diagram is parabolic (i. lower layers in compression.Whereas the previous section has shown that. to be calculated. R. shear stresses.49 Pure bending of a section of beam the beam span under consideration is constant – this is termed span ‘pure bending’ (g) Axial direct stress (termed ‘bending stress’) is significantly larger than all other stresses.e. This is a consequence of the fact that the shear force is the negative of the slope of the bending moment curve. arising in the beam from the applied loading. Thus. and to simplify the analysis.e. It is the position in the cross-section where the tensile stress changes compressive (–ve) to compressive stress. i. is large. The bending stress does in fact change gradually Figure 1. Assumptions Referring to Figure 1. The opposite is true of the hogging beam. for relatively slender beams (where span/depth ratio is Ͼ 16). the NA coincides with the centroid of the beam cross-section as we will prove later. For the sagging beam it changes linearly from an thickness of a beam under bending extreme compressive stress at the upper surface through zero at the NA. the radius of curvature.e. this is not the case and shear forces and shear stresses should be taken into account. with which we will be dealing. Shear stresses arising from these forces are low in such systems and we only need to consider bending stresses arising from the bending moments. in general. In pure bending y b such as this.50 Stress distribution through the through the thickness. R A1 B1 M M B1 A1 (b) After bending. in A2 B2 A2 Figure 1.) This section will develop a general equation for bending.49. the upper layers of the beam are clearly in compression and tensile (+ve) subject to compressive bending stress in the axial direction.

before and after bending. in the cross-section. This causes the line AЈ1BЈ1. which is at distance y vertically down from the NA. A0B0 remains the same length during this bending as it is positioned on the NA.53) Equation (1. Also. At the same time. the strain (1. Consider a small strip of area.52) Hence or rearranged.Solid mechanics Geometry of deflection Figure 1. the strain at position y (1. R. net axial force on the whole cross-section must be zero. is proportional to the distance. and the maximum stress occurs where y is a maximum. For equilibrium. the bending stress. Equation (1. The sections are defined by points A0A1 and B0B1 before bending. (1.51) However.53) shows that. A0 and B0 are on the neutral axis and A1 and B1 are in the lower half of the beam. at the surfaces of the beam. at the lower surface. І and A1B1 ϭ A0B0 ϭ AЈ 0BЈ 0 ϭ R ⌬ AЈ1BЈ1 ϭ (R ϩ y)⌬ AЈ1BЈ1 Ϫ A1B1 (R ϩ y)⌬ Ϫ R⌬ y ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ A1B1 R⌬ R ϭ ᎏᎏ from Hooke’s law E y ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ E R E ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ y R since R is very large (see assumptions in Figure 1.51 shows in more detail what happens to two vertical sections in the beam.When y is a maximum positive. at the upper surface. dA. The bending is caused by a positive bending moment (causing sagging) which is constant along the part of the beam of interest. 33 .52 shows a beam subjected to a positive constant bending moment i. from the neutral axis and varies linearly with y. . Bending stress Figure 1. pure bending.53) therefore confirms the discussion in the neutral axis section above. on the variation of the bending stress through the thickness of the beam.51 Geometry of deflection during bending Thus.e. NA dA Figure 1.51) NA A0 A1 y B0 B1 NA Δθ A1 A0Ј A1Ј A2 After bending R R y y B1 B0Ј B1Ј B2 Before bending a b Figure 1. ϭ 0 at the NA where y ϭ 0.52 Determining stresses through the thickness of a beam subjected to positive bending y compressive σ NA tensile σ ͵ dA ϭ 0 A However. The NA bends to a radius of curvature. to stretch to AЈ1BЈ1. y. for constant E and R. is a maximum positive or tensile. and the line AЈ0BЈ0 subtends an angle ⌬.When y is a maximum negative. is a maximum negative or compressive. from the previous section E ϭ ᎏᎏ y R І І Ey E ͵ᎏ ᎏ dA ϭ ᎏᎏ ͵ ydA ϭ 0 R R ͵ ydA ϭ 0 A A A This proves that the NA coincides with the centroid of the cross-section.

Second moments of area Rectangular cross-section Consider the rectangular cross-section. I ϭ y2dA.54). as shown. the second moment of area about the NA (XX) is: IXX ϭ ͵ y dA ϭ ͵ 2 A ϩD/2 ϪD/2 y 2(Bdy) y3 ϭ B ᎏᎏ 3 ΄ ΅ ϩD/2 B D3 D3 ϭ ᎏᎏ ᎏᎏ Ϫ Ϫᎏᎏ 3 8 8 ϪD/2 ΄ ΅ (1. and the second moment of area of the section.54) R A A ͵ ͵ We now define the geometric term. called the second moment of area A about the NA.y ϭ ᎏᎏ. Then. we have M E ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ I y R (1. G. it is necessary to evaluate the second moment of area for the particular beam cross-section of interest. R. I. and depth. from symmetry.56). distance y from the NA and dy in thickness. I R In order to calculate bending stresses from equation (1. allow the I y calculation of the bending stress. This quantity is a measure of the distribution of the area within the beam cross-section and is an important structural term in bending. knowing the applied bending moment. i. passes through the centroid. of the cross-section.y R The total moment arising from stresses on all elemental areas in the cross-section is E M ϭ dM ϭ ᎏᎏ y2dA (1. dM. taking moments about the NA. M. XX is the NA which.55) with equation (1. ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ. Considering the elemental strip of area.53.53). dA. is Ey dM ϭ (dA).57) BD 3 І IXX ϭ ᎏᎏ 12 34 . as shown in Figure 1. M E The radius of curvature of bending. The next section explains how to calculate I for several shapes of cross-section. ͵ Then incorporating I in equation (1. arising from the stress on the elemental area. . B. the elemental moment. we have M E E M ϭ ᎏᎏI or ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ I R R Combining equation (1. D. dA. The key variables in this equation and their units are: M ϭ bending moment at the position in the beam (Nm) I ϭ second moment of area about NA (m4) ϭ bending stress at distance y from NA (NmϪ2) y ϭ distance from the NA (m) Ϫ NB: y is ϩve downwards E ϭ Young’s modulus (NmϪ2) R ϭ radius of curvature (m) M The two terms on the left-hand side of the beam-bending equation. can also be calculated from ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ.dA.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Now. width.55) (1.e. at distance y from the NA.56) This is the beam-bending equation.

IXX. The second moment of area. If the section was being bent about a vertical axis. is at a distance. is also shown. from the centroid (origin). ZZ. A general element of area. which has the axis XX passing through its centroid and a parallel axis XЈXЈ. y. is drawn coming out of the page. Thus the origin of all three axes is at the centroid.57). (b) Perpendicular axis theorem: Consider the arbitrary cross-section shown in Figure 1. The expression for IYY is similar to equation (1. as follows: X DB IYY ϭ ᎏᎏ 12 3 Y B D G dA Y ΝΑ X y from NA dy (1.Solid mechanics Thus. The minimum value of I is always the value about an axis through the centroid of the section.Values of I about axes parallel to XX are always larger by the second term. and equation (1. positioned at distance. also passing through the centroid. then the value of IYY would be needed.60) XЈ G dA Figure 1. dA. but with B and D transposed.59) A A A A IXЈXЈ ϭ IXX ϩ Ah2 Equation (1. r. the polar second moment of area.e.60) is a statement of the parallel axis theorem for second moments of area. dA.59) IXЈXЈ ϭ 2 2 2 A A A A 2 2 (1.53 Determining the 2nd moment of area of a solid rectangular cross-section (a) The parallel axis theorem: Consider the arbitrary cross-section shown in Figure 1.58) Two theorems To aid in the calculation of I for more complex sections.e.54 The parallel axis theorem y X Z Y dA r y x X G X ͵ r dA 2 A Y Z Figure 1. are shown passing through the centroid.54. distance h from XX.61) Equation (1. IX’X’. it states that. We now define a new quantity. the second moment of area about the third axis. J ϭ IXX ϩ IYY (1. B and D. two theorems are introduced: Figure 1.61) is a statement of the perpendicular axis theorem for second moments of area. However І r 2 ϭ x2 ϩ y2 Jϭ 2 A ͵ x dA ϩ ͵ y dA 2 A i. for a cross-section. the sum of the second moments of area about two perpendicular axes is equal to the second moment of area about the third perpendicular axis. as follows: Iϭ XЈ h X (1. from the XX axis. J. Ah2. the second moment of area for a rectangular section depends only on the dimensions of the section. about XЈXЈ is given by: simplifies to: ͵ (y ϩ h) dA ϭ ͵ y dA ϩ ͵ h dA ϩ ͵ 2yhdA ϭ ͵ y dA ϩ h ͵ dA ϩ 2h͵ ydA As XX passes through the centroid of the section. A third perpendicular axis. i. 35 . In words. It has units m4 as expected. which is always positive. Two perpendicular axes.55.55 The perpendicular axis theorem J is effectively. IXX is relevant to bending about the XX axis. XX and YY. ZZ. YY say. ͵ ydA is zero. A general element of area.

and therefore J ϭ 2IXX J D4 (1. From the beam equation (1.57 is symmetric. the flanges and the web. dA. For bending. D. a high I-value also results in a more rigid structure.56 Determining the second moment of area of a solid circular cross-section I-section (symmetrical) Consider the symmetrical I-section shown in Figure 1. i. 250mm reduced deformations under load.e. a high I-value reduces the stress level for a particular applied moment. This is not the case for a rectangular section where IYY is different from IXX. drawn through the centroid. XX and YY. precisely because their sections have relatively high values for second moment of area. IXX ϭ IYY. D. IXX and IYY. or Y dr r D X G X Y Figure 1. This is a consequence of a large portion of the crosssectional area being in the flange regions which are positioned a significant distance from the neutral axis resulting in a high I-value. Because each of these subsections is a rectangle. we divide the section into convenient subsections.57 A symmetrical I-section . at a radius. the second moment of area for a circular section depends only on the diameter. To find the second moment of area about the NA. are more relevant. because of symmetry of the circular section. i. it does not matter if you are bending about the XX or YY axes. dA ϭ 2r dr. the NA passes through the centroid of the section. and Jϭ ͵ r dA 2 A ͵ D/2 0 r 2(2rdr) ϭ 2 D/2 0 ͵ D/2 r 3dr 0 r4 ϭ 2 ᎏᎏ 4 ΄΅ D4 ϭ ᎏᎏ ᎏᎏ 2 16 ΄ ΅ (1.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Circular cross-section The perpendicular axis theorem enables us to obtain an expression for the second moment of area of a circular cross-section. As the section shown in Figure 1. in this case. we can use equation (1. dr. 36 1 Flange 13mm G web 2 13mm NA 3 Flange 150mm 13mm Figure 1. These values are then transposed onto the NA of the complete section using the parallel axis theorem. centre of the circle. Figure 1.57.56 shows such a section. is shown.62) D4 І J ϭ ᎏᎏ 32 This is the polar second moment of area of the circular section and is an important parameter when considering torsion or twisting of the section (see later section in this chapter on torsion of shafts). The polar second moment of area is given by Jϭ As dr is very small.56). The procedure is best performed using a table to avoid error and permit ease of checking when the calculation is complete. because of the symmetry of the section. Furthermore. of diameter.e. I-beams are common structural members. and with a thickness. Knowing J. It has units m4 as expected.63) IXX ϭ IYY ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ 64 2 Thus.57) to determine the I-value for each subsection about axes through each subsection’s centroid. r. Also. they can now be obtained using the perpendicular axis theorem as follows J ϭ IXX ϩ IYY dA But. with the perpendicular axes. the second moment of area is the same. the two perpendicular second moments of area. as shown. An elemental ring of area.

Flange 2.70 ؋ 10؊5 m4 The total I-value about the NA is given by summing the final column: Alternative method: Because of symmetry of this I-section.70 ϫ 107 mm4 ϭ 6.85 2 Ah 2 mm4 INA ϭ I ϩ Ah 2 mm4 ϭ 1.Solid mechanics Table 1.4 I-section second moment of area calculation Subsection I for subsection Subsection 1. Now.65 125 ᎏᎏ Ϫ 116.59. simpler approach may be used. the first moment of the total cross-sectional area about the datum should equate to the sum of the first moments of each subsection area about the datum.738 ϫ 107 ϭ 2.5 ᎏ 2 Ah 2 mm4 INA ϭ I ϩ Ah 2 mm4 ϭ 2. an alternative.217 ϫ 107 ϭ0 13 ᎏ ϩ 112 ϭ 118. Flange (150 ϫ 133) ᎏᎏ 12 ϭ 2.746 ϫ 104 (150 ϫ 13) ϭ 1950 ϭ 2. Figure 1. is not symmetrical about a horizontal axis. The position of the NA must therefore first be determined.08 ϫ 106 ϭ 8.70 ϫ 107 mm4 as before G NA ΄ ΅ Figure 1.58 Simplified approach for determining the 2nd moment of area of a symmetric I-section T-section (nonsymmetrical) Unlike the I-section.5 T-section second moment of area calculation Subsection 1.yi) for each subsection 50 125 (200 ϫ 50 ϩ 125 ϫ 50)y ᎏ ϩ (125 ϫ 50) ᎏᎏ ෆ ϭ (200 ϫ 50) 125 ϩ ᎏ 2 2 200mm 50mm NA y Datum 50mm Figure 1. shown in Figure 1.805 ϫ 107 The total I-value about the NA is given by summing the final column: Total INA ϭ 3.217 ϫ 107 ϭ 2. the T-section. Web I for subsection mm4 ᎏᎏ 12 (13 ϫ 2243) ᎏᎏ 12 (150 ϫ 133) A mm2 (150 ϫ 13) ϭ 1950 (224 ϫ 13) ϭ 2912 h mm 13 ᎏ ϩ 112 ϭ 118. Thus INA ϭ Irect. the top flange and the web. The section is divided into two subsections.64 ϫ 107 ϭ 2.59 A T-section 1 Flange 2 G web 125 mm y ෆ ϭ 116. in this case.5 ᎏ 2 3. as shown. section Ϫ Ishaded area 150 ϫ 2503 68 ϫ 5. The NA passes through the centroid of NA the section.35) ϭ 33.14 ϫ 106 ϭ 1. Web I for subsection mm4 (200 ϫ 503) ᎏᎏ 12 (50 ϫ 1253) ᎏᎏ 12 A mm2 (200 ϫ 50) ϭ 10 000 (125 ϫ 50) ϭ 6250 h mm (125 ϩ 25 Ϫ 116.132 ϫ 107 ϭ 1.746 ϫ 104 ϭ 1.96 ϫ 107 mm4 ϭ 3.58 shows that INA may be found by determining the value for a rectangular section and subtracting values for the two shaded rectangular sections.2243 ϭ ᎏ ᎏ Ϫ 2 ϫ ᎏᎏ 12 12 ϭ 6. Thus (Total area)ෆ y ϭ ⌺(Ai. Flange 2.74 ϫ 107 ϭ0 ϭ 1. which is positioned at some unknown distance from the datum at the bottom surface.35 mm from the bottom surface datum Knowing the position of G and hence the NA.74 ϫ 107 Total INA ϭ 6.96 ؋ 10؊5 m4 37 .35 ϭ Ϫ53.34 ϫ 107 ϭ 2. we can now use the tabulated method to determine the second moment of area for the T-section: Table 1.738 ϫ 107 ϭ 2.

Point-loaded beam – Hollow rectangular section For the simply supported beam. determine the position and magnitude of the maximum tensile bending stress. (e) At the positions of maximum bending moment. we have an unknown internal shear force (S) and bending moment (M) at the cut section. Here. i. as shown in Figure 1. Now. considering equilibrium of moments about section X–X for the left-hand part of the span as a free body.e. determine the centroid of area and hence the position of the neutral axis (NA) which passes through the centroid.5 m Cross-section . The bending moment rises from zero at the simple support. as shown in Figure 1. use part of the beam bending equation (1. to a maximum at the load point. (b) Determine the positions along the span of maximum ϩve or maximum Ϫve bending moment (BM). 38 200mm 2.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Solving beam problems Based on the above sections. we find M ϭ 20x This expression applies between A and B and enables the bending moment diagram to be drawn in that region. i. The magnitudes of these reaction forces are found by considering the equilibrium of the beam as a whole as follows Vertical forces Clockwise moments about A І 100 ϫ 2 ϭ RC ϫ 2. (d) Calculate the second moment of area of the beam cross-section about the neutral axis. INA.We will not consider the shear force any further in this example. the general procedure for solving beam problems.e. calculating bending stresses. furthest from the NA. (f) From the loading on or deflected shape of the beam determine which of the above stresses are ϩve (tensile) or Ϫve (compressive).0m 0. x ϭ 2 and the maximum bending moment is Mmax ϭ 20 ϫ 2 ϭ 40 kNm. 20mm 300mm Figure 1. RA and RC.61(b). i. A.60 A simply supported beam carrying a point load at a position part way along its span A 100kN B C Reaction forces Consider Figure 1. shown in Figure 1.5 RC ϭ 80 kN RA ϭ 20 kN RA ϩ RC ϭ 100 Bending moment diagram Cutting the beam at distance x from the left-hand end. B.e.61(c). can now be summarized: (a) For a given load acting on the beam.61(a). draw the bending moment diagram.60.56) to determine the maximum stresses at the top and bottom of the cross-section. (c) From the shape and dimensions of the beam cross-section at the position of max BM. which shows the beam’s simple supports replaced by point reaction forces.

is at the position of the maximum bending moment. where the maximum stresses occur. to a maximum at the load point.25 ϫ 106 mm4 ϭ 111.5 ϭ 40 kNm. 2. the NA is at the centre of the section. where the maximum bending moment exists. as before. and considered equilibrium of moments on the RH part of the span as a free body.e. i. position B. Thus.61 Determining the shear force and bending moment distribution for the simply supported beam carrying a point load bodo3 bidi3 Iϭᎏ ᎏ Ϫ ᎏᎏ 12 12 where o ϭ outer dimensions of the section i ϭ inner dimensions of the section І 300 ϫ 2003 260 ϫ 1603 I ϭ ᎏᎏ Ϫ ᎏᎏ 12 12 ϭ 111. Here. 100 mm above the lower surface.25 ϫ 10Ϫ6 m4 Maximum tensile stress Looking at the way the beam bends in a sagging manner.5 m C RC 100kN B X S 20kN x X M b Max =40kNm M 0 c Second moment of area To calculate the bending stresses. derived earlier on page 34. the maximum tensile stress occurs on the lower surface of the cross-section. we would find: M ϭ 80x This expression enables the second part of the bending moment diagram to be drawn for region B to C. As it is a hollow rectangular section. we can use the expression for a solid rectangular section.5 from the RH end and the maximum bending moment is Mmax ϭ 80 ϫ 0. as given by the beam-bending equation (1. as shown in Figure 1. the maximum tensile stress.56). i. of the cross-section about its neutral axis. we need the second moment of area.Solid mechanics Next. also shown in Figure 1. Thus. In this case the bending moment again rises from zero at the simple support. Thus: M 0 Figure 1. x ϭ 0. if we cut the beam at a distance x from the RH end.e. C.61(c). I.96 MPa 111.0m A RA a 0. The critical section. B. and subtract the I-value for one from the other.61(c). below the 100 kN load. is 40 ϫ 103100 ϫ 10Ϫ3 Mmax ymax ᎏᎏᎏ T max ϭ ᎏ ᎏϭ ϭ 35.We treat the hollow section as two solid sections. It will also occur at position B along the span.25 ϫ 10Ϫ6 I 39 . Due to symmetry of the cross-section.60. the full bending moment diagram can now be drawn as shown in Figure 1. at a position furthest away from the neutral axis (NA).

67 ϫ 103 (80 ϫ 10) ϭ 800 ϭ 134.421 ϫ 107 mm4 ϭ 3. Assume that the beam is made of steel with E ؍200 GPa.2 ϭ 1. Flange h I for subsection mm4 A mm2 (120 ϫ 10) ϭ 1200 (6 ϫ 230) ϭ 1380 h mm Ah 2 mm4 INA ϭ I ϩ Ah 2 mm4 ϭ 1.278 ϫ 106 2. Calculate the maximum compressive and tensile stresses in the beam and the radius of curvature at the point of maximum bending moment.343 ϫ 107 ϭ 14.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Uniformly distributed load – I-section Figure 1.441 ϫ 107 The total I-value about the NA is given by summing the final column: Total INA ϭ 3. a bottom flange 80 mm wide and 10 mm thick.421 ϫ 10Ϫ5 m4 40 . and a web of thickness 6 mm.0 ϫ 104 ᎏᎏ 12 ϭ 6. y.44 ϫ 107 ϭ 1.ෆ [(120 ϫ 10)ϩ(6 ϫ 230)ϩ(80 ϫ 10)]ෆ y ϭ (120 ϫ 10) ϫ 245ϩ(6 ϫ 230) ϫ 125ϩ(80 ϫ 10) ϫ 5 giving y ෆ ϭ 139. is determined by taking area moments about the bottom surface as follows: y ϭ ⌺Aiyi Atot.62 An unsymmetric I-section Maximum bending moment For a simply supported beam under a UDL of w N/m.344 ϫ 107 ϭ 6. Flange NA h (80 ϫ 103) ᎏᎏ 12 ϭ 6.625 kNm 8 8 Position of the neutral axis The position of the neutral axis from the bottom surface.2 mm from the bottom surface Second moment of area of the cross-section Table 1. a top flange 120 mm wide and 10 mm thick. 120 10 6 250 y 10 NA 80 Figure 1.36 ϫ 106 (120 ϫ 103) ᎏᎏ 12 NA ϭ 1. the maximum bending moment occurs at the centre of the span and is given by (see the section on ‘Shear force and bending moment diagrams’): w L2 5 ϫ 5 2 Mmax ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 15.4 I-section second moment of area calculation Subsection 1. Web NA h 3.62 shows the cross-section of an I-section beam which has an overall depth of 250 mm. The beam is simply supported over a span of 5 metres and carries a uniformly distributed load of 5 kNm؊1 over its full span.2 ϭ 0.8 ϭ 1.08 ϫ 106 (6 ϫ 2303) ϭ 105.

58 MPa tensile bottom ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏᎏ 3. to be determined.4 Multi-axial stress and strain So far in this chapter we have considered uniaxial stress and strain.8 mm.421 ϫ 10Ϫ5 I Radius of curvature To obtain the radius of curvature.421 ϫ 10Ϫ5) EI R ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏᎏ ϭ 437. at y ϭ Ϫ110.e.625 ϫ 103 M Learning summary By the end of this section you will have learnt: ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ various types of beam.625 ϫ 103) ϫ 0.61 MPa compressive top ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏᎏ 3. (200 ϫ 109) ϫ (3.2 mm. at y ϭ 139. is given by: (15. in two dimensions.e. The maximum tensile stress on the bottom surface. is given by: (15. the general procedure for calculating stresses within beams.625 ϫ 103) ϫ 0. for analysing in detail the state of plane stress. i. they essentially act along a single axis. In more general engineering situations. their supports and loading conditions.e. which might cause material failure. beam-bending theory and the derivation of the beam bending equation relating the bending moment to bending stress and radius of curvature. introduced in the previous section. Firstly. Next. Many engineering situations can be analysed as plane stress problems. from maximum values at the surface to zero at the neutral axis. UDL and concentrated moments. i. the section will look at the more general state of three-dimensional stress and strain and introduce methods of analysis based on generalized (i.e.56) is used: M E ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ I R Thus. although the stress and strain vary through the thickness of the beam. how to calculate the second moments of area of simple and more complex sections such as I-sections and T-sections. 1.Solid mechanics Bending stresses As the beam is sagging. how to calculate and draw shear force and bending moment distribution diagrams for beams under point loading.9 mm 15. the other part of the beam bending equation (1. called Mohr’s circle. i. the top surface is in compression and the bottom surface in tension. i. 41 . stresses and strains can act simultaneously in more than one direction at a point in the structure. three-dimensional) Hooke’s law. the beam axis.421 ϫ 10Ϫ5 I The maximum compressive stress on the top surface. and develop a graphical technique. we will consider stresses and strains acting in a single plane.e. Even in beam bending.1392 Mmaxymax ϭ 63. This will enable critical stresses within the plane.1108 Mmaxymax ϭ 50.

the right-hand edge and the left-hand edge of the element are both x-planes. Thus. shear stresses also act on the element as shown in Figure 1. For the element to be in equilibrium in the vertical sense. In Figure 1.e. This plane element is assumed to have unit thickness. As with the direct stresses. x and y respectively. Thus. The shear stresses are given two subscripts. The nomenclature for shear stresses is a little more complicated. These latter shear stresses are termed complementary shear stresses.63. Thus.e. yx. while a direct stress with a negative magnitude is a compressive stress. x and y are both drawn as positive tensile stresses. shear stresses. 42 . (Note that an x-plane is parallel to the y-axis while a y-plane is parallel to the x-axis.) σy y-plane τyx τxy σx τxy τyx σy τxy Direction of nor mal to the plane Direction of the stress x-plane σx Consider a rectangular element of unit thickness |τ |≡|τ | xy yx complementary shear stress (equal in magnitude to τxy but opposite in sign) NB: +ve shear causes anticlockwise rotation Figure 1. yx are complementary to xy.63 illustrates the general state of plane stress acting on a small element of material at a point in a structure. Some definitions and nomenclature are called for: An x-plane is defined as a plane whose normal acts in the x-direction. x and y. xy.63. x acts on an x-plane and y acts on a y-plane.63 The general state of plane stress For the direct stresses. i. an equal and opposite shear stress. A direct stress with a positive magnitude is a tensile stress. The first subscript denotes the plane on which the stress acts while the second subscript denotes the direction in which the stress acts. must also act on the top and bottom edges of the element as shown in Figure 1. the subscripts x and y refer to the direction in which (or axis along which) the stresses act. In addition to direct stresses acting in the x and y directions. the top edge and the bottom edge of the element are both y-planes. Also. in general. acting upwards on the right-hand edge of the element. Again. xy acts on the x-plane in the y-direction.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 The general state of plane stress (two-dimensional stress) Figure 1. must act downwards on the left-hand edge of the element. xy. i. A y-plane is defined as a plane whose normal acts in the y-direction. The plane in which the element exists is the x–y plane but it could equally be one of either the x–z or y–z planes. Consider a shear stress. the shear stresses also act on the x and y planes.63. for the element to be in equilibrium with respect to rotation.

A negative shear stress is trying to rotate the element clockwise. C. xy is therefore positive on both the right-hand and left-hand edges. we consider the equilibrium of forces on the prism RTQ and the following expressions can be derived x ϩ y x Ϫ y ␣ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ cos 2␣ ϩ sin 2␣ 2 2 x Ϫ y ␣ ϭ ᎏᎏ sin 2␣ ϩ sin 2␣ 2 where ϭ xy ϭ -yx. yx is therefore negative on both the top and bottom edges. inclined at an angle ␣ to the plane carrying x and xy are required.e. yx). and ␣. y. x is a normal stress acting parallel to the x-axis on the x-plane normal to the x-axis. with direct stresses x and y. i. xy) and (y. and shear stresses xy and yx acting on faces normal to the x and y directions respectively. Positive shear stresses acting on the face of an element tend to rotate the element anticlockwise and are plotted downwards. xy on QR is positive and yx on PQ is negative.65.Solid mechanics The sign convention for shear stresses is governed by the sense of rotation that the shear stress is trying to impart on the element.64 Stresses on a plane inclined at ␣ to the x-plane σy τyx Q τxy α τa R σx These transformation equations can be used to determine the values of ␣. Points B and E.64. which represent the stresses on the element faces QR and PQ respectively (see Figure 1. For example. 43 . A set of axes is set up in terms of direct stress and shear stress as shown in Figure 1. the shear stresses and complementary shear stresses are equal in magnitude but opposite in sign. at any specified angle ␣. Thus: A positive shear stress is trying to rotate the element anticlockwise. i. The question arises – ‘What are the stresses on other planes inclined to those given?’ Consider the small element PQRS shown in Figure 1. The centre of the Mohr’s circle.) The stresses on the plane RT. is the (x ϩ y) mid-point of EB coordinates: ᎏ ᎏ and the circle is drawn. To determine the values of ␣ and ␣. Stress transformation in two dimensions The stresses acting within a body are specified with respect to given coordinate axes. In general. with a radius CB (or CE). (All stresses are assumed to act in this x–y plane. they will in general include both a direct (i.e. xy is a shear stress acting parallel to the y-axis on the x-plane normal to the x-axis. a ‘plane stress’ problem. Mohr’s circle for plane stress Mohr’s circle is a graphical construction representing the above transformation equations. As before. i. xy. the stresses are known to act on certain defined planes. 2 to pass through both B and E. directly from known values of x.e. we assume that the thickness of the element normal to the plane of the paper is unity. y P T x σx τxy S σa τyx σy Figure 1.64) are plotted with coordinates (x.e. normal) stress ␣ and a shear stress ␣ as shown.

and hence 90° apart through the element. The planes which carry maximum shear stress are 180° apart on the circle. (OM. and is termed the ‘minimum principal stress’. i. τxy) Figure 1.66. τa) τ Shear stress +ve +ve τmax B (σx. at an angle 2␣ anticlockwise from CB. N represents the state of stress on RT. Sign conventions can differ. 70 30 30 10 30 30 70 All stresses in MPa 10 Graphical solution The known stresses on the element are: x ϭ 10 MPa y ϭ Ϫ70 MPa xy ϭ 30 MPa yx ϭ Ϫ30 MPa 44 Figure 1. the angle between radii to points representing stresses on faces with included angle ␣ is 2␣. P1 represents the maximum direct stress on any plane through the element. As ␣ can take on any value. x y The direct stress on the planes carrying maximum shear stress is ᎏ ᎏ . i.66 An element of material subjected to direct and shear stresses . The rotational sense in coordinate space is the same as that around the Mohr’s circle. There are two points on the circle for which the shear stress components are zero – points P1 and P2. ␣). Determine: ii(i) the principal stresses. Hence. τyx) τyx 0 P2 D σy 2α C σx M P1 A τyx σ Direct stress N (σa.e. P2 represents the minimum direct stress on any plane through the element. or the right-hand end of the diameter. 2. (Maximum is here taken to mean ‘algebraically greater’. and is termed the ‘maximum principal stress’. Points P1 and P2 lie 180° apart on the Mohr’s circle. They are inclined at 45° to the principal planes (90° on the circle). (iii) the maximum shear stress. i(ii) the positions of the principal planes (illustrate with a sketch). From trigonometry it can be shown that the coordinates of N. It is important when reading alternative texts to establish the sign convention if confusion is to be avoided. CN. 2 6. Points E and B were obtained from the known stresses. This diagram is known as the ‘Mohr’s circle for plane stress’. Thus.e.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Consider a point N on the circle circumference. i. N represents the state of stress (direct and shear) acting on a plane oriented at an angle ␣ anticlockwise from QR. the principal stresses act on planes which are 90° apart through the element. –ve E (σy.65 Mohr’s Circle construction Important observations on the Mohr’s circle for plane stress 1. points on the circumference of the circle represent the states of stress acting on planes defined by their angular displacement from CB. For a rotation of ␣ in coordinate space the radius of Mohr’s circle turns through 2␣. The shear stress is a maximum at two points on the circle (ϩve and Ϫve) – the value of the maximum shear stress is equal to the radius of the circle. MN) are given by (␣. 4. 5. ϩ Mohr’s circle example An element of material within a loaded body is known to carry the stresses shown in Figure 1. This is a consequence of the sign adopted for direct and shear stresses and the Mohr’s circle axes.e. 10 Ͼ 0 and 0 Ͼ Ϫ20). These two planes are termed the ‘principal planes’. 3. obtained by drawing the radius.

the strain in the y-direction. The result is an expression of Hooke’s Law in two-dimensions as follows 1 x ϭ ᎏᎏ(x Ϫ y) E 1 y ϭ ᎏᎏ(y Ϫ x) E 45 .Solid mechanics Figure 1. the angle of the principal plane (P1) from the x-plane is Ӎ 18.87° ϭ 18. comprises a direct strain due to x and a Poisson’s strain due to y.67 Mohr’s circle for the example On the element. To draw the circle.0) P2 P1 (20. Join the two points with the line BE (–80. 30). y.–30) –30 10.0) C which intersects the x-axis at the centre of the circle. The strain in the x-direction.6 uses the principle of superposition and Hooke’s Law to show how plane strains may be calculated from the direct stresses acting in the plane.30) 2 ϭ Ϫ80 MPa τmax (+ve) max ϭ 50 MPa γ 2 Ӎ 37° Figure 1. Similarly. Ϫ30).67 shows the Mohr’s circle for this stress system. C. x.68. Next draw point E which represents stresses on the y-plane (coordinates: Ϫ70.5° anticlockwise as shown in Figure 1. The circle 2θ 10 30 –70 can now be drawn and the following quantities measured Principal stretch: 1 ϭ 20 MPa 30 B (10.5° P2 Ί The angle of the principal planes: 1 ϭ C ϩ R ϭ 20 MPa 2 ϭ C Ϫ R ϭ Ϫ80 MPa max ϭ R ϭ 50 MPa xy tan 2 ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 0. comprises a direct strain due to y and a Poisson’s strain due to x. σ Analytical solution The centre of the circle is given by The radius of the circle is given by The principal stresses are: (x ϩ y) C ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ Ϫ30 2 x Ϫy 2 Rϭ ᎏᎏ ϩ xy2 ϭ 50 2 18.4° P1 Figure 1.6 Two-dimensional direct stress and strain Disregarding shear stresses.75 x Ϫ y ᎏᎏ 2 2 ϭ 36.68 Orientation of the principal planes Plane strain and two-dimensional Hooke’s law x x y ϩ y ϭ x y E 1 ᎏᎏ (x Ϫ y) E 1 ᎏᎏ (y Ϫ x) E y x x ϭ ᎏᎏ E E x y Ϫy ϭ Ϫᎏᎏ ᎏᎏ E x y ϭ Ϫx ϭ Ϫᎏᎏ y Table 1. Table 1. firstly draw the point B which represents stresses on the x-plane (coordinates: E (–70.

The objective is to determine the stresses in the cylinder wall. Example 1 – Membrane stresses in thin cylinders and spheres Figure 1. and Poisson’s strains due to stresses in the other two directions. R.69 Membrane stresses in the wall of a thin cylinder under internal pressure For convenience. we may consider a small plane element in the wall. The result is an expression of Hooke’s law in three dimensions. It may be R assumed that the cylinder has closed ends and is under an internal pressure.7 Three-dimensional stresses and strains y x x ϩ y z z ϭ x z y y z x x ϭ y ϭ z ϭ ᎏᎏ E x y Ϫᎏᎏ E ᎏᎏ E z Ϫᎏᎏ E E 1 ᎏᎏ (x Ϫ (y ϩ z)) E 1 ᎏᎏ (y Ϫ (x ϩ z)) E 1 ᎏᎏ (z Ϫ (x ϩ y)) E x Ϫᎏᎏ E E y z Ϫᎏᎏ ᎏᎏ E x Ϫᎏᎏ y Ϫᎏᎏ E z In this case. as shown. For an internally pressurised cylinder (with closed ends). we can assume that r Ϸ 0. chemical reactors and heat exchanges. For a thin-walled cylinder. This model is a good representation of engineering applications such as steam boilers. Because the wall is thin. it is more appropriate to work in cylindrical coordinates. where ᎏᎏ Ͻ 0. 46 . z. called Generalized Hooke’s Law as follows: 1 x ϭ ᎏᎏ(x Ϫ (y ϩ z)) E 1 y ϭ ᎏᎏ(y Ϫ (x ϩ z)) E 1 z ϭ ᎏᎏ(z Ϫ (x ϩ y)) E These expressions can be used to determine the direct strains in any direction from direct stresses acting simultaneously in up to three directions. σθ t θ z σz r σθ σz 2R Figure 1.7. y. and wall t thickness. Thus. due to the stress in that direction. . t. Table 1. z. three stresses act on this element. it can be shown that this level of stress is small compared to the other in-plane stresses in the wall. These are: (i) radial stress (r) which acts normal to the in-plane element and varies from zero at the outer free surface to a compressive stress equivalent to the internal pressure at the inner surface. the strain in a particular direction (x. r.1. mean radius (to centre of wall). etc. P. instead of cartesian coordinates x.69 shows a thin-walled cylinder. as shown. y or z) comprises a direct strain.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Three-dimensional stresses and strains The approach in the previous section may be extended to three dimensions as shown in Table 1.

70 and considering equilibrium of forces. Consider the thin sphere shown in Figure 1. can be analysed in a similar way to thin cylinders. These two stresses act within the plane of the wall and consequently are called membrane stresses. the membrane stress. Sectioning the cylinder horizontally as shown in Figure 1. Sectioning the cylinder vertically as shown in Figure 1. P.71 Derivation of an expression for the hoop (circumferential) stress.70 Derivation of an expression for the axial stress. in a thin sphere under pressure is the same in all directions in the plane of the wall. .59) Due to symmetry.72 Membrane stress in a thin sphere under internal pressure 47 . Thus P ϫ (end cap area) ϭ z ϫ (wall area) P ϫ R2 ϭ z ϫ 2Rt giving PR z ϭ ᎏᎏ 2t σz L t R σz (1.57) σz P σz Figure 1. closed-end cylinder under internal pressure.58) are the fundamental expressions for the axial and hoop stresses in a thin walled. Note that the hoop stress is the maximum stress and has a magnitude 2ϫ the axial stress. Membrane strains in the wall of the thin cylinder can be determined using generalized Hooke’s law as follows hoop strain ⌬(c ircumference) ⌬(2R) ⌬R ϭ ᎏ ᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ cir cumference 2 R R PR PR 1 1 PR ϭ ᎏᎏ( Ϫ z) ϭ ᎏᎏ ᎏᎏ Ϫ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ 1 Ϫ ᎏᎏ 2t Et 2 E E t L σθ P 2R σθ Figure 1. in a thin cylinder (iii) Hoop (i. and wall thickness. the force arising from the hoop stress in the wall must equate to the vertical force arising from the pressure acting on the projected area of the section.72. in a thin cylinder axial strain ⌬L ϭ ᎏᎏ L PR PR 1 1 1 PR ϭ ᎏᎏ(z Ϫ ) ϭ ᎏᎏ ᎏᎏ Ϫ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ᎏᎏ Ϫ t Et 2 E E 2t σφ σφ σφ σφ t R σφ Thin spheres under internal pressure. . Thus P ϫ (projected area) ϭ ϫ (wall area) P ϫ 2RL ϭ ϫ 2tL giving PR ϭ ᎏᎏ t (1. we have P ϫ (projected area) ϭ ϫ (wall area) P ϫ R2 ϭ ϫ 2Rt giving PR ϭ ᎏᎏ 2t (1. z. t.58) t Equations (1.e. the force arising from the axial stress within the wall must equate to the force arising from the pressure acting on the end cap.57) and (1. Figure 1. Considering equilibrium of forces on a section of the sphere. mean radius.71 and again considering equilibrium of forces. circumferential) stress () which acts around the circumference of the cylinder in the ‘hoop’ direction.Solid mechanics (ii) axial stress (z) which acts in the axial direction in the plane of the wall. R.

An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1

**Example 2 – Hydrostatic stress and volumetric strain
**

When a body is subject to a stress which is equal in all directions, the stress is called a hydrostatic stress. For the element shown in Figure 1.73, x ϭ y ϭ z ϭ H, the hydrostatic stress. A typical example of hydrostatic stress is when a body is underwater, in which case the hydrostatic stress is compressive (Ϫve) and equal to the underwater pressure. When a body is subjected to a hydrostatic stress, in general, it will undergo a change ⌬V in volume. The corresponding volumetric strain, V, is given by ᎏᎏ, i.e. the V change in volume divided by the original volume. For an elastic body, a plot of hydrostatic stress, H, against volumetric strain, V, is a straight line as shown in Figure 1.74. The slope of the line is a measure of the bulk modulus, K of the material. Thus, H K ϭ ᎏᎏ V The bulk modulus, K, is an elastic material property similar to Young’s modulus, E, shear modulus, G, and Poisson’s ratio, . In section 1.2, we saw that the material properties, E, G and are related. It will be shown below that K is also related to these properties. Consider a block of elastic material, shown in Figure 1.75, which deforms under stresses acting in three directions. Consider the volume change of this block. Thus, initial volume final volume However, Similarly and V ϭ xyz V Ј ϭ xЈyЈzЈ ⌬x xЈ ϭ x ϩ ⌬x ϭ x 1 ϩ ᎏᎏ ϭ x(1 ϩ x) x yЈ ϭ y(1 ϩ y) zЈ ϭ z(1 ϩ z) V Ј ϭ xyz(1 ϩ x)(1 ϩ y)(1 ϩ z) The volumetric strain is xyz(1 ϩ x)(1 ϩ y)(1 ϩ z) Ϫ xyz ⌬V V Ј Ϫ V V ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏᎏᎏ xyz V V V ϭ (1 ϩ x)(1 ϩ y)(1 ϩ z) Ϫ 1 ϭ (1 ϩ x ϩ y ϩ xy)(1 ϩ z) Ϫ 1 V Ϸ xϩyϩz (neglecting multiples of strain) 1 Now, using generalized Hooke’s law, and substituting for x ϭ ᎏᎏ(x Ϫ (y ϩ z)), etc. E we obtain 1 V ϭ ᎏᎏ(1 Ϫ 2)(x ϩ y ϩ z) E Assuming, hydrostatic stress, i.e. x ϭ y ϭ z ϭ H, then, H 1 V ϭ ᎏᎏ(1 Ϫ 2)(3H) ϭ ᎏᎏ K E Thus, E ϭ 3K(1 Ϫ 2) or

48

σH σH σH

σH σH

σH

Figure 1.73 Hydrostatic stress

σH

Slope = K

εV

Figure 1.74 Linear relationship between hydrostatic stress, H, and volumetric strain, V

(1.60)

(1.61) (1.62) (1.63)

Substituting (1.61), (1.62) and (1.63) into (1.60), we obtain

(1.64)

E K ϭ ᎏᎏ 3(1 Ϫ 2)

Solid mechanics

This proves that the bulk modulus, K, is related to the other two elastic constants, E and . As the shear modulus, G, is E also related to E and G ϭ ᎏᎏ , there are in fact only 2(1 ϩ ) two independent elastic constants for an isotropic material. Also, note from equation (1.64), that when ϭ 0.5, v ϭ 0, i.e. the material is incompressible. Rubber is a material which has these properties.

z y x

Figure 1.75 A block of material, volume xyz

Mohr’s circle

An element of material in a loaded structure is subjected to the stresses shown in Figure 1.76. (a) Draw the Mohr’s circle for the element. (b) Determine the values of the maximum and minimum principal stresses and the maximum shear stress. 25 45 (c) Sketch the orientation of the planes on which the principal stresses act.

45

The stresses on the element are: x ϭ 75 MPa y ϭ Ϫ25 MPa xy ϭ 45 MPa Mohr’s circle (x ϩ y) centre of the circle ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 25 MPa 2 75 ϩ25 2 ᎏᎏ ϩ 452 ϭ 67.3 MPa radius of the circle ϭ 2

75 45 45 25

75

Ί

Figure 1.76 An element of material subjected to direct and shear stresses

The Mohr’s circle is shown in Figure 1.77. Principal stresses The maximum principal stress, 1 ϭ centre ϩ radius ϭ 92.3 MPa The minimum principal stress, 2 ϭ centre - radius ϭ Ϫ42.3 MPa (i.e. compressive) The maximum shear stress, max ϭ Ϯ radius ϭ Ϯ 67.3 MPa

–τmax

P2 (–42.3,0)

C 2θ

P1 (92.3,0) σ

+τmax (67.3) τ

(75,45) x-plane

All stresses in MPa

Figure 1.77 Mohr’s Circle for the example Angle of the principal planes The angle, 2, of the maximum principal plane with respect to the x-plane, on the 21° Mohr’s circle, is given by 45 xy ᎏᎏ tan 2 ϭ ᎏᎏ (x Ϫ y) ϭ (75 Ϫ (Ϫ25)) ϭ 0.9 ᎏᎏ ᎏᎏ 2 2 І 2 ϭ 42° On the element, the angle of the maximum principal plane is ϭ 21° anticlockwise from the x-plane. The minimum principal plane is oriented 90° from this angle.

P2

x-plane

P1 Figure 1.78 shows the principal planes drawn at these angles. Figure 1.78 Orientation of the principal planes

49

An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1

**Stresses in a pressurised cylinder
**

A closed thin-walled cylinder of inner diameter 0.5 m and length 3 m is to contain gas at a pressure of 1.5 MPa. If the maximum allowable direct stress in the cylinder wall is not to exceed 125 MPa, calculate the minimum required wall thickness. What will be the resulting change in diameter and length of the cylinder? Ignore end effects and assume E ؍209 GPa and ؍0.3. Minimum wall thickness For a thin-walled cylinder, the hoop stress, , and the axial stress, z, are given by PR PR ϭ ᎏ ᎏ and z ϭ ᎏᎏ t 2t Since the hoop stress is larger than the axial stress, the maximum value of must not exceed 125 MPa. Thus (1.5 ϫ 106)(0.25) max ϭ 125 ϫ 106 ϭ ᎏᎏ t І t ϭ 3 mm Change in diameter The axial stress is given by

PR (1.5 ϫ 106)(0.25) z ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 62.5 MPa 2t 2(0.003) From Hooke’s law, the hoop (circumferential) strain is given by ⌬D 1 ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ [ Ϫ (z ϩ r)] D E ⌬D 1 ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏ ᎏ [125 ϫ 106 Ϫ 0.3(62.5 ϫ 106 ϩ 0)] 0.5 209 ϫ 109 ⌬D ϭ 0.254 mm Change in length Again, from Hooke’s law, the axial strain is given by ⌬L 1 z ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ [z Ϫ ( ϩ r)] L E ⌬L 1 ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ [62.5 ϫ 106 Ϫ 0.3(125 ϫ 106 Ϫ 0)] 0.3 209 ϫ 109 ⌬L ϭ 0.359 mm

Learning summary

By the end of this section you will have learnt:

✔ ✔ ✔

about stresses and strains acting in a single plane (two-dimensional) and how we define the general state of plane stress; the general equations for the angular transformation of stresses in two dimensions and how these equations may be represented by a graphical construction called ‘Mohr’s circle for plane stress’; the use of Mohr’s circle to analyse stresses at a point in a material and to determine the planes of maximum direct stress, i.e. the principal planes, on which the principal stresses act, and the planes of maximum shear stress; the derivation of ‘generalised Hooke’s law’ relating direct stresses to direct strains in three dimensions and its application in solving three-dimensional problems, including stresses in thin cylinders and spheres and hydrostatic stress/volumetric strain problems.

✔

50

Solid mechanics

1.5 Torsion

We have seen in section 1.1 of this chapter, that the moment of a force about a point is equal to the product of the magnitude of the force and the perpendicular distance from the point to the line of action of the force.

When a moment is applied about the axis of a shaft or bar, as shown in Figure 1.79, it is termed a torque and the shaft is said to be under a state of torsion.

The units of torque are the same as the units of a moment, i.e. force ϫ distance Ϫ Nm. A torque produces internal shear stresses in the shaft and causes the shaft to deform by twisting about its axis. A common example of a shaft under torsion is a rotating circular shaft transmitting mechanical power. This might be the drive shaft of a car or a propeller shaft in a ship.

T

T

Figure 1.79 A shaft under torsion

For design reasons, it is important to be able to determine both the magnitude of the internal shear stresses and the twisting deformation of a shaft under the action of an applied torque. This section will develop a general equation for torsion, called the ‘torsion equation’, which will enable torsional shear stresses and twisting deformations to be calculated for a specific shaft geometry, material and applied torque.

Assumptions

To simplify the analysis of torsion, we make a number of reasonable assumptions: (a) The shaft is straight and has a uniform cross-section along its length. (b) Plane cross-sections remain plane after twisting. (c) The applied torque is constant over the length of the shaft. (d) The material is elastic and obeys Hooke’s law. (e) During twisting, radial lines remain radial. For shafts deforming in the elastic range, experimental evidence indicates that these assumptions are justified.

Geometry of twisting

Figure 1.80 shows a circular shaft clamped at one end, under torsion. The twist generated in the shaft can be studied by considering lines AB and OA: line AB, along the length of the shaft, twists to AЈB, developing an angle of shear, ␥. line OA, a radial line, twists to OAЈ, developing a twist angle, . Since ␥ and are usually very small (at least in the elastic range), the arc AAЈ can be assumed to be a straight line. Then AA Ј tan ϭ ᎏᎏ OA However, because the angles are small tan Ϸ and AAЈ ϭ OA r ϭ ␥L and tan ␥ Ϸ ␥ (the shear strain) AAЈ ϭ ␥AB

(1.65)

γ B

**After twisting AЈ θ O A T Before
**

Figure 1.80 Geometry of twisting of a shaft

AAЈ and tan ␥ ϭ ᎏᎏ AB

**As OA ϭ radius of the shaft, r and AB ϭ length of the shaft, L
**

51

An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1

Now, by definition, the shear modulus, G, is given by, G ϭ ᎏᎏ ␥ Substituting (1.66) into (1.65) and rearranging, we obtain G ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ r L

(1.66)

(1.67)

Equation (1.67) is the first part of the torsion equation which relates the magnitude of the internal shear stress, , at the radial position, r, to the degree of twist, . This equation effectively relates the geometry of twisting to the internal shear stresses.

**Shear stresses in torsion
**

Consider a small element of area, dA, at radial position, r, in the circular cross-section of the shaft under torsion. This element of area carries an unknown shear stress, , due to the twisting of the shaft, as shown in Figure 1.81. The shear force, Fs, acting on the element is given by the product of the shear stress and the area of the element: Fs ϭ dA Now, the torque, T, carried by the shaft must be equal to the sum of all the torques arising from shear forces on all the small elements of area in the cross-section: T ϭ ⌺A Fsr ϭ ⌺A ( dA)r In the limit, this becomes an integral as follows: Tϭ However, from before

A

dA r τ

Figure 1.81 Shear stress acting on an element of area

͵ (dA) r

or G ϭ ᎏᎏr L

G ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ r L Tϭ

A

І

**G ͵ ᎏ ᎏr dAr L G T ϭ ᎏᎏ͵ r dA L
**

2

A

(1.68)

We define the geometric quantity, J ؍polar second moment of area given by Jϭ

͵ r dA

2

A

J is an important term in torsion and describes the distribution of the elements of area about the axis of the shaft. Its units are m4.

We can now rewrite (1.68) as or

G T ϭ ᎏᎏ J L T G ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ J L

(1.69)

Equation (1.69) is the second half of the torsion equation which relates the applied torque, T, to the degree of twist, . We can now combine equations (1.67) and (1.69) into a single equation as follows: T G ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ J r L

52

(1.70)

Solid mechanics

This is the torsion equation. The key variables in this equation and their units are: T ϭ applied torque about the shaft axis (Nm) J ϭ polar second moment of area (m4) ϭ shear stress at radius r (NmϪ2) r ϭ radial position from the axis, i.e. centre, of the shaft (m) G ϭ shear modulus (NmϪ2) ϭ angle of twist (radians) L ϭ length of shaft (m) T The two terms on the left-hand side of the torsion equation, i.e. ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ, allow the calculation J r of the shear stress, , at a radial distance r from the axis, knowing the applied torque, T, and the polar second moment of area of the section, J. T G The twist angle, , for a specific length of shaft, L, can also be calculated from ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ. J L

Note that for a given T and J, the shear stress, , is proportional to r and is a maximum at r ϭ outer radius, i.e. on the surface of the shaft, and a minimum, ϭ 0, at the centre of the shaft. The shear stress varies linearly with radial position.

In order to calculate torsional shear stresses from equation (1.70), it is necessary to evaluate the polar second moment of area for the particular shaft cross-section of interest. The next section explains how to calculate J for several shapes of cross-section.

**Polar second moment of area, J
**

Example 1 – circular section

Consider the circular cross-section, radius R, shown in Figure 1.82, and the annular element of area, dA, at radial position, r. For a thin annulus, its area can be closely approximated by: dA Ϸ 2rdr The polar second moment of area, J, is given by: Jϭ І

R

2

dA dr r

**͵ r dA ϭ ͵ r 2rdr r J ϭ 2͵ r dr ϭ 2΄ᎏᎏ΅ ϭ ᎏᎏR 4 2
**

2

rϭR A rϭ0 R

4 R 0

3

4

Figure 1.82 Annular element of area in a solid circular section

0

І J ϭ ᎏᎏ R4 ϭ ᎏᎏ D4 2 32 for a circular section (radius R, diameter D).

(1.71)

R1

**Example 2 – Hollow circular section
**

For a hollow circular cross-section, as shown in Figure 1.83, the same method is used as for the circular section, but the integration limits are changed to R1 and R2 to represent the inner and outer radii respectively. The expression for J is then given by: І J ϭ ᎏᎏR24 Ϫ ᎏᎏR14 ϭ ᎏᎏ [D24 Ϫ D14] 2 2 32

(1.72)

R2

**Figure 1.83 A hollow circular cross-section
**

53

An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1

**Example 3 – thin-walled circular section
**

When the hollow circular cross-section has a thin wall, thickness t, as shown in Figure 1.84, the inner radius is then R1 ϭ R, and the outer radius R2 ϭ R ϩ t, and equation (1.73) can be simplified as follows: J ϭ ᎏᎏ(R24 Ϫ R14) 2 2 ϭ ᎏᎏ(R2 Ϫ R12)(R22 ϩ R12) 2 ϭ ᎏᎏ(R2 Ϫ R1)(R2 ϩ R1)((R1 ϩ t)2 ϩ R12) 2 Figure 1.84 A thin-walled (1.73) ϭ ᎏᎏ(t)(R1 ϩ t ϩ R1)((R1 ϩ t)2 ϩ R12) hollow circular cross2 section As t Ӷ R1 J Ϸ ᎏᎏ(t) (2R1) (2R12) 2 (1.74) J Ϸ 2R3t Ϸ ᎏᎏD3t 4 Note that for t ≈ 0.2R, the error in using equation (1.74) instead of equation (1.73) is ϳ 1.2%.

**Solving problems in torsion applications
**

Power transmission

Consider a force, F, acting on a particle moving around the circumference of a circle, radius R, as shown in Figure 1.85. In time ␦t, the force moves through an arc, length ␦s, subtending an angle ␦. The work done, W, by the force is, W ϭ F ␦s ϭ FR ␦ However, Torque T ϭ FR І W ϭ T ␦ P ϭ W ␦tϪ1 ϭ T ␦ ␦tϪ1 P ϭ T

(1.75)

Figure 1.85 Work done by a force moving along a circular arc

The power, P, is the work done in unit time

where P is power ( J sϪ1 or watts), T is torque (Nm), and is angular velocity (rad sϪ1). This is the power equation for transmission of power along a shaft. In words, it states that power transmitted ϭ torque ϫ angular velocity

**Torque in a stepped shaft
**

The stepped shaft, shown in Figure 1.86, comprises two sections, A and B, of different radii and is subjected to an applied torque, T. To solve problems of this type of shaft the following conditions apply: equilibrium: applied torque T ϭ TA ϭ TB total ϭ A ϩ B

**i.e. the torque is the same in each section of the shaft. compatibility: total twist
**

Figure 1.86 A stepped shaft subject to a torque

**i.e. the total twist is the sum of the twists in the two sections of the shaft.
**

54

Solid mechanics

**Torque in a composite shaft
**

Consider the composite shaft, shown in Figure 1.87, comprising two concentric parts, outer A and inner B. Provided there is no slipping at the interface between the parts, the following conditions can be used to solve problems of this type: equilibrium: applied torque T ϭ TA ϩ TB total ϭ A ϭ B

A B

Figure 1.87 A composite shaft subjected to a torque

T

i.e. the torque is the sum of the torques in the two parts of the shaft. compatibility: total twist

i.e. the twist is the same in each part of the shaft. Note carefully the difference between the composite shaft and the previous stepped shaft. For the composite shaft, the twist is the same in both parts while the torque is the sum of the two individual torques. For the stepped shaft, the torque is the same in both sections while the twist is the sum of the two individual twists.

Coupling of shafts

Power is transmitted from one shaft to another by a coupling. A typical flanged coupling is shown in Figure 1.88 and comprises two flanges on the shaft ends joined by n bolts on a pitch radius, R. Shear forces act on the bolts as the torque, T, is transmitted through this coupling. If the shear force on one bolt is F, then the torque transmitted is given by: T ϭ nFR The average shear stress in a bolt, av , is: F av ϭ ᎏᎏ A bolt

(1.76)

T T

(1.77)

**where Abolt is the cross-sectional area of a bolt. From (1.76) and (1.77) T av ϭ ᎏᎏ nAboltR
**

(1.78)

F R

Equation (1.78) can be used to determine the number, size and pitch radius of the bolts required to transmit a specified torque while maintaining the shear stress below a specified level.

Figure 1.88 Bolted coupling between shafts

Torsion in a shaft

The stepped steel shaft, comprising sections A and B, shown in Figure 1.89 is subjected to a torque T ؍2 kNm.

∅ 60mm T A 300mm ∅ 40mm B 200mm T

Taking a value of Gsteel ؍70 GPa, Figure 1.89 A stepped steel shaft under torsion determine the maximum shear stress in section A and section B of the shaft and calculate the total angle of twist (in degrees). Polar second moments of area DA4 (60 ϫ 10Ϫ3)4 JA ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 1.272 ϫ 10Ϫ6 m4 32 32 4 DB (40 ϫ 10Ϫ3)4 JB ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 2.213 ϫ 10Ϫ7 m4 32 32

55

An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1

Maximum shear stress The maximum shear stress occurs on the outer surface of each section where the radius is a maximum. Using part of the torsion equation (1.70), the stresses are given by: 2 ϫ 103 ϫ 30 ϫ 10Ϫ3 TRA A max ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏᎏ ϭ 47.2 MPa 1.272 ϫ 10Ϫ6 JA 2 ϫ 103 ϫ 20 ϫ 10Ϫ3 TRB B max ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏᎏ ϭ 159 MPa 2.513 ϫ 10Ϫ7 JB Therefore the smaller shaft B has the greater shear stress. Twist angle Using the other part of the torsion equation (1.70), the twist angle in each section is: 2 ϫ 103 ϫ 300 ϫ 10Ϫ3 TLA A ϭ ᎏ ᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏᎏ ϭ 6.739 ϫ 10Ϫ3 rad ϭ 0.386° 70 ϫ 109 ϫ 1.272 ϫ 10Ϫ6 GJA 2 ϫ 103 ϫ 200 ϫ 10Ϫ3 TLB B ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏᎏ ϭ 2.27 ϫ 10Ϫ2 rad ϭ 1.303° 70 ϫ 109 ϫ 2.513 ϫ 10Ϫ7 GJB The total twist tot ϭ A ϩ B ϭ 1.69°

**Power transmission in a shaft
**

A hollow circular shaft of outer diameter 100 mm and wall thickness 5 mm is required to transmit power at a frequency of 2 Hz. If the shear stress is not to exceed 100 MPa, determine the maximum power that can be transmitted by this shaft. If the hollow shaft is replaced by a solid shaft operating under the same conditions and of the same material and length, what will be the percentage increase in weight of material used? Hollow shaft Firstly, the angular velocity must be converted from hertz to radians per second: 1 cycle 2 radians 1 Hz ϭ ᎏᎏ ϫ ᎏᎏ ϭ 2 rad sϪ1 sec 1 cycle The polar second moment of area of the hollow cylinder is given by: J ϭ ᎏᎏ (Do4 Ϫ D i4) ϭ ᎏᎏ(0.14 Ϫ 0.094) ϭ 3.376 ϫ 10Ϫ6 m4 32 32 Using the torsion equation, and noting that the maximum shear stress, , occurs at the maximum radius, i.e. at the outer surface: (100 ϫ 106)(3.376 ϫ 10Ϫ6) T max max J ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ⇒ T ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏᎏ ϭ 6.752 kNm 0.1 J rmax rmax ᎏᎏ 2 Hence, the maximum power that can be transmitted by this shaft is given by:

**Power ϭ T ϭ (6.752 ϫ 103)(2 ϫ 2) ϭ 84.85 kW
**

56

Solid mechanics

Solid shaft Since the power transmitted is the same with the solid shaft and is the same, then T must also be the same. The polar second moment of area is given by D4 J ϭ ᎏᎏ 32 Using the torsion equation 100 ϫ 106 6.752 ϫ 103 T max ᎏᎏ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ⇒ ᎏᎏ ϭ ⇒ d ϭ 0.0701 m ϭ 70.1 mm d d4 J rmax ᎏ ᎏ ᎏᎏ 2 32 Note that the diameter of the solid shaft is less than the outer diameter of the hollow shaft, but the weight of the solid shaft is greater than that of the hollow shaft. Let be the density, A the cross-sectional area and L the length of the shaft. Then, the weight W ϭ AL. % weight increase AsolidL Ϫ AhollowL Wsolid Ϫ Whollow ϭ ᎏᎏ ϫ 100 ϭ ᎏᎏᎏ ϫ 100 AsolidL Whollow Asolid Ϫ Ahollow d2 Ϫ (do2 Ϫ di2) ϭᎏ ᎏ ϫ 100 ϭ ᎏ ᎏ ϫ 100 (do2 Ϫ di2) Ahollow (0.0701)2 Ϫ (0.12 Ϫ 0.092) ϭ ᎏᎏᎏ ϫ 100 (0.12 Ϫ 0.092) ϭ 158.6%

Learning summary

By the end of this section you will have learnt:

✔ ✔ ✔ ✔

the definition of torque and how it gives rise to twist and shear stresses within a shaft; the derivation of the ‘torsion equation’ and how it is used to calculate twist angle and shear stresses in a shaft subjected to a known torque; how to calculate the polar second moment of area for solid and hollow circular cross-sections; how to solve torsion problems including power transmission, stepped and composite shafts.

57

This page intentionally left blank .

the same processes would not be used to make the metallic interconnects on a flash drive and a metallic cylinder block for a large diesel engine. the engineer needs also to understand that the properties of the material are a complex function of attributes of the material ranging from the atomic level upwards. In addition.As such. These may need to be referred to a number of times and are integral principles upon which your knowledge and understanding will be based. Materials are made up of atoms (sometimes – but rarely – one atom type. To make materials useful to engineers. but more commonly a mixture of atom types) and the nature of these atoms and the way that they are bonded together to make a macroscopic material dictates the properties of the material. However. these have been inserted as standalone sections throughout the chapter. we not only understand the attributes of a material. The properties of the macroscopic materials are the features of interest to the engineer. the processing of materials often changes the structure of the material at the atomic scale and thus changes the attributes of the material.Materials and processing Unit 2 Materials and processing Andrew Kennedy and Philip Shipway UNIT OVERVIEW ■ Introduction ■ The structure and properties of materials ■ Properties of materials ■ Selection of materials in engineering design ■ Materials processing ■ Failure of materials 2. How we measure and define the properties of materials is the first task to be considered. There are restrictions as to what processes can be used to shape materials. There are certain Underpinning Principles that need to be understood as you move through the chapter. placed in blue boxes to distinguish them from the main flow. 59 . there is a need to understand the processing of materials and the effects that such processing may have on the attributes of the material in the final component.We do not use the same manufacturing processes for high-melting-point ceramics as we do for low-melting-point polymers. they need to be shaped into components. based upon the attributes of those materials and the nature of the component being made. By understanding some of the basic attributes of materials at these scales. similarly.1 Introduction All objects are made of something which we generally call ‘materials’. Rather than interrupt the flow of the main chapter. but also understand how to control and modify the attributes of a material.

This model. common methods of failure in materials and how to design against material failure. Underpinning Principles 1: Atomic structure and bonding The structure of the atom can be described in a simplified way using the Bohr model.With data for the properties of different materials and the equations that govern the behaviour under the appropriate conditions.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Learning summary This unit outlines: ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ the main classes of materials available to the design engineer. the use of such attributes in the design process. Materials are commonly classified into the following four groups: (i) metals. the structure of different classes of material (metals. These categories. (ii) ceramics and glasses. It should be noted that while some of the characteristic properties of materials in a particular class might be broadly the same (i. Methods for measuring these properties are given. or design with it. Finally.1 depicts the atom as a small. they might all be brittle or they might all be good electrical conductors). we need to understand the basic requirements (or properties it must have) for it to fulfil its function (for example. Since the nature of the bonding defines the physical and mechanical properties. First. positively charged nucleus 60 . A number of important materials properties are then defined and their relevance to engineering is placed in context. worked examples for designing with materials and how to select the best engineering material for a particular application are presented. but have very different melting points). 2. there can also be a wide variation in other basic properties (for example. materials in the same class share similar properties and are suitable for similar applications. This section gives a broad introduction to materials and their properties.e. or classes.With this understanding and a knowledge of how these properties vary for different types (or classes) of material. the way that the various classes of material may be formed into components. (iii) polymers and elastomers and (iv) composite materials. ceramics and polymers) is described and this is then related to their characteristic properties. This is considered in the light of some underpinning principles which govern the behaviour of materials. the attributes of these materials and how these attributes may be measured. the ways that processing will change the attributes of the materials. we can place the thousands of materials available into several categories. mercury and tungsten are both metals. we can make a broad choice of material that would be suitable (a metal would be most suitable in this instance). along with the origin of these properties (understanding this can help us to create new and improved materials). it might need to have a high melting point and absorb lots of energy on impact). material processing and material properties. Classification of materials Broadly speaking.2 The structure and properties of materials Before we can select a material. the complex interrelationships between material microstructures. we can select a specific material and define the geometry required. shown in Figure UP 1. contain materials with similar types of bond (see Underpinning Principles 1) which hold together the basic building blocks (atoms or molecules) of the material.

N. with atomic number 7. seven neutrons. the valence electrons form a delocalized ‘sea’ or ‘cloud’ around the close-packed.Materials and processing containing protons (which are positively charged) and neutrons (with no charge) surrounded by electrons (negatively charged) that travel in circular orbits around the nucleus. but that is not the same as knowing where that electron is. is the number of protons or electrons that the atom possesses (they must be the same for the atom to have no overall net charge. Despite the limitations of this model. the less stable it becomes and the more likely it is to react. They can calculate the probability that an electron will be found in a given volume of space. The non-directional nature of this bonding enables metal atoms to pack closely 61 . The number of electrons in the outermost (or valence) shell increases from one to a maximum of eight when traversing from left to right across the groups in the Periodic Table of Elements. The model shows a nucleus containing seven protons and. in group V. some of which are radioactive. The atomic number. for a nucleus of that size. In reality. it is sufficient to help our understanding of how atoms bond and pack together to form structures. have the same number of protons and electrons but different numbers of neutrons). The figure also represents the electron orbits as circles. a full shell would contain eight electrons – below this it is full with two electrons). two electrons occupy the inner orbit (or shell) and five occupy the valence shell. is the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus (the number of protons and neutrons is similar but not always the same – isotopes of an element. For example. Real atoms are mostly empty space. The most stable configuration is when the valence shell is full of electrons (for elements with an atomic number greater than three.1 The Bohr model of the (nitrogen) atom showing electrons orbiting the nucleus The example in Figure UP 1. the electrons are much too close. since it has atomic mass 14. it is called an ion). scientists cannot tell exactly where an electron is at a given moment or where it is going. The number of electrons in the valence shell is important in determining how an element reacts chemically with other elements: the fewer valence electrons an atom has. The atomic mass. For nitrogen.2). Seven electrons can be seen orbiting the nucleus.1 is for nitrogen. – – – + + – + + + + – – + – Figure UP 1. It is worth noting that this early model is a simplification. if charged. Bonding and packing in metals (metallic bonding) In metallic bonding. positively charged metal cations (a schematic of this is shown in Figure UP 1. Figure UP 1.1 is not to scale. Z.

2 Schematic illustrations of metallic bonding and the packing of and the chlorine atom receives the one electron it metal atoms needed to fill its valence shell. neighbouring ions must have opposite (attractive) charges. ions in the crystal structure. In order to produce a stable structure. resulting in high-density structures. Cl. In doing so. Na. ClϪ. An example of ionic bonding is shown in Figure UP 1. both the silicon and 62 . The example shown is for methane gas but the principle is the same for ceramics such as diamond and silicon carbide (SiC). In the case of methane.3 also shows a schematic of how the sodium and chlorine atoms pack to form the crystal structure NaCl. Figure UP 1.4 also shows the three-dimensional packing structure for the covalently bonded Si and C atoms in silicon carbide (SiC). and the chlorine atom accepts this electron to become a negatively charged chlorine ion (anion). Na (metal) unstable Electron Cl (non-metal) unstable Cl (anion) stable Na (cation) + – stable Electrostatic attraction Figure UP 1. and large. Naϩ. ‘Sea’ of delocalized electrons Metal cation Bonding and packing in ceramics (ionic and covalent bonding) In ceramic materials the bonding is ionic or covalent. The sharing of electrons from four atoms to a single central atom dictates discrete angles between the neighbours (in this case the atoms adopt a tetrahedral structure with bonds at angles of approximately 110°). carbon has four valence electrons and hydrogen only one.4 also shows schematics for covalent bonding. the sodium atom empties its valence shell Figure UP 1.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 together. NaCl. carbon needs to share electrons with four hydrogen atoms to fill its outer shell (forming the molecule or compound CH4). where the metal atoms are represented by spheres. where an open structure is observed due to the directional nature of the bonds. Figure UP 1.3 Schematic illustrations of ionic bonding and the packing in NaCl Figure UP 1.With these bonding types the valence electrons are either donated or shared respectively.3 for the chemical compound sodium chloride. The figure clearly shows the alternating small. Because the ions have different charges. In the case of silicon carbide. An example of one type of close-packed structure (called face-centred cubic or FCC) is also shown in Figure UP 1. Here the valence electrons are shared rather than donated. The shared electrons from the carbon atoms also fill each of the hydrogen atom’s valence shells (it only needs two).2. The resulting stable positively and negatively charged ions are strongly attracted to each other and hence bonded together. In this process the sodium (Na) atom gives up its single valence electron to become a positively charged sodium ion (cation).

Figure UP 1. the side group is simply hydrogen). particularly if the bonding between the chains is strong. Different combinations can lead to different types of bonding with different strengths (for example.7 shows a schematic illustration of a polymer that is Amor phous region partially crystalline. therefore. Each silicon atom. dipole–dipole. hydrogen.Materials and processing carbon atoms have four electrons in their valence shell. ionic. in this case for poly(ethylene) (also called polyethylene).6 shows examples of dipole–dipole and hydrogen bonding in HCl (hydrochloric acid) and H2O (water) respectively that are typical of the interactions observed in more complicated polymer systems. a H ␦+ Cl ␦– H ␦+ Cl H␦+ ␦– H␦+ b O H␦+ ␦– H ␦+ O ␦– Figure UP 1. Bonding occurs due to the development of small charges (␦ϩ or ␦Ϫ) associated with individual atoms in the molecule and the resulting attraction between oppositely charged atoms in neighbouring molecules. H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H Figure UP 1. Figure UP 1. that is to say. polyethylene for reg ion example. in both two and three dimensions. 63 . For the carbon atoms to fill their valence shell. van der Waals bonding).4 Schematic illustrations of covalent bonding in methane and the packing in SiC H Bonding and packing in polymers (covalent and secondary bonding) There are two types of bonding in polymers.5 Schematic illustrations. it has areas that form a regular.5 shows examples of the directional covalent bonding in the polymer chains. shares one of its valence electrons with that from one of four neighbouring carbon atoms. of the bonding in polyethylene Weaker bonding can also occur between neighbouring polymer chains due to different charges that are associated with different chemical species that form the side groups (in the case of polyethylene. in two and three dimensions.6 Schematic depictions of (a) dipole–dipole bonding and (b) hydrogen bonding Polymer chains often arrange themselves in tangles with no regularity. H H C H Electron from hydrogen Electron from carbon Figure UP 1. are capable of forming ordered structures (crystallizing) if cooled slowly from the liquid state. they too must share electrons with four neighbouring silicon atoms. repeating structure Figure UP 1. and the weaker secondary bonding between neighbouring polymer chains. the covalent bonds between the carbon atoms that comprise the polymer backbone and their neighbours.7 Schematic depiction of (crystalline) and areas with tangled chains that crystalline and amorphous regions in a partially crystalline polymer are amorphous (without shape). Polymers with weak van der Waals bonding Crystalline between the chains. Figure UP 1.

Stainless steels contain very high additions of chromium which gives them their excellent corrosion resistance.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Metals Metals have metallic bonding in which the outer (valence) electrons form a delocalized ‘sea or cloud’ around the close-packed metal cations (see Underpinning Principles 1). Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc and has a much higher strength than pure copper. tube. The nondirectional nature of this bonding allows metal atoms to slide past each other. As a result. resulting in high-density structures. transportation and sports equipment. sheet. Nickel superalloys: Superalloys are metals with excellent heat resistance and good hightemperature mechanical properties. packaging. one with relatively low density) with a high strength-to-weight ratio and good corrosion resistance. meaning that metals normally exhibit high stiffness and a high melting point. There are two main types of alloy: those used for casting (mainly aluminium–silicon alloys) and those suitable for mechanical working (mainly aluminium–copper and aluminium–magnesium alloys). wire. The metallic bond is generally strong and stiff.With these bonding types. bar. Examples of common engineering metals are: Steels: Carbon steels are alloys of iron and carbon. The delocalized sharing of free electrons enables them to move easily under an applied electrical potential difference. brittle or chemically reactive to use on their own. Aluminium alloys: Aluminium is a light metal (i. construction. They are available as plate. such as in transport and construction. The nature of their bonding means that it is very difficult for atoms to slide past each other in the way that they do in metals under stress. Aluminium is available in a wide variety of cast and wrought (mechanically worked) shapes. resulting in their characteristic property of ductility. The bonds are very strong and stiff. Steels with additions of other elements (for example. Current jet engine superalloys contain mostly nickel with large additions of chromium and cobalt. and so alloying can be used to increase strength and hardness and improve corrosion resistance. Copper alloys: Copper is ductile (it can be deformed to a significant degree before fracture) and is an excellent conductor of heat and electricity. chromium. resulting in ceramics that generally exhibit very high stiffness and very high melting points. Most pure metals are either too soft. and also enables metal atoms to pack closely together. the electrons are not free to move throughout the structure in the way that they are for materials with metallic bonding. Copper alloys can achieve a wide range of properties by the addition of different alloying elements. 64 . As a result it is often used for containers. copper is used for electrical and electronic components and for plumbing. Ceramics and glasses Ceramic materials are held together by ionic or covalent bonds (see Underpinning Principles 1). giving metals their characteristic high electrical conductivity. and this means that ceramics are poor conductors of electricity and heat. molybdenum and nickel) are called alloy steels and have higher strengths. castings and forgings. rather than deforming.e. As such. the valence electrons are either shared between neighbouring atoms (covalent) or donated from one atom to its neighbour (ionic). a mixture of two or more elements in which the major component is a metal. These alloys were mostly developed for use as turbine blades in jet engines and can operate at over 1000°C under high stresses. Bronze is an alloy of copper and tin and is commonly used for bearings. They have trade names such as Inconel™ and Hastelloy™. steels are among the most commonly used metals and have a wide variety of applications. Owing to the combination of an impressive set of properties and low cost. Metals are usually used in the form of an alloy. Their inability to do this means that when ceramics are put under mechanical stress. they are susceptible to failure in a catastrophic way (fracture).

colour or lustre. It is most commonly used to reinforce composite materials and is also used in filters. for example to improve durability. in cutting tools and as an abrasive. For example. The main uses for glass are based on its optical transparency and it being nonreactive. as they are in a liquid. The non-crystalline (see Underpinning Principles 2) nature of inorganic glasses along with their low electrical conductivity. turbocharger rotors. Examples of common glasses are: Soda–lime glasses: Sodium oxide (soda) and calcium oxide (lime) are added to silica to produce low-melting-point glasses that are easily formed and very widely used for windows. Examples of engineering ceramics are: Alumina: Alumina (aluminium oxide) is hard and brittle with poor electrical and thermal conductivity. allows light to be transmitted through them. resulting in a brittle material which is very susceptible to failure in the presence of defects. Carbon fibre: Carbon fibre has a high strength-to-weight ratio and a low coefficient of thermal expansion. calcium oxide and magnesium oxide additions to the silica base. Metals can be formed into a glassy state. as an oxidation barrier. bottles and light bulbs. Its atoms are arranged in a somewhat random fashion. E-glass: E-glass contains aluminium oxide. Borosilicate glasses: Boron oxide is added to make heat-resistant and low-expansion borosilicate glasses (Pyrex™) used for cookware and laboratory equipment. The attractive forces between polymer chains play a large part in determining a polymer’s structure and properties. light absorption or transmission.Materials and processing Engineering ceramics are usually used in compression to avoid problems with fracture in tension. It is used for thermal insulation. The structure of polymers can be visualized as tangled chains which form low-density structures with no regularity (see Underpinning Principles 1). Some polymers. have weak forces between the chains. usually produced when a viscous molten material cools very rapidly. Polymers Polymer is a term used to describe a chain of thousands of monomers (see Underpinning Principles 1) that are linked together by the carbon atoms of the polymer backbone. insulation and reinforcement for polymers. turbine blades and shroud rings (for small jet engines). This low bond strength between the chains gives these polymers a low strength and melting temperature but they are capable of forming ordered structures (crystallizing) if cooled slowly from the liquid state (after which they become opaque – since light is scattered by the regular polymer structure). grit-blasting nozzles. Glasses contain mainly silicon dioxide (also called silica). It is used in cutting tools. electrodes and antistatic devices. the formation of poly(ethylene) (also called polyethylene) involves thousands of ethylene molecules (these molecules are the monomers) bonded together to form a long chain. The bonding in glass is covalent. Ceramics resist oxidation and corrosion and are frequently used for their ability to withstand high temperature and for their high hardness. It has excellent fibre-forming capabilities and is used almost exclusively as the reinforcing phase in glass-fibre-reinforced polymer composites (fibreglass). Silicon nitride: Silicon nitride has a high thermal conductivity and toughness (compared to other ceramics). It is also used in the form of fibres for optical cables. but when we think of glasses. in spark plugs. we are normally referring to inorganic materials. These polymers are deemed 65 . Glasses are amorphous materials (see Underpinning Principles 2) without a regular crystal structure. with other oxides added to impart specialist properties. such as polyethylene. They are the least widely used group of engineering materials.

coiled chains that are interlinked at a few points. In its relaxed state. namely the matrix and the reinforcement. It is frequently used for lenses. Composites containing fibres (including wood) have the complication of exhibiting different properties in different directions with respect to the direction of the fibres (they are stronger and stiffer in the direction of the fibres). Composites are often designed to take advantage of the combination of the desirable properties of the constituent materials while circumventing their drawbacks. determined by the fraction of reinforcement added. Composites offer the possibility of tailoring the properties of a material. Polymers with stronger. For example. Rubbers: Natural and synthetic rubbers (for example neoprene or silicone) are flexible and can be made hard wearing with the addition of fillers such as sand or graphite. Epoxies: Epoxy resins. it is self-lubricating and resistant to most chemicals. Some examples are: Nylon: Nylon has good mechanical properties and abrasion resistance. They are resistant to heat and chemical attack and are used as matrices for polymer composites. have excellent mechanical properties and good adhesive properties. The matrix material surrounds and supports the reinforcements by maintaining their relative positions. The most widely used engineering composites are polymer matrices reinforced with ceramic (glass or carbon) fibres but metal–ceramic and ceramic–ceramic composites. the coiled chains unravel. There are normally two types of constituent material within a composite. like glasses) and do not soften with heating (they burn instead and are termed thermosetting). are brittle but have a high resistance to heat. Polyethylene: Polyethylene has moderate strength but is easily formed. when relaxed the chains re-coil. low cost and ease of manufacture. bullet-proof jackets and sports equipment. making each free section of chain shorter. windshields and windows.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 thermoplastic and can be repeatedly heated and cooled to form a viscous melt and a solid structure. rubber consists of long. Composite materials Composite materials (or composites for short) are engineered materials made from two or more constituent materials (normally with significantly different physical or chemical properties) which remain separate and distinct within the finished structure. such as Araldite™. are also common. Natural composites include bone and wood. They are used for car tyres. low density (light weight). are incapable of forming ordered structures (so remain amorphous and transparent. carbon fibres 66 . electricity and chemicals. through the type and addition level of reinforcement. Phenolics: Phenolics. Kevlar: Kevlar has a very high tensile strength and stiffness and is commonly used in the form of fibres to reinforce tyres. Low-density polyethylene is used for houseware. such as Bakelite™. They are used as electrical insulators and as connection blocks. tubing. bottles and car bumpers. Rubber is an elastic hydrocarbon polymer (elastomer) that occurs as a milky colloidal suspension (known as latex) in the sap of several varieties of plant. containing reinforcement in the form of either particles or fibres.Vulcanization of rubber creates more bonds between chains. Rubber can also be produced synthetically through the polymerization of a variety of monomers. It is commonly used for gears and bearings. it weathers well and is resistant to chemicals. Perspex: Perspex has moderate strength but good optical properties (it can be transparent or opaque). in order to meet very demanding service conditions. The reinforcements enhance the matrix properties and the resulting mechanical and physical properties are thus intermediate between those of the matrix and those of the reinforcement.‘O’ rings and gaskets and for insulating electric cables.We term this ‘anisotropy’. making the rubber stiffer and less extendable.When rubber is stretched. The use of polymers is widespread and exploits their reasonable strength. chemical crosslinking between the chains have higher tensile strengths. the high-density version is used for canoes and machine parts.

(ii) body-centred cubic and (iii) hexagonal close packed. On solidification. but do not necessarily need to be so). The grain boundary is an important 67 . the atoms have no regular pattern within the structure. with limited use as engineering components. Solidification and microstructure When a metal begins to solidify from the melt. properties and uses of some common engineering materials. The main crystalline structures observed in metals are known as (i) face-centred cubic. A grain boundary is a region of misorientation between the grains either side of it (the crystals on either side of it may be of different types in certain systems. The crystalline structure implies that atoms are packed within the solid in a regular array. carbon-fibre composites display the high strength and stiffness associated with the carbon fibres and are bonded together with a polymeric matrix so that complex three-dimensional shapes can be manufactured. crystals and glasses In the liquid state. In normal conditions. and the region where grains come into contact with other grains is known as the grain boundary (ses Figure UP 2. ✔ Some basic relationships between structure and properties for different classes of material. the reorganization of atoms from the randomness of the liquid state to the ordered state of a crystal requires time. to get metals to form amorphous solids normally requires very high cooling rates from the melt. Solid metals normally have a crystalline structure. each of these crystals is known as a grain. Learning summary By the end of this section you will have learnt: ✔ ✔ The different classes of materials. If there is not enough time for this reorganization on cooling. most materials (including metals) have no long-range order.1). the liquid can become solid without forming crystals. Glasses easily form on cooling of mixtures of inorganic oxides based upon silica sand (SiO2) and do not require high cooling rates (this is the basis of the formation of window glass). Such materials are used to meet the very demanding service conditions encountered in military aviation and motor sport. The different bonding and structure observed in different material classes.Materials and processing display very high stiffness and strength. ✔ The composition. In the fully solidified material. regions of crystalline solid are formed in the liquid. there is a boundary. a large number of these crystals will grow as the liquid solidifies and when two crystals impinge upon each other. Such a solid with no crystalline structure is known as an amorphous solid or a glass. However. the solid essentially has the randomly ordered structure that was seen in the liquid. Underpinning Principles 2 Structure of matter Liquids. This crystal will grow by the addition of atoms to it. but can only be manufactured in the form of thin fibres. The amount of time required depends upon the mobility of the atoms and the complexity of the crystalline structure in the solid. However. Such amorphous metals are used as the cores of highly efficient transformers where low power losses are required.

with the grain boundaries marked by the red lines While most metals and ceramics that you will encounter will be polycrystalline. its temperature will remain constant until all the liquid has solidified.3. materials can be processed deliberately to form a bulk component that is made up of one crystal (i.e. Atoms are indicated by the circles.3 Temperature history during the solidification of a pure metal 68 . Although most materials (liquids and solids) tend to show a decrease in specific volume as the temperature is lowered. there will be no grain boundaries). One application of this is single crystal turbine blades which have a high resistance to creep. Thus. only then will the temperature fall again. Cooling of liquid Liquid Specific volume Temperature Supercooled liquid Freezing beg ins Freezing ends amorphous solid Crystalline solid Freezing temperature Cooling of solid Solid Liquid Tg Tm Temperature Figure UP 2.2 Changes in specific volume on solidification from the melt to a crystalline or amorphous solid Liquid ϩ solid Time Figure UP 2. Figure UP 2.A metal that is made up of a large number of grains is known as a polycrystalline metal. there is a dramatic change as a liquid solidifies to a crystalline form (see Figure UP 2. The process of crystallization involves the formation of an ordered (crystalline) solid from a more randomly structured liquid. As well as a change in volume.‘Phase diagrams’.1 Schematic diagram of a polycrystalline metal. whereupon.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 feature of common metals as it has a strong influence on strength and high-temperature properties. The solidification of alloys is more complex and will be dealt with in Underpinning Principles 4. its temperature will go down until the melting point is reached.2). An illustration of the temperature history of a pure metal on solidification from the liquid is shown in Figure UP 2. the formation of the new crystalline structure releases energy from the solidifying material in the form of heat. if a pure metal is liquefied and then heat is extracted. although heat is still being extracted.

In the SI system. the deformation is no longer elastic and permanent shape change occurs.2 Schematic of the typical sample geometry used to determine the properties of a material in tension (left) and the tensile testing apparatus (right) 69 . of an object is defined as its resistance to elastic deformation.1 shows both types of elastic behaviour. Load versus displacement data can be converted to produce a plot of engineering stress. The deformation is elastic if when the applied load (which causes extension or deflection of the sample) is removed. Given the large values of elastic modulus that are typical of many common materials. figures are usually quoted in GPa (109 Pa). These materials are described as being linear-elastic and obey Hooke’s law.3 Properties of materials Elastic modulus (stiffness) Definition The elastic modulus.1) Reduced section Radius Specimen Extensometer Gauge length Figure 2. Linearelastic Non-linearelastic Engineer ing strain. This behaviour occurs at low stresses (and therefore strains).A tensile test produces data for the load developed during the extension of a sample at a constant speed. have a high stiffness. The Young’s modulus. are non-linear elastic materials. Figure 2. Figure 2. E. How it is measured The Young’s modulus can be experimentally determined from tensile tests on a sample of the material. the elastic modulus is a constant over a range of strains (up to the elastic limit). The configuration of this test is shown in Figure 2.1 Schematic relationship between stress and strain for a linear-elastic material that obeys Hooke’s Law (most materials behave in this way) and for a non-linear elastic material (rubber) For most materials. . the material returns to its original shape and dimensions. for elastic strains below the elastic limit (typically below 0. Some materials. rubber for example. termed the elastic limit.3) or directly using equation (2. (the force causing the deformation. divided by the original cross-sectional area of the sample. (the ratio of the extension caused by a given stress. L0). The elastic modulus is defined mathematically as the ratio. The area under the stress–strain curve. to the original length of the object. .1): F ᎏᎏ stress FL0 A0 E ϭ ᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ϭ ᎏᎏ A strain ⌬L 0⌬L ᎏᎏ L0 Load cell (2.Materials and processing 2. of the rate of change of stress with strain. Engineer ing stress.1 per cent). can then be calculated from the slope of the stress–strain curve (from the origin to the point where the curve deviates from linearity – this is shown in detail in Figure 2.Above a certain stress and strain. The sample is prepared so that it has thick sections to fit into the grips of the machine and a thinner parallel section of defined (gauge) length in which the deformation is concentrated (since the stress in this thinner section is larger). A0) versus the engineering strain. for any stress up to the elastic limit. therefore. gives the elastic energy stored per unit volume of material. F. modulus of elasticity or stiffness. ⌬L. the units of elastic modulus are newtons per square metre (N mϪ2) or pascals (Pa). A material that requires a high stress to produce a given strain will.2.

polymers have low stiffness. in the case of polymers. The most common way of increasing the stiffness of a material is to reinforce it with a stiffer material. In fact. heat treatment or mechanical working. rather than by stretching of the covalently bonded chains that comprise the backbone of the polymer. Since the Young’s modulus is the ratio of stress to strain. ceramics with this type of bonding. showing the maximum elastic energy stored (area under the linear part of the curve) and how the Young’s Modulus is determined from the slope of the curve (left) Origin of properties The bonds between atoms (see Underpinning Principles 1) can be thought of as springs. are very stiff. the elastic modulus would be used to predict the amount a wire will elastically extend under tension and the deflection of structures such as beams under loading. Polymers deform by untangling and alignment of the polymer chains in the tensile direction. the stiffness of most materials decreases linearly with heating up to the melting point. Figure 2. It is applicable to situations where the applied load produces reversible elastic rather than permanent plastic deformation. For example. the spacing between the atoms increases (we will see by how much. As little can be done to vary the stiffness of the bonds between atoms. measurement of strain from the displacement of the crosshead of the tensile testing machine is often highly inaccurate owing to displacement in the machine itself. the stiffness decreases with increasing temperature. diamond for example.3. derived from a load–displacement curve from tensile testing (right). and data are recorded from this. Relevance to engineering applications The elastic modulus enables the extension or deflection of a material under load to be calculated. making them stiff.2) Engineering stress Eϭ ⑀ Maximum elastic anergy stored Engineering strain It should be noted that because of the small elastic strains involved. later in this section). the spring constant is 15–100 N mϪ1.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 The work done (or elastic energy stored) per unit volume. 70 . These relationships are shown as: 2 E2 W ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ 2E 2 2 (2. When a material is heated. as the stress is raised from zero to any stress (up to the elastic limit) is given by the area under the stress–strain curve up to this stress.3 Schematic engineering stress–strain curve. but less stiff than ceramics. This is also shown in Figure 2. Metals are bound together by metallic bonding. the energy stored can also be determined by considering either the applied stress or applied strain. an extensometer (an instrument to measure extension) is attached directly to the gauge length of the sample. to form a composite.5–5 N mϪ1). The elastic modulus can also be used to determine the energy stored in a structure that has been elastically deformed (and hence can be recovered to do work). the bond between polymer chains weakens. in the form of particles or fibres. Since the stiffness of the bonding between (rather than along) the polymer chains is weak (the spring constant is 0. as permanent plastic deformation would lead to unacceptable distortion of the component. Highest stiffness is observed for materials with high ‘spring constant’ and small separations between atoms (for small or closely packed atoms). the spring constant for the bond between the atoms decreases and. the elastic modulus of a given material varies very little with alloying. W. the ‘stiffness’ of the bond can be expressed in terms of the force required to stretch the bond a unit distance (the ‘spring constant’). To measure the strain more accurately. such as a spring. As a result. The covalent bond has a high stiffness (the spring constant is between 20–200 N mϪ1) and as a result. The Young’s modulus (or stiffness) of a material can be approximated to the bond ‘spring constant’ divided by the length of the bond separating neighbouring atoms. In most engineering situations this is the case.

heat treatment and mechanical working.Materials and processing Learning summary Summary: elastic modulus ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ Elastic modulus. deflection and energy stored in structures under load to be determined (as long as the load produces reversible elastic deformation). most materials have elastic moduli ϳ109 Pa (GPa). The Young’s modulus can be determined from the slope of the straight line portion of stress–strain curves produced by tensile testing.4) has been produced from a sample 10 mm in diameter. determine the stiffness of the material and the maximum elastic energy stored per unit volume.6 3 9–16 35–45 70 70 110 70–200 210 450 1000 Table 2.1 0.15 0. Stiff bonding gives a high modulus.1 Data for the Young’s modulus (stiffness) of materials. The origin of the elastic modulus of a material lies predominantly in the stiffness of the bonding between the atoms that comprise the material. with a gauge length of 40 mm.2 0. ✔ Material Rubber (small strain) Low-density polyethylene High-density polyethylene Polycarbonate Nylon Common woods (along grain) Fibreglass (glass fibre–epoxy. Units are the pascal (Pa).35 Displacement/mm 0.4 Load–displacement curve 71 .01–0. As little can be done to change the stiffness of the bonds.7 2. The elastic modulus enables the extension. Force/kN 20 15 10 5 0 0. The range of values reported for some materials reflects the different degrees of crosslinking (in rubbers). compression. GFRP) Aluminium and alloys Soda glass Titanium Carbon-fibre-reinforced plastic (CFRP) Steels Silicon carbide (SiC) Diamond (C) Young’s modulus (GPa) 0. is defined as an object’s resistance to elastic deformation. the variable densities for different woods and the different volume fractions of fibres in a composite Stiffness The load–displacement curve (Figure 2. the elastic modulus varies very little with alloying.05 0. Using this plot.25 0.45 Figure 2. modulus of elasticity or stiffness.

determine the force and displacement values corresponding to the end of the linear part of the curve (this is shown in Figure 2. The cords are extended to twice their original length before being released.12 Displacement/mm Figure 2. The maximum stress is the load divided by the cross-sectional area of the cable (6. The Young’s modulus is the stress divided by the corresponding strain and is 70 GPa (it is an aluminium alloy). W. therefore. multiplied by the total volume of the two cords. giving a total stored energy of 12.5 Load–displacement curve showing the construction for determining the elastic limit from which the stiffness and the maximum stored energy can be calculated A 28 mm diameter steel cable is used to raise and lower a passenger lift through a height of 50 m. If the deformation in the cable is purely elastic (and we ignore the mass of the cable). The total energy stored is the energy per unit volume. each 4 mm in diameter and 100 mm long.1 MPa. what is the maximum extension in the cable? (The stiffness of steel is 210 GPa.12 mm respectively. The maximum stored energy per unit volume is the product of stress and strain values corresponding to the end of the linear section (the limit of the elastic behaviour) divided by 2. 1.5 Force/kN 0. in each cord is obtained from the equation E 2 W ϭ ᎏᎏ 2 and is 5 ϫ 106 J mϪ3. and is 315. The strain in each cord is.5 kN and 0. The force and displacement are 16.81 and is 11.26 ϫ 10Ϫ6 m3.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Using Figure 2. Each cord has a volume of 1. but you need to find the end of the linear part of the curve for the next part!). the original length was also 100 mm. How much energy is stored in the slingshot before release? (The modulus of the material is 0. The energy stored per unit volume.) The load on the cable is (200 ϩ 1000 kg) ϫ 9.5 – any point on the linear part of the curve would do.1 ϫ 106 Pa). corresponding to engineering stress and strain values of 210 MPa and 3 ϫ 10Ϫ3 respectively.) The change in length of the cord is 100 mm.158 ϫ 10Ϫ4 m2) and is 19. A slingshot has two linear-elastic cords.01 GPa.1 ϫ 10Ϫ5. The maximum extension is the strain multiplied by the length when the cable is fully extended (to 50 m) and is 4.4. The cab has a mass of 200 kg and the maximum mass of passengers that may be transported is 1000 kg.772 N.55 mm. Since the stiffness is 210 GPa (210 ϫ 109 Pa) and the stress is 19. 16.1 MPa (19.55 ϫ 10Ϫ3 m or 4.6 J. the strain is 9.000 J mϪ3 or 0.315 MJ mϪ3. 72 .

The strength of the bonds in ceramics is high and they exhibit high failure strengths so long as they do not contain cracks or defects. This construction is also shown in Figure 2. i. In the SI system. Helped by packing defects or dislocations (see Underpinning Principles 3) in the atomic structure. the stress upon it increases. This is because real materials contain defects. However. is a measure of the maximum tensile stress a material can withstand before failure. With increasing temperature. with weak forces between the chains. the deformation will be non-reversible (or plastic). Typical values for many common materials are quoted in MPa (106 Pa). there is no concept of a yield point in either tension or compression in ceramics.e. heat treatment and processing. the yield and tensile strengths can be determined from engineering stress–strain curves obtained from uniaxial tensile tests.2% y Engineering stress. 0. the units are newtons per square metre (N mϪ2) or pascals (Pa). In simple terms. chemical crosslinking have high tensile strengths. In real materials it is often difficult to determine accurately the point at which the stress–strain curve becomes non-linear. 0. the more tangled the structure. Crack defects result in failure at much lower stresses than the tensile stress and since most ceramics contain small cracks.6. Once the yield stress is exceeded. Unlike the stiffness of these materials.002 Engineering strain. material flow can occur by creep. The measurement of these values from a typical stress–strain curve is shown in Figure 2. Data for the fracture stress for ceramics are always quoted in compression for this reason. The tensile strength is the maximum stress on this curve. How it is measured As in the case for measuring stiffness. this occurs at much lower stresses than those required to break the bonds.2 per cent). Because of this. In metals. such a calculation yields values that are much higher than those measured experimentally. The yield strength at 0. Figure 2. the yield and tensile strength can be greatly affected by chemical composition. the yield strength corresponds to the stress at which the slope of the stress–strain curve starts to deviate from linearity.2 per cent or 0.2 per cent proof stress (0. the more resistant it is to deformation.As a result. Both the yield and the tensile strength are measured in units of force per unit area. simply a failure stress. ceramics are best used in compression for engineering applications (so the cracks do not open). or ultimate tensile stress. result in low-strength materials. Prior to the yield stress (also called the yield strength or elastic limit) the material will deform elastically and will return to its original shape when the applied stress is removed. In covalent ceramics.002 (0.2 per cent proof stress) is determined by finding the intersection of the stress–strain curve with a line parallel to the initial slope of the curve and which intersects the x-axis at 0. polymers with stronger. As a result.2) and tensile stress (TS) marked Origin of properties It should be possible to determine the strength of a material from the strength of the bonds between the atoms and the distance between atoms (see Underpinning Principles 1). dislocation motion becomes easier. the yield 73 . no stress above which plastic deformation can occur. Polymers. TS 0. the non-directional nature of the metallic bond allows metal atoms to slide past each other. resulting in permanent shape change. the directional bonding means that it is very difficult for atoms to slide past each other (since they must keep the same spatial relationship with their neighbours) and this limits their capacity to undergo plastic flow. assisted by diffusion and the bonds between polymer chains weaken.2 per cent offset (or more usually termed the 0. Polymers deform by the alignment and untangling of the long chain structure.6. The tensile strength.002).6 Schematic stress–strain plot with the yield stress (y). the yield point is often defined as the stress at some arbitrary value of plastic strain (typically 0.Materials and processing Yield and tensile strength Definition As a material is continuously strained.

Very few designs allow the plastic deformation of components to occur and for this reason designing for stresses up to the tensile stress is not common. is the maximum tensile stress a material can withstand before failure. plastic deformation occurs as the chains slide past each other.2 Data for the yield and failure strengths of materials (values in brackets are in compression).000) Table 2. The origin of plastic deformation in metals is the shearing of planes of atoms past each other.000) (50. obtained from tensile tests. however. since it generally represents an upper limit to the stress that can be applied. In tension the fracture of ceramics occurs due to the presence of cracks at stresses below the tensile stress. and most materials have yield and tensile strengths ϳ106 Pa (MPa). unlike the stiffness. The tensile strength. Relevance to engineering applications Knowledge of the yield strength of a material is vital when designing a component. ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ Material Low-density polyethylene Rubber High-density polyethylene Common woods (along grain) Polycarbonate Nylon Fibreglass (glass fibre–epoxy. mechanical working and heat treatment 74 . It is. so does the yield strength. In polymers. rather than the breaking of bonds between neighbouring atoms. Units are the pascal (Pa).An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 strength of materials decreases with increasing temperature and. or ultimate tensile stress. As the strength of the bonding between chains increases. The yield strength defines an upper limit to the tensile or compressive stress that can be applied to a component without irreversible plastic deformation. Exceeding this stress will. Ceramics do not show plastic deformation. lead to permanent distortion of the component. the yield strength decreases rapidly with temperature. The yield and tensile strength can be determined from stress–strain curves. by taking the stress at which the stress–strain curve deviates from linearity and the maximum value of the stress on the curve respectively. Examples of applications include calculating the maximum loads on wires and cables in tension. in a non-linear fashion. useful to appreciate the interval of stress between yielding and failure for a material so that appropriate safety factors can be considered to avoid catastrophic failure as a result of overloading the component. of course. GFRP) Mild steel Aluminium alloys Carbon-fibre-reinforced plastic (CFRP) Titanium alloys Low-alloy steels Silica glass Silicon carbide (SiC) Diamond (C) Yield strength (MPa) 6–20 – 20–30 – 55 40–90 – 220 100–600 – 180–1320 500–1900 – – – Tensile strength (MPa) 20 30 37 35–55 60 100 100–300 430 300–700 640–670 300–1400 680–2400 (7200) (10. The wide range of values for a given material type reflects the ability to change the properties through changes in the chemical composition. spinning discs and pressurized vessels. Learning summary Summary: yield and tensile strength ✔ The yield stress is the stress above which non-reversible (or plastic) deformation occurs.

01 8 0. A clamping force of 1000 N is required to ensure that the assembly functions in service.3 ϫ 10Ϫ3 m or 5. The contact stress on the nylon is 52 MPa. we can calculate the crosssectional area (force/stress) and hence the diameter for the rods. What diameter should these rods be to ensure that they can provide the required clamping force without yielding? (Assume the yield strength of the mild steel used to be 220 MPa. The diameter is 4 mm.Materials and processing Yield and tensile strength Using the stress–strain curve in Figure 2.2 per cent proof stress – 240 MPa) and the maximum stress (the tensile stress – 250 MPa). 0. These constructions are shown in Figure 2. The force is pressure ϫ area and is 19. This is shared among the four tie rods each carrying 4909 N. 00 . 01 8 0. Figure 2. the applied load is 2000 N and the stress is therefore.8.23 ϫ 10Ϫ5 m2 and the diameter is 5. This same force is transmitted through the head of the bolt and nut to the nylon plate (they are 7 mm in diameter). 01 4 0. so the plates will be plastically deformed.7. 01 0 0. Since the rods will be overtightened to ensure sufficient clamping force is provided. construct lines for the appropriate stresses at the end of the linear section (the elastic limit or yield stress – 215 MPa). A mild steel bolt with a 4 mm diameter shank and a (approximately) 7 mm diameter head and nut are used to clamp two nylon plates together. In reality. If the bolt is overtightened to give a force of 2000 N. 02 6 Engineering strain 00 0. this represents a minimum diameter (an appropriate safety factor should also be included). 02 6 Engineering strain Figure 2. 0. 01 0 0. Yield stress 0. 159 MPa. The cross-sectional area is 2.002 (the 0. Using the plot.7 Schematic stress–strain curve 0. which must contain a gas pressure of 100 bar (10 MPa). will the bolt plastically deform and will the nylon plate be damaged? (Assume the yield strength of mild steel and nylon to be 220 and 45 MPa respectively. well below the yield stress. Knowing the load and the yield stress of the steel.) First calculate the clamping force needed to clamp the ends onto the cylinder. 01 4 0. 0.) Calculate the maximum stress in the bolt to see if it yields. the stress at an offset strain of 0. 02 2 0.635 N. 02 2 0. 75 2 00 6 0.3 mm. determine the yield.8 Schematic stress–strain curve with construction lines to calculate the appropriate stresses Four mild steel tie bars are to be used to clamp caps onto the ends of a cylinder with an internal diameter of 50 mm. washers larger than 7 mm would be used to increase the contact area and decrease the contact stress.2% proof stress Tensile stress Engineering stress/MPa 200 150 100 50 0 Engineering stress/MPa 250 250 200 150 100 50 0 2 00 6 0.2 per cent proof stress and tensile strength of the material. and so the bolt will deform elastically.

Most have grain boundaries where the atomic packing is less than perfect (see Underpinning Principles 2). Figure UP 3.e. but the ductility (elongation to failure) decreases. so the yield stress increases. If a shear stress is applied as indicated. at an atomic scale. In addition. we need either to remove all the dislocations (impractical) or make it harder for dislocations to move. rows of bonds can break one at a time to allow easy passage of the dislocation through the material. In a carefully prepared metal.While we do not see this. dislocations have moved. we observe an increase in yield stress.1 shows a crystal with a missing row of atoms (a dislocation). Work strengthening (dislocation strengthening) When a metal is deformed plastically. 76 . planes of atoms are moving with respect to each other. There are four main ways to impede the motion of dislocations. Macroscopically.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Underpinning Principles 3: Dislocations and metal deformation If a stress higher than the yield stress is applied to a metal. These missing rows of atoms are crucial in terms of permanent deformation of metals. There is a direct link here between atomic scale processes and the macroscopic material’s properties. but in a heavily deformed sample it may rise to as much as 1016 m mϪ3. not all the bonds have to break at once. leading to an increased dislocation density. Conversely. As the dislocation mobility decreases. the dislocation density may be as low as 107 m mϪ3 (length of dislocation per metre cubed of material). then macroscopically. if we can change materials at the atomic scale so that dislocations are prevented from moving. the yield strength increases. increase the yield stress). the dislocations get tangled up on each other as they move (and can indeed lock each other in position). As the dislocation density rises. then on an atomic scale. τ τ τ Edge dislocation τ Figure UP 3. These dislocations can be visualized as missing rows of atoms. As the dislocation density increases. most materials are crystalline in nature. not only do dislocations move. most metals contain dislocations within the individual crystals (grains) themselves. but instead. then permanent shape change takes place – plastic deformation.1 A dislocation in a metal being caused to move by the application of stress Strengthening mechanisms To make a material more resistant to plastic deformation (i. As we have seen. if we observe plastic deformation. but they also multiply in number.

and 0 and ky are constant for a given alloy. the more ductile the material. the elastic contraction can be removed by drawing a line parallel to the linear part of the curve. From the stress–strain curve.Materials and processing Solid solution strengthening Local strain can be induced in a crystal structure by alloying. as the sample contracts after fracture. Ductility and toughness Definition Ductility is a measure of the plastic strain at failure. A rough indication of the strain to failure or ductility can be obtained from the strain corresponding to the breaking stress (marked by the cross at the end point on the curve shown in Figure 2. but this strain represents both the plastic and elastic deformation of the sample.9). alloying results in an increase in yield strength. a strain.3) . The elastic part of the deformation is recovered. Toughness is measured in units of joules per cubic metre (J mϪ3). The engineering strain to failure is then given by: Lf Ϫ L0 f ϭ ᎏ ᎏ Lf where Lf and L0 are the final and original gauge lengths of the sample respectively. and this can be achieved by very careful heat treatment of well-designed alloys. The increase in yield strength with decreasing grain size is given by the Hall–Petch equation: yield ϭ 0 ϩ kyd Ϫᎏ2ᎏ 1 where d is the grain size. Ductility. The toughness is the resistance to fracture of a material when stressed. and as such. but this contraction is not recorded via the displacement of the crosshead on the tensile testing machine. since the atoms of the main crystal are of a different size. How it is measured The ductility can be determined from a stress–strain curve produced by tensile testing. The larger the strain at failure. the motion of dislocations is impeded by the presence of grain boundaries. the precipitates need to be small and very close together. and an increase in the yield strength is observed.Where this intersects the x-axis is the actual plastic deformation (this construction is also shown in Figure 2. Precipitation strengthening Small particles of a second phase within a crystal may be able to hinder dislocation motion. The ductility can also be measured by reassembling the fractured tensile specimen and measuring the extension of the gauge length. The alloying elements will dissolve into the main crystal (a solid solution) but will disrupt the perfect structure. It is defined as the amount of energy that a unit volume of material can absorb before fracture. As such. Grain boundary strengthening Grain boundaries are regions of crystal imperfection in a structure. This makes it more difficult for dislocations to move through this structure. is unitless and is usually described in terms of a percentage elongation or reduction in cross-sectional area at failure. The opposite of ductile is brittle. To do this effectively. More grain boundary area is present in a structure as the grain size decreases. 77 (2. backwards from the breaking point.9).

a metal and a ceramic (in compression). Tough materials. it remains low and can be considered brittle (fracture requires very little energy).10 shows typical stress–strain curves for a polymer. Polymers with high levels of crosslinking or strong bonding between the chains show lower ductilities. Origin of properties The origin of ductility comes from a material’s ability to undergo plastic deformation. Of most interest (and concern to designers. Another measure of the fracture energy or toughness can be obtained from a Charpy impact test. total racture f strain Figure 2. as the strength of a given material is increased. Materials with high yield strengths. Ceramics have limited capacity for plastic deformation and are brittle (the opposite of ductile).9 Schematic stress–strain plot with the fracture point. impacts plain or notched samples of the material located at the bottom point of the swing path. It is clear that although the ceramic has a higher tensile strength and the polymer a much larger ductility than the metal. where a change from a ductile to a brittle mode of fracture occurs as the temperature decreases. tend to have low ductilities. The height to which the pendulum swings through the fractured sample is used to calculate the potential energy that is lost during the fracture process and hence the fracture energy (in this case in J mϪ2). as it introduces uncertainty) is the behaviour of materials that do not have a face-centred cubic structure (which is most steels) and polymers. racture point f ductility f Engineering strain.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Engineering stress. in which atomic sliding is more difficult. from the size of the areas under the respective curves it is clear that the metal (which has a good balance of strength and ductility) has the highest toughness. Figure 2. nickel and stainless steel (which have a particular atomic structure: face-centred cubic or FCC) and the failure process is ductile (fracture requires a lot of energy). The toughness of a material is in part determined by the degree to which a material can undergo plastic deformation before it fails.11 shows the dramatic effect that the testing temperature has on the energy required to fracture different materials. Plastic deformation readily occurs in metals owing to the relative ease with which planes of atoms can slide past one another and hence they have high ductility. Figure 2. the ductility will decrease. such as metals. Polymers are able to show high ductilities if their chains are able to slide past each other. The change in fracture energy with temperature is also small for high-strength (non-metallic) materials. total fracture strain and ductility (plastic strain to fracture) shown The toughness of a material can be determined from the stress–strain curve by finding the area underneath the curve (and subtracting the elastic component). In this simple test. but also the stress at which deformation occurs. a swinging pendulum with a hammer attached. This behaviour is typified by the fact that the undeformed surfaces of fractured ceramics (such as vases or cups) can be glued back together to recreate the original shape. In general. either as a result of alloying or processing. 78 . have a combination of high strength and high ductility. copper. The change in fracture energy is small for metals such as aluminium.

Fracture energy high toughness (metals) FCC metals (e. below it they behave like true solids (with low ductility but high strength and stiffness). above the transition temperature. so at room temperature they are rubbery. The ductile–brittle transition temperature for some steels can be as high as 0°C. Above the glass transition temperature.. however. ✔ ✔ ✔ 79 . efforts are usually made to avoid plastic deformation. The toughness is important in determining the energy that is absorbed during fracture.11 Schematic showing the effect of temperature on the energy required to fracture different types of materials In non-FCC metals. The toughness of a material can be determined from a stress–strain curve by finding the area underneath the curve.g. The areas under the curves show the metal to have the highest toughness Temperature Ductile-to-brittle transition temperature Figure 2. Relevance to engineering applications The ductility of a material is not often considered in the design of a structure or component. Al. Figure 2. the weak bonds between the polymer chains ‘melt’ (the strong crosslinks. The toughness is important in determining the energy that is absorbed during fracture either in an attempt to resist fracture or to absorb as much energy as possible during impact. The origin of the ductility of a material comes from its ability to undergo plastic deformation. polymers behave like viscous liquids or rubbers (with high ductility but low strength and stiffness). however. This may be appropriate for designing materials for bike locks to resist impact from a hammer or to select materials that will intentionally absorb impact such as roadside safety barriers. relevant in a number of engineering applications. in fact. An appreciation of the toughness of a material is. The ductility of a material is not often considered in the design of a structure or component. The toughness of a material is in part determined by the degree to which the material can undergo plastic deformation before it fails but also the stress required to produce plastic deformation. for perspex it is at 100°C. Learning summary ✔ Ductility is a measure of the plastic strain at failure and is unitless. The temperature for the transition varies with material: for example. the decrease in toughness is a result of dislocation motion becoming much more difficult as the temperature is decreased. Cu. remain intact).Materials and processing low toughness (ceramics) Engineering stress. so at room temperature it is glassy. The ductility can be determined from a stress–strain curve produced by tensile testing and is roughly the strain corresponding to the breaking stress. for low-density polyethylene it is Ϫ20°C and for natural rubber it is Ϫ40°C. In polymers the ductile–brittle transition (more commonly called the rubber–glass transition) occurs because.10 Schematic stress–strain curves for a ceramic (in compression) a metal and a polymer. Ni) Non-FCC metals Polymers Brittle Ductile High strength materials low toughness (polymers) Engineering strain. The toughness is the amount of energy a material absorbs during fracture and has units of J mϪ3.

3 Data for the ductility of materials. 250 200 150 100 50 0 0. 0.020 and the toughness is 4. mechanical working and heat treatment Ductility and toughness Engineering stress/MPa Using the stress–strain curve in Figure 2.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Material Rubber Low-density polyethylene Nylon Copper Mild steel Aluminium alloys Titanium alloys Low-alloy steels Glass (all types) Carbon-fibre-reinforced plastic (CFRP) Ceramics Ductility (%) 800 100–650 15–80 55 18–25 5–40 6–30 2–30 4. The total strain to failure is 0. what is the elongation imposed? If the elongation to failure is 25 per cent. Engineering strain Figure 2.1 (or 10 per cent).12.3 nil Table 2. The average stress is roughly 240 MPa. 0. 00 00 01 01 01 02 0.25) then the maximum reduction is 5 mm and the final thickness would be 15 mm.13). If the maximum elongation is 25 per cent (or 0. 0. Estimate the toughness of the material in J m؊3. The wide range of values for a given material type reflects the ability to change the ductility through chemical composition. 0. what is the minimum thickness that can be achieved? The reduction in thickness is 2 mm and hence the engineering strain is 0. If a metal slab is reduced in thickness from 20 mm to 18 mm by a metalworking process. Determine the total and plastic strains from the stress–strain plot (using the construction shown in Figure 2.12 Schematic stress–strain curve Engineering stress/MPa 250 200 150 100 50 0 0. 01 8 0.020. 02 2 0.6 per cent) and the plastic strain is 0.026 (2. 0. 2 02 6 2 6 0 4 8 0 01 4 0. 0. 0.8 ϫ 106 J mϪ3. 02 6 2 6 00 00 01 . The area of the parallelogram is simply the base multiplied by the height. Engineering strain Figure 2. determine both the total and the plastic strain at fracture. the plastic strain is 0.13 Schematic stress–strain curve with construction lines drawn 80 0.3 0. Estimate an average stress above the yield point such that the net area of the region between the average stress and the curve is close to zero.

5) l1 F l2 a b 136° Figure 2. HV (after conversion to MPa) can be approximated as three times the yield strength of the material (in MPa). The hardness. more specifically. A practical method to convert HV to MPa is to multiply by 9. employing different shapes of indenter. In this technique. e. the surface properties of the material are measured. The projected surface area. Since little damage to the material occurs. the depth of the indent is reasonably shallow and. the properties of coatings and hardened surface layers can be measured (if the indent depth is less than 10 per cent of the coating thickness). How it is measured Hardness is normally measured using an indentation method. 120 HV10. The hardness is determined by the load over the projected area of the indentation.Materials and processing Hardness Definition The hardness of a material is an expression of its resistance to indentation and. an indenter of specified geometry (usually made from diamond) is forced into the material under a controlled load.81. the testing method is largely nondestructive and is ideal for quality control. where l is the average length of the diagonal left by the indenter: Aϭ 12 ᎏᎏl 2 sin(136°/2) (2. The geometry of the indenter is shown in Figure 2. and 10 indicates the load used in kgf.5). as a result. HV gives the hardness scale (Vickers).Vickers hardness has non-SI units of force divided by area (in kgf mmϪ2).4) and (2. This represents a hardness of 120 kgf mmϪ2. By measuring the size of the resulting indent in the material. To convert a Vickers hardness number to SI units (Pa) the force applied must be converted from kgf to newtons and the area from mm2 to m2. By using a small indent and an appropriately reduced load. 60 HV corresponds to a yield stress (y) of approximately 200 MPa. For example. as seen from above. its resistance to permanent plastic deformation. where 120 is the hardness number. The main methods are the Vickers.854F HV ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏ2 ᎏ l A (2. A.g. Brinell and Rockwell hardness tests. There are a number of different ways of conducting this test. the hardness can be measured. the greater its resistance to indentation and plastic deformation. 81 .14 Schematic illustration of the geometry of the Vickers indent (left) and indenter (right) Vickers hardness numbers are reported as xxx HVyy. F The Vickers pyramid number (HV) or hardness is then determined by the ratio ᎏᎏ.14. which require different conversion factors between indent size and hardness. For all methods. For most materials these properties are representative of the bulk. in the shape of a square-based pyramid with an angle of 136° between opposite faces. and the hardness can be determined using equations (2.4) F 1. The harder a material is. The Vickers hardness test uses a diamond indenter. where F is A the force applied to the diamond and A is the projected surface area of the resulting indentation.

the hardness of a material is a good indicator of other properties that are highly relevant. Those materials that have high yield strengths will have high hardness. Since hardness is related to the resistance to plastic deformation and the yield strength.4 Data for hardness of materials (and comparison with actual yield stress data – compressive failure stress for ceramics) Hardness A Vickers hardness test is performed on a material. ceramics. For a given load.300 7000 700 150 60 16 Table 2. the higher the hardness. ✔ Material Diamond Alumina Tungsten carbide Mild steel (normalised) Annealed copper Annealed aluminium Lead Hardness (kgf mmϪ2) 8400 2600 2100 210 47 22 6 Yield stress (MPa) 54. Estimate the hardness from the indent size. and polymers. Hence those materials that have high yield strengths will have high hardness.3 MPa and the yield stress is approximately 425 MPa: 1. have low hardness. A high hardness indicates a high yield strength and a high resistance to indentation and deformation (and forming). metals. Since the test applies a largely compressive force. which have lower compressive yield stresses than ceramics.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Origin of properties The hardness of a material is dictated by its resistance to plastic deformation. a hardness of 130 HV30 is obtained. for example after heat treatment. substituting the force (in kgf) and diagonal length (in mm). What is the approximate yield stress of the material? Using the expression below. The hardness of metals. A hardness indent on a component may be used as a means of quality control to ensure that the desired strength has been achieved. Hardness is a good indicator of a material’s ability to resist yield and deformation and can be used as a means of quality control. the hardness of ceramics can be measured by this method. the hardness decreases.100 11. polymers and coatings can be measured using this method. Relevance to engineering applications While the selection of a material in a design may not be driven by the hardness. A load of 30 kgf is applied and it produces a square indent of diagonal length 0. The hardness of a material is dictated by its resistance to plastic deformation. Learning summary By the end of this section you will have learnt: ✔ ✔ ✔ The hardness of a material is an expression of its resistance to indentation and plastic deformation. the smaller the indent. Ceramics have high hardness. Hardness is normally measured using an indentation method. The hardness is 1275. show intermediate levels of hardness.654 mm.854F HV ϭ ᎏᎏ l2 82 . as the temperature increases. which are weak.

as a result of directional. tend to have high densities. The mixing of two materials (for example. which are composed of light atoms and have open. The atomic size does not vary that much from the largest to the smallest atom but the weight does and increases (along with the density) as the atomic number increases (see Underpinning Principles 1). covalent bonding. and polymers. The density of a material originates from the weight and packing of the atoms or molecules that comprise the material. This may be of high importance if the component is moving (either in an engine or machine. those with open structures.6). their volume can be measured by either the volume of water (Archimedes’ method) or gas that they displace. those with more open structures. If a material with the same mechanical properties but with a lower density can be used. Materials with closely packed structures will have high densities. where is the density of the fibre (f) or matrix (m) and Vf is the volume fraction of fibres: (2. The SI unit of density is kilograms per cubic metre (kg mϪ3). as observed in ceramics. For powder materials and foams an apparent density is often defined which takes into account the air spaces between the powder particles or within the material. low densities. however. The use of low-density materials is important to save weight and energy in structures that move. The simplest way to determine the density of an object of regular shape is to measure its mass and divide this by its volume. have intermediate densities. For irregular shapes. according to equation (2. the bulk density of a material is considered (for a lump of material). tangled chain structures. The density of the material used in a component will affect its mass. Heating a material will cause it to expand (the atoms will become less closely packed) and the density will decrease. since the energy required to move it will be less. a glass fibre with a polymer matrix) to make a composite does. Origin of properties The density of a material originates from the weight. Learning summary By the end of this section you will have learnt: ✔ ✔ ✔ Density () is a measure of the mass of a material per unit volume. or as part of an aircraft). The density of the composite can be described by a simple law of mixtures. such as metals. 83 ✔ . The SI unit of density is kilograms per cubic metre (kg mϪ3). Most commonly. the component will be lighter. little can be done to change the density of a material by processing or heat treatment. thereby giving scope for increasing performance or saving fuel. change the density of the new material.6) composite ϭ Vf f ϩ (1 Ϫ Vf)m Relevance to engineering applications The density of a material is often very important in design as it will affect the mass of the component. Compounds and alloys with closely packed structures. How it is measured The simplest way to determine the density of an object of regular shape is to measure its mass and divide this by its volume (obtained by accurate measurement of the sample dimensions).Materials and processing Density Definition Density () is a measure of the mass of a material per unit volume. have low densities. As is the case with the stiffness of a material. size and the packing of the atoms or molecules that comprise the material.

where Vf ϭ 0. What is the density of this material? The density is the mass per unit volume. 84 . What are the masses for boxes of the same size made from polyethylene and steel? (The densities for aluminium.5 Data for the density of materials (at 20°C). has a mass of 265 g.300 19. The volume is 5. From the mass divided by the density.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Material Platinum Gold Tungsten Copper Iron Steel Titanium Diamond Aluminium Graphite Fibreglass (glass fibre–epoxy. An aluminium casing for the electronics to control a robot weighs 810 g. The polyethylene and steel boxes will have the same volumes.0 g cc؊1)? composite ϭ Vf f ϩ (1 Ϫ Vf )m Using the equation above. the aluminium box has a volume of 3 ϫ 10Ϫ4 m3. the density of the composite is 2020 kg mϪ3. What is the density (in kg m؊3) of a composite containing 60 per cent by volume of glass fibres (density ϭ 2.256 kg.7 g cc؊1) in a polymer matrix (density ϭ 1. The density is 4499 kg mϪ3 (it is titanium). Density A metal disc. Their masses will be 291 g and 2355 g respectively.450 19. polyethylene and steel are 2700.6 (60 per cent) and 1 g cmϪ3 ϭ 1000 kg mϪ3.250 8960 7870 7850 4500 3500 2700 2200 2000 1740 1500 1300 1100 1000 970 850 600 Table 2. 50 mm in diameter and 30 mm thick.89 ϫ 10Ϫ5 m3 and the mass 0. GFRP) Magnesium Carbon-fibre-reinforced plastic (CFRP) PVC Nylon Water High-density polyethylene Rubber Wood Density (kg mϪ3) 21. 970 and 7850 kg m؊3 respectively).

How it is measured The linear thermal expansion coefficient for a material can be measured by heating a material in a controlled manner (at a constant and slow heating rate) and measuring the length dilation of the sample. The higher bond stiffness in metals and ceramics means they have much lower expansion coefficients. very little can be done to change the thermal expansion behaviour for a material. The coefficient of expansion (slope) does vary with temperature (and so is usually quoted at a given temperature) but can be considered to be constant over a short temperature interval. From a plot of extension (as strain) versus temperature. When a material is heated. can be given as thermal ϭ ␣⌬T (2. Learning summary By the end of this section you will have learnt: ✔ Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to increase in volume when heated. Expansion-induced strains can cause the distortion of components and structures. The linear strain produced due to a change in temperature. solids expand in response to heating (reducing in density) and contract on cooling. If different materials are joined. gives the thermal strain. as does the bond length. In most cases thermal strains should be minimized. 85 ✔ ✔ ✔ . solids expand in response to heating and contract on cooling. Since thermal expansion depends mainly on the bond stiffness. Thermal-expansion-induced strains can cause the distortion of components and structures. the volumetric thermal expansion coefficient can be approximated to three times the linear coefficient (3␣) and would replace ␣ in equation (2. Origin of properties When a material is heated.Materials and processing Thermal expansion Definition Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to increase in volume when heated. As a result.7) where ␣ is the coefficient of linear thermal expansion which has units of KϪ1. This response to temperature change is expressed as its coefficient of thermal expansion. multiplied by the change in temperature. As a result. The coefficient of thermal expansion. the linear coefficient of expansion can be determined from the gradient of the slope. Relevance to engineering applications Heat-induced expansion has to be taken into account in many engineering and manufacturing applications. structures such as pipelines may buckle. differential thermal strains can result in large stresses and distortion or failure of the component. the energy that is stored in the bonds increases. In most cases thermal strains should be minimized so that structures remain dimensionally stable. For most (isotropic) materials. the atoms vibrate with increasing amplitude and the bond length between atoms increases. the energy in the bonds between atoms increases. For liquids and solids the amount of expansion will vary depending on the material’s coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). Without the use of expansion joints. ⌬T. The open structure of polymers and the ease with which the weakly bonded polymer chains can unravel means that polymers have very high coefficients of expansion. The linear thermal expansion coefficient for a material can be measured by heating a material in a controlled manner and measuring the length dilation of the sample as a function of temperature.7) when calculating the volumetric strain. The coefficient of linear thermal expansion has units of KϪ1. This dilation can be measured using contacting displacement transducers (usually employing an intermediate silica ‘push rod’ that does not expand so that the transducer remains cold) or non-contact techniques using induced currents or lasers.

86 .6 Data for the coefficient of linear thermal expansion of materials (at 20°C) Thermal expansion A 100 mm long copper bar is heated by 150°C. the stress is the stiffness multiplied by the strain and is 281 MPa. Pyrex Silicon Diamond Quartz. When constrained.5 3.59 Table 2. for example). fused ␣ (10Ϫ6 KϪ1) 60 23 19 17.0 ϫ 10Ϫ4.3 17 13 11 8. Using the expression below.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Material Mercury Aluminium Brass Stainless steel Copper Nickel Carbon steel Glass Tungsten Glass.3 3 1 0. The steel extends less. therefore they cannot move independently. what is the (compressive) stress in the bar? (The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) for copper is 17 ؋ 10؊6 K؊1 and its stiffness at 150°C is 110 GPa). The result is that the unstable structure curls up (a large displacement compared to the small misfit strain!). the thermal strain is 2.55 ϫ 10Ϫ3 and the expansion is 0. Calculate the strain and expansion in the heated bar. They are joined. assuming that the CTE is constant over the temperature interval of interest. ␣steel ؍11 ؋ 10؊6 K؊1). Materials are used in this way to make bimetallic strips that work as switches (in kettles. thermal ϭ ␣⌬T Copper and steel sheets of the same size are riveted together. Calculate the strains in the two materials: for Cu it is 2.65 ϫ 10Ϫ3. The misfit strain is the difference and is 9.5 4. assuming Hooke’s law applies. If the material is not allowed to expand.255 mm. so is stretched by the copper (the steel is in tension) and the Cu is pulled back by Fe (the copper is in compression). Calculate the misfit strain between the two if they are both heated by 150°C (␣copper ؍17 ؋ 10؊6 K؊1.55 ϫ 10Ϫ3 for Fe it is 1.

Data from the London Metal Exchange Limited and produced with permission Relevance to engineering applications While the cost of a material is not a property governed by its physical behaviour. In addition to all these issues is the cost of energy relating to transportation between processing stages and delivery to the user. Described in this way it has units (in the UK) of £ kgϪ1. ceramic oxides) which can vary considerably with their abundance.15 shows how the price of primary aluminium (after it has been extracted from its ore) has fluctuated over a six-year period. has many components to it. commonly in terms of the mass. Often material selection is constrained by the target cost of the product and the profit that must be made. Cost is an important aspect to consider as the choice of material is often constrained by the cost of the product and the best material for a particular application may be too expensive or in too limited a supply to be used. The best material for a particular application may be too expensive or in too limited a supply to be used. There are energy and processing costs associated with the conversion of the raw material and then processing of the material into the appropriate form or shape. Finally. usually in terms of the mass.15 Fluctuation in price (in US$/tonne) for primary aluminium over a six-year interval.Materials and processing Cost Definition The cost of a material is defined as the price to the consumer to purchase a unit quantity. 87 ✔ ✔ ✔ 29 00 8 . The daily prices for many materials are also listed in the Financial Times. oil. These include extraction of the raw material (metal ore. civil wars). The cost of a material depends on the extraction. Figure 2. processing and transportation costs. How it is measured Prices for materials can be obtained directly from suppliers or from the commodities markets such as the London Metal Exchange (for metals and plastics). 4000 Price (US$/tonne) 3000 2000 1000 Origin of properties The cost of a material. Learning summary By the end of this section you will have learnt: ✔ The cost of a material is defined as the price to the consumer to purchase a unit quantity. Values for materials prices can be determined directly from suppliers or from the commodities markets such as the London Metal Exchange. prices fluctuate due to supply and demand and the abundance of scrap or recycled material. Described in this way it has units (in the UK) of £ kgϪ1. as delivered to the consumer. it is an important aspect to consider in the selection of a material. it is sensitive to the cost of energy relating to processing and transportation and the abundance of the raw material and of scrap or recycled material. the quality (purity) of the raw material and any socio-economic aspects relating to the country from which it is being extracted (export laws or restrictions. 2 3 4 5 6 7 00 /2 /1 30 /1 /2 00 00 00 00 00 /2 /2 /2 /2 /1 /1 /1 /1 30 30 30 29 29 /1 /2 Date Figure 2.

0 kg.5 kg؊1? If the casting process used to make this part has a scrap rate of 25 per cent.5/2 1. a combined labour and overhead rate of £40 per hour and a productivity rate of 20 parts per hour.65 0.7 Data for the cost of materials (this is only a rough indication as prices fluctuate on a daily basis) Cost An aluminium casing for the electronics to control a robot weighs 2. ✔ The relevance of these different properties to engineering applications and how to use property data to solve design problems.75. What is the cost of the raw material for this part if aluminium prices are £1. costing the company £40).An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Material Diamond (industrial) Platinum Gold Carbon-fibre-reinforced plastic (CFRP) Nickel alloys Titanium Silicon carbide (fine ceramic) Alumina (fine ceramic) Nylon Fibreglass (glass fibre–epoxy. what is the minimum price for which the part could be sold? The cost of the Al ingot is £1. ✔ Typical values for these properties for different materials.000.000 100 100 50 35 15 7.5 kg of material. costing £3.45 0. A scrap rate of 25 per cent would require the use of 2. ✔ The origins of the properties for different material types.000 25.35 0.00.75 and the labour and overhead rate per part is £2.5 kgϪ1 and hence for the part is £3.000 10.25 1 0.5 0. Learning summary By the end of this section you will have learnt: ✔ The definitions for a number of important material properties and the testing methods which enable us to measure these properties. This price still does not include delivery to the customer or any profit.25 Table 2.00 (20 parts can be made in an hour. The part should not be sold for less than £5. GFRP) Stainless steel Glass Copper (ingot or tube) Aluminium alloy (ingot/tubes) Natural rubber Hard woods Polyethylene Low-alloy steels Mild steel (sheet and bars) Cast iron Soft woods Fuel oil Cost (£ kgϪ1) 1.5 5 3 2 2 1.5 1. 88 .

8) d L b Figure 2. the second moment of area. In the case of the end loading shown in Figure 2.16 illustrates this case.We could choose a lightweight (low-density) material.Materials and processing 2. The following example is for the end deflection of a cantilever beam (one which is fixed at only one end).4 Selection of materials in engineering design In a design where we have already decided on the shape of the cross-section and the length (so that it will fulfil the basic design requirements. the maximum (end) deflection is given by equation (2. with many different materials. In the case of an aircraft wing. where b is the breadth or width of the beam and d is the depth: bd3 I ϭ ᎏᎏ 12 (2. This is fine in concept but by how much would we need to increase the thickness to achieve the desired response? Would we still achieve a weight saving? Would all the extra material required make it more expensive than our original choice? It sounds as though we would have to calculate the stresses. but if we increase the thickness of the structure. this mass reduction could be used to increase either the payload or the fuel load. E.9).16. The method described in the following examples enables a simple comparison of materials to be made for a given application. The benefits of mass reduction are clear. more manoeuvrable. Equations defining the deflection. Examples of this are the deflection of tennis rackets. until we find the best option. so that the aircraft can become more cost-effective. is defined in equation (2. bridges and aircraft wings. P. dimensions and costs for many different designs. L. of a beam in terms of the applied load.8): PL3 ␦ ϭ ᎏᎏ 3EI A P B δ (2. can be found in standard textbooks on mechanics for different modes of loading. for example so that an aircraft wing gives the required lift) we still have the flexibility to choose the cross-sectional thickness and the material from which it is made. Material selection for a stiff lightweight beam We commonly want to design objects or structures to be as stiff as possible (to minimize the deflection under an applied load) and to achieve this with minimum weight. with a minimum of effort.16 Schematic (left) of the end deflection of a cantilever beam and (right) the cross-section of the beam For a beam with a rectangular cross-section. We will see in this section that this is not the case. the stiffness of the beam. fly further before refuelling or reduce emissions. I. I. the length of the beam. even though it may have inferior properties (lower strength or stiffness). we can reduce the stress it experiences. Figure 2. and the second moment of area of the beam.9) 89 . ␦.

Clearly. giving equation (2. however.11).12). we will reduce the deflection. in equation (2.We will assume that in this design the length and breadth of the beam are fixed and that we can change the depth. the depth (d)) from our expressions. To do this we need to develop an expression for the mass of the beam from its volume multiplied by its density. it means that since the value of ᎏ1/3 ᎏ for carbon fibre is less than half that for a E glass-fibre-reinforced polymer and less than one-fifth that for steel. the stiffness.As the first term in equation (2. we would simply substitute all the values for the terms into equation (2. M ϭ bdL (2. and to calculate the thickness of the beam. The values of the force and deflection will of course vary from design to design. to achieve the stiffness we seek. we would substitute values into equation (2.12) It is this right-hand term that is of interest when searching for the best material. d.8 where it is clear that.10) Designs of this type require that the beam can sustain a certain force without deflecting more than a given amount.12) is a constant.8) and (2. we must eliminate the free variable (in this example.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Combining equations (2. then this term should be as small as possible.12) has been manipulated to give two bracketed terms: on the left-hand side showing the parameters fixed by the design (we can specify the force.8 compares ᎏ1/3 ᎏ values for different materials and indicates that carbon fibre will E give us a slightly lighter beam than wood and that these materials will give us much lighter beams than all the others.We are. Since the ᎏ1/3 ᎏ term is proportional to the mass. by increasing the thickness and the stiffness of the material used. (or thickness) of our design along with the material (which will give us different values for E. It is important to note that we are not just looking for a material with the highest stiffness and the lowest density. a carbon fibre beam. for a good balance between weight and cost. The particular geometry of the problem we have chosen has shown that picking a material with low density will have a greater influence on the mass of the beam than picking a material with high stiffness.11). If we want to minimize the mass of the beam. the properties of the material: 4PL6b2 M ϭ ᎏᎏ ␦ E 1 ᎏᎏ 3 1 ᎏᎏ 3 (2.10). The carbon fibre beam is more than 70 times as expensive as the wooden equivalent. To calculate the actual mass of the beam for the material selected. which produces the same deflection as glass-fibre-reinforced polymer or steel ones. The mass of the beam is given by equation (2. ␦.10) in terms of d and substitute this into equation (2.10). seeking to achieve a certain deflection (set by the design) but to achieve this using the lightest beam possible.12). This means that we do not have to solve our problem for many different designs. 90 . This then gives us the mass of the beam that will give us the required deflection for our chosen geometry. Equation (2. deflection and geometry.11) In order to be able to proceed further with our analysis. This is also shown in Table 2. would weigh less than half or one-fifth of their masses respectively. so this term is constant) and on the right-hand side. we can derive the relative costs E for beams made from the different materials by multiplying by the cost per unit mass. set by our design. To choose the best material we simply compare values for this term for different materials. . To do this we simply rearrange equation (2. Table 2. wood makes the best choice.9) gives 4PL3 ␦ ϭ ᎏᎏ Ebd3 (2.

large planes and it is now being replaced with more expensive composites. Aluminium replaced wood for modern.Wood was initially used for plane wings but does not weather well (it can warp and catch fire easily).13) where is the density of the material. The following example is for the selection of a material for a compact disc (CD) which spins at high speed. stiff and low-cost beam The final selection of the best material would depend on the application. They could be made from any material. 1. the angular velocity of the disc (in radians per second) and r the radius of the disc. Examples include dent-resistant car body panels and bumpers. but are worried about the stresses generated due to the centrifugal force that might cause the disc or blade to fail. Carbon-fibrereinforced polymers have superseded wood for light.5 1. Most drives do not often reach these speeds and hence the data is read at a lower rate towards the centre of the disc (we will see why shortly). but needs to spin at 27. In the design of spinning objects we would like them to spin as fast as possible. there is a need to increase the speed at which CD drives operate. It is evident that the maximum stress is independent 91 .8 Comparison of materials for a light. stiff (and more expensive) tennis rackets.500 RPM (revolutions per minute) when reading the outer tracks. and high strength. lightweight pressure vessels (the bodies of planes and spacecraft) and spinning discs or blades such as those in a fan. but it is relevant to any spinning disc and is very similar to the case for rotating fan blades.050 25. The lighter composites offset their high materials cost through improved fuel efficiency over the lifetime of the aircraft. so that it can withstand high stresses before yielding or failing. A 52ϫ drive spins at 10. Carbon fibre composites are used widely in high-performance military aircraft where cost is not such a concern.5 Relative cost 5723 338 1310 2925 47. There is a need to find a balance between a material with low density. so that the stresses are low. In order to read data from CD drives more rapidly.500 RPM to read the inner tracks at the same linear velocity. The radius of the disc should remain the same so that no modifications to the equipment for spinning and reading the disc are required. CDs are currently made from 120 mm diameter. The maximum radial tensile stress acting on a spinning disc is given by equation (2. Material selection for a high-speed compact disc We often need to design structures to be strong and light.25 2 5 50 100 0. as long as an aluminium film can be applied to the surface.Materials and processing Material Nylon Wood (parallel to grain) Aluminium alloy Glass-fibre-reinforced polymer (GFRP) Titanium Carbon-fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) Steel Stiffness (GPa) 3 11 70 40 110 200 210 Density (kg mϪ3) 1100 600 2700 2000 4500 1500 7850 /E1/3 763 270 655 585 941 256 1321 Cost per kg 7.600 661 Table 2.2 mm thick polycarbonate discs with a film of aluminium applied to the surface onto which the data is written.

14) 2 0. This yields equation (2.9. Catastrophic disc failures at speeds above 48ϫ have been recorded that carry the risk of damaging more vital (and expensive) parts of the computer or causing injury to the user. CFRP is. but a disc of similar size would be more than twice as heavy.9 Comparison of materials. Material Mild steel Titanium alloy Aluminium alloy GFRP Polycarbonate CFRP * failure strength Yield strength (MPa) 220 830 400 300* 55 650* Density (kg mϪ3) 7850 4500 2700 2000 1200 1500 (y /)1/2 0. If we assume that the disc thickness is the same.A change in material is.Aluminium is a promising alternative to polycarbonate. however.38 0. This would require twice the energy to spin it at the same rate. with a density of 1200 kg mϪ3.14): 1 1 ᎏᎏ ᎏᎏ 2 max 2 1 ϭ ᎏᎏ ᎏ ᎏ (2. To help understand the problem.21 0. and lower in cost.500 RPM. starting to replace titanium (the second best option) for fan blades in jet engines (essentially the same problem.42 r from which we can see that. then the mass will simply vary with the density. irrespective of the material used (it could be slightly thinner for stiffer materials but we would need to run a separate stiffness-based analysis to determine the exact changes in thickness that could be made). If we assume that the maximum stress allowed is the yield stress of the material (or the failure stress for brittle materials) we can calculate this term for suitable materials and compare them. CFRP is. which might require expensive upgrades to the motor.5 50 2 5 5 100 Relative cost 3925 225. however. mass and cost for a compact disc The table shows that CFRP would give us the CD capable of being spun the fastest. too expensive for the application (25 times more expensive than polycarbonate for the material alone) and it is not easy to manufacture CDs quickly and cheaply enough in CFRP.500 RPM: max ϭ 0. in which case the disc will shatter.13) indicates that the stress generated is roughly 9 MPa when spun at 10. but an application where the cost is not such an issue).9. This is also shown in Table 2. increasing to 60 MPa when spun at 27. needed if discs are to spin faster! 92 .43 0. it is useful to rearrange equation (2.17 0.000 Table 2. This information is tabulated in Table 2.66 Cost per kg 0.39 0. The mass of the disc is simply the volume multiplied by the density. equation (2.000 5400 10.000 6000 150. we need to maximize the term (max/)1/2. drive unit and bearings. of course. Comparing the values for (max/)1/2 indicates we could spin it three times faster than polycarbonate (although the stress given for CFRP is the tensile stress – there is no plastic deformation in CFRP – and spinning above this speed would lead to fracture).13) Reading the entire disc at high speed will generate stresses that will exceed the yield stress of polycarbonate (which is about 55 MPa) resulting in permanent deformation and could exceed the tensile stress of the disc (about 60 MPa).42 2r 2 (2. For a polycarbonate disc. to maximize the spinning speed.13) to make the angular velocity the subject (since this is what we want to maximize) and split the equation into design terms that are fixed and materials terms that we can change. The cost of the material for the disc will be proportional to the cost per kg multiplied by the density (giving cost per m3).An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 of the thickness of the disc.

but they can only be used safely in compression owing to their tendency to fail at low stresses in tension if they contain defects or if they are damaged in use. the principle of energy storage is the same and is governed by the spring material’s ability to store elastic energy. which reveals a number of interesting points. for example coil or helical springs. It shows that by changing the strength of the steel used (through its composition and through processing) the maximum stored energy increases (since the yield stress increases and the stiffness remains unchanged). glass springs are widely used in scientific instruments.16) y Materials with high values of ᎏᎏ will produce lightweight springs. to give equation (2.Materials and processing Material selection for small and light springs We are often concerned with how we can store and recover energy. E expressing the energy stored per unit mass (Wm in J kgϪ1) by dividing the energy stored per unit volume (in J mϪ3) by the density of the spring material (in kg mϪ3): 1 y Wm ϭ ᎏ2ᎏ ᎏ E 2 (2. This equation can be further developed. leaf springs (shown in Figure 2. There are many different types of spring.15): 1 y Wv ϭ ᎏ2ᎏ ᎏ E 2 (2. To select a spring that stores the largest amount of energy for a given volume (or size). Titanium springs are good and corrosion resistant but are expensive. a material with the largest value of y2 ᎏᎏ should be chosen.Values for both these E terms are presented in Table 2. or the smallest spring to store a given amount of energy. steel is no longer so attractive and titanium (used as fasteners in F1 cars). is described mathematically in equation (2. GFRP and CFRP (used in truck and high-performance car leaf springs) and polymers (used in cheap toys) become better choices.17) and cantilever springs. in fact.17 Images showing (left) helical or coil springs and (right) a leaf spring The elastic energy stored in a unit volume of material. Figure 2. Ceramics could be used as springs. or the fracture strength for a brittle material. High-strength (spring) steels are a good and common choice for small springs (surpassed only by rubber for energy storage per unit volume. Wv. 2 93 . for example using a spring. but the use of rubber can be limited by the magnitude of the load that can be applied before it fails).10. and E is the stiffness.While they can work in compression or tension and some springs are more efficient than others.16). For light springs.15) where y is the yield stress for ductile materials.

03 0. temperature.03 1. To enable a comparison of materials without having to make hundreds of individual calculations. magnitude of deflection.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Material Mild steel Low alloy steel Spring steel CFRP GFRP Titanium alloy Aluminium alloy Rubber High-density polyethylene Nylon Wood (parallel to grain) * failure strength.29 1.46 Table 2. ✔ The generic method for this material selection process. stiffness. so that we might achieve the desired response for any material selected. eliminating the free variable in the process. temperature). force. In most cases we then need to obtain a second expression for our constraint. The final choice of material may require consideration of other important materials properties (and hence repetition of this process).05 0. density. Yield strength (MPa) 220 690 1300 650* 300* 830 400 30* 30 45 55* Young’s modulus (GPa) 210 210 210 200 40 110 70 0. as a function of the geometry and density of the material chosen. Learning summary By the end of this section you will have learnt: ✔ The material selection process for an engineering design requires a mathematical analysis of the problem. we need to substitute and rearrange our expressions to make the constraint the subject of the equation. for example). Using this simple analysis method (where we do not have the complete freedom to change the shape of our design) we must decide which one of the dimensions can be varied.000 1286 675 275 y2/E (ϫ 1000) 0.41 1. 94 . and how easily it can be manufactured to the desired shape.33 0. applicable to any number of different design problems.7 3 11 Density (kg mϪ3) 7850 7850 7850 1500 2000 4500 2700 850 970 1100 600 y2/E 230 2267 8047 2113 2250 6263 2286 18.18 1.10 Comparison of materials for small and light springs The examples presented give an overview of the approach taken to select a material for a given application where constraints such as cost and weight may be a concern.85 21. cost) we can substitute data for different materials and rank them accordingly. By separating terms that are fixed by the design and hence will not vary with the material selected (geometry.13 1. in combination with the use of relevant material property data. we need to analyse the problem by obtaining expressions that describe the response we wish to achieve from our design (the bending or stretching) under a given environment (load. however. ✔ That the method used is ideal for narrowing the field of candidate materials and that the final choice may require consideration of other factors such as cost and ease of manufacture. The methodology is.61 0. extension) and terms that will vary with the material chosen (strength. This method is a useful means of narrowing the field of candidate materials. for example the mass. considering the most important property required to achieve functionality.39 0. the material’s performance in its environment (its susceptibility to corrosion. More generally.

The selection of a suitable manufacturing process depends to some degree upon the attributes of the material. In other cases. the rate of heat extraction will depend upon the thermal conductivity and heat capacity of the mould material. the process is conducted primarily to change the material properties. normally a contraction (see Underpinning Principles 2). Thus. The properties of the component will be governed by the design and the material properties. Sometimes. this is achieved by breaking the mould away from the component. the design. However.g. which may range in size from a few millimetres (e. we must also be aware that certain properties of materials can be changed (sometimes quite markedly) by the processing of the material itself. this is the basis of many processes where materials are heat treated. the size of the mould and how easily heat is transferred across the interface between the material and the mould. the resolidification may be a complex process. Casting is generally used for making parts of complex shape that would be difficult or uneconomical to make by other methods. For details.5 Materials processing Materials are selected for a particular application in a component as a result of an attribute (or combination of their attributes) of the type that has been discussed previously. since these will directly influence the attributes of the material. for example.When a metal alloy is melted and then resolidified. this volume change needs to be taken account of when designing a casting so that the mould remains full during solidification and no cavities are formed in the structure. this is achieved by pulling apart a multipart mould and ejecting the component. see Underpinning Principles 4. the material and the processing route need to be considered at the same time.Materials and processing 2. electrical connectors) to tens of metres (e. The solidified component needs to be removed from the mould. It is thus very important for the engineer to understand the basic mechanisms that control these changes. To achieve solidification. When a component is being designed. however. There is a very wide range of processes that take a material and convert it into a component of the required shape.g. As such. material and manufacture need to be considered concurrently as part of the design process. this change in properties is a byproduct of the process. for optimal designs. leading to a non-uniform structure in the metal. with expendable moulds. we need to understand the capabilities of various manufacturing processes before we can opt to use a given material–manufacturing route solution. a propeller for a ship). Many of these changes in material properties are often controlled by changes in the material at the scale of the microstructure or at the atomic scale. Casting almost always refers to the production of metallic components. Casting Casting is a process where a material is melted to form a liquid. On solidification of metals. and this heat will be extracted through the walls of the mould. in bending a metal sheet to form a shape. it is employed to make single-crystal turbine blades from nickel-based alloys for use in aeroengine turbines. such as cutting from solid material. designs where material and manufacture are considered following the main mechanical design will tend to require more design iterations and will tend to be suboptimal designs. there is volume change. poured into a mould and then solidified such that the material takes the shape of the mould. 95 . the design and the choice of materials will constrain the choice of manufacturing route for the component. heat needs to be removed from the material. thermal conductivity or cost. and with reusable moulds. density. such as strength. In its most advanced form. the properties of the metal in the region of deformation will be markedly changed.

no more will go into the solution and as further sugar is added it will not dissolve. To the left is the region marked L. pure sugar and syrup (with the syrup having the maximum amount of sugar that can possibly be dissolved in it at that temperature).We are used to considering solubility of certain materials in water. So we can see that the phases present in a given system depend upon the temperature and the proportions of the components. If pure water is taken and some sugar added. However.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Underpinning Principles 4: Phase diagrams and the solidification of alloys Phase diagrams In the casting of pure metals.1) shows only two regions over the temperature range plotted.2 shows a section of such a diagram with two single-phase regions. the sugar will dissolve in the water to form a solution known as syrup. the concept of a phase diagram will be introduced. A specific combination of temperature and bulk composition defines a point on the phase diagram that will lie in one of these regions. the ␣-phase region and the -phase region. This solution is known as a phase.1 shows a phase diagram of the sugar–water system. most metals that are cast are not pure metals. Such information is commonly presented in the form of a diagram. syrup) Solubility limit L (liquid) ϩ S (solid sugar) 100 Pure sugar Figure UP 4. System analysis in two-phase regions As we have seen. Phase diagrams are based around the concept of solubility of components in each other. Figure UP 4. but at a certain point. At this point. As the amount of sugar is increased.. sugar and water are defined as the components.1 Schematic phase diagram of the sugar–water binary system The sugar–water phase diagram (Figure UP 4. this is a region where two phases exist. The overall composition of the system is defined along the x-axis. the phase present will be as indicated and it will have the composition of the bulk. such as salt and sugar. known as a phase diagram. there are regions on phase diagrams where two phases coexist in the stable condition. The solubility limit of the sugar in water is dependent upon temperature. all the sugar will dissolve. solid 96 Pure water 20 40 60 80 Composition (wt% sugar) . If the sugar-water system is considered. there are now two phases present. Conventionally. the fraction of one of the components is defined (in this case in weight percentage terms) and thus the fraction of the other component is also defined (since they must both add up to 100 per cent). namely solid sugar and syrup. To the right is the region marked L ϩ S.e. normally in a polycrystalline form. but instead remain as sugar. solidification takes place at a given temperature (the melting point of the metal) and the microstructure consists of a single solid. 100 Temperature (°C) 80 60 40 20 0 0 L (liquid solution i. this is a region where there is a single phase. In a single-phase region. In this section. in practice. but are alloys containing more than one element. known as two-phase regions. Figure UP 4.

In Figure UP 4. if they are compounds. simply take a point within the field and travel along a line of constant temperature (a horizontal line) to both the left and the right. ␣ ؉  Determination of the compositions of phases present To determine the compositions of the phases present in a two-phase region. marked ‘␣ ϩ ’.3 Section of phase diagram shown in Figure UP 4. This line is known as the tie-line. a horizontal line (a line of constant temperature) is drawn from the point of interest to both of the surrounding single-phase boundaries. The position of interest on the phase diagram. as defined by the temperature T and the composition C0. The phases present in your two-phase field will be those of the two single-phase fields that you encounter in this way. Where the tie-line intersects with the phase boundaries defines the compositions of the two phases present. The names for the phases will mean different things on different diagrams. along with a two-phase region (␣ ؉ ). liquid phases are normally labelled ‘L’.Materials and processing phases are labelled with Greek letters or.2.2. the two single-phase regions are separated by a two-phase region. indicating that both of these phases will be present in the stable (equilibrium) condition. so do not be put off by this. Two-phase regions always contain the two single phases that surround the twophase region when you move from any point within the two-phase region along a line of constant temperature (in Figure UP 4. Remember that they are just names.2 Generic section of a phase diagram with two single-phase regions (␣ and ) marked.3. In Figure UP 4. lies within the two-phase region.  Temperature T ␣ϩ ␣ C0 Composition Figure UP 4. they are sometimes given the chemical formula of the compound.  Temperature T X1 X2 ␣ ␣ϩ Figure UP 4.2. and that the way that we operate with them is always the same. It can be seen that this point lies within the two-phase region. the compositions of the phases ␣ and  at the temperature T are C␣ and C respectively. the two single-phase regions are separated by a two-phase region.2 with tie-line added 97 C␣ C0 C Composition . In Figure UP 4. This point is defined by the intersection of the two dashed lines. To determine the nature of the two phases that are present in such a field. marked ␣ ϩ . marked ␣ ϩ ). the point of interest is defined by a specific alloy composition C0 at a specific temperature T.

however.3. the alloy is in the single -phase region. the composition of the  phase T changes from CT  to C  and its proportion decreases. Development of microstructure on passing through a two-phase region Referring to Figure UP 4. 1 3 T T1 T2 T3 T␣ ␣ 5 1 CT ␣ 2 CT ␣ 3 1 2 3 CT CT CT CT ␣    C0 Composition  ␣ϩ As the temperature is further reduced to T␣.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Determination of the proportions of the phases present The overall composition of the material remains constant even though the material is now made up of two separate phases with their compositions C␣ and C defined. with the division taking place at the overall composition. the material has entered the two-phase ␣ ϩ  region. The proportions of the phases present are such that the overall composition is preserved. Note. This construction is known as the Lever Rule. The fraction of the ␣ phase is correspondingly given by CT  Ϫ C0 F␣ ϭ ᎏᎏ T CT  Ϫ C␣ 1 1 1 Temperature As the temperature is further reduced to T2 and T3. given by 1 1 C0 Ϫ CT ␣ F ϭ ᎏᎏ T CT Ϫ C  ␣ 1 1 1 (not surprising. the two tie-line lengths are marked X1 and X2. and as such only ␣ with a composition C0 is present. The tie-line construction is again employed to calculate the proportions of the phases present as follows: The tie-line is divided into two sections. At the same time. the composition of the ␣ phase changes towards Co and its proportion increases. with the composition C0. As the temperature is dropped to T1. In Figure UP 4. that when evaluating the proportion of the phase with the single phase field to the left of the bulk composition. the alloy enters the single-phase ␣ field. Figure UP 4.4.4 Change of phase composition and proportion with temperature for an alloy of bulk composition C0 98 . The T compositions of the ␣ and  phases are CT ␣ and C  respectively. given that the temperature is only just below that at which the alloy is in the single -phase field). It can be seen that there is a high fraction of  phase at this temperature. At T. where X1 ϭ C0 Ϫ C␣ and X2 ϭ C Ϫ C0. The fraction of the two phases (F␣ and F) are defined as follows: X2 X1 and F ϭ ᎏᎏ F␣ ϭ ᎏᎏ X1 ϩ X2 X1 ϩ X2 These are simply the ratios of the tie-line lengths to the left and right of the bulk composition as a function of the total line length. the ratio of line lengths used is that of the fraction of the tie-line to the right of the bulk composition. the changes in phase compositions and proportions for an alloy of bulk composition C0 as it is cooled from the  region to the ␣ ϩ  region can be understood.

marked CE. At the eutectic composition. In the ␣– solid on the left.5 Schematic diagram of a binary ␣ – a solid phase made up of A with a phase diagram with a eutectic small amount of B dissolved in it to form a solid solution. Rearrangement and partitioning of atoms takes time. on freezing of a liquid of composition CE. by drawing a tie-line to the boundaries of the single-phase regions. In the ␣– solid on the right. L ␣  ␣  ␣  ␣  High diffusion distances Small ␣– interfacial area High diffusion distances Small ␣– interfacial area Figure UP 4. These are as follows: Figure UP 4. These operate in exactly the same way as before. the diagram also contains a feature known as the eutectic. exists across the composition range from A to B. interfaces are regions of high energy.6 Development of a eutectic microstructure on growth of an ␣– lamellar solid from a liquid. the diffusion distances are much lower and thus a structure of this type is formed in practice 99 . in this case. it is the only composition for which this is true. which indicates an alloy with x wt%B and (100 Ϫ x) wt% A). The solubility of A into  depends upon the temperature.  – a solid phase made up of B with a small amount of A dissolved in it to form a solid solution. L Temperature T ␣ϩL ␣ ␣ϩ A C B ϩL  E There are three single-phase regions on the Composition/wt%B diagram. Instead. The two components of the system are A and B. This motion of atoms occurs by diffusion (see Underpinning Principles 6. but it passes into a two-phase ␣ ϩ  region.‘Diffusion’). However. It can be seen that. the diffusion distances are high. Each of the single-phase regions is separated from other single-phase regions by a two-phase region. This requires movement of atoms so that one region (␣) can become rich in A and another region () can become rich in B. the liquid can freeze to form a solid at a specific temperature without passing through a two-phase liquid–solid region. To minimize diffusion distances. since the atoms need to move over macroscopic distances. The solubility of B into ␣ depends upon the temperature. at high temperatures. The compositions of the two phases are found (as always). L – a liquid phase which. the composition of the ␣ and  phases formed are quite different. and the composition of an alloy is defined by the fraction of each of these (traditionally written as A Ϫ x wt%B. it does not freeze to form a single solid phase of the same composition. However. it splits up into many more regions so that the distances that atoms have to move (diffuse) to be able to be in the right region thermodynamically are minimized. the alloy does not form into two discrete blocks of ␣ and  as it solidifies from the liquid.Materials and processing The eutectic A binary phase diagram containing a eutectic is shown in Figure UP 4. which makes this structure difficult to form kinetically. However.5. and a solution with many interfaces is far more unstable thermodynamically than one with less. Apart from the pure components. A and B.

Riser Pattern Core Finished casting Casing b Molten metal Core Sand a Sand Figure 2. air needs to be displaced and to stop the air from preventing filling of the cavity. The pattern is used to define the shape of a cavity in a (normally) two-part sand box. the pattern broadly defines the shape of the outer surface of the cast component although it may have features which allow for the addition of cores. and these tend to be classified by whether the mould is expendable or permanent. a pattern is required.18. vents are provided. this pattern needs to be made of a wax material as 100 .19. Casting processes Sand casting In sand casting. in Figure 2. As the liquid metal fills the cavity. whereupon the capital costs of the equipment are low. manual production of moulds is time consuming. If a permanent mould is to be used. Cores may be added following the formation of the primary shape if internal features are required. The sand box is filled and packed with sand around the pattern. As the casting solidifies. Similarly to sand casting. If a higher rate of production is required (such as for the production of cylinder blocks for internal combustion engines). However.18 Schematic diagram of the sand casting process Investment casting Investment casting is an expendable mould process. The casting generally solidifies slowly owing to the low thermal conductivity of the mould. a hollow cylinder is being cast. it needs to be designed such that the component will be able to be removed following solidification. The production of moulds can be done manually. Note that features are required in the pattern to hold the core parts. the sand box is then opened and the sand removed (including the cores) to leave the cast component. and whether the molten material is fed into the mould by gravity or under applied pressure. with the internal bore being created by the use of a cylindrical core. namely casting of single-crystal internally cooled turbine blades. and it forms the basis of one of the most sophisticated casting processes operated in the casting industry today. the mould is made from sand mixed with various binders so that it is able to hold a shape. mechanized mould production is employed. making the cost of labour (and other overheads) for the process high. The liquid metal is poured into the cavity as defined by the shape of the mould and the cores. the metal contracts and risers are provided in the system to keep the casting fed with liquid metal in order to prevent voids from being formed in the cast component. A schematic diagram of the investment casting process is shown in Figure 2.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 There are many casting processes. the higher capital costs are offset by higher production rates. A pattern is made from a material that is easy to work (such as wood). However. It is used for components as diverse as jewellery and turbochargers. The two halves of the sand box can be separated along the parting plane (often referred to as the parting line).

the intricacy in the form of the castings produced in this way is almost limitless. and this investment casting can be used with high-melting-point materials such as steel and nickel alloys. and the surface roughness is controlled by the nature of the first ceramic layers to be built around the pattern. the mould is referred to as a die. and then the mould is fired at high temperatures. as well as with low-melting-point materials such as copper and silver. The mould is built up around the wax pattern by dipping the pattern into a slurry of fine ceramic particles suspended in water.19 Schematic diagram of the processes in investment casting it will not be removed as a whole once the mould has been formed around it. thus requiring a mould for the wax pattern to be made. As the pattern is removed from the mould by melting and the mould is removed from the component by fracture. 101 . the slurry on the wax is dried and forms a layer of ceramic powder around the pattern. with no grain boundaries throughout the component).e. The die is made up of multiple parts (two as a minimum) which can be mechanically assembled to leave a cavity. and this is achieved by placing a ceramic core in the mould. along with seeding. Highly detailed surfaces can be cast. A modern internally cooled turbine blade has an internal labyrinthine channel within it to allow it to be internally cooled. use of a fine ceramic slurry yields very smooth surfaces. the outer layers are built up more quickly by the addition of coarser powder to the layer. The mould in the investment casting process can be made of a highly temperature-resistant ceramic. the multiple nucleation of crystals can be avoided. The wax pattern is commonly injection moulded (see section on ‘Injection moulding’). and mechanically disassembled following casting to allow removal of the cast component. by careful imposition of temperature gradients during cooling. Upon removal of the pattern from the slurry. The wax pattern is injection moulded around the ceramic core and the core is thus incorporated into the final mould upon removal of the wax.Materials and processing Pouring cup Ceramic shell formed around wax pattern Metal is poured into hollow ceramic shell following melt out of the wax pattern Figure 2. This expensive process is employed since the single-crystal product is required to resist creep under the high loads and temperatures observed in service. The mould is filled with liquid metal inside a furnace. and the component is released from the mould by breaking the mould away. which causes the ceramic particles to bond together (called sintering – see section on ‘Sintering’). yielding a blade which is a single crystal (i. and. Permanent mould casting processes In permanent mould casting. The die system may have ejector pins embedded in one of the sections of the die which push the component away from the die following solidification. The wax pattern is then removed from the mould by heating. instead it will be melted out of the mould. The mould can now be filled with metal. This channel has to be cast in during the investment casting process. This dippingdrying process is repeated may times to build up a thick layer.

5 per cent. The production rates in permanent mould casting are high (especially for die casting) and this offsets the high cost of both the capital equipment and the tooling. the molten metal is simply poured into the mould to fill the cavity. the following increase castability in permanent mould processes: ● ● low melting temperature: this enhances mould life in permanent mould processes low thermal capacity and high conductivity: this promotes high production rates Aluminium has one of the larger solidification contractions at 7. magnesium and lead. Die casting is able to produce components with fine surface detail with component thicknesses of between 0. all processes are controlled by the flow of the liquid metal and the rate of heat extraction from the material through the mould. In Fixed die piston gravity die casting. 102 . permanent mould casting is normally limited to casting of alloys of aluminium. air leaves the mould through gaps between the die sections. Generally.1 per cent.5 per cent and 4 per cent.20). steel and graphite are common Ejector pin mould materials. grey cast iron exhibits a solidification expansion of 2. and good contact between the component and die during solidification (resulting in high solidification rates). In both cases. Figure 2. but this is offset by the fact that the mould can be reused many times. with steels exhibiting solidification contractions typically between 2. Moving die The two main forms of permanent mould casting are gravity die casting Injection and pressure die casting (often referred to simply as die casting). cast iron. Other processes Many other variants on these processes exist.20 Schematic diagram of pressure In pressure die casting (Figure 2. Castability The castability of a metal is the ease with which that metal can be cast. zinc. centrifugal casting (where rotation of the mould is used to cause mould filling) and continuous casting (for casting of raw material on a continuous basis). gas pressure or vacuum may be used to aid mould filling. The moulds are normally expensive. liquid metal is forced into the die die casting process under pressure (typically between 10 MPa and 170 MPa) from a ram which ensures good mould filling. such as squeeze casting (a hybrid process between forging and casting). Knowledge of these together with the solidification properties of the metal allow moulds to be designed by sophisticated computer modelling.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 The moulds are normally made of a high-melting-point material so that the molten metal which is to be fed into it does not cause rapid degradation of the mould itself. Casting defects and design of castings Casting is a process which depends on fluid flow of the liquid metal and heat flow in solidification.Whatever the specific details of the casting process. In contrast.75 mm and 12 mm. To avoid rapid mould degradation. Both forms of casting result in high-quality surfaces (replicating the surface of the mould well) and good dimensional accuracy. the following increase the castability of a metal: ● ● ● low viscosity and surface tension: these allow fine detail and complex shapes to be cast low solidification contraction: this reduces the tendency to form voids and cracks in the casting low solubility for gases to avoid porosity In addition.

in permanent mould casting. ● Shrinkage cavities and cracking: owing to the high solidification shrinkage. Glasses and thermoplastic polymers have attributes which make them suitable for moulding. This can be use of a chill to avoid the thickest section solidifying last achieved by the use of chills in the mould which enhance the cooling rate in that area – see Figure 2. ● Porosity: a high solubility for gas in the liquid results in the formation of gas pores (bubbles) in the casting on solidification when the gas solubility is significantly reduced. ● The pattern must be removable from mould or. Casting may be a slow manual process or a fast automated process. (b) is usually associated with the formation of voids. The last material to solidify (a) avoidance of section thickness change. ● Cold shut: two flows within the casting come together but do not mix properly as they were partially solidified upon contact. The main phenomena which control casting are fluid flow. Certain rules need to be followed to reduce the possibility of casting defects. The viscous material needs to be forced into the shape of the mould. turbulent flow has caused a part of the sand mould to wash away into the liquid metal. Casting is normally only employed for metallic components. ● Shrinkage must be allowed for in mould design. In these cases. which deals with a liquid). Moulding refers to the shaping of a viscous material (as opposed to casting. the mould from casting. the temperatures tend to be relatively low for the most thermoplastic polymers.21(a). a draft angle should be incorporated to allow ease of removal of the cast component. the material can be made viscous by heating. certain basic rules still apply. Although the design of castings is now performed by modelling. ● Washout: in sand casting. shrinkage cavities forming in cast components: ● Avoid enclosed sections solidifying last.21(b). An allowance needs to be made on final dimensions for contraction after Poor Good solidification (patterns are thus made using shrink rules). possibly leading to shrinkage cavities Figure 2. Many casting methods are available. As part of this. the large temperature range over which freezing occurs and the high coefficient of thermal expansion. leading to sand inclusions in the casting and loss of integrity of the component shape. Moulding is a term generally applied to the processing of polymers and glasses. Learning summary By the end of this section you will have learnt: ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ Casting is the formation of shaped components involving filling a shaped mould with a liquid and solidifying it. and a number of methods can be used 103 . Shrinkage Shrinkage Chill ● Avoid rapid changes in section since these cause turbulence.21 Simple design changes to avoid – see Figure 2. ● The casting should be evenly distributed around the parting plane(s). cavity cavity ● Avoid changes in section since this causes solidification times to extend in thicker sections. Moulding Moulding has some similarities to casting in that a mould is used to confer the shape of a component to be manufactured. heat transfer and solidification behaviour of the liquid. and somewhat higher for glasses.Materials and processing Common casting defects: ● Misrun: the liquid did not fill the cavity before freezing.

and the component crosssection takes up the shape of the orifice cross-section. The polymer is fed into a screw in the form of pellets. Feed Vent port Feed throat Heating zones Water bath Die Hopper Cooling Extruded part Extruder Motor Figure 2. forming a prismatic product. Figure 2. In the case of polymer extrusion. causing it to increase in viscosity (to the point where it can be considered a solid). The polymer is made viscous by the action of the screw and also by external heating.24 Apparatus for extrusion of polymeric components 104 .23 Apparatus for injection moulding of polymeric components Extrusion Polymer components can be moulded by extrusion. whereupon it can be extracted from the mould. Heater Hopper Polymer granules Cylinder Nozzle Screw Mould Figure 2. etc. enabling it to be handled. The viscous material is forced through a shaped orifice. and this polymer is heated by (i) external heaters on the cylinder. The cavity is normally made of metal and is generally water cooled to aid heat extraction from the part. Figure 2. the forming of the solid component is not achieved by the extraction of heat from the part (as described above) but by a chemical reaction at an elevated temperature. and ejector pins force the part out before a new cycle starts. Once the material has taken up the shape of the cavity. although in this case.22 Press moulding of a viscous gob moulding operation. a viscous polymer is forced into a split cavity. Figure 2. In contrast to injection moulding.23 shows a schematic diagram of the apparatus required for injection moulding. the product is commonly fed into a waterbath as it leaves the extrusion orifice to remove heat. causing the material to flow. The mould is held closed for a period after injection of the viscous polymer for the part to have heat extracted from it and thus to gain strength. This is commonly used to form glassware. heat is extracted from the part. the viscous polymer is injected into the mould cavity. In a similar way to that of polymer injection moulding. (ii) rotation of the screw which causes deformation heating. Moulding processes Press moulding In this process.24 shows a schematic diagram of a polymer extrusion apparatus.22 shows a schematic diagram of a pressFigure 2.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 to do this. a gob of viscous material (generally made viscous by gob gob heating elsewhere) is placed into the lower die surface and an upper die is brought down. of polymer or glass to form a shaped object Hot Hot Injection moulding Similar to die casting. and when the screw is translated along the cylinder. thus conferring strength to the product. this is a continuous process which does not involve translation of the screw in the barrel. The cavity needs to be constructed in such a way that it can be disassembled (as part of the automatic process) to allow the component to be removed. The screw can also act as a plunger in the cylinder. the polymer is again fed into a screw in the form of granules. The cavity is then opened. Thermosetting polymers can also be moulded.

26 Schematic diagram of a blow extraction of the component. Product Heat Arm Powder Mould Mould charging Heating Mould rotation De-moulding Figure 2. and the mould opened to allow Figure 2. Although thickness variations are quite coarse across the component. A two-part mould is taken Hopper Die and opened (see Figure 2. The parison is then inflated to form the component. whereupon it is blown out to the shape of the second Mould cavity to form the container. the edges trimmed off both sides (to make two layers of polymer film out of the tube) and the film wound up. this is a very cost-effective process.Materials and processing Blow moulding Since moulding deals with a viscous solid. This would be the most common way to form a polymeric bottle.25 shows a schematic diagram of an extrusion–blow-moulding operation. Polymer granules are fed into the mould and the mould heated from the exterior to allow the polymer to become viscous. The bubble is then collapsed. Gas pressure Split die Blank Figure 2. The dimensional accuracy of such components is generally poor. the solid can be inflated with pressurized gas to take up the shape of a cavity. The mould is then spun (often with a relatively Air inlet Two-station Extruder complex motion) to ensure that the polymer coats all of the internal windup walls. The balloon travels continuously upwards until it has cooled enough for the film to be collapsed without welding together. Here. The mould walls are cooled.25 Schematic diagram of a extrusion–blow-moulding operation Nip rolls Collapsing frame Cooling ring Freeze line Idler roller Rotational moulding Plastic tube Rotational moulding is commonly used to form large hollow components from thermosetting polymers. A parison is formed. but instead the extruded tube is inflated out to form a balloon. A tube is formed by extrusion which is clamped into a split mould which seals the lower end. The cost of the capital equipment is moulding plant for production of polymer film relatively low as no pressure or force is required to form the components. polymer film (such as is commonly used in packaging. The upper portion is then inflated with gas. there is no mould as such. For thermosetting polymers. Glass containers are also commonly formed by press-and-blow methods.27 Schematic diagram of the rotational moulding process Moulding of thermosetting polymers Unlike thermoplastics.) is generally made by a continuous blow moulding operation. but the costs are low. etc. In addition to three-dimensional components. the application of heat to an unpolymerized precursor initiates the polymerization 105 . Here a viscous gob of glass is pressed to a shape in a mould. the change from solid to viscous melt and back again cannot simply and repeatably be made by heating and cooling of thermosetting polymers. It is then taken to a second mould. normally either by injection moulding or by extrusion. the size of which is limited by a sizing basket. stretching out the polymer to the shape of the cavity.27). Figure 2.

the polymer itself is heated in a shaped die (cf. They can be drawn to result in molecular orientation and thus to increase strength and stiffness. moulding of thermoplastics where the heat is extracted from the viscous polymer via the die).A fibre of this type can be formed in a number of ways. whereupon the material solidifies. The fibres are then cooled to impart strength. the effect of chain alignment on mechanical properties following slip will not be observed. Drawing of polymers in this way increases both the strength and the modulus of the material in the draw direction. the glass fibre needs to keep the light in the fibre and not lose it from the surfaces. One of the methods (compression moulding) is shown schematically in Figure 2. In moulding operations involving thermosetting polymers. However. to promote this. There are a number of methods for moulding thermosetting resins that are similar but differ in their specific details. decreasing alignment. One way is known as double-crucible drawing. The drawing of thermoplastic polymers results in a directionality in mechanical properties.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 reaction.29 Drawing of glass fibre using the double-crucible method Changes in properties of thermoplastics during deformation Polymers are made up of chain-like molecules (see Underpinning Principles 1). however. the fibre is made of a core glass (with high refractive index) and a sheath glass (with a lower refractive index). Many can be extruded as a melt with low viscosity through a plate with many holes in it (called a spinneret). To function. employed for rapid data transmission.28 Schematic diagram of compression moulding operation for thermosetting polymers Fibre forming Fibres of polymers are formed by a range of methods (dependent upon the properties of the polymer). but reduces ductility in the draw direction. in this case. Glass fibre is most commonly employed as optical fibre. A fibre is drawn from the inner crucible and glass from the outer crucible is then drawn along with it to form the sheath. Sometimes annealing can occur while a polymer is being drawn if the draw temperature is high. these effects can be reversed by annealing following drawing. 106 . and also polymerizes in the cavity under the action of the heat. and during drawing (stretching) of thermoplastic polymers. Hot die Hot die Ejector Pressure Melted and polymerizing polymer Finished part Unpolymerized preform Figure 2.28. The unpolymerized material fills the cavity and takes its shape. result in reduction in viscosity but instead to charring and burning of the polymer (at high enough temperatures). here. these chains may become aligned in the draw direction. two crucibles (containing high-purity charges of the two types of glass) are placed concentrically. the polymer is heated. Atmosphere control Rod Furnace Core Crucibles Cladding Orifice Optical fibre Figure 2. The application of heat to the polymerized solid does not. allowing chains to slip. this directionality is known as anisotropy.

The crystalline bonding in the grain boundaries is not perfect. their grain size is reduced and the dislocation density decreases. A bulk crystalline material is normally made up of small regions of these crystals. Many moulding methods are available. microstructurally. However. Dislocations (see Underpinning Principles 3) are also regions where the bonding is not perfect. this ordered material is described as being crystalline. The metals can be processed at a range of temperatures. The rearrangement of the atoms means that the dislocations can be annihilated as a completely new grain structure forms (recrystallization). as a good level of ductility is required to make materials suitable for this process. ✔ ✔ Deformation processing Deformation processing takes a solid metal as its feedstock and deforms the solid to shape in a variety of ways. Moulding is normally used for components being formed from glasses and polymers. since these processes require movement of atoms by diffusion. In addition to the processing characteristics that are governed by the metal temperature. randomly oriented with respect to each other to make up the whole body. metals are made up of atoms that are packed in regular fashion. these regions are called grain boundaries. materials would like to move towards their lowest energy state and. this implies removal of dislocations and removal of grain boundaries. The disadvantage with elevated temperature processing is that dealing with hot metal is more difficult than dealing with cold metal. For most metals at room temperature this will not occur. Thermodynamically. the final microstructure (and therefore properties) of the material are governed by the metal temperature during processing. atomic movement by diffusion can be significant (see Underpinning Principles 3). Each of the regions is termed a grain. The yield strength of all metals decreases as the temperature is increased. so grain boundaries are regions of high energy within the structure. Polymers and glasses are normally (although not in the case of moulding of thermosetting polymers) heated to make them into mouldable viscous solids. the atoms do not pack together so well. and these two are highenergy features within the structure. Moulding is employed to produce products as diverse as polymer sheet and optical fibre. Deformation processing is limited to metals. which is too slow at these temperatures. as such.When metals recrystallize. at elevated temperatures. In the regions between grains. deformation (taking a metal above its yield point) at elevated temperatures requires less force and processing equipment can be less robust and thus less expensive. Cold-worked structures (materials with high dislocation densities) have a strong driving force to reduce their internal energies by reducing the density of dislocations. when cooled. they return to being solids which can be extracted from the moulds and handled. Underpinning Principles 5: Annealing of metals As we have seen in Underpinning Principles 2.Materials and processing Learning summary By the end of this section you will have learnt: ✔ ✔ ✔ Moulding is the formation of shaped components involving pressing of a viscous solid into a shaped mould or through a shaped orifice. 107 .

(d) after grain growth Recovery Recovery is a relatively low-temperature process. dislocation density is not significantly reduced and mechanical properties remain virtually unchanged. higher yield stresses and higher reductions require higher machine power. a b c d Figure UP 5.1. dislocations are eliminated. To achieve high reductions. Following recrystallization. the material will have a lower strength due to removal of work strengthening. It is commonly employed for taking material from ingot to plate or sheet. but can also be employed to produce shaped material. but this will be compensated for by grain-size strengthening.1 Illustration of processes occurring in annealing of a cold-worked metal: (a) cold-worked. The only significant change is that residual stress in the component is reduced or eliminated. and as these new grains are formed. both strength (see Underpinning Principles 3) and toughness are reduced.30 Schematic diagram of the rolling process . 108 Figure 2. The ductility increases significantly following recrystallization. Figure 2. A rough estimate of the temperature at which recrystallization occurs is 0. such as tube. driven by the reduction in strain energy associated with this structure. As a result of grain growth. The reduction in thickness per pass is limited by machine capacity and material properties. with each pass resulting in a small reduction in thickness. material is commonly passed through a rolling mill a number of times. However. grain growth may occur where grain boundaries are eliminated to reduce further the energy stored in the structure. (b) after recovery. Recrystallization Recrystallization takes place at higher temperatures.30 shows a schematic diagram of a rolling process to reduce the thickness of a metal. which are illustrated schematically in Figure UP 5. (c) after crystallization. Dislocations move to form a polygonalized structure. Deformation processes Rolling In rolling.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 There are three main microstructural processes that may occur during annealing. a material is taken and passed between rotating rolls. This process (recrystallization) involves nucleation and growth of new grains within the structure. Grain growth Following recrystallization.4 Tm (where Tm is the melting point of the metal in Kelvin).

Materials and processing

Forging

Ram Ram Upper die Work piece Work piece Lower die Ram

Forging is the deformation of metal between dies (and is akin to press moulding). Here, dies are pressed against the Upper material to change its shape. The dies can be shaped or die plane. Forging can be used simply to change the shape of material stock or to form it into a shaped component. Figure 2.31 shows a schematic diagram of a closed die Lower forging operation to produce a shaped component.

die

Extrusion

We have seen in the section on moulding, exclusion is a process for extrusion of thermoplastic polymers into shaped components with constant cross-section. The process for extrusion of metals is very similar. However, unlike the extrusion of polymeric components, the process is not continuous, since here the feedstock material is a block of metal rather than thermoplastic pellets. The metal is forced through a shaped die by the application of a force to a billet of material by a ram which forces it through the die.Variants exist for the process, such as direct and indirect extrusion. Figure 2.32 shows a schematic diagram for a direct extrusion process.

Ram

Figure 2.31 Schematic diagram of a closed die forging operation to produce a shaped component

Die Ram

Extruded product

Drawing

Sheet metal is commonly drawn to form components. Drawing involves change of shape and, commonly, change of thickness of the sheet as part of the process. Beverage cans are typically made by a complex drawing process from sheet material. Figure 2.33 shows a drawing process to produce a cup from a sheet of material. The pressure pad and punch both exert forces on the sheet, causing it to deform in a controlled manner.

Billet

Figure 2.32 Schematic diagram of a direct extrusion process for metals

Punch

Pressure pad

**Effect of deformation on material characteristics
**

Grain shape and dislocation density

When a metal is deformed, its grains change shape. This is illustrated schematically in Figure 2.34. This may lead to anisotropy, i.e. the properties of the material are different in different directions. However, whether this deformed grain shape survives into the product depends largely upon the temperature at which the material is being deformed. At high temperatures, recrystallization may occur (see the next section). Deformation of metals results in increase of dislocation density in the structure (see Underpinning Principles 3). However, whether these dislocations survive into the product depends largely upon the temperature at which the material is being deformed.At high temperatures, dislocation annihilation may occur (see the next section).

Die

Figure 2.33 Schematic diagram of the drawing process

**Hot and cold deformation
**

In Underpinning Principles 5 (Annealing of Metals), we can see that there are various stages of the annealing process. In the recrystallization process, the dislocations are annihilated, as a new, fine and equiaxed grain structure grows through the material. This recrystallization stage is of great significance in deformation processes. In Underpinning Principles 5, we define the recrystallization temperature as ϳ0.4 Tm; however, we define some different limits when we refer to recrystallization in deformation processing.

a

b

**Figure 2.34 Schematic diagram of the change of shape of grains during a deformation (forging) process
**

109

An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1

If a process is described as ‘hot’ (such as hot rolling, hot extrusion, etc.), then this indicates that annealing during the process is significant. A process is termed ‘hot’ when the temperature is greater than 0.55 Tm (where Tm is the melting point of the metal on the absolute (Kelvin) temperature scale). At this temperature, recrystallization is very fast, and we can be sure that a material will fully recrystallize in a short period under these conditions. The annealing during the deformation process results in the dislocations that were formed being annihilated as the material recrystallizes. The recrystallization also removes the anisotropy of the grain structure, and the final grain structure is equiaxed (similar in all directions) and fine in scale. This is said to be a refined microstructure. Owing to the continual recrystallization during the processing, the amount of deformation in the process itself is almost unlimited, and ductile fracture will not occur.

Figure 2.35 Schematic diagram of the development of grain shape during hot rolling. Grain elongation is observed as the material is deformed, but then the material recrystallizes to a very fine grain structure; with time, some grain growth is also observed (here, as the material moves away from the rollers)

Because of the annihilation of dislocations during the recrystallization process, the final material exhibits high ductility and low yield strengths. If a process is described as ‘cold’ (such as cold rolling, cold extrusion, etc.), then this indicates that annealing during the process is insignificant.A process is termed ‘cold’ when the temperature is less than 0.35 Tm. Below this temperature, we can be sure that no recrystallization will occur. In this case, the dislocations generated by the deformation will be retained in the final product. As such, the product will have high yield strength and low ductility (due to dislocation strengthening). Moreover, during the processing, the amount of deformation before fracture is limited because damage is continuously accumulated. The microstructural anisotropy (i.e. the elongated grain structure) as seen in the previous section will also be preserved in products formed by cold deformation processes. The intermediate temperatures (0.35 Tm Ͻ T Ͻ 0.55 Tm) are normally referred to as ‘warm’; in this interval and in the timescales of the deformation process, recrystallization may occur to some extent, but may not be complete.

Residual stress

Deformation (especially cold deformation) can lead to residual stresses in a component. These are often useful. Residual stresses cannot be uniform through a component since they must balance in the end. ● Rolling may induce a compressive residual stress in a plate. ● If the surface of such a plate is machined, then the plate must distort to redress the stress and movement balance. ● Residual stresses also affect the ability of a component to carry load. The stresses are summative and yielding may occur before expected. ● Components subjected to fatigue loading may be made resistant to fatigue by application of a residual compressive stress in the surface. Shot peening can be used to achieve this (cold deformation on a micro scale). ● Residual stresses can be eliminated by annealing or by further deformation. Both may give shape change and require a machining allowance.

110

Materials and processing

Learning summary

By the end of this section you will have learnt:

✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔

Metals are commonly deformed to form shaped components; A wide range of specific methods are available; Deformation can be conducted hot or cold; Deformation produces an increase in dislocation density in the metals; The final properties of the material will depend critically upon the temperature at which the metal is when it is deformed; If the material being deformed is ‘hot’ (> 0.55 Tm), the dislocations will be removed by in-process annealing, resulting in a fine recrystallized structure; If the material being deformed is ‘cold’ (< 0.35 Tm), the dislocations will be not be removed and the increased dislocation density will result in a stronger but less ductile material; Deformation of metals to shape may result in residual stresses in the components.

Powder processing

The last of the main classes of primary shaping process is that of powder processing. Here, material in the form of a powder is taken and mixed with a binding agent, causing the particles to bond. The powder can be formed into shapes in a number of ways but the particles remain as individual particles, and thus such components have limited mechanical strength. At this stage in the process, the component is referred to as a green body. The green body is heated (a process called sintering) to bond the individual particles into a threedimensional structure. The bonds form in the solid state by a process called diffusion (see Underpinning Principles 6). The use of a powdered substance for the raw material for the process allows the material to be in a state where it can easily flow without being hot. Thus, powder processing is a very suitable forming technique for materials with very high melting points (where casting would be difficult), and for very strong, low-ductility materials (where deformation processing would not be suitable). Since it is a process where the components are formed close to net shape, then it can be a much more economically favourable option than machining components from stock.

**Underpinning Principles 6: Diffusion
**

Diffusion is the process by which there is long-range movement of atoms within a structure. Atoms will move down a concentration gradient (or more accurately down an activity gradient). The driving force for their movement is to reduce the overall energy of the system. This is normally observed in reduction of stresses or strains, and removal of high-energy features in a structure such as dislocations or grain boundaries. Diffusion is the physical movement of atoms and as such takes time. A schematic diagram of a diffusional movement is shown in Figure UP 6.1 for both substitutional and interstitial atoms. In both cases, the atoms marked in green are changing places in the structure, but in doing so require other atoms to be

Energy Substitutional/ vacancy diffusion

Qv

Qi Interstitial diffusion

Figure UP 6.1 Activation energy barrier associated with diffusion of both substitutional and interstitial atoms

111

An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1

displaced from their preferred position. This displacement requires energy, and the energy to make this displacement is known as the activation energy, Q. In systems where Q is large, diffusion is restricted, whereas diffusion is easier in systems with low values of Q. The energy that an atom may need to displace its neighbours to allow it to move past them comes from the thermal energy of the atom, associated with its temperature. Atoms at higher temperatures are more likely to be able to make the jump in position than the same atoms at lower temperature. A rough estimate can be made as to how far, x, an atom might diffuse in a time, t, as follows: ෆ x Ӎ ͙Dt where D is a term known as the diffusion coefficient. The diffusion coefficient is strongly dependent upon temperature as follows: Q D ϭ D0 exp Ϫ ᎏ RT

where D0 is a constant for the system, Q is the activation energy for the process, R is the gas constant (8.314 J molϪ1 KϪ1) and T is the absolute temperature (the temperature measured on the Kelvin scale). The diffusion coefficients for many diffusional processes in metals rise rapidly with temperature. Calculate the self-diffusion distance for aluminium for 15 min at room temperature (20°C), 200°C and 400°C (remembering to use units of Kelvin in these calculations). Present these numbers both in terms of metres and also in terms of numbers of atomic diameters of aluminium (the atomic diameter of aluminium is approximately 250 pm (i.e. 250 ϫ 10؊12 m)). Comment on these in relation to the annealing process. For aluminium alloys, D0 ϭ 1 ϫ 10Ϫ5 m2 sϪ1 and Q ϭ 135 kJ molϪ1. If the diffusion coefficients D are known, the diffusion distance x can be estimated from the equation ෆ x ϳ ͙Dt knowing that 15 minutes ϭ 900 seconds. Using the equation Q D ϭ D0 exp Ϫ ᎏ RT The diffusion distance at 200oC is given by 135,000 D ϭ 1 ϫ 10Ϫ5 exp Ϫ ᎏᎏᎏ ϭ 1.23 ϫ 10Ϫ20 m2 sϪ1 8.314 ϫ (200 ϩ 273) The diffusion distance is thus x ϳ ͙Dt ෆ ϭ ͙1.23 ෆ ϫෆ 10Ϫ20ෆ ϫ 900 ϭ 3.3 ϫ 10Ϫ9 m Ϸ 13 atomic diameters At 400oC, the diffusion coefficient is 3.32 ϫ 10Ϫ16 m2 sϪ1 (almost 30,000 times larger than at 200oC) and thus x ϳ 5.5 ϫ 10Ϫ7 m (ϳ2200 atomic diameters). Annealing involves rearrangement of atomic structure; at 200oC, the rearrangement is limited since the atoms won’t diffuse far enough. However, at 400oC, the diffusion distances are much larger and significant annealing will occur in the time interval indicated.

112

Materials and processing

**Materials and forming processes
**

Powder processing is used for three main classes of material, namely claywares, engineering ceramics and metals. Claywares are generally processed by different routes from the other two materials.

Claywares

Clay is commonly used to form a wide variety of components, such as bricks, tiles, tableware and sanitaryware. Clay is a naturally abundant raw material and is generally composed of oxides and hydroxides of aluminium and silicon.When mixed with the right amount of water, it can Slip poured into mould form a solid mass that can easily be deformed, but will hold its shape. As such, this material can be formed into shape by a number of the processes that are commonly used for moulding, such as pressing or extrusion. Moreover, if the water content of the clay is raised, the material can be formed into a liquid, known as a slip. As we saw in the section on casting of metals, liquids can be employed to make intricate components with fine detail. However, the process must incorporate a mechanism by which the liquid is returned to a solid. In the casting of metals, this is achieved by removal of heat, but in the case of slips, the material is returned to solid form by removal of water. Figure 2.36 schematically shows the formation of a thin-walled structure by slip casting. The slip is poured into a highly porous mould; the mould absorbs water from the slip close to it, and in doing so reduces the water content of that slip so that it forms a solid shell. The shell will thicken with time as more water is drawn into the mould; once the desired thickness is achieved, the mould is inverted and the remaining slip removed. Both of these processes result in green bodies that have adequate strength for handling. Different green bodies can be joined together by the use of a slip as an adhesive agent. The green bodies will be dried (often in a heated oven) before sintering.

Draining mould

**Metals and engineering ceramics
**

Many high-melting-point metals (such as steels) and engineering ceramics (such as alumina, silicon nitride, etc.) are commonly processed by powder processing. Tungsten wires for the filaments of incandescent light bulbs, steel connecting rods for internal combustion engines and zirconia discs for ‘quarter-turn’ tap valves are examples of components commonly made by powder processing. For these types of material, the powder particles are mixed with a small amount of temporary binding agent, chosen such that it does not react with the powders during further processing; for metals, soaps are commonly employed as these also provide lubrication during processing. The powders and binding agents are pressed into a shaped die under high pressures, resulting in high-density green components (see Figure 2.37); higher pressures result in higher densities (and less shrinkage during the sintering stage). Also, pressing operations will be designed to minimize differences in porosity throughout the green body; differential porosity will lead to uneven shrinkage in sintering and thus to distortion. As in other moulding operations, the die needs to be designed to allow easy removal of the green component.

Powder particles and bonding agent/ lubricant Pressure Core rod

Figure 2.36 Slip casting of a thin-walled structure into a porous mould

Green compact Pressure Die filling Compaction Part ejection

**Figure 2.37 Schematic diagram of a powder compaction process
**

113

An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1

Sintering

Green parts are robust enough to be handled, but are still composed of individual particles that are not bonded to each other. To allow the individual particles to bond to each other to form a three-dimensional network, the green parts are raised to an elevated temperature to allow diffusion to occur (see Underpinning Principless 6). In the initial stages of heating, the cycle is controlled to allow the removal of any binder phases (such as water or soap), before being raised to the sintering temperature. In claywares, some of the components fuse at elevated temperatures to form a liquid which flows around the other solid particles. On cooling of the part, this liquid (which is a small fraction of the volume of the component) solidifies and bonds the whole structure together. This process is known as liquid phase sintering. For metals and engineering ceramics, no liquid phase forms during the sintering process. On heating, the diffusion rate increases, allowing atoms to move toward the point of contact between two particles and form a neck between them; the two particles thus bond and form part of a three-dimensional solid network (see Figure 2.38). The movement of atoms is driven by a reduction in energy of the system; surfaces are regions of high energy in a system (the bonds between atoms are not well satisfied at a surface), and the amount of surface can be reduced by forming necks between particles. As sintering proceeds, the product will further reduce the amount of surface area, and porosity will shrink and be eliminated. Sintering can take place either in a batch furnace, where components are loaded onto shelves or trays, or green components can be placed on a conveyor belt which moves slowly through a long furnace. Sintering may need to take place in protective atmospheres to avoid oxidation of components of the product during the sinter cycle.

Compacted product

Partly sintered product

Figure 2.38 Schematic diagram of atomic diffusion during neck formation in sintering

**Machining and cutting
**

Unlike the processes discussed so far, machining is used to form a shape out of a larger body by material removal. There are many processes that fit under this heading, but all involve a tool that is moved relative to the work, which results in material removal from the work. The most common of these processes are drilling, milling, turning and grinding. In the drilling process, the work is normally held still while the tool is rotated and cuts a cylindrical hole in the work. In the milling process, the work is generally moved slowly with respect to a rapidly turning tool which removes a layer from the surface of the work. In the turning process, the work is normally rotated while the tool is slowly moved with respect to the work to remove a circumferential layer. The grinding process is similar to the milling process: the milling tool is replaced by an abrasive wheel which rotates at high speed, the circumference of which is moved against the work and removes a thin layer from the surface. The surface of the grinding wheel can be shaped to form a profile on a component. Schematic diagrams of these machining processes are shown in Figure 2.39. In the cutting processes, a tool is employed to remove material, but here, neither the tool nor workpiece needs to be rotated. Cutting can take place by a variety of methods, some using a conventional tool (such as sawing and punching) while others use other methods to remove material (such as a laser, waterjet or electrical discharge). Cutting processes are commonly used to remove material in sheet metal work.

114

**Materials and processing
**

Twist drill Tool Tool rotation Workpiece Width of cut

Helical chip

**Chips Feed (workpiece moves and tool is stationary)
**

b

Depth of cut

Work piece

a

Grinding wheel

Workpiece

c

d

Figure 2.39 Schematic diagram of the main machining processes: (a) drilling; (b) milling; (c) turning; (d) grinding

Learning summary

By the end of this section you will have learnt:

✔ ✔ ✔ ✔

As a material shaping processes, machining and cutting involves material removal from a larger body to form a component; Machining is commonly employed for metals, less for polymers (which can be easily moulded to shape) and ceramics (which are very hard to machine); It involves motion between a tool and the workpiece; Cutting is commonly used for metals and polymers.

**Heat treatment of metals
**

Metals are commonly heat treated to change their properties. This section will concentrate on two very common heat treatments which can be applied to certain metals.

**Heat treatment of cold-worked structures
**

As we saw in Underpinning Principles 3 and 5 and the section ‘Yield and tensile strength’, annealing is commonly applied to cold-worked structures to change properties.

**Heat treatment of steels
**

Steels are iron–carbon-based alloys in which the carbon content typically lies between 0.05 and 1.0 wt%C. Other alloying elements such as Mn, Ni and Cr are often added for a variety of purposes. To understand the microstructures observed in steel (and thus the mechanical properties of the material) requires a basic understanding of the relevant section of the ironcarbon phase diagram (see Underpinning Principles 4 for backgrounds on phase diagrams).

115

An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1

␥ ␣ϩ␥ In this part of the phase diagram, there are no liquid phases, only solid phases. The three single phases are as follows: 723 ␣ ● Ferrite. The symbol on the phase diagram is ␣. Ferrite has a body␣ ϩ Fe3C centred cubic crystal structure with carbon as an interstitial element 0 in the iron lattice (see UP 2.11). The solubility of carbon in ferrite is 0.035 0.78 very low. Ferrite is a soft, relatively ductile phase. Composition/wt% carbon ● Austenite. The symbol on the phase diagram is ␥. Austenite has a Figure 2.40 Schematic diagram of the face-centred cubic crystal structure with carbon as an interstitial low-temperature low-carbon section of the element in the iron lattice. The solubility of carbon in austenite is iron–carbon phase diagram significantly higher than in ferrite. Austenite is a soft, relatively ductile phase. ● Cementite. The symbol on the phase diagram is Fe3C, which is the chemical formula of this ceramic phase. Cementite contains 6.67 wt%C and is a hard, brittle phase.

Many of the useful properties of steel are derived from the fact that, at elevated temperature, when the material is held in the austenite phase field, all the carbon dissolves in the metal. This process is known as austenitizing.

**The eutectoid reaction
**

Processing of many steels is centred on appropriate control of the eutectoid reaction. The eutectoid reaction is similar to that of the eutectic reaction (see Underpinning Principles 4), except that the eutectoid involves a transformation from a solid phase (rather than a liquid phase) on cooling. However, the basic principles of the two reactions are the same. In the case of the Fe–C system, the eutectoid composition is ϳFe–0.78 wt%C (see Figure 2.40). If an alloy of the eutectoid composition is heated above 723°C, a structure containing only austenite grains results.When the austenite cools back through 723°C, the eutectoid reaction begins. The two phases that form in the eutectoid reaction have very different compositions, one with a high carbon concentration and the other with a low carbon concentration. As such (and remembering that this is a solid–solid transformation), carbon atoms must diffuse during the reaction to achieve this partitioning of carbon between the two phases. This redistribution of atoms is easiest both if the temperature is high and if the diffusion distances are short, which is the case when the ␣ and Fe3C form as thin plates, or lamellae (see Underpinning Principles 4). In the case of steels, the lamellar structure of ␣ and Fe3C is known as pearlite. The pearlite is composed of soft and ductile ferrite interspersed with plates of hard, brittle cementite. The ‘grain size’ (plate width) of the ferrite is small and so pearlite is a strong material. The pearlitic structure becomes finer if it is cooled more rapidly.

Microstructure of steels

Many heat treatments for steels raise the steel into the austenite regime, and then cool it again relatively slowly back into the low-temperature ferrite–cementite regime. The slow cooling allows the carbon to diffuse and the pearlite microstructure to form. Typically a general engineering steel will have a composition (denoted C0) somewhere between 0.035 wt%C and 0.78 wt%C.When this steel is cooled from the austenite regime, it will first enter the austenite ϩ ferrite phase field. As we saw in Underpinning Principles 4, the compositions and proportions of the two phases at any temperature can be derived by drawing a tie-line construction and by use of the Lever rule. As the alloy is cooled to fractionally above the eutectoid temperature of 723°C, the alloy will still consist of ferrite and austenite. However, at this point, the austenite that remains will have been enriched in carbon so that this is now eutectoid austenite. Also, the ferrite that has formed

116

Temperature/°C

Figure 2.40 shows the relevant part of the phase diagram. This diagram is not unlike the diagram contained in Underpinning Principles 4 for eutectic solidification. However, there are some significant differences.

912

Materials and processing

by this stage is referred to as primary ferrite, and tends to form as blocky regions within the microstructure. As can be seen by reference to Underpinning Principles 4 and the phase diagram in Figure UP 4.4, higher carbon levels in the range being considered will result in a higher fraction of eutectoid austenite in this two-phase microstructure. As this mixture of eutectoid austenite and primary ferrite is cooled below the eutectoid temperature, the remaining austenite (because it has eutectoid composition) will all transform into pearlite (remembering that pearlite is itself not a phase but a mixture of ferrite and cementite). The primary ferrite will remain basically unchanged as it cools through the eutectoid. Since the eutectoid austenite transforms to pearlite, higher carbon levels in the range being considered will result in a higher fraction of pearlite in the final microstructure. As pearlite is the microstructural feature which confers strength to such steels, both the yield strength and the ultimate tensile strength are observed to rise as the carbon level increases, with a commensurate reduction in the ductility and toughness.

**Martensite formation in steel
**

The formation of pearlite as steels are cooled below the eutectoid temperature depends upon diffusion of carbon (see Underpinning Principles 6). However, if the high-temperature austenite is cooled rapidly enough (we call such a rapid cool a quench), the carbon does not have enough time at elevated temperature to diffuse, and thus it gets trapped in position. The ferrite cannot grow in its normal manner from the austenite (owing to the high carbon levels which are not permitted in ferrite); however, as the steel is cooled below a certain temperature, the driving force to form ferrite from the unstable austenite becomes too great, and the ferrite forms with the carbon trapped in it. The transformation of austenite to ferrite occurs typically at temperatures in the vicinity of 200–300oC where there is not enough diffusion to allow the austenite structure to rearrange itself into a ferritic structure. As such, the transformation occurs in a diffusionless manner, which involves distortion and shearing of the crystal structures from one to the other. The ferrite-type structure thus formed is highly distorted by the high concentration of carbon trapped in it; this distorted ferrite structure is known as martensite. The high level of distortion in the crystal structure severely impedes the motion of dislocations in the structure. Remembering that motion of dislocations is the mechanism of plastic flow in metal (see Underpinning Principles 3), this distortion of the crystal structure results in a steel with a high yield strength; however, along with this goes brittleness which makes martensite of little use as an engineering steel. Higher carbon levels in the steel result in materials with higher yield strength, but also more brittle materials.

Hardenability of steels

In the previous section it was explained that if a steel was quenched rapidly enough from the austenite, martensite will form; however, if the quench rate is too low, then a mixture of ferrite and pearlite will form. The rate at which the steel needs to be cooled to form martensite depends upon the alloy chemistry. If the steel has a high alloy content (such as high carbon, high manganese, etc.), then the rate at which it has to be quenched to form martensite is quite low – it is easy for martensite to form even with a low quench rate, and such a steel is said to have a high hardenability (this is not to be confused with the term hardness, which measures the ability of a material to resist plastic deformation). Conversely, if the steel has low levels of alloying, we need a very high quench rate to form martensite – the steel is said to have a low hardenability.

Tempering of martensite

In martensite, the high level of carbon in the ferritic steel structure can come out of the ferrite (and form very small particles of iron carbide) if the carbon is given enough thermal energy to diffuse (see Underpinning Principles 6). This is done by raising the temperature of the martensite in a process known as tempering; the tempering temperature must not be high enough to reaustenitize the steel. During tempering of martensite, the carbon comes out of the ferrite lattice, leaving the latter less strained and more amenable to dislocation motion.

117

An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1

Accordingly, the yield and tensile strength is reduced, but the toughness and ductility rise substantially. The effect of the tempering increases with increasing tempering temperature and time. It must also be remembered that tempering (with its changes in mechanical properties) can inadvertently occur during service at elevated temperature.

Precipitation strengthening

Another heat treatment process which has a strong influence on the mechanical properties of materials is that of precipitation strengthening. Alloys need to be specifically designed to be suitable for the precipitation strengthening process. By manipulation of the heat treatment cycle, an array of small, second-phase particles (precipitates) can be generated throughout the material. These precipitates can act as dislocation pinning points, and by restricting the motion of dislocations, the yield strength of the material is seen to rise (see Underpinning Principles 3). It is found that the increase in yield strength is proportional to the inverse of the distance between adjacent precipitates. However, if the precipitates are too small, they do not act as an effective barrier to dislocation motion, and are simply cut by the dislocations. Since the volume fraction of precipitates is governed by the composition of the system, the growth of precipitate size to avoid cutting results in an increase in the distance between adjacent pinning points, and thus a reduced increase in yield strength. As such, the heat treatment of such materials for precipitation strengthening is a balance which aims to control the size and distribution of the precipitates. Aluminium with 4 wt% copper (Al–4 wt%Cu) is the basis of a series of heat treatable, precipitation-strengthened aluminium alloys; the phase diagram of the aluminium copper system is shown in Figure 2.41. (See Underpinning Principles 4.)

␣ L ␣ ␣ ␣ ␣ ␣ ␣ ␣ ␣ Quenched and reheated ␣ ␣ ␣ ␣ ␣ 700 Temperature (°C) 600 500 400 300 200 Al 10 20 Copper (wt%) 30 40 50 60 ␣ 660° L ␣+L 5.65 548° ␣+ +L

␣ ␣ ␣ ␣ ␣

␣ Slowly cooled

Figure 2.41 Phase diagram of the aluminium–copper system

It can be seen that, at low temperatures, the phases present in the alloy will be ␣ and . The phase is known as an intermetallic phase, in that it is a compound formed of two metals. It has a higher yield strength and is less ductile than the ␣ phase, and it acts as an effective barrier to dislocation motion. To precipitation-strengthen the alloy, the phase must be dispersed throughout the ␣ phase as small precipitates. As such, the first step is to take all the phase into solution (known as solutionizing). This requires that the temperature is raised such that the material enters the single-phase ␣ region. It can be seen from Figure 2.41 that there is a limited range of compositions over which this operation is possible; for a copper content greater than 5.65 wt%, the alloy will enter the (␣ ϩ L) phase field as it leaves the (␣ ϩ ) phase field, and the formation of a liquid phase will result in unacceptable distortion of parts during the heat treatment. In reality, to give a reasonable range of temperatures over which the solutionizing step can take place, the copper content of the alloy must remain below around 4 wt%. However, as the copper content is reduced, the amount of phase in the final alloy is also reduced, and thus the strengthening effect of the precipitation sequence is reduced.

118

structures such as ferrite-pearlite and tempered martensite can be formed by heat treatment. However. The adhesive is normally a polymeric material. the diffusion distances are small. Again. this would normally result in growth of the individual phase precipitates and the corresponding increase in distance between adjacent precipitates. Modern adhesives can be very strong. as such. the materials to be joined may be similar (or the same) and the joining is employed to make a more complex structure which would have been difficult or costly to make in one piece. Adhesive bonding is generally a low-temperature process and can be automated. and thus a decrease in strength of the alloy. Many of these technologies (such as mechanical fastening) do not significantly alter the properties of the materials being joined. it can be used for bonding metals. There is a wide variety of joining technologies available. Alloys (such as Al . and it is commonly used in this respect in the fabrication of automobile structures. The changes depend upon the alloy and the heat treatment. It is commonly employed for bonding of polymeric components. and thus a fine dispersion of the phase forms. The two surfaces are pressed together and the adhesive sets (either by evaporation of a solvent or by cooling). Adhesive bonding In adhesive bonding. 119 . the materials to be joined may be dissimilar. the alloy must be quenched from the single-phase ␣ region so that the copper is trapped in the ␣ structure at low temperature. the copper has time to diffuse over relatively long distances. The adhesive layer bonds to the two surfaces by a combination of chemical and mechanical bonding. Materials joining Components are often joined together to make a larger or more complex structure or assembly. in these cases. it must be remembered that the precipitation sequence can inadvertently continue if the material is used at elevated temperature. if the temperature is raised enough to allow diffusion. the copper will come out of solution in the ␣ phase and form the phase. since the temperature of this precipitation heat treatment is low. it would often be impractical (or impossible) to make the structure in a single operation. These regions have distances between adjacent precipitates which are large and are thus not effective barriers to dislocation motion. the alloy must be cooled again into the (␣ ϩ ) phase field to form the precipitates. but some do (such as fusion welding). before concentrating on welding of metals and the microstructural changes (and thus changes in properties) that result from the welding process.Materials and processing Following solutionizing. and thus the properties of the alloy can be tailored through the heat treatment. and is ideal for bonding of dissimilar classes of materials (such as a join between a metal and a glass). In some cases. the growth of these precipitates (size and thus distance between them) can be controlled by the temperature and time of the precipitation step. a thin layer of adhesive is placed between two surfaces to be joined. This section will briefly outline some of the major joining technologies. As with martensitic steels. and joining is thus necessary. An understanding of the alloy phase diagram is required to understand many heat treatment schedules. The strength and toughness of many steels can be widely varied.4wt% Cu) can be strengthened by controlling the formation of small precipitates in the metal via a controlled heat treatment schedule. To avoid this rapid growth. This structure is unstable. If it is cooled slowly. and large phase regions are formed. Learning summary By the end of this section you will have learnt: ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ Some properties of metals can be substantially changed by heat treatment. the strengthening effect of such a microstructure is small. However. having been chosen for different parts of a structure owing to their different attributes. In other cases.

Steel. this is replaced by energy from the arc. as the arc moves on. fusing the two plates together. b a c d Figure 2. Some of the parent metal is melted back. and although it has not melted. rivets. it will have been metallurgically changed by this short. Heat source Heat-affected zone Fusion zone Parent metal Various sources of heat can be used in welding (such as a flame. Soldering is a lowertemperature process than brazing. in contrast to soldering and brazing. The area surrounding the fusion zone (part of the parent metal) will have been heated to very high temperatures through conduction of heat from the molten metal in the fusion zone. the molten metal that is left behind solidifies rapidly. In welding. Traditionally. Environmental concerns around the use of lead solders has resulted in the recent development of lead-free materials. however. (d) snap-through Soldering and brazing Soldering and brazing are terms used to describe a process where two metallic surfaces are bonded together with a third metal.42 Forms of mechanical fasteners: (a) threaded. Such solders typically melt at around 200oC.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Mechanical fastening Mechanical fastening takes a variety of forms. The heat process from the arc melts a filler metal which runs into the gap to form a molten metal pool. However. Figure 2. Although the pool loses heat to the surrounding cold metal. but more reactive materials (such as aluminium and titanium) are difficult to braze. where components are held together by constraint imposed by the fastener itself.42. laser beam or electron beam). (b) rivet. Mechanical fasteners can be used to join both similar and dissimilar materials.43 Schematic diagram of a welding (part of the welding apparatus) and the materials to be joined. copper and brass can be easily brazed. but there is also significant melting back of the two metal surfaces to be joined. plasma. Threaded fasteners (such as nuts and bolts). but the filler material does metallurgically interact with the materials being joined. The degree of metallurgical interaction with the materials being joined is more significant than in soldering owing to the higher temperatures employed. This region where this heat treatment has been significant is known as the heat-affected zone (HAZ).43 shows a schematic diagram of a welding process. two metals are joined together by the addition of a filler material between them. a metallurgical bond is formed. A representative selection of forms of fastener is shown in Figure 2. hightemperature heat treatment. staples and screws are normally made of metal while snap-through fasteners are normally made of a polymer. The solder or braze is usually of considerably lower melting point than the materials that are being joined. not only is the filler material molten. but brazing forms a stronger bond than soldering. as such. Some mechanical fasteners allow easy disassembly of the structure. The part of the weld (including the new filler metal) that has been molten is termed the fusion zone. Braze tends to melt at higher temperatures (typically 450oC and above). soldering has been employed to join electronic components to printed circuit boards with solder materials containing low-melting-point lead. (c) staple. Welding Many metallic structures (from power-station pipework to mountainbike frames) are fabricated from parts that are joined together by welds. 120 . the most common form of Molten metal weld pool welding employs an electric arc which is struck between an electrode Figure 2.

recrystallization and grain growth. It can be seen that grain growth has taken place closest to the weld metal (where the HAZ temperature is highest) with only recrystallization occurring further away from the weld as the HAZ temperature is reduced. the effect of this will be most significant in the annealing of cold-worked metal. the main effect of these was the significant reduction in dislocation density and the corresponding reduction in strength and increase in ductility.44).45 Schematic diagram of microstructural changes observed following welding of a cold-rolled sheet. Two examples where there are significant microstructural changes will be considered in the following sections.45 shows schematically the changes that might be expected in the microstructure. Cold-work unaffected base metal Fusion zone Heat affected zone Strength Recrystallization zone Grain growth zone Fusion zone Distance from weld centre Figure 2. The HAZ in welding of cold-worked metals The thermal cycle experienced in the HAZ will allow any of the annealing processes discussed in Underpinning Principles 5 to operate.Materials and processing Metallurgical changes during welding The fusion zone The fusion zone is essentially a casting and tends to have a directional grain structure. the shrinkage may lead to solidification cracking along the centreline of the weld bead. Similar processes of recovery. there may be a tendency to form undesirable brittle martensite. at the top of the weld) and thus angular distortion may be observed in the structure. In the section ‘Hot and cold deformation’. then the material may exhibit recovery. Weld The shrinkage as the weld solidifies and cools will cause distortion of the Figure 2. If a bigger weld is required. However. this is achieved by laying a number of weld beads on top of each other. 121 . It was also seen in the same section. Longitudinal shrinkage Angular distortion The HAZ The temperatures in the HAZ will vary with distance from the boundary with the fusion zone. it was seen that cold deformation resulted in a microstructure with elongated grains and a high dislocation density. some of these effects may be unwanted and lead to undesirable mechanical properties. The contraction will tend to be more significant where the weld material is thicker (i. The tendency depends upon the hardenability of the steel (see the section ‘Hardenability of steels’). which then results in stresses being structure owing to shrinkage during generated in the structure. As welds are castings. Figure 2. that if the deformation process was conducted at a sufficiently elevated temperature. recrystallization and grain growth (see Underpinning Principles 5) may occur in the HAZ of a weld in a coldworked structure. such as porosity in the structure. All the effects of heat treatment of metals may thus be observed in the HAZ. Also. as this is the last material to solidify. even with no applied external loads – these are solidification and cooling of the weld metal known as residual stresses. and the corresponding changes in the strength of the material. parts of the heat-affected zone will be heated into the austenite regime. along with an indication of variations of strength throughout the weldment The HAZ in welding of steels During welding of normal (ferritic) steels. A weld bead is typically up to 3 mm wide and 3 mm thick. they can have the same problems as experienced in castings.e. The high dislocation density results in a high strength but low ductility in the material. where the annealing processes are rapid and the effects of the annealing process are most marked.44 Distortions in a welded welded structure (see Figure 2. The cooling rates in the HAZ following the passage of the arc are very high. with regions closest to the fusion zone being close to the melting point of the material. Under the conditions of rapid cooling observed in a weldment. and shrinkage of the weld metal as it solidifies and cools.

Welding of metals involves joining with a molten metal. The first approach seeks to avoid the formation of martensite during welding. This process is known as a post-weld heat treatment. Adhesive bonding is commonly used for joining a wide variety of materials. Steels with high hardenability are difficult to weld as they have a higher tendency to form undesirable martensite than steels with lower hardenability. The rate of heat extraction (and thus cooling) can be reduced by increasing the general temperature of the metal surrounding the weld. a material with a CEV Ͼ 0. martensite is known to form in a certain steel when the quench rate is high enough.4 wt% will form brittle martensite upon welding. Welding may anneal the components being joined close to the weld zone (in the HAZ). forgetting to account for wind loading or the weight of the building itself. the components to be joined also melt close to the weld zone.As discussed in section ‘Hardenability of steels’. extraordinary unforeseen events such as freak 122 .6 Failure of materials One of the most important aspects of designing with materials is picking the right material for the job and ensuring. Learning summary By the end of this section you will have learnt: ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ Materials and components are commonly joined to make complex structures. The whole weld area is heated following the welding process to a temperature below the eutectoid. Thus. that it will not fail in service. low hardenability is associated with high weldability. brittle martensite can sometimes form in the HAZ. Welding often results in residual stresses. Soldering and brazing are used to join metals. A number of high-profile engineering disasters have had poor design to blame for failure – for example. and vice versa. Welding can produce very strong joints. There are two main approaches to avoiding the presence of brittle martensite in the final structure. Martensite formation in that steel can be avoided if the quench rate can be reduced. the martensite will then be tempered. The weldability of a steel is expressed quantitatively as its carbon equivalent value (CEV). The weld is performed normally. 2.4 wt%. Soldering is ideally used in the electronics industry. there may be a need to weld steels with CEV Ͼ 0. The second approach seeks to reduce the brittleness of the martensite that forms in the HAZ. The CEV is calculated by taking the weight percentages (wt%) of the relevant elements in the steel and summing them as follows: (wt% Ni ϩ wt% Cu) wt% C ϩ wt% Mn (wt% Cr ϩ wt% Mo ϩ wt%V) CEV ϭ ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏᎏ 6 5 15 where the elements of interest are indicated by their chemical symbols. this process is known as preheating. In steels. As a rule of thumb. but also can affect detrimentally the microstructure and properties of the components being welded. and can be used to join dissimilar materials. and can be used to join dissimilar materials. The HAZ is quenched primarily by heat conduction into the cold metal surrounding the weld. or the improper use of materials. and martensite forms in the HAZ. with its brittleness being reduced. pre-heating before welding and PWHT can be used to avoid the problems associated with this. In addition to poor engineering practice.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 High hardenability is associated with steels with high concentrations of alloying elements. In certain cases. as well as possible. Mechanical fasteners are commonly used for joining a wide variety of materials. this could reduce the strength of a cold worked metal considerably.

may prevent it from being able to function. or where the component is exposed to higher forces than normally expected due to the failure of other components in the structure (perhaps as a result of mechanical. it was determined. Japan. in turn. however. and the resultant safety of the structure. causing permanent distortion of the component. we would rather that our vessel did not explode or implode (depending on the pressure difference from outside to inside). shortly after departure from Tokyo International Airport.We shall look. let alone failure. but the process is the same for failure) and then shows the process for selecting the best material for this application. The following example first illustrates the selection of an appropriate thickness of steel for a pressure vessel (in this case to avoid yielding. If they are going to move. by subsequent testing. that this did not contribute to this accident and that the probable cause was that the aircraft suddenly encountered abnormally severe turbulence which imposed a gust load considerably in excess of the design limit. brittle fracture. Example of stress overload In 1966 a Boeing 707 disintegrated and crashed near Mount Fuji. Exceeding the tensile strength will result in fracture of the component. it is relatively simple to avoid stress overload. at failure by stress overload. In all cases. fatigue and creep. An appreciation of the service stresses and the incorporation of safety margins should rule out the component encountering stresses above the yield point. It is possible that exceeding the yield stress of the material. In this final section. or as reactor vessels. let alone the tensile strength. fire and vehicle impact have also led to disaster. explosions. are highly dependent upon the component and the application. The incorporation of a safety factor should ensure that even unexpectedly high forces produce no permanent shape change. occurs most often under unpredictable conditions. we might also want them to be as light as possible. resulting in its inevitable loss of functionality. Destabilization of the aircraft led to high stresses on other components and they in turn failed. we will look at the ways in which a material might fail in service.Materials and processing weather. Examples might be where very high forces are encountered due to freak natural events. Often we just want them to be as cheap as possible. An appreciation of the maximum forces that could act on a particular component in a structure (even if others fail!) should enable the dimensions to be specified so that the stresses acting are below the yield stress. such as high winds or under the impact of large waves. spacecraft and submarine superstructures are essentially vessels resisting a pressure difference. In many cases – the two space shuttle disasters being prime examples – the failure of apparently minor components (an ‘O’ ring and foam insulation) has led to a catastrophic chain of events. Selection of materials to avoid stress overload We commonly view pressure vessels as storage for liquids or gases. Failure by stress overload Definition and service conditions Failure by stress overload occurs when the service stress in a component exceeds the tensile strength of the material from which it is made. This will cover the service conditions that are relevant to the failure process and how to design and select materials to prevent failure. approaching Mount Fuji from the downwind side.While flying into the wind. but this. the aircraft encountered severe clear-air turbulence. Stress overload.Although some stress cracking was found in the vertical stabilizer bolt holes.We 123 . Designing against stress overload Freak conditions aside. killing all passengers. thermal or electrical failure). causing a sudden structural failure (detachment of the vertical stabilizer) that initiated the in-flight break-up of the aircraft. but aircraft. let alone the tensile stress.

11 compares data for suitable materials.18): M ϭ 4r 2t (2. If we are concerned about cost. Equation (2. P. If we wish to minimize the mass of the vessel (it does need to be raised and lowered into the water) we need to be able to express its mass in terms of the geometry.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 shall look at a simple. M ϭ 2r 3P ᎏᎏ (2.17) ϭ ᎏᎏ 2t If we wish to find the thickness of the vessel (for a given radius and pressure) to prevent it from yielding. . concrete is best (which is why it is used for water towers and nuclear reactors).19) gives us the mass in terms of the geometry. In the case of Alvin (a manned submersible used for research on hydrothermal vents. and to explore the wreck of RMS Titanic). If we just consider the personnel sphere. which for a wall thickness.18).17) and substitute a value for the yield stress of the material used to make the vessel.46. causes a stress in the walls.19) indicates that a light vessel requires the smallest value of ᎏᎏ.17) and substituting it into equation (2. t. glass-fibre-reinforced polymer (GFRP) close behind (these materials are ideal for aircraft and spacecraft – in fact in a recent refit. Table 2.18) P t r Figure 2. Pr (2. a safety factor would also be incorporated). The cost of the y material to make the vessel (not including the manufacturing cost!) is proportional to this term multiplied by the cost of the material per kg. and is given in equation (2. with titanium and aluminium. . equation (2. the thickness (since it can be any value to cope with the design stress) by rearranging equation (2. polyethylene and mild steel make heavy vessels. we can simply rearrange equation (2. the volume of material used can be approximated to the surface area. spherical. CFRP makes the lightest pressure vessel. shown in Figure 2. 124 . t. thin-walled pressure vessel in which a pressure difference. a submersible diving 4500 m below the ocean surface experiences a pressure difference of approximately 45 MPa (the pressure being greater on the outside). 4r 2. can be described by equation (2. Since the stress in the walls must be below that for permanent yielding (we could just as easily use the tensile stress as the limit but would rather avoid distortion of our vessel every time it is used). Pressure vessel steel (an alloy steel) offers the best compromise between cost and weight for many applications. Concrete. Alvin’s steel hull was replaced by an expensive titanium one).46 A submersible ‘pressure vessel’ (left) and (right) a schematic of a thin-walled spherical pressure vessel As in previous examples we must eliminate the free variable. and sphere radius r.1 m in diameter and made from a high-strength steel (with a yield strength of 1000 MPa). the sphere containing the (three) crew is 2.17). Its mass is hence the volume multiplied by the density.17) indicates that to avoid yielding (in this instance in compression) the thickness of the sphere wall must be at least 23.19) y Equation (2.6 mm (in reality. pressure and properties of the material used. For example. multiplied by the thickness.

11 Data for the selection of light and cheap pressure vessels Failure by fast fracture Definition and service conditions Fast fracture is caused by the growth of pre-existing cracks in a material. the fracture toughness. the resultant stresses at the cracks.13 13. It was also discovered that the grade of steel used became more brittle than predicted when exposed to cold sea temperatures in the North Atlantic. The predominantly welded (as opposed to riveted) hull construction then allowed cracks to run for large distances unimpeded and the ships literally snapped in half. the cracks propagated. Materials with low toughness (described earlier as the energy absorbed during failure) also tend to have low values for the fracture toughness. is defined by a property called the fracture toughness.3 Cost per kg 0. It refers to loading via mode I. The subscript I arises because of the different ways of loading a material to enable a crack to propagate.5 6. if high enough.5 1 50 0. overloading of the ships and severe storms at sea. where a tensile stress is applied normal to the plane of the crack.7 7. and 1. Figure 2.7 32. is given by: KIC max ϭ ᎏ Y ͙ෆ a (2. can cause them to grow or propagate rapidly (at the speed of sound in that material) and so cause failure of the material. 2a a Designing against fast fracture A material’s ability to resist fracture.3 2. and an internal crack of length 2a.6 33. The relationship between the stress required for a crack to propagate (resulting in fracture).Materials and processing Material Mild steel Alloy steel Titanium alloy Reinforced concrete Aluminium alloy GFRP Polyethylene CFRP * failure strength Yield strength (MPa) 220 1000 830 200 400 300* 30 650* Density (kg mϪ3) 7850 7850 4500 2500 2700 2000 970 1500 /y 35. the opening mode. if it contains a crack.25 2 5 1 100 Relative cost 17.8 7. or surface crack of length a.8 6. Although their original design life was only for five years. brittle materials such as ceramics fail at low stresses. the USA built Liberty ships (cargo ships that were cheap and quick to build).1) 125 . Catastrophic failures started from cracks which formed at the square corners of hatches that coincided with welded seams.20) a b This expression contains a dimensionless factor Y that enables a wide range of crack geometries to be considered. KIC. Under increased service stresses. During the Second World War.9 270 3.4 12.3 230 Table 2. Example of fast fracture During the Second World War. early Liberty ships suffered hull and deck cracks and there were nearly 1500 instances of significant brittle fractures.47 shows the geometries of the crack and the loading. leading to fast fracture.When load is applied. Internal and surface flaws or cracks act as points of stress concentration.9 5. Y is equal to unity for a centre-line crack.1 for a surface crack. The stress at which this happens is highly dependent upon the material type. Figure 2.47 Schematic of the loading and crack geometries for (a) an internal crack of length 2a (Y ؍1) and (b) a surface crack of length a (Y ؍1. due to stress concentration at both the sharp corners and the welds. rather than in compression (which will cause the crack to close rather than open).3 32. It should be noted that cracks will only propagate in tension or shear. 19 ships broke in half without warning.

For example. containing a 3 mm long central crack (Y ϭ 1. Design against fracture often involves the calculation of a maximum crack size that can be tolerated in a material before fast fracture will occur. Long ‘cracks’ can be introduced into a structure that has been fabricated by welding (for example a pressure vessel). t. crack length ϭ a) of 2. to yield or leak before they fracture (i. explode. safe design is achieved by ensuring that the smallest crack that will propagate has a length greater than the thickness of the vessel wall. we can ensure that fast fracture does not occur by arranging that any cracks. 2a ϭ 3 mm) will undergo fast fracture at stresses above 73 MPa (well below the tensile stress). fast fracture. Components are inspected. is chosen so that. which. when new and intermittently in service. using non-destructive methods (which include X-ray radiography. limiting their use. A schematic of this condition is shown in Figure 2. To enable ceramics to be used in tension to their full potential. The leak is easily detected.With large pressure vessels this may not be possible. takes place under tensile loading. in engineering applications. The distortion caused by yielding is easy to detect and the pressure can be released safely. ultrasonic inspection and the use of fluorescent dyes) to measure the size and quantity of any defects. a material with a fracture toughness of 100 MPa m1/2 (typical of a metal). Ceramics contain crack defects from the processes used to form and shape them. for example when designing and manufacturing aircraft and pressure vessels.6 mm or an internal crack (Y ϭ 1. As a result.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 A material with a low value of fracture toughness will undergo fast fracture at stresses below those for yielding. rather than yielding. and it releases pressure gradually and thus safely (as long as the contents are not poisonous). crack length ϭ 2a) of 6. Selection of materials to avoid fast fracture Pressure vessels. Designing against stress overload ensures that the wall thickness. are designed.21).48. along with a power station ‘reactor’ vessel. For example. Small pressure vessels are usually designed to allow yielding at a pressure still too low to propagate any crack that the vessel may contain. could result in disaster.22): max ϭ Y 126 KIC Ί t ᎏᎏ 2 (2. instead.e. This stress is likely to be higher than that for yielding and hence yielding will occur in preference to fast fracture. are still stable.4 mm. In demanding engineering applications where high stresses are encountered. y: Pr y ϭ ᎏ ᎏ 2t (2. for safety reasons. We shall look at this ‘leak-before-break’ case. Improper welding can result in unbonded regions that act like cracks. a material with a fracture toughness of 5 MPa m1/2 (typical of a ceramic). at the maximum working pressure. is shown in equation (2. creating a shower of fragments).1. if undetected. from the simplest aerosol can to the biggest boiler. The leaking of gas through this crack will then prevent any further build-up in pressure. 2a ϭ 3 mm). The stress in the wall of a thin-walled spherical pressure vessel of radius. For example.20) to determine a maximum surface defect (Y ϭ 1. the critical crack size may be small. in tension. before they fail by fast fracture. r. Any parts with cracks approaching the critical size must be repaired or scrapped. P. containing a 3 mm long central crack (Y ϭ 1. just large enough to penetrate both the inner and the outer surface of the vessel (2a ϭ t). we can use equation (2.22) . the stress is no greater than the yield stress. if an aluminium alloy with a fracture toughness of 30 MPa m1/2 is to be subjected to a service stress (let us say including a safety factor) of 300 MPa (below the yield stress of 400 MPa). crack defects must be eliminated during or after processing – this is neither easy nor cheap! Materials with high fracture toughness will have to experience high stresses or have very large cracks present. and is defined in equation (2. would fail by fast fracture at stresses above 1457 MPa.21) If there are cracks present in the wall of the pressure vessel.

It should be noted that high values for Table 2.12 compares ᎏIC y 2 K ᎏIC ᎏ can be obtained by choosing a material with a low yield stress.0 0. we need to eliminate the free variable. Knowing that the maximum stress encountered will be the yield stress.5 Table 2. such as titanium and CFRP.0 8.22).23) This equation has been split into design terms (in the left-hand bracket) and materials terms (in the right-hand bracket).21) and substitute it into equation (2. t. Polyethylene is only good for lightly stressed vessels (such as fizzy drinks bottles).3 18.3 0. and rearranging in terms of the pressure.12 Data for the selection of leak-before-break pressure vessels 127 . largest value of ᎏIC y K 2 ᎏ data for different materials. Materials with high y. and hence a high value for the yield stress is also desirable.9 12. Material Structural steel Alloy steel Titanium alloy Reinforced concrete Aluminium alloy Copper GFRP Polyethylene CFRP Yield strength (MPa) 220 1000 830 200 400 450 300* 30 650* Fracture toughness KIC (MPa m1/2) 50 170 100 10 30 90 50 2 40 K IC 2/y 11. The selection process shows that tough alloy steels are a good choice (steels are used for most pressure vessels) but copper is good for small vessels where corrosion may be a problem (for brewing and distilling alcohol).Materials and processing P t 2a Figure 2.5 2. but this makes the vessel y very thick (and potentially heavy) in order to withstand the pressure. gives: 4 KIC2 Pϭ ᎏ ᎏ ᎏ ᎏ Y 2R y (2.1 2. and to do this we rearrange equation (2. The maximum pressure is carried most safely by the material with the K 2 ᎏ. the thickness.4 28.48 Schematic diagram of the forces in a spherical pressure vessel and the crack geometry and (right) a power station reactor ‘pressure’ vessel In order to work out the maximum pressure that can be carried safely by the vessel. are good for lightweight pressure vessels.

showing that. 128 (2. After forensic investigation of the wreck and tests on a model.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Failure by fatigue Definition and service conditions Fatigue is the progressive and localized structural damage that occurs when a material is subjected to cyclic loading. Figure 2. In most cases of fatigue the maximum stress is below the yield stress and must be tensile to allow crack opening and advancement of the crack. aircraft investigators told a public enquiry that the sharp corners around the plane’s window openings (actually the forward antenna window in the roof) acted as initiation sites for cracks that grew under fatigue loading (caused by the repeated pressurization and depressurization of the aircraft cabin) until they were large enough to cause fast fracture of the fuselage. of a de Havilland Comet passenger jet in 1954. Often the stress cycles about a non-zero mean stress (as is shown in Figure 2. millions. axles. where the stress imposed can be a result of mechanical or thermal loading. by fatigue. The loading experienced. there will be a finite number of stress cycles before failure. fatigue is controlled by the initiation of a crack. In this case. As a result. follow an equation of the form: ⌬N m f ϭC where m and C are constants. If the maximum stress is below the yield stress (which tends to be the case in vibrating systems).When a material undergoes repeated stress cycles (for example (ϩ) tensile.24) at high stress amplitudes but indicates the existence of a minimum stress amplitude (Slimit – more commonly called the fatigue limit) below which crack growth does not occur and hence fatigue does not take place.49 shows a typical stress cycle for fatigue (stress against time). at altitude. showing the mean stress and the stress range. enabling fatigue cracks to start at the rivet holes around the windows. This is not the case for all materials and the curve for aluminium demonstrates this case. to exceed this limit and catastrophic failure (by fast fracture) will follow. gears. and was deemed to be the cause of the explosive decompression. plotted. billions or trillions of stress cycles. These plots can be used as a guide to specify a safe stress amplitude to withstand a given number of cycles (or identify the life for a given stress amplitude). for any given stress amplitude. max m min Time Figure 2. will be much less regular.24) . Design against fatigue failure The careful manufacture of small engineering components (for example. Depending on the material.50 shows schematic S–N curves typical of steel and aluminium. Figure 2. commonly in regions of stress concentration (such as at the sharp corners at the join of the head and shank of a bolt).49).49 A typical stress cycle (stress against time) for fatigue Example of metal fatigue Metal fatigue in conjunction with fast fracture has been a major cause of aircraft failure. all aircraft windows were immediately redesigned with rounded corners to reduce the stress concentration. the number of cycles to failure. for example. The example in the figure is a regular stress cycle which might be encountered in a vibrating system such as an oscillating aircraft wing. by a ship at sea. ⌬. against the number of cycles to failure (Nf or N). Nf and the cyclic stress. The curve for steel follows the dependence described in equation (2. killing all those on board. The importance of this is that small cracks that are below the critical size for fast fracture can grow. a graph of the magnitude of the cyclical stress amplitude (⌬ or S) about a zero mean stress. The fatigue life of a material (derived from experiments) can be characterized by an S–N curve. then (Ϫ) compressive) new cracks can be initiated and both new and existing cracks can grow. connecting rods) can ensure that they are free from cracks. failure may require thousands. The sharp-cornered window cut outs created stress concentrations that were much larger than expected. shape and stress experienced. on a logarithmic scale.

**Materials and processing
**

S ϭ stress amplitude S ϭ stress amplitude

unsafe Slimit safe 103 105 107 109 N ϭ Cycles to failure steel

unsafe safe aluminium 103 105 107 109 N ϭ Cycles to failure

Figure 2.50 Schematic S–N curves typical of (left) steel and (right) aluminium

Large structures, particularly those containing welds, will contain cracks. In this case we need to know the size of the cracks that are present (we can use non-destructive inspection to measure the size of these cracks) and then be able to predict how long it will take for these cracks to grow to reach the critical length for fast fracture. For the greatest part of the fatigue process the relationship between the rate of crack growth da ᎏᎏ and the cyclic stress intensity factor, ⌬K, is described by Paris’ law, shown in equation (2.25): dN da ᎏᎏ ϭ A(⌬K)n (2.25) dN

where A and n are constants that vary with material. The cyclic stress intensity factor, ⌬K, varies with the applied stress and the crack geometry and is described by: ⌬K ϭ ⌬͙ෆ a

(2.26)

It should be noted that only the tensile part of the stress cycle will contribute to crack opening and growth and hence should be used to determine ⌬K. Equations (2.25) and (2.26) indicate that the crack growth rate increases as the stress amplitude and crack length increase. Since the crack length is not constant during the fatigue process, the Paris equation (equation (2.25)) must be integrated to calculate the number of cycles to failure. If we assume that n ϭ 4 (it sits within the range 1 to 6 for most materials) and that the cyclic stress varies from zero to some tensile stress max, then we can calculate the number of cycles it takes to grow a crack from size a to af (if we assume that it would cause fast fracture when it reached this size, then the number of cycles is the number to failure, Nf). Expanding the Paris equation gives:

4 da ᎏᎏ ϭ A(max͙ෆ a) dN

(2.27)

Separating the variables and setting the limits gives:

͵

Nf

0

1 dN ϭ ᎏ ᎏ A(4max2)

͵

af

a

1 ᎏᎏ da a2

(2.28)

Integrating between these limits gives: 1 1 1 Nf ϭ ᎏ ᎏ ᎏᎏ Ϫ ᎏᎏ A(4max2) a af

(2.29)

We can use this approach to determine the safe life for a crack in an aluminium aircraft component. If a component is subjected to an alternating stress of range 160 MPa (Ϯ 80 MPa) about a mean stress of 50 MPa, then the maximum stress, max, is 130 MPa, the minimum is Ϫ30 MPa. If the fracture toughness of the alloy is 35 MPa m1/2, then by using: max ϭ KIC ෆ 1.1͙ a

(2.30)

129

An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1

we can calculate the critical crack length for fast fracture (for a surface crack) to be 19 mm. If the largest surface crack found by non-destructive testing is 2 mm deep (a ϭ 2 mm), we can determine the number of cycles that the wing can survive before this crack would grow to reach the critical crack length (19 mm). Using equation (2.29), which was derived from equation (2.27) assuming that n ϭ 4, substituting data for the initial and final crack lengths, the maximum tensile stress and assuming A ϭ 5 ϫ 10Ϫ12 m (MPa m1/2)Ϫ4, gives: 1 1 1 ᎏ ᎏᎏ Ϫ ᎏᎏ (2.31) Nf ϭ ᎏ 5 ϫ 10Ϫ12(13042) 2 ϫ 10Ϫ3 19 ϫ 10Ϫ3

Note that the stress should be kept in MPa and the crack length expressed in metres to have units that are compatible with A. The number of cycles to failure is 31,741. The frequency of the oscillation will determine the actual life in hours (or more properly flying hours) before failure. To design against fatigue failure, we would ideally like to keep the stress amplitude below the fatigue limit (if the material has one) or select a material that will not suffer from metal fatigue during the life of the product (this is also not always possible). If not, then we can design for a fixed life and replace the part with a new one before it reaches this limit (we know that planes have a certain number of flying hours before they are retired). In the case of the example given above, we would use the predicted life to define the time period between inspections and measurement of the length of the (growing) crack. Once the crack exceeds a specified length (one well below the 19 mm required for fast fracture!) the part would be repaired or scrapped.

Failure by creep

Creep is the term used to describe the tendency of a material to move or to deform permanently to relieve stresses. Creep is a slow, continuous ‘time-dependent’ deformation, under long-term exposure to constant load, at stresses that are below the yield strength of the material. The accumulation of creep strain causes damage and ultimately failure of the material. Creep is more severe in materials when the temperature is raised to above 40 per cent of the melting point (in Kelvin). The temperature range in which creep deformation may occur differs in various materials. For example, tungsten requires a temperature above 1000°C before creep deformation can occur, while plastics and low-melting-temperature metals, including many solders, creep at room temperature. Creep deformation is thus important not only in systems where high temperatures are endured, such as steam turbine power plants, jet engines and heat exchangers, but also in the design of many everyday objects made from polymers.

**Examples of creep failure
**

The collapse of the World Trade Center was credited, in part, to creep. The aircraft impacts dislodged some of the fireproofing from the structural steel members supporting the towers, increasing their exposure to the heat of the fires caused by the burning jet fuel (it is estimated that the burning jet fuel could have easily caused sustained temperatures in excess of 800 °C). Although the steel would have reached temperatures that were well below the melting point, they would have been high enough to weaken the core columns so that they underwent plastic deformation and creep from the weight of the floors above. The resulting failure of the 2–3 floor system at the site of impact would have sent the 20–25 floors above free-falling onto the 80–85-floor structure below. The enormous energy released by this collapse would have been too large to be absorbed by the structure below, causing the explosive buckling, floor by floor, of the towers. The failure of tungsten light bulb filaments can also occur by creep.When hot (i.e when the bulb is switched on), the filament coil progressively sags between its supports owing to creep deformation caused by the weight of the filament itself. If too much deformation occurs, the

130

Materials and processing

adjacent turns of the coil touch one another, causing an electrical short and local overheating, leading to rapid failure of the filament.

**Design against creep
**

Figure 2.51 shows schematically how materials (metals, ceramics and polymers) deform with time under a constant tensile load (creep will also occur in compression or shear) as a function of temperature. Initially, the strain rate (the slope of the plot) slows with increasing time. This is known as primary creep. The strain rate eventually reaches a minimum and becomes near-constant. This is known as secondary or steady-state creep. In tertiary creep, the strain rate exponentially increases with strain, damage starts to occur followed by failure. The creep rate can also be seen to increase with increasing temperature. At high applied stresses, creep in metals is controlled by the movement of dislocations. At high temperatures, atomic diffusion helps ‘unlock’ dislocations that have been stopped by obstacles (such as precipitates) in the material. Diffusion allows the dislocations to climb over the obstacles, to move through the material, resulting in plastic deformation. The creep rate (in the steady state region) can be described by: ϪQ d . ᎏᎏ ϭ ϭ An exp ᎏ RT dt

increasing temperature Strain, tertiary

**secondary primary 0 Time
**

Figure 2.51 Schematic illustration of the change in creep strain as a function of time at different temperatures

(2.32)

where A and n are constants that vary with material type, T is the temperature (in Kelvin), R is the gas constant (8.31 J molϪ1 KϪ1) and Q is the activation energy for the creep process (with units of J molϪ1) and is also a material parameter. The strain rate (or creep rate), as described by this equation, increases with both temperature and stress. At a constant temperature, the creep rate can be given by: . (2.33) ϭ Bn where B is also a constant.For example,if Q ϭ 160 kJ molϪ1, n ϭ 5 and A ϭ 7.2 ϫ 10Ϫ10 MPaϪ5 sϪ1, for an applied stress of 100 MPa at 600°C (873 K) the creep rate is 1.9 ϫ 10Ϫ9 sϪ1. (Note: the stress should be in MPa to be compatible with the units for A.) If the creep strain allowed is 0.01 (1 per cent), then this will be achieved in 5.26 ϫ 106 s or 1461 h. Doubling the stress will increase the strain rate 32 times, while increasing the temperature by approximately 165°C (for this example) will achieve the same effect. At lower applied stresses, creep deformation of metals occurs by elongation of the grains through the diffusion of atoms through the grains. Since the rate of diffusion increases with temperature, so does the creep rate. The creep rate via this mechanism can be described by equation (2.34), where C is a constant. It can be seen that the creep rate scales inversely to the square of the grain size, d, (i.e. increasing the grain size by a factor of 100 will decrease the creep rate by 10,000). ϪQ d . C ᎏᎏ ϭ ϭ ᎏᎏ exp ᎏ (2.34) 2 RT dt d

On account of the high strength of ceramics and their small grain size (a result of their manufacture from fine powders), creep in ceramics occurs mainly by this process. Creep in polymers occurs at temperatures above the glass transition temperature where the polymer behaves like a rubber (if it has many chemical crosslinks) or a viscous liquid (if it does not). Above the glass transition temperature, creep occurs by viscous flow of the polymer chains past each other and follows the same linear dependence upon the applied stress (i.e. n ϭ 1) as for diffusional flow as shown: ϪQ d . ᎏᎏ ϭ ϭ CЈexp ᎏ (2.35) RT dt

**where CЈ is a constant and Q is the activation energy for viscous flow.
**

131

An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1

As a consequence of creep deformation, several processes can occur.At a constant stress or load (if the material or component is free to deform), strain accumulates with time. Components will elongate in the stress direction and, depending on the magnitude of the applied stress and its duration, the deformation may become so large that a component can no longer perform its function (for example, creep of a turbine blade will cause the blade to contact the casing, resulting in seizure and failure of the blade).Alternatively, if the component is constrained and cannot move, then the stress will relax with time.An example of this is the stress in a tightened bolt. The creep strain will reduce the elastic strain and hence the bolt must be repeatedly tightened. If there is no limiting strain (from the design) that will cause failure, there is a limit to the amount of creep deformation that can occur in a material before it fails as a result of internal damage. This results in the concept of a creep life that we must ensure is longer than the service life. The creep life is determined from empirical relationships obtained by fitting simple equations to experimental data. An example of this is shown in Figure 2.52, where the creep life or time to failure (in hours) can be determined for a given applied stress and is shown at various temperatures (where T3 Ͼ T2 Ͼ T1).

100 Stress/MPa T1 T2 T3

10 3

10

100 Time/hours

1000

Figure 2.52 Typical plot of creep life (or time To minimize creep, materials with high melting points should be chosen to failure) as a function of applied stress at a as diffusion will be slower at a given temperature. Materials with a large number of temperatures (T3 > T2 > T1) resistance to dislocation motion (ceramics) and those with many fine, hard precipitates (that are stable at the service temperature) are also favoured. Materials with large grains (or even one single grain) are more resistant to creep, since the diffusion paths for grain deformation are increased. More extensively crosslinked polymers (for example, thermosets such as epoxies) have higher glass transition temperatures and are more resistant to creep. Increasing the percentage crystallinity of a (thermoplastic) polymer (reducing the fraction of amorphous material) also increases the creep resistance. The creep resistance of a polymer can also be improved by filling the polymer with glass or silica powders or, better still, continuous glass and carbon fibres which bear all the load and eliminate creep.

**Creep of a turbine blade
**

In a rotating turbine blade operating at high temperature, strain accumulates with time due to creep. The centrifugal load gives rise to an elastic stress and drives creep deformation in the radial direction. Extensive deformation will cause the blade to foul against the casing in which it is housed. Figure 2.53 shows the typical clearance between blades and the casing in a turbine engine. The clearance between the casing and the blade tip defines the maximum permissible strain. For a gap of 0.5 mm, the maximum strain on a 50 mm long blade is 1.0 ϫ 10Ϫ2. The elastic stretching of the blade is given by equation (2.36) where the stiffness of the material at the operating temperature would be used. For a nickel alloy turbine blade, this is approximately 160 GPa at 900°C: elastic ϭ ᎏᎏ (2.36) E The stress in a rotating blade is proportional to the square of its angular velocity and for a turbine blade spinning at 16,000 RPM (1676 rad sϪ1) the average stress is typically 200 MPa. The elastic strain is 1.25 ϫ 103 and hence the maximum permissible creep strain is 8.75 ϫ 10Ϫ3. The creep rate of the nickel alloy at a given temperature (in this case 900°C or 1173 K) can be described by an equation of the form: . (2.37) ϭ Bn

132

Figure 2.53 Typical clearance between the blades and the casing in a turbine engine

Materials and processing

where, at 1173 K, B ϭ 3.8 ϫ 10Ϫ22 MPaϪ5sϪ1 and n ϭ 5. Substituting these values, along with that for the stress (in MPa), gives a strain rate of 1.216 ϫ 10Ϫ10. Since the creep strain is the product of the creep strain rate and the time period over which creep takes place, the blade will creep by the maximum permissible strain (8.75 ϫ 10Ϫ3) after nearly 72 ϫ 106 or 20,000 h in service.

Learning summary

By the end of this section you will have learnt:

✔ ✔ ✔

A number of ways in which materials can fail in service and the relavance of these failure methods to engineering situations; The relevant equations that govern the failure process along with typical data for engineering materials; How to use these equations to design against material failure and to select suitable materials to avoid failure.

133

This page intentionally left blank

Fluid mechanics

Unit 3

Fluid mechanics

Stephen Pickering

UNIT OVERVIEW

■ Introductory concepts ■ Fluids at rest – hydrostatics ■ Fluids in motion ■ Fluids in motion – linear momentum

Fluids (the generic name given to both liquids and gases) are all around us – the air we breathe, the water in lakes, rivers and the sea, the liquids we drink. They are a familiar part of everyday life and the way in which fluids behave is understood by everyday experiences. For instance, liquids have a defined volume but take the shape of the container they are in; a kilogram of water generally has a fixed volume but it can be confined inside a bottle or spread out over a large area if spilled on the floor. Some fluids flow more easily than others: water is easy to pour, but syrup moves more slowly. Fluids that are moving create forces on solid objects: the umbrella blows inside out on a windy day! In engineering it is important to understand the behaviour of fluids in a scientific way, to be able to quantify the effects so that calculations can be undertaken to design systems involving fluids and to predict their performance. For instance, if water needs to be pumped 25 metres uphill at a rate of 10 litres per second, how big does the pump have to be and how much energy is needed to pump the water? Could the system be designed to be more sustainable and use less energy? If an oil storage tank needs to be built, how thick will the walls need to be? How much force does the oil exert on the walls? In this chapter the behaviour of fluids will be explained in a mathematical way and tools will be introduced to enable design calculations to be performed. These will be related to some of the everyday experiences that we have of fluids to help understanding. The chapter is divided into five main sections. Following the introduction in Section 3.1, Section 3.2 looks at fluid statics. The concept of pressure is described, showing how to calculate the forces created by the pressure of a fluid on a solid surface and how pressure can be measured using a manometer. The concept of buoyancy and why some things float and others sink is explained. In the remaining part of the chapter, moving fluids are considered, starting in Section 3.3 with the simplified case of what are known as ideal fluids (fluids in which viscosity is ignored). Section 3.4 moves on to real (viscous) fluids and the ways of estimating the amount of energy dissipated to friction when these fluids flow. Finally, in Section 3.5 the forces exerted by moving fluids are explained in terms of changes in momentum.

135

An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1

3.1 Introductory concepts

What is a fluid?

A fluid is a substance that has the ability to flow, i.e. to take up the shape of its container. This is in contrast to solids, which generally have a fixed rigid shape unless acted upon by large forces. Liquids, gases, vapours and plasmas are fluids, and even some plastic solids (such as bitumen) can be treated as fluids. The differences between solids and fluids relate to what is happening on a molecular scale. In a solid the atoms or molecules are in fixed positions relative to each other and, although the atoms may be vibrating, they do not move past each other and so the solid retains its shape. By contrast a fluid consists of atoms or molecules that are in continuous random motion. They are not held in fixed positions relative to each other but are able to move freely and they continually collide with each other and their surroundings. As the molecules are free to move, if a force is applied to a fluid, the molecules move past each other and the fluid deforms and changes shape. By contrast, when a force is applied to a solid, the molecules resist moving past each other and the solid will retain its shape unless the forces are large enough to cause it to deform or break. This distinction is expressed more exactly by stating that a fluid that is not moving cannot support a shear stress and any applied shear will lead to deformation of the fluid. Once the shear stress is removed, there is no residual stress within the fluid, no matter how much the molecules within the fluid are displaced from their original locations, as shown in Figure 3.1.

Flat The difference between a liquid and a gas again relates to what is plates happening on a molecular scale. In a liquid the forces of attraction Fr (known as cohesion) between the molecules prevent the molecules from Solid or moving too far away from each other and so the liquid retains a definite fluid at rest volume. Therefore, a fixed amount of liquid has a certain volume associated with it and it takes a great deal of applied force to squash a Fr liquid into a smaller volume. If a volume of liquid is placed into a larger Figure 3.1 If a shear force (FT) is applied, a container, there will be a free surface. In a gas the movement of the solid will deform slightly, whereas a fluid will molecules is much greater, so that the forces of attraction between the continue to deform indefinitely as the layers of molecules are overcome and the molecules can move away from each fluid keep sliding over each other other only to be confined by the surfaces of the container they are in. Therefore, if a fixed amount of gas is placed into a container, it will expand until it completely fills the container; so there is no free surface in a gas. Liquids turn into gases when they are given more (kinetic) energy to make the molecules move faster. The amount of kinetic energy in the molecules is what results in the property known as temperature.

A stationary fluid cannot withstand a shear stress but deforms under the action of a shear.

Continuum

All matter is made up of atoms or molecules, but these are so small that the volumes of fluids involved in engineering calculations usually contain sufficient elementary particles that the fluid can be considered to have homogeneous properties, i.e. it has continuous properties rather than being made up of individual particles. For example, a 1 mm diameter spherical drop of water contains approximately 2.9 ϫ 1018 water molecules. On a very, very small scale, individual atoms and molecules can be distinguished and a fluid is not homogeneous. However, in all the calculations in this book, a fluid will be treated as a continuum. A similar argument can be used when considering the random motion of a fluid.With a very, very small sample, there may be, say, fewer than 20 molecules inside the boundaries of a volume at one time and more or less at a different time, due to random motion. The timescales involved with this random motion are very short and so we assume that no matter how small the time step we are considering, the properties do not change with time.

Fluids can be treated as continuous in time and space.

136

Fluid mechanics

**Mass and weight
**

The mass is the amount of a substance and its weight is the force produced by a mass when acted upon by gravity: Weight ϭ mass ϫ acceleration due to gravity W ϭ mg

(3.1)

In the SI system of units, weight is measured in newtons (N), mass in kilograms (kg) and acceleration in m sϪ2. The acceleration due to gravity on earth is generally taken as 9.81 m sϪ2. Mass is independent of where a substance is, so a certain amount of a substance will have the same mass whether it is on the earth, orbiting in space or on the moon. The weight depends on the local gravity, so while a mass of 1 kg may have a weight of about 10 N on the earth, it would only have about a sixth of this weight on the moon.

Density

Density is the amount of mass in a given volume and so relates to the weight of a given volume of a fluid. Density typically uses the greek symbol (rho, pronounced row as in row a boat) and the equation for density is m ϭ ᎏᎏ (3.2) V The SI unit for density is kg mϪ3. The density of a fluid can be found either from the mass of a known volume or from the volume of a known mass, and this gives the mean density. In engineering the terms relative density or specific gravity (SG) are sometimes used when referring to liquids. For example, a liquid may be said to have a specific gravity of 0.96. The SG (or relative density) of a fluid is the ratio of the density of the fluid to the density of water at standard temperature and pressure (usually taken to be 1000 kg mϪ3). liquid ᎏ (3.3) SG ϭ ᎏ water So a fluid with a specific gravity or relative density of 0.83 has a density of 830 kg mϪ3.

The specific gravity of olive oil is 0.85. When a container of 2 kg mass and 20 litres internal volume is completely filled with the oil, what is the combined mass of the container and oil? We need to know the mass of the oil inside the container and can calculate this from the known volume and density. Two small calculations are required to obtain the volume and density in SI units: oil ϭ SGoil ϫ 1000 ϭ 850 kg mϪ3 20 litres ϭ 20 ϫ 10Ϫ3 m3 We can now calculate the mass using equation (3.2): m ϭ ᎏᎏ , so m ϭ V ϭ 850 ϫ 20 ϫ 10Ϫ3 ϭ 17 kg V Consequently, the combined mass is 17 ϩ 2 ϭ 19 kg.

Pressure

Pressure is caused by the atoms and molecules in a fluid colliding with each other and with the surfaces of a container. Consider a box containing a gas. The molecules of the gas are in constant random motion, and sometimes they collide with each other.When this happens, an

137

An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1

equal and opposite force is exerted on each molecule and there is no net force on the box, but there is an internal pressure within the fluid. However, when one of the molecules hits one of the walls of the box (as shown in Figure 3.2), it bounces off, and the change in momentum of the molecule creates a force on the wall perpendicular to the wall. The velocity of the molecule parallel to the wall does not change during the impact (assuming that it is a perfectly elastic collision), but the velocity perpendicular to the wall retains the same magnitude but is reversed in direction. For a single molecular impact, this would be a small force, but there are many molecules and so there will be many collisions, creating what appears to be a uniform distribution of force over the surface. Pressure is a scalar quantity as it does not have a direction associated with it – the pressure within a fluid acts in every direction as the molecules bounce off each other. However, wherever a fluid is in contact with a surface, the force exerted on the surface is perpendicular to the surface, and so it is a vector quantity as it has direction. For an element of the wall, where all the molecules impinging on it have the same pressure, the pressure is defined as the force acting on the element divided by the area of the element: ␦F ᎏᎏ ϭ p ␦A

Resultant force

Figure 3.2

(3.4)

To find the total force acting on a surface, sum all the elemental forces. Thus, F ϭ ⌺␦F. In the mathematical limit, as the elemental areas become infinitesimally small, this may be expressed as the integral F ϭ p dA

͵

(3.5)

If the pressure is constant, this reduces to the well-known formula force equals pressure times area: F ϭ pA

(3.6)

If the pressure is not uniform, the integration can only be performed if the variation in pressure over the area is known. (Equation (3.5) can be integrated numerically if there is experimental data available, or analytically if a formula for p as a function of A can be derived.) As pressure acts in all directions, a pressure should never be represented as an arrow on a diagram! However, the force created by a pressure acting on a surface does have direction and can be shown by an arrow. Pressure is force per unit area and has the units of N mϪ2. The SI unit for pressure is the pascal (Pa), and 1 Pa ϭ 1 N mϪ2. However, another unit commonly used for pressure in engineering is the bar. One bar is 100 000 Pa or 105 Pa, and it is a useful engineering unit because it approximates atmospheric pressure. Standard atmospheric pressure is 1.013 25 bar. A millibar, 1 mbar, is equal to 100 Pa and is also a unit in common usage.

**Absolute pressure and gauge pressure
**

If there are no molecules/atoms (complete vacuum), then the pressure will be zero. Also, if there is no molecular movement (absolute zero temperature, 0 K), then the pressure will be zero. Pressures above this zero condition are referred to as absolute pressures. As the atmosphere is all around, in engineering it is often the pressure present in addition to atmospheric pressure that is of interest, and this gives rise to the concept of gauge pressure. Most instruments for measuring pressure are so constructed that they indicate gauge pressure (i.e. the pressure relative to atmospheric pressure). Gauge pressure is related to atmospheric pressure thus:

Gauge pressure ϭ absolute pressure Ϫ atmospheric pressure or Absolute pressure ϭ gauge pressure ϩ atmospheric pressure

138

Using this concept it is possible to deduce equations for behaviour.5 bar gauge). The perfect gas equation is derived by considering Boyle’s law and Charles’s law. volume and temperature in gases. If the temperature does not change either. however.9 bar. The perfect gas equation of state (The relationship between pressure. mountain Ϫ Pat. and this idealized representation (known as a perfect gas) results in the perfect gas equation of state. it is important to note that atmospheric pressure changes daily and is also significantly affected by elevation. then the gauge pressure will be 2. Atmospheric pressure has changed. Although gauge pressures can be very useful. What is the gauge pressure of the gas? The container is then taken to the top of a mountain where air pressure is 0.) A gas can be thought of as behaving in the same way as a collection of rigid. when temperature is constant.0 bar. Another name for a perfect gas is an ideal gas. ground ϭ Pabs. ground Pgauge.37 bar. then its pressure will change too.Fluid mechanics Thus. For instance. which holds true over a wide range of pressures and temperatures commonly experienced in engineering. If the container does not deform and the ambient temperature does not change.47 bar If the temperature of the gas changes.1 bar. The change in pressure can be calculated using the perfect gas law (see later in this section). The container does not deform and so has the same volume.5 bar and atmospheric pressure is 1. mountain ϭ Pabs.37 bar Gauge pressure ϭ absolute pressure Ϫ atmospheric pressure: Pgauge.37 Ϫ 1. perfectly elastic spheres in constant motion that interact with each other and with the walls of the container. the pressure of the gas inside it remains the same. mountain Pgauge.9 ϭ 2. the pressure is 2. the volume occupied by a gas is inversely 139 .27 bar At ground level the gauge pressure of the gas is 2.27 bar. mountain ϭ 3. and its absolute pressure is therefore still 3. atmospheric pressure is only 0. Boyle’s law states that.27 bar more than atmospheric. A sealed container is completely filled with a gas at an absolute pressure of 3370 mbar.37 Ϫ 0. ground ϭ 3. what is the gauge pressure of the gas now? Why would the answer be different if the ambient temperature changed? First. commonly. and so there is a new gauge pressure: Pgauge. This means that it has a pressure of 2. ground Ϫ Pat. Air pressure outside the container is 1. then the gas inside the container will be in exactly the same state as it was at the ground. This is because the container is sealed and so there is the same mass of gas inside. if the absolute pressure (pressure relative to a vacuum) is 3.1 ϭ 2. express both pressures in the same units: 3370 mbar is 3. at an altitude of 1000 m.5 bar (or.9 bar. At low pressures and high temperatures the approximation is not so good. When the container is taken to the top of the mountain.

140 .7) becomes pV ϭ nRT ϳ (3.12) RT In using the various forms of the perfect gas equation. in which there are two atoms per molecule. and the specific gas constant has units J kgϪ1 KϪ1 and so refers to a kilogram of a particular gas. Thus. for n kmol of gas. So m nϭ ᎏ ϳ m Substituting this relationship into equation (3. or STP). the density of a gas can conveniently be determined from pressure and temperature as p ϭ ᎏ (3.9) by the mass of gas gives pv ϭ RT (3. usually written as kmol.8) The mass of 1 kmol of a substance depends on the molar mass.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 proportional to its pressure.9) This is known as the specific gas constant and is dependent on the particular gas under consideration. n. and it is known as the molar or universal gas constant and given the symbol ϳ R.0 kg kmolϪ1. and Charles’s law states that. and this is determined from the atomic weights of the elements in the molecules. and so the specific gas constant is 287. and pressure must be expressed as absolute pressure in N mϪ2 or Pa. it is really used in its other meaning. when pressure is constant. or the equation of state for a gas. Together. it is important to remember to use the correct units: temperature must be expressed as absolute temperature in kelvin. (It is worth noting that many people think that use of the word specific in the term specific gas constant means that the constant is specific to a particular gas. and this volume is 22. the average molar mass is 29 kg kmolϪ1.7) The constant depends on the quantity of gas. the molar mass of hydrogen gas (H2). However. equation (3. which it is. For air. where specific quantities are quantities per unit mass. It has the units m3 kgϪ1. It is the reciprocal of density (which has the units kg mϪ3). as it is otherwise termed.8) gives: pV ϭ mRT where ϳ R Rϭ ϳ m (3.10) where v (lower case) is the specific volume. and Avogadro’s hypothesis states that equal volumes of all gases at a given temperature and pressure contain the same number of molecules. For oxygen gas (O2) the molar mass is 32 kg kmolϪ1. is 2. For example. The number of moles of a quantity of a substance. Therefore.11) Therefore. the volume occupied by a gas is proportional to its absolute temperature (in kelvin). a certain number of atoms or molecules of any gas will occupy the same volume.013 25 bar.1 J kgϪ1 KϪ1. these give pV ᎏᎏ ϭ constant T (3. A kilomole of molecules always occupies the same volume at a particular temperature and pressure. for 1 kmol of gas. the constant in equation (3. an alternative form of the perfect gas equation is p ϭ RT (3.) Dividing equation (3.7) is 8314 J kmolϪ1 KϪ1. at a particular temperature and pressure. or the volume of 1 kg of gas. For engineering calculations the quantity of atoms or molecules usually referred to is the kilomole. is its mass divided by the molar mass. these conditions are known as standard temperature and pressure. Therefore. in general. Thus.41 m3 at the reference temperature and pressure (0 °C and 1. which is approximately 79 per cent nitrogen and 21 per cent oxygen.

a pressure increase in a substance causes a reduction in the volume occupied by a given mass. so the density does not vary significantly with pressure or temperature. so pV ᎏ ᎏ T and ground pV ϭ ᎏᎏ T 30 km p30 km Tground ᎏ ᎏ V Vground ϭ ᎏ pground T30 km 30 km 273. Remember temperatures must be in kelvin in the perfect gas equation.3 kPa and the temperature is 15 °C? There are two key points to note here: first. what volume of helium must be added at ground level where the absolute pressure is 101.Fluid mechanics What is the specific gas constant for oxygen gas? Oxygen is normally present in the atmosphere as molecules of two atoms (O2). For solids and liquids the reduction in volume is very small but it is important in some cases.15 ϩ 15 203 1200 ϭ ᎏᎏ ᎏᎏ ᎏᎏ 6 101 300 273. The equation that relates the change in volume to the change in pressure is given below.2 m3 The perfect gas equation only applies to gases at reasonable pressures and temperatures found in engineering. The atomic mass of oxygen is 16 kg kmolϪ1. Compressibility In general. To convert from °C to K. add 273. thus the density increases. Secondly.15. which for most cases can be assumed to be incompressible. If there is to be no stress in the fabric of the balloon.15 Ϫ 47 ϭ 63. then the pressure inside the balloon is equal to the pressure outside.8 J kgϪ1 KϪ1 Roxygen ϭ ϳ 32 m oxygen A helium-filled weather balloon is to expand to a sphere of 20 m diameter at a height of 30 km where the absolute pressure is 1200 Pa and the temperature is Ϫ47 °C. where K is the bulk modulus of elasticity: ␦V (3. It does not apply to liquids. if there is no stress in the fabric of the balloon. ϳ 8314 R ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 259. even a small change in pressure can cause a significant change in volume and therefore density. Apply pV ϭ mRT The parameters m and R are constant. For gases.13) ␦p ϭ Kᎏᎏ V 141 . so the molar mass of molecular gaseous oxygen is 32 kg kmolϪ1. there is the same quantity (or mass) of hydrogen in the balloon at ground level as at 30 km.

1 per cent volumetric strain only requires a pressure change of approximately 0. over ranges where it can be regarded as constant. if the surface tension forces are greater than the forces of adhesion with a solid. K is of the order of 1011 Pa.e.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 K does vary slightly with pressure. F ϭ pA. ● Pressure in a fluid is associated with molecular motion. ● The perfect gas equation of state can be used to obtain gas properties. Surface tension is only of significance in this chapter when considering the measurement of pressure using a manometer tube and will be dealt with in that section. in this chapter only fluids where the behaviour can be considered to be incompressible are dealt with. However. but. Gases can only really be treated as incompressible if the pressure changes involved are very small. K for water is 2 ϫ 109 Pa. At the surface of a liquid these forces of attraction act like a ‘skin’ holding the liquid together. ● Liquids can usually be treated as incompressible but gases cannot.1 per cent of 1 bar (100 Pa). 142 . From experience it is known that water will tend to be drawn along a piece of string and this is due to surface tension. This is the reason that small drops of liquid tend to assume a spherical shape. ● When pressure is constant over an area.g. It therefore has the dimensional formula Force ᎏᎏ ϭ [MLTϪ2LϪ1] ϭ [MLTϪ2] Length with units of N mϪ1 and the symbol ␥. ● Absolute pressure (relative to vacuum) and gauge pressure (relative to atmospheric pressure) are both used in engineering. provided that the pressure is not excessively high. ΄ ΅ Key points from Section 3. Surface tension Surface tension arises from the forces between the molecules of a liquid (cohesive forces). For gases.Water will wet clean glass but mercury will not. In engineering. If these forces of adhesion exceed the forces of cohesion within the fluid. Water will not wet a greasy surface. then the liquid tends to spread out over (or wet) the solid surface. the behaviour of gases subject to large pressure changes is considered. all fluids are treated as having local properties that are the same as the bulk properties and do not vary with time (continuum). and therefore a pressure increase of 100 bar will only cause a volume reduction of 0. Surface tension is defined as the tensile force acting per unit length at the interface of a liquid. Thus. then the liquid does not wet the surface but tends to form discrete droplets. K is of the order of 1 bar. surface tension is not usually a significant force except where the dimensions of the volume of water are small compared with the area of the surface with which it is in contact. e. For example. ● In fluid mechanics. There are also forces of adhesion between liquid molecules and the molecules of a solid boundary. and for liquids it is of the order of 109 Pa (increasing with pressure). we can write ⌬V ⌬p ϭ Kᎏᎏ V For solids. K is approximately equal to the pressure of the gas. Alternatively. and a 0.005 V 2 ϫ 109 K It is for this reason that liquids are generally regarded as incompressible and will be treated as such in this chapter.5 per cent: ⌬V ⌬p 100 ϫ 105 ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 0. for a gas at 1 bar.1 ● A fluid is shaped by external forces (i. raindrops and drops of dew. and it is the reason for the phenomenon of capillary action. ● A fluid at rest cannot support a shear stress. a fluid takes up the shape of its container). In the chapter of this book describing thermodynamics.

there is no motion of one part of the fluid relative to another part or to a surface. in the absence of any shear forces owing to movement of the fluid. p2. Let an infinitesimal triangular prism of fluid. but can also concern fluids in uniform motion such that all the fluid has the same velocity throughout.2 Fluids at rest – hydrostatics Hydrostatics is the study of fluids at rest. pressure results from the impact of the molecules in a fluid with each other and with the walls of a container. then the only forces acting are: (i) normal forces Fx. Fz and Fn must be normal to their respective faces. AB respectively. this is known as Pascal’s law and can be proved as shown below for information. This type of force is called a surface force. Fz and Fn on faces AC. A force applied normal to a surface will not cause sliding.e. but a pressure itself acts in all directions. liquid inside a road tanker moving along may be analysed as a hydrostatics problem if there is no relative motion within the fluid.4 143 Any point S Figure 3. Let pressures p1. due to pressures p1. have thickness ␦y (perpendicular to the paper). For example. p2 and p3. If no shear forces act on the prism. the equation then becomes the familiar F ϭ pA Within a fluid the pressure acts equally in all directions. i. surrounding any point S. CB. δz F x p1 C Fz Weight Figure 3. 3. Pressure As described in the introduction.3 A p3 Fn θ B p2 . CB and AB respectively. Fluid A z y x C B vz. Fx. At a solid surface. ͵ Pascal’s law In the absence of shear forces the pressure at a point in a fluid acts equally in all directions. p3 act on faces AC. such as gravity forces.Fluid mechanics Learning summary At the end of this section you should be able to: ✔ ✔ ✔ calculate the density of an object from its mass and volume. These are called body forces. otherwise there would be components of force along the faces and shear forces would exist. use the perfect gas equation of state to calculate the properties of gases. az A surface submerged in a fluid experiences a force perpendicular to the surface (provided that there are no shear forces) as a result of the pressure. (ii) forces that act on the mass as a whole. know the difference between and calculate gauge and absolute pressure. pressure exerts a force perpendicular to the surface and the force can be determined by integrating the pressure: F ϭ p dA If the pressure is uniform over a surface. Proof of Pascal’s Law This can be shown as follows.

5. force has a magnitude and direction and is thus a vector. Force Fz ϩ ␦Fz due to pressure p ϩ dp acts downwards owing to the weight of fluid above. we have p 1 ϭ p3 І p 1 ϭ p2 ϭ p3 (3. If shear forces are involved. resolving in the x-direction. But ␦x cos ϭ ᎏᎏ. Since pressure has magnitude. since these imply that direction is relevant. in most cases of real fluid flow. The variation in pressure with depth can be determined by considering the vertical forces acting on an element of fluid at rest.14) Variation of pressure with elevation Within a stationary fluid. provided that there are no shear forces in the fluid. and this causes a vertical pressure gradient within the fluid. equations (a) and (b) are invalid. Force Fz’ due to pressure p acts upwards to support the element.15) Since can take any value. and p ϩ ␦p at height z ϩ ␦z. AB Therefore ␦x 1 p2 ␦x ␦y Ϫ p3(AB)␦y ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏ2ᎏ ␦x ␦y ␦z(az ϩ g) AB and so p2 Ϫ p3 ϭ ᎏ2ᎏ dz(az ϩ g) As the size of the prism tends to zero. Now Fz ϭ p ␦x ␦y Fz ϩ ␦Fz ϭ ( p ϩ ␦p) ␦x ␦y І␦Fz ϭ ␦p( ␦x ␦y) Resolve forces in the z-direction: Fz Ϫ (Fz ϩ ␦Fz) Ϫ g ␦m ϭ 0 but І 144 ␦m ϭ ␦x ␦y ␦z Ϫ␦p( ␦x ␦y) ϭ g( ␦x ␦y ␦z) .An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Resolve forces in the z-direction and apply Newton’s second law of motion: Net force in z-direction ϭ mass of element ϫ az where az represents the acceleration (zero if the fluid is at rest). However. pressure must be a scalar. gravity acts downwards. However. as shown in Figure 3. the shear stresses are very small compared with the pressures and so Pascal’s law can still be applied. then ␦z tends to zero so that in the limit p 2 ϭ p3 Similarly. Let the fluid pressure be p at height z. Fn ϭ p3(AB)␦y (3. the pressure at a point is independent of direction. 1 1 1 Fz ϭ p2 ␦x ␦y. in the limit as the size of the prism tends to zero. Arrows should never be used to indicate pressure. but pressure at a point is independent of direction. Thus Fz Ϫ Fn cos Ϫ [g(ᎏ2ᎏ␦x ␦y ␦z)] ϭ (ᎏ2ᎏ␦x ␦y ␦z)az where represents fluid density and the bracketed quantity [ ] represents the body force (weight).

16) can be integrated to give ͵ dp ϭ Ϫ͵ g dz ϭ Ϫg͵ dz 2 2 2 1 1 1 І І p2 Ϫ p1 ϭ Ϫg(z2 Ϫ z1) p2 Ϫ p1 ϭ g(h2 Ϫ h1) (3. Thus. For example. However. 145 . a liquid.17) Or. as z increases.Fluid mechanics or As ␦p ᎏᎏ ϭ Ϫg ␦z ␦p ␦p ␦z ➝ 0. p decreases. e.g.5 Vertical forces acting on a fluid element at rest This equation applies for any fluid.6 shows the forces acting in the x-direction. p does vary with z (on account of gravity) from one horizontal plane to another. Figure 3. pressure increases as a diver descends. Resolve forces in the x-direction: Fx1 ϭ Fx2 since the element is at rest. then Note that we conventionally use the notation where z represents elevation above a datum and h represents depth below a datum (usually the surface of a liquid). The minus sign indicates that. p does not vary with x or y and must be the same everywhere on a horizontal plane.16) Figure 3.6 Horizontal forces acting on fluid element For an incompressible fluid. density () is constant and equation (3. and similarly ᎏᎏ ϭ 0 dy dx For a fluid at rest. Figure 3. ᎏᎏ ➝ ᎏᎏ ␦z ␦z І dp ᎏᎏ ϭ Ϫg dz ⌬p ϭ Ϫg⌬z (3. considering h as being positive in the downwards direction. the pressure on face AD is equal to that on face BC: І dp dp ᎏᎏ ϭ 0.

the pressure at the base of a column depends only on the vertical height of the column and not on the shape.991 bar Figure 3.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Liquid columns It is useful to consider a simple liquid column as illustrated in Figure 3.8 Atmospheric pressure of 1. It is used for measuring the pressure in a liquid. Consider all the vessels shown below. Figure 3. their limited operating range and lack of easy interface to electronic control systems means that they are commonly being replaced with electronic pressure transducers. The pressure in the pipe forces the liquid up the piezometer tube until the height of the column of liquid balances the pressure difference between the pipe and the atmosphere. The greater the value of p1. where p1 is greater than atmospheric pressure pa. ⌬p ϭ Ϫg⌬z 146 Piezometer (vertical tube) pa p1 z1 z2 Δz Liquid Datum Figure 3. Find the pressure at the bottom of the lake.7 Liquid column as the base. discussed briefly below. Applying equation (3. .10 Piezometer or p1 Ϫ p2 ϭ Ϫg(z1 Ϫ z2) . However. With reference to Figure 3.01 ϫ 105 ϩ (1000 ϫ 9. Piezometer This is the simplest type of manometer. For a liquid.7.17) gives p2 Ϫ p1 ϭ 2g(z2 Ϫ z1) p2 Ϫ p1 ϭ gh It is often useful to think of this as Pressure at base of column ϭ pressure at top ϩ gh 1 h In fact. The pressure at the base of each is identical. let the absolute pressure of a liquid in a pipe be p1 at level 1.10.991 ϫ 105 Pa ϭ 1. for any column.9 h = 10m Measurement of pressure using manometers A manometer is a device that makes use of the fact that the height of a static liquid column can be used to measure the pressure in a fluid. the density. even though the volume of fluid 2 differs. There are several different types.01 bar acts on the surface of a lake 10 m deep. Take ϭ 1000 kg mϪ3. the greater is the height of the liquid column. They are thus ideal for use in a laboratory. pbottom ϭ Ptop ϩ gh pbottom ϭ 1. can be assumed to be constant.81 ϫ 10) ϭ 1. This may not be immediately obvious. some of the weight of the fluid is supported by the container sides as well Figure 3. but it must be true as the pressure on a horizontal plane in a static fluid is constant. Manometers have the advantage that they are simple and do not need calibrating. provided that the properties of the liquids used in them are known. In some cases.

11. Fluid 2 is continuous beneath AAЈ and is at rest. Fluid 2 (a high-density liquid) is usually water. Consider the horizontal plane AAЈ which passes through the common interface at A. the error Х 1. Consequently. 147 . then 1 Ӷ 2. and if fluid 2 is water.Fluid mechanics but І p 2 ϭ pa p1 Ϫ pa ϭ p1gauge ϭ g(z2 Ϫ z1) Thus. The points A and AЈ are on the same horizontal plane within Fluid 2 and so the pressure must be the same as pressure is constant on a horizontal plane in a continuous fluid.19) and (3.20) (3. but if p1 Х 10 bar.12. (3. vapour or liquid and is suitable for higher pressures than the piezometer.2 per cent. Let Fluid 1 have constant density 1 and absolute pressure p1 at level B. U-tube manometer This can be used for measuring the pressure of a gas.2 kg mϪ3. Differential manometer (also often referred to as a U-tube) This manometer can be used for finding the difference between two unknown pressures.21) If fluid 1 is a gas at fairly low pressure (1 or 2 bar). then 1 Х 1. The error involved in using the approximation ignoring the density of the air in equation (3. pA ϭ pAЈ pbottom ϭ ptop ϩ gh gives pA ϭ p1 ϩ 1g(zB Ϫ zA) ϭ 1g⌬z1 and so pA ϭ p1 ϩ 1g⌬z1 In the right-hand limb of the manometer. for example at different sections in a pipe or across a flow meter as shown in Figure 3. taking 1 as constant and using (3.21) would be approximately 0.12 per cent.18) In the left-hand limb of the manometer.19) (3.18). if fluid 1 is air at about 1 bar. Fluid 2 has constant density 2. and hence p1gauge Х 2g⌬z2 For example.11 U-tube manometer (3. It prevents escape of the pressurized fluid and does not mix with it. then 2 Х 1000 kg mϪ3. the piezometer reading ⌬z is a measure of gauge pressure. mercury or an oil (such as paraffin). for Fluid 2 pAЈ ϭ pa ϩ 2g(zC Ϫ zA) so pAЈ ϭ pa ϩ 2g⌬z2 Combining equations (3. for fluid 1. A U-tube manometer is illustrated in Figure 3.20) yields p1 ϩ 1g⌬z1 ϭ pa ϩ 2g⌬z2 І p1 Ϫ pa ϭ p1gauge ϭ g(2⌬z2 Ϫ 1⌬z1) Fluid 1 (gas or liquid) pat (atmospher ic pressure) Δz2 Level C Level B Pipe zB p1 Δz1 Level A zA A A pA’ zC Fluid 2 (highdensity liquid) pA Datum Figure 3.

a pressure of 3000 Pa can be described 3000 3000 as 0.25) Note that pressure. p2 p1 zc1 Flow Δzc zc2 Figure 3.22) and (3. water or a light oil. vapour or liquid.12 Differential manometer (3.24) and substitute for pB from equation (3. it is shown that the manometer reading. with the liquid columns separated by a low-density fluid. the pressure is the same at A and AЈ on the horizontal plane AAЈ. can be used to determine volume flow rate in a pipe.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 The fluid in the pipe can be any gas. related to p1 Ϫ p2. For the determination of small pressure differences in liquids an inverted U–tube. as illustrated in Figure 3.22) (3.23): p1 ϩ w g(zC Ϫ zA) ϭ [p2 ϩ w g(zC Ϫ zB)] ϩ m g⌬z p1 Ϫ p2 ϭ w g(zC Ϫ zB Ϫ zC Ϫ zA) ϩ m g⌬z І ⌬p ϭ p1 Ϫ pa ϭ (m Ϫ w)g⌬z (3. equate equations (3. w g 1000 ϫ 9. provided that it does not mix or react chemically with the manometer liquid. For example. Consider a case where there is water in the pipe and mercury is the manometer fluid. or pressure difference. the difference in levels between stations 1 and 2 must be allowed for as follows: p1 Ϫ p2 ϭ (m Ϫ w)g⌬z ϩ wg(zC2 Ϫ zC1) Note that the extra term in this equation accounts for the difference in height between the two pressure tappings in the pipe.13. Since the manometer liquid is at rest. can be expressed as the pressure exerted by a vertical column of water of given height or ‘head’.31 m of water ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ .13 Non-horizontal U-tube manometer 148 .23) (3.81 If the pipe is not horizontal. can be used for greater sensitivity. which is usually mercury. such as air. Later.24) As pA ϭ pAЈ. In the left-hand limb: Water І In the right-hand limb: Water pB ϭ p2 ϩ w g(zC Ϫ zB) Mercury pAЈ ϭ pB ϩ m g⌬z pA ϭ p1 ϩ w g(zC Ϫ zA) Fluid flow 1 p1 p2 2 Level C Limbs per pendicular to flow Level A zA Datum Level B A Δz A’ zB zC Figure 3.

Equate equations (3. Resulting from the inclination of the tube.054(1000 Ϫ 1. p1 ϭ p2 and the paraffin levels lie on the zero line.Fluid mechanics A differential manometer contains water (density 1000 kg mϪ3). Thus.81 ϫ 0.14 If the density of the air had been neglected.26) and (3. The manometer is connected between two points in a horizontal pipe carrying air (density 1.27) where p represents the density of paraffin. unlike normal U-tube manometers. the displacement.1 Pa ρair X p1 p2 y h X ρwater Figure 3.26) (3. Only the right-hand limb then needs to be observed.7 Pa An error of only 0.2 kg mϪ3). illustrated in Figure 3. what is the pressure difference between the two points? For the left-hand limb in the manometer: pXX ϭ p1 ϩ air g(h ϩ y) For the right-hand limb in the manometer: pXX ϭ p2 ϩ air gy ϩ water gh Equating the two pressures: p1 ϩ air gh ϭ p2 ϩ water gh p1 Ϫ p2 ϭ gh(water Ϫ air ) ϭ 9.With no air flow. which would be the displacement if the tube were vertical. then the pressure difference would have been calculated as p1 Ϫ p2 ϭ 9. Since pressure differences are small.054 ϫ 1000 ϭ 529.2) ϭ 529. When the difference in levels is 54 mm. L. the displacement ⌬z1 is much smaller than ⌬z2 and can often be neglected.15. At level A: pA ϭ pAЈ Crosssectional area A1 1 p1 Crosssectional area A2 2 Level C p2 zC Zero level Level B Δz2 Δz1 L θ pA’ Datum zB Level A zA pA Paraffin Figure 3.15 Inclined-tube manometer Use ⌬p ϭ gh for pressure changes with height in both the air and the paraffin. The reservoir has a much larger cross-sectional area (A1) than the right-hand limb (area A2). flow L.81 ϫ 0. of the liquid is greater than ⌬z2. the distance that the liquid travels along the right-hand limb of the manometer when pressure difference is applied. since the instrument can be calibrated to enable pressure to be determined simply from the reading. This is important.1 per cent.27): p1 ϩ pair g(zC Ϫ zA ) ϭ p2 ϩ pair g(zC Ϫ zB ) ϩ p g(zB Ϫ zA) І p1 Ϫ p2 ϭ (p Ϫ air)g(zB Ϫ zA) 149 . Inclined-tube manometer This device. provides greater sensitivity in pressure Fluid measurement. air is approximately constant and p depends on the vertical height of liquid. Left-hand side: Right-hand side: pA ϭ p1 ϩ air g(zC Ϫ zA) pAЈ ϭ p2 ϩ air g(zC Ϫ zA) ϩ p g(zB Ϫ zA) (3.

since the volume of paraffin in the manometer is constant. of cross-sectional area 70 mm2 throughout.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 However. and the measurement of L alone can give a direct measurement of the differential pressure.28). by trigonometry. L inclined Ͼ L vertical. then І and (70 ϫ 10Ϫ6)(60 ϫ 10Ϫ3) ϭ (800 ϫ 10Ϫ6)hBЈ ⇒ hBЈ ϭ 5. A2 If ᎏᎏ ϭ 0. thus giving improved sensitivity in an inclined-tube manometer. L is proportional to p1 Ϫ p2. ϭ ABhBЈ Ϫ 6 (70 ϫ 10 )(60 ϫ 10Ϫ3) ϭ (500 ϫ 10Ϫ6)hAЈ ⇒ hAЈ ϭ 8.269(p Ϫ air)gLinclined and. so A1⌬z1 ϭ A2L. when applied to tube B. A and B. and so A2 p1 Ϫ p2 ϭ p gL ᎏᎏ ϩ sin A1 (3.3 mm 150 AChC ϭ AAhAЈ. zB Ϫ zA ϭ ⌬z1 ϩ ⌬z2. C. ● ● ● ● Use continuity (to recognize that the volume of liquid pushed from tube B enters tube A).9.25). A manometer consists of two tubes. connected by a U-tube. say. then using equation (3. for a given p1 Ϫ p2. and tube B contains one of relative density 0.28) (3. hA’ Evaluate p1 (original position) for lefthand and right-hand limbs. Figure 3.8. ⌬z2 ϭ L sin.01. and. and ϭ 15°. Determine the additional pressure that.16 As no extra liquid is added or removed. Evaluate p2 (new position) for left-hand and right-hand limbs. The surface of separation between the two liquids is in the vertical side of C connected to tube A. Also.28) gives differential manometer. Tube A contains a liquid of relative density 0. 60 mm Equate (p1 Ϫ p2) for left-hand and righthand limbs to give additional pressure. the volume of liquid pushed out of the left-hand limb is equal to the volume of liquid moving up the right-hand limb. Tube A Tube B (padditional) hB’ hA hB 2 1 Tube C If the interface rises by 60 mm. with vertical axes and uniform crosssectional areas of 500 mm2 and 800 mm2 respectively. since air Ӷ p.29) Thus.4 mm . since putting ᎏᎏ A1 p1 Ϫ p2 ϭ 2(p Ϫ air)gL vertical where 2L is equivalent to the ⌬z of equation (3. air can usually be neglected. A1 p1 Ϫ p2 ϭ 0. This also applies in the case of a normal vertical A2 ϭ 1 and ϭ 90° into equation (3. then the surface of A rises and the surface of B falls. and hence A2 p1 Ϫ p2 ϭ (p Ϫ air)gL ᎏᎏ ϩ sin A1 Now. will cause the surface of separation to rise 60 mm in tube C from level 1 to level 2.

Surface tension is force per unit length and usually has the symbol ␥ (gamma).When applied to larger tubes.30) Examination of equation (3.3 ϫ 10Ϫ3)] Ϫ [pB ϩ BghB] ϭ padditional Ϫ 65.6 ϫ 10Ϫ3A g p1 ϭ pB ϩ B ghB Surface tension and manometers The forces of attraction between the molecules in a liquid and the forces of adhesion between the molecules in a liquid and those on a solid surface in contact with the liquid can cause undesirable effects in manometers. g ϭ 9. B ϭ 900 kg mϪ3. The amount of capillary rise can be determined by equating the surface tension force with the weight of the fluid.3 ϫ 10Ϫ3 Ϫ 60 ϫ 10Ϫ3) (p2 Ϫ p1) ϭ [pA ϩ A g(hA Ϫ 51.3 ϫ 10Ϫ3Bg Ϫ 51. If the meniscus is approximated to a hemisphere. Air Air Water Water Hg Hg Figure 3. the upwards force (due to surface tension) is F1 ϭ ␥D The downwards force (due to the weight of water) is D2 mg ϭ ᎏᎏhg 4 Equating: D2 ␥D ϭ ᎏᎏhg 4 4␥ І h ϭ ᎏᎏ gD φD Ft h (3.81 m sϪ2 p2 ϭ pB ϩ padditional ϩ Bg(hB Ϫ 5. the interface may not be flat.Fluid mechanics In the original position p1 ϭ pA ϩ A ghA and In the new position p2 ϭ pA ϩ A g(hA ϩ 8.18 Forces acting on a meniscus 151 . In Figure 3.3 ϫ 10Ϫ3Bg І padditional ϭ 65. i.4 ϫ 10Ϫ3 Ϫ 60 ϫ 10Ϫ3) and І and (p2 Ϫ p1) ϭ [pB ϩ padditional ϩ Bg(hB Ϫ 65. where liquid rises up narrow tubes owing to the forces of attraction between the molecules of the fluid and the tube.18. The contact angle between the liquid and the tube depends on the liquids involved and on the tube material. there may be a meniscus at the interface between the fluid and the manometer tube. and this makes it difficult to define where the level of the liquid is in the tube.6 ϫ 10Ϫ3Ag ϭ 171. mg Figure 3.6 ϫ 10Ϫ3)] Ϫ [pA ϩ A ghA ] ϭ Ϫ51. then the capillary rise can be estimated. First. the result is less accurate. The equation only really applies for tubes less than 3 mm in diameter and will tend to overestimate the effect.6 Pa A ϭ 800 kg mϪ3.e.30) shows that the capillary rise is clearly less if the diameter of the tube is larger.17 Illustrations of the meniscus A second problem is that of capillary rise.

Some practical examples of these forces are: the force on the wall of a dam holding back the water in a reservoir. 152 . then h ϭ 9.5): F ϭ p dA. the pressure at a depth below the surface can be found relative to p0 as: p1 Ϫ p0 ϭ g(h1 Ϫ h0) ϭ p1 Ϫ pa ϭ p1gauge (3. The surfaces may be flat or curved and have any orientation (vertical. h is used to refer to the depth below the surface of a liquid and z is used to refer to the elevation above some datum level. an example of which is given below. horizontal or inclined).17). Figure 3. The pressure at the surface is p0 ϭ pa then.21 Illustration of an integral over an area This worked example shows the method for calculating the area of a nonrectangular flat surface by integration. as shown below.9 mm. whether the meniscus is convex or concave. the force on a wall of an oil storage tank. In a U-tube manometer the capillary rise should be the same on both sides and the effect cancels. ͵ z + ve Figure 3.Wetting agents may be added to manometer fluids to reduce the effect. ϭ 1000 kg mϪ3 (water) and D ϭ 3 mm.21.19 Reading level Submerged surfaces As the pressure in a static liquid increases with depth below the surface. Integral over an area Consider the rectangle ABCD illustrated in Figure 3. the manometer reading should always be taken at the position of the meniscus in the middle of the tube. Where a meniscus is present. The total area is obtained by summing (integrating) all the elemental areas: Aϭ and if w is constant Aϭw A δy B y 0 ͵ dA ϭ ͵ w dy y2 A y1 Element of area D b y2 C w y1 Any reference line parallel to BC ͵ y2 dy ϭ w[ y]y1 ϭ w( y2 Ϫ y1) ϭ wb y1 y2 O (3. from equation (3. which is significant. then an integral over the area will need to be performed. Find the area of a triangle by integration.073 N mϪ1 (water). and the force on a glass observation window in a submarine or in an aquarium. the pressure will exert a force on any surface submerged in the liquid.32) Figure 3. By convention. where the width varies and an expression for width in terms of height is derived. and let an element of width w and thickness dy lie at a perpendicular distance y from OO.20 If the pressure varies over an area.31) Level 1 p1 Level 0 h1 Surface Liquid pa h0 = 0 h + ve The force on a surface resulting from pressure is given by equation (3.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 If ␥ ϭ 0. This is a useful technique for solving problems involving forces on submerged surfaces. The area of the element ϭ w dy ϭ dA.

23. 2b І w ϭ ᎏᎏh a Sum all the small areas to obtain the area of the triangle: a 2b Area ϭ w dh ϭ ᎏᎏh dh area 0 a ͵ 1 ͵ 2b h2 a 2b a2 ϭ ᎏᎏ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ᎏᎏ ϭ ab a 2 0 a 2 ϭ ᎏ2ᎏ(base ϫ height) ΄ ΅ ΄ ΅ Centroid (centre of area) Another useful concept to understand is that of the centre of area or centroid. Suppose that the centroid is at a perpendicular distance yC from OO. The product y dA is called the first moment of area dA about axis OO. so the centroid is the point about which a lamina (a very thin flat plate) would balance and where the centre of mass acts. and it is the point at which all the mass of the body can be considered to act. w. Boundary conditions: when h ϭ 0. Just as the centre of gravity is the point about which a body will balance. This is a linear relationship. and consider an element parallel to OO at a perpendicular distance y from OO (where OO is any convenient reference line). as a function of h. Then.Fluid mechanics The area of a small element at distance h from the apex and of width w and thickness ␦h dA ϭ w dh The area of the triangle is the summation of all the elemental areas: Aϭ a w h δh 2b Figure 3. the total first moment of area is AyC. Take a lamina of area A and any shape. when h ϭ a. The first moment of area A about OO ϭ y dA evaluated over area A. І k2 ϭ 0 2b І k1 ϭ ᎏᎏ a w ϭ 2b.22 ͵ dA ϭ ͵ A h2 h1 w dh ϭ ͵ w dh a 0 δA Find the width. The area of an element of area ϭ ␦A ϭ w ␦y.33) A A A ͵ ͵ ͵ Thin flat plate of area A Element of area δA 0 Reference line w Centroid (centre of area) dy y yc 0 Figure 3.23 Illustration of a centroid of area 153 . as illustrated in Figure 3. w ϭ 0. considering the whole area A to ‘act’ at C. Thus: 1 AyC ϭ y dA or yC ϭ ᎏᎏ y dA (3. so w ϭ k1h ϩ k2.

all the elemental forces are summed (integrated). which is called the centre of pressure. The force on the element ϭ ␦F ϭ (gh) ␦A. Take moments for area about OO: ␦M ϭ y ␦A ϭ y(b ␦y) d y2 d bd2 M ϭ b y dy ϭ b ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ 2 0 2 0 O yc d O ͵ ΄ ΅ y but M ϭ (area)(yC) ϭ bd yC so 1 bd2 d yC ϭ ᎏᎏ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ bd 2 2 δy δA b Figure 3. If the perpendicular distance of point P from axis OO at which the force Fp acts is xp. then Fpxp ϭ moment about OO of the total force acting on the lamina. O Liquid surface x xp ͵ (gh)dA ϭ (gh)A A (3. 154 . The point of action can be found by taking moments for the total force and the distributed force as illustrated below. it follows that Fp ϭ (uniform pressure) ϫ (area) Fp can be considered to act entirely at point P. The total force due to hydrostatic pressure on area A is Fp ϭ h p Element Liquid at area δA rest (no shear force) P True shape area A (plan view) O Submerged flat surface (lamina) Atmospher ic pressure pa Fp δF O. ␦F is the force acting on the element on account of hydrostatic pressure. The total force is equal to the pressure multiplied by the total area. but for a horizontal submerged surface the key points are: Force ϭ pressure ϫ area Centre of pressure is at the centre of area (centroid) Calculation of force and centre of pressure: Figure 3. the pressure over the surface is the same at all points because the pressure is constant on a horizontal plane. The absolute pressure at any point on the submerged lamina is pa ϩ gh and the gauge pressure (or net pressure) is simply gh. Since the liquid is at rest. A fuller mathematical treatment is given in the following section.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Determine the location of the centroid of a plane rectangular lamina.34) Figure 3.25 Horizontal submerged surface since h is constant for a horizontal lamina. Consider a horizontal lamina at depth h beneath a liquid surface. For a horizontal surface submerged in a stationary fluid. The point of action of the force is at the centroid (centre of area) of the surface. the shear forces are zero and ␦F must act normal to the lamina. To find the total force.24 and similarly b xC ϭ ᎏᎏ 2 Horizontal submerged surfaces For a submerged surface it is usual to want to know the single total force that is equivalent to the sum of all the elemental forces due to pressure.25 shows a horizontal submerged surface. and the point at which that equivalent force acts (the centre of pressure).

and so the force acting on an element is ␦F ϭ gh ␦A ϭ ghw ␦h The total force on the element is found by summing these elemental forces: Fp ϭ ͵ area gh dA ϭ ͵ h1 h2 ghw dh The total force. the centre of pressure.Fluid mechanics However. The moment of the force on the small element is ␦Mϱ ϭ ␦Fh ϭ (gh ␦A)h ϭ gh2 ␦A ϭ gh2w ␦h 155 .35) and (3. integrate the moments of all the elemental forces about a point and equate this to the moment of the total force about the same point. the moment due to the elemental force ␦F about OO is ␦Mo ϭ ␦Fx ϭ [(gh)␦A]x The total moment of all the elemental forces about OO can be found by integrating to give the sum of the moments of all elements: Mo ϭ І ͵ (gh)x dA ϭ (gh)͵ x dA A A Mo ϭ (gh)AxC (3.26.36) MO ϭ Fpxp ϭ (gh)Axp Equating equations (3. height ␦h and area ␦A as shown. A vertical submerged surface is shown in Figure 3. O h yp δF Fp h Submerged lamina w Figure 3.36) shows that the centre of pressure acts at the centroid: x p ϭ xC so it can be concluded that For a horizontal lamina. which can be found by taking moments about a suitable axis (usually the surface of the fluid) as the moment of the point force must equal the sum of the moments due to the distributed forces.g. As the fluid is static. The pressure acting on the surface will be expressed as gauge pressure (pressure relative to the local atmospheric pressure). the centre of pressure P acts at the centroid. acts at P. Vertical submerged surfaces For a vertical surface. This is appropriate as almost all practical problems involving forces on surfaces (e. there are no shear forces and so forces arising due to hydrostatic pressure act perpendicular to the surface of the lamina.34) gives (3. it follows that xC is the perpendicular distance from OO to the centroid of area A. the forces on the wall of a dam or the force on a sides of a tank) are where there is atmospheric pressure acting on the other side of the surface and so the resultant or net force on the surface is that due to the pressure acting in the fluid in addition to atmospheric pressure. To find the line of action of the force. the equivalent total force and its line of action can be found using a similar procedure. Fp.26 Vertical submerged surface h1 O Liquid surface δA δh h2 The lamina is split into small elements of width w (w is a variable). At depth h the net pressure force will be the gauge pressure ϭ gh. To find the total force. the elemental forces can be integrated over the area of the vertical surface. As MO ϭ Fpxp. substituting for Fp from equation (3.35) Since the integral is the first moment of area about OO.

An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Therefore Mϱ ϭ Fpyp ϭ and ͵ area gh2 dA ϭ ͵ h1 h2 gh2w dh (3. This would generate a larger total force and the centre of pressure would also be in a different position.Were the outer surface of the gate exposed to a vacuum. Find the required value of FN and the depth to the centre of pressure on the gate. and it can be shown that the centre of pressure is always lower than the centroid of the surface. The upper edge of the gate is level with the water surface. 156 . The wall of a reservoir contains a vertical gate.27 Hinge h hp O C P 2m O 3m ͵ 3 ΄ ΅ h2 3 0 ϭ 9g ϭ 88. so there is a greater force per unit area over parts of the surface at greater depths. The gate is hinged along the bottom horizontal edge and is kept closed by a horizontal force FN applied to the apex A. 2 m wide and 3 m high. There is also atmospheric pressure acting on the surface of the water and on the outer surface of the gate. Numerical examples explain more clearly how this can be applied.37) Mϱ yp ϭ ᎏᎏ Fp An important feature of vertical surfaces (and any surface that is not horizontal) is that the centre of pressure is not at the centroid of the shape. and the forces on either side of the gate due to atmospheric pressure cancel out. Find the force acting on a small element: ␦Fp ϭ gh(w ␦h) ϭ gh(2 ␦h) Integrate to find the total hydrostatic force: І Fp ϭ 2g h dh ϭ 2g ᎏᎏ 2 0 Water Air Fp(net) P Stop Figure 3. the centre of area is not the centre at which the pressure force appears to act.And this is the position of the true net force on the gate. Consequently. then the absolute pressure on the gate surface would have to be considered. determine the net force on the gate and the depth of the centre of pressure. This is because the pressure is not uniform over the surface as it increases with depth. A triangular aperture in a reservoir wall is sealed by a vertical gate. and therefore 18g Fphp ϭ Mϱ ⇒ hp ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 2 m 9g It is worth noting that the centre of pressure is that due to the gauge pressure on the gate.3 kN To find the line of action of the force. find the moment of force on the small element: ␦Mϱ ϭ ␦Fph ϭ gh(2 ␦h)h І 3 h2 Mϱ ϭ 2g h2 dh ϭ 2g ᎏᎏ 2 0 ͵ ΄ ΅ ϭ 18g 3 0 The moment due to the distributed force must equal the moment due to the equivalent point force.81 m s؊2. Taking ϭ 1000 kg m؊3 and g ϭ 9.

29 3 42ᎏ4ᎏg FN 157 . The hydrostatic force acting on that element ϭ pressure ϫ area: ␦F ϭ (gh)(w ␦h) where w and h are both variables.167 m The force required to keep the gate shut is FN.167) FN ϭ ᎏᎏ 3 ϭ 36. І so І and ␦F ϭ (gh)(h Ϫ 1) ␦h Integrate Fp ϭ h h ͵ gh(h Ϫ 1) dh ϭ g͵ (h Ϫ h) dh ϭ g΄ᎏ ᎏ Ϫ ᎏᎏ΅ 3 2 4 4 w ϭ 0 so 0 ϭ k1 ϩ k2. Variable w varies linearly with h. the centre of pressure. k2 ϭ Ϫ1 wϭhϪ1 2 3 2 4 1 1 1 ϭ 13.4(4 Ϫ 3.167m 4m 3m Fp Figure 3. Take the moments of force on a small element about O: ␦M ϭ ␦Fh ϭ (gh)(h Ϫ 1) ␦h(h) ϭ g(h3 Ϫ h2) ␦h 4 h4 h3 M ϭ g (h3 Ϫ h2)dh ϭ g ᎏᎏ Ϫ ᎏᎏ 4 3 1 ͵ ΄ ΅ ϭ 42 g 4 1 3 ᎏᎏ 4 Fphp ϭ M ⇒ hp ϭ 13. when h ϭ 4.Fluid mechanics O h 3m P w 3m Figure 3. Take the moments about the gate hinge: Fp(4 Ϫ hp) ϭ FN(3) І 132. w ϭ 3 so 3 ϭ 4k1 ϩ k2 3 ϭ 3k1 k1 ϭ 1.28 1m FN Fp Consider a small element at depth h. and І w ϭ k1h ϩ k2 when h ϭ 1.5g ϭ 132.5g ϭ 3. Find w as a function of h.8 kN 3.4 kN Find the location of P.

Let the element be at depth h and in a liquid at rest.39) Fp net ϭ gA(yCsin) ϭ gAhC where hC is the depth to the centroid. P.) To find the distance to the centre of pressure. in the diagram. yC is the perpendicular distance from OO to the centroid C of the surface. O θ Edge view of submerged lamina Reference axis O w P C Element area δA h hp hc δFnet Fp net P C Figure 3. Note that yC depends only on the shape of the area and is the same for all values of . must act perpendicularly to the submerged surface. The force on an inclined surface can be calculated in the same way as that for a vertical surface by considering an element of the surface of width w and thickness ␦y (area ␦A ϭ w ␦y) and then integrating over the surface to find the total force and then integrating the moment of each element about OO over the surface to find the centre of pressure. yp can be found: Mo yp ϭ ᎏᎏ Fp net (3. as it varies with depth h and the centre of pressure does not lie at the centroid.38) is the first moment of area (AyC) of the surface about OO (see equation (3.40) The total moment about OO owing to the net total force can also be written in terms of the distance from OO to the centre of pressure: Mo ϭ Fp net yp Hence. and all others due to fluid pressure. The moment due to ␦Fnet about OO is ␦Mo ϭ (␦Fnet)y ϭ (gh ␦A)y Therefore. when u 5 0 the surface lies horizontally at the surface of the liquid and so there are no pressure forces due to the liquid acting on it. The total net force on the whole area is found by integraton: Fp net ϭ y2 y δy yp yc y1 True shape of lamina area A O O.33)).30. The net force on the element due to gauge pressure is ␦Fnet ϭ gh ␦A This force. Therefore. take the moments of the force on an element of area about any convenient axis. as OO is at the liquid surface. the total net force is Fp net ϭ gsin y dA (3.38) ͵ A The integral in equation (3. h ϭ ysin. In analysing an inclined surface it is usually most convenient to take distances along the inclined surface from an axis OO which lies at the liquid surface. This equation is valid irrespective of the shape of area A and for any angle . h is not constant as it varies along the inclined plate. since shear forces are zero in a fluid at rest. yp is the perpendicular distance to the centre of pressure P. the total moment about OO is Mo ϭ ͵ ghy ␦A A (3. Thus. For an inclined surface (as with a vertical surface) the fluid pressure is not uniform over the area A. Thus (3.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Inclined submerged surfaces (direct approach by integration) An inclined submerged surface is shown in Figure 3.30 Inclined submerged surface ͵ gh dA A However. (Note that. such as OO.41) 158 . and so on.

sometimes given the symbol IOO. O Volume V of liquid above ab Fv (reaction) Plate length (a to b) = L Area A =wL The resultant net pressure force Fp net acts at the centre of pressure. C denotes the centroid of the plate (lies at the centre of area).39)). Fp net can be resolved into vertical and horizontal components given by Fv ϭ Fp netcos and Fh ϭ Fp net sin The components of Fh and Fv along the plate must cancel as the resultant force is perpendicular to the gate. w does not cancel. the centre of pressure is not at the centroid. submerged plate O Liquid surface Fp net X Fh a Fv G b θ O.31 Forces acting on inclined.43) A In general. O Liquid surface hc h p L sinθ C P Area = Av w View in x-direction (projection onto vertical plane) Figure 3. The forces in the horizontal and vertical directions can be determined by resolving the pressure forces on a curved surface into the horizontal and vertical components. Considering this another way.38). However. flat.41) and (3. and P the centre of pressure. It is worth reiterating that the magnitude of the total force Fp is equal to the pressure at the centroid of the area multiplied by the area (equation (3. but as the surface is inclined.42) where the integral defines the second moment of area A about OO. Fp net must be perpendicular to the plate (as there is no shear force). Curved surfaces can also be considered by integration.40) becomes Mo ϭ gsin ͵y A 2 dA (3. since w is a function of y for a gate of variable width. Curved and inclined surfaces (an alternative approach) Components of Fp net Consider first a thin.31. submerged. 159 . rectangular plate of any width w and length L and inclined at any angle to a liquid surface. and. P. but below it for any surface that is not horizontal. From equations (3. the centre of pressure moves further down the surface away from the centroid until it is furthest from the centroid when the surface is vertical. As h ϭ ysin.42) we have ͵ y dA ͵ wy dy ϭ y ϭ ͵ y dA ͵ wy dy y2 2 2 A p y1 y2 y1 (3. as shown in Figure 3. Now. (3. for a horizontal surface the centre of pressure acts at the centroid. However. an alternative approach is given below that involves less mathematics and is more intuitive. equation (3. since the liquid is at rest.Fluid mechanics This gives the value of yp corresponding to gauge pressure only because Fp net is used.

The same also applies for the horizontal force on curved surfaces and can be explained by considering a submerged body of uniform width w and in a state of equilibrium. Liquid surface Liquid surface hp1 Fh1 p2 hp2 hp2 p2 P1 X Fn2 h2 X’ w Figure 3. then Weight of liquid ϭ mg ϭ (V)g ϭ Fv The vertical force on the plate is equal to the weight of water above the plate. The net force on the vertical end is Fh2 and must be horizontal. The net (horizontal) force on the vertical surface.30).45) Consider an end view of the inclined plate on a vertical plane (direction X. the horizontal component of force (the resolved component from equation (3. Horizontal component. and hp1 ϭ hp2 otherwise the body would rotate. Thus.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Vertical component Fv For equilibrium. The view is the vertical projection of the plate and forms an imaginary vertical surface of width w. using equation (3. Fh For a flat. The horizontal component of the net force on the curved end is Fh1 acting through P1 (which does not lie on the curved surface). Therefore. One end of the body is curved and the other end is flat and vertical. the line of action of Fv must pass through G. the vertical component Fv must be balanced by an equal and opposite reaction Fv.32 Submerged body For equilibrium Fh1 ϭ Fh2 otherwise the body would move in one direction or the other. Fh2 acts at the centre of pressure P2.44) applies to any shape of flat.32. submerged surface of any shape at any .Whether the body is viewed in direction X or in direction XЈ exactly the same rectangular shape is seen. This reaction must support the weight of all the liquid lying directly above the plate (between the dotted lines).31). height L sin and area Av ϭ wL sin (hC and hp are the same as for the inclined surface). 160 . submerged surface and also to curved as well as flat surfaces. If the volume of this liquid is V.39)) is Fh ϭ gAhCsin (3. (3. illustrated in Figure 3. as shown in Figure 3.45). Equation (3.44) The weight of the liquid acts at the centre of gravity G of the volume V. Fh can be found by considering the horizontal force on the projected area Av of the inclined plate. is Fh ϭ gAvhC ϭ g(wL sin)hC ϭ gAhCsin which is identical to equation (3.

This means that. the depth of the centre of pressure and the normal force F that must be applied at the lower edge of the gate to open it. The line of action of the vertical force passes through the centre of gravity of the fluid above the gate. Taking as 1000 kg m؊3 and g as 9. Neglect friction at the hinge. the horizontal force on any curved or inclined surface can be determined in the following way: To find Fh and hp for any curved or inclined flat surface. find the net force on the gate that is due to gauge pressure. find Fh and hp for the projection of that surface onto a vertical plane. G Fv Fv G Figure 3. The horizontal component of force is the same as that on the vertical projection of the vertical gate.33. Two other comments need to be made about curved surfaces: ▪ On the surface of a curved plate. the lines of action of the horizontal and vertical components of force will not meet on the surface of the plate.35 161 Fp 30° y . The gate is inclined at 30° to the horizontal. consider the shape of the volume of water to be made up of a cuboid and triangular prism.34 Fopen The horizontal force is found by considering the vertical projection of the gate. and the point of intersection of the forces is not referred to as the centre of pressure as it is not on the surface of the plate. 1 m wide and 3 m long. To find the weight of water above the gate. Fp acts perpendicular to the gate.60 kN Figure 3. Surfaces can be flat or curved (concave or convex) with the fluid above or below them. ▪ When the surface is split into small elements. as shown in Figure 3.Fluid mechanics To summarize. the resultant force will pass through the centre of the arc. FV ϭ (weight of water above the gate) ϭ Vg h Gate is 1m wide 3m 1m Fp 30° ϩ FV ϭ [(3 cos 30)(1) ϩ 1 2 (3 cos 30)(3 sin 30)] (1)(g) ϭ 44. is submerged in water with the upper edge hinged to a wall at a depth of 1 m below the water surface. the force from each element is locally perpendicular to the surface of the plate.81 m s؊2. for a plate made in the shape of a circular arc. h=1 m 3 sin 30m 1m Figure 3. In all cases the vertical component of the hydrostatic force is equal to the weight of water above the gate (or the weight of the water that would be there if the gate were not).33 Illustration of vertical force acting on curved gates A rectangular sluice gate.

Find the horizontal and vertical components of force on the gate and the line of action of both.2 kN 6 0 .6 ෆ 25.86m Fp Fh ϭ 4. Also find the resultant force.5 1 h3 h2 dh ϭ 1g ᎏᎏ 3 ΄ ΅ 2.5 1 hp = 1.86 m 2.5 kN Figure 3.81 ϫ (6 ϫ 2) ϫ 3 ϭ 353.752 ϭ 51.72 m 51.625 Figure 3.5 kN The line of action of the horizontal force is found by considering the force on the vertical projection of the gate (as shown in the previous worked example) and taking moments about the water surface: Fv dM ϭ ghw dhh M ϭ gw ͵ 2.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 dFh ϭ ghw dh Fh ϭ gw ͵ 1 3 sin 30 1 h2 h dh ϭ 1g ᎏᎏ 2 ΄ ΅ 2.625g ϭ 25.2 kN or ␦Fh ϭ gh(2␦h) І 162 6 h2 Fh ϭ 2g h ␦h ϭ 2g ᎏᎏ 2 0 ͵ ΄ ΅ ϭ 36g ϭ 353.72 ⇒ Fopen ϭ ᎏᎏ 3 ϭ 29. The gate pivot is level with the water surface.875 g M ϭ Fhhp 4.75 kN The total force on the gate is found by resolving the vertical and horizontal forces 2 ϩෆ F p ϭ ͙F ෆ F 2h v 2 ϩෆ ϭ ͙44. take the moments for all the forces about the hinge: Fpyp ϭ Fopen ϫ 3 hp Ϫ 1 sin30 ϭ ᎏᎏ yp І yp ϭ 1.5 ϫ 103 ϫ 1.36 To find the force required to open the gate.875 hp ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 1.37 h Fp yp 3 Fopen A sluice gate has a width 2 m and a radius of 6 m. Find the horizontal component of the force by considering the projected vertical gate: Fh ϭ gAvhC ϭ 1000 ϫ 9.5 1 ϭ 2.

Consequently. i. any body immersed in the fluid will have a greater pressure exerted over its lower surfaces than over its upper surfaces. and the thrusts on the two faces of such a vertical projection balance exactly. The buoyancy force has no horizontal component. the volume PSRNM.2 ϫ 103 ϫ 4 І xp ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 2.2 ෆෆ ϫ 103ෆ )2 ϩ (554.40 Immersed floating body 163 . vertically above that surface. A body immersed in a fluid experiences a vertical buoyant force equal to the weight of the fluid it displaces.Fluid mechanics Find the line of action of the horizontal force by taking the moments about S for the horizontal component only: ␦MS.55 m 554. This buoyancy force is expressed by the two laws of buoyancy discovered by Archimedes in the third century BC: 1.6 kN Fp 4. If this force equals the weight of the body then it will float and the body is said to be buoyant. The buoyancy law can be proved as shown below. A floating body displaces its own weight in the fluid in which it floats.38 Take the moments about S for hydrostatic pressure: 353. real or imaginary. h ϭ gh(2␦h)h І 6 h3 MS.e. The upward thrust on the lower surface PSR of the body corresponds to the weight of fluid. Fhyp ϭ Fvxp Figure 3.7 5 35 3. h ϭ 2g h2 ␦h ϭ 2g ᎏᎏ 3 0 Fhyp ϭ MS.2 Figure 3.7 ϫ 103 The resultant force 2 ϭ F2 F p ϭ ͙ෆ Fh ෆ v ϭ ͙(353.39 Floating bodies – buoyancy As pressure in a fluid at rest increases with depth. h ͵ ΄ ΅ ϭ 144g 6 0 Water surface yp Fh S 2m C P 6m І 144g yp ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 4 m 36g Fv ϭ weight of water displaced r2w ϭ ᎏᎏ g ϭ 18g 4 ϭ 554. there will be a net upwards force on the body and this is known as the buoyancy force.39 shows a totally immersed body PQRS floating beneath free surface MN. because the horizontal thrust in any direction is the same as on a vertical projection of the surface of the body perpendicular to that direction.7 kN Fp Fv xp The resultant force due to hydrostatic pressure must act through S. The downward thrust on surface PQR equals the weight of fluid PQRNM. Therefore the resultant upward force is weightPSRNM Ϫ weightPQRNM ϭ weightPQRS P Free surface M Q N R S Figure 3. Figure 3.7 ෆ ϫෆ 103)2 ϭ 657. 2.

An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 So the upward force is equal to the weight of the volume of water displaced by the body. a pencil does not float vertically (point down). The position of the centre of buoyancy depends on the shape of the volume considered. for example). The relevant theory and equations can be found in most fluid mechanics textbooks. (see References on page 212). for example). This is known as Archimedes’ principle: FB ϭ W Bouyancy force ϭ Vg where ϭ fluid density and V ϭ immersed volume. corresponding to the centroid of the volume of the fluid (displaced). we can imagine the body removed and its place occupied by an equal volume of the fluid. correspond to the centre of gravity of the body. The resultant of these thrusts (buoyancy force) must therefore be equal and opposite to the weight of the fluid taking the place of the body (or displaced by the body) and must also pass through the centre of gravity of that volume of fluid. FB ϭ W ⇒ body floats FB Ͼ W ⇒ body rises FB Ͼ W ⇒ body sinks Free surface P Q R Figure 3. then the body sinks (a stone in water. This point. A cube of 35 mm sides is floating in water of 1000 kg m؊3 density. What is the new depth of immersion? (a) When the cube is floating in a stable position. is called the centre of buoyancy and does not. then the body rises (bubbles. Since the fluid is in equilibrium. If the buoyancy force exceeds the weight of the body.21 ϫ 10Ϫ4 cube 164 .40. For a floating body to be in equilibrium. (a) What is the density of the cube material if the depth of submersion is 27 mm? (b) A hemispherical scoop of 15 mm diameter is removed from the top face 4 (volume of a sphere ϭ ᎏ3ᎏr 3). Note that there is no requirement for uniform density in the body. the buoyancy force is equal to the weight of the cube: Weight of cube W ϭ mg ϭ cubeVcubeg ϭ (0. This extra fluid is in equilibrium under the action of its own weight and the thrusts exerted by the surrounding fluid. the buoyancy force (equal to the weight of the displaced fluid) must equal the weight of the body. For example. Stability is related to relative positions of the centre of buoyancy and the centre of gravity of a body but is not covered in this chapter.41 Partially immersed body Stability Buoyancy considerations alone will not determine whether or not a body will float in a chosen orientation. in general. In this case the buoyancy force corresponds to the weight of fluid within the volume PQR. although the same proportion of the body is submerged as when the pencil floats horizontally. Similar considerations apply to a partly immersed body as shown in Figure 3. and if the weight exceeds the buoyancy force.035)3 cube g ϭ 4.

0352 ϫ 0. R for helium is 2077 J kg؊1 K؊1.42 Equate W ϭ 0.324 cube ϭ 770 kg/m3 (b) Find the new weight of the cube: 1 4 27mm Figure 3.324 N where 0.01 bar and the temperature is 300 K. (a) The total mass of the balloon plus ballast is 700 kg. Total weight of balloon ϩ weight of helium ϭ weight of air displaced mbg ϩ Vbheg ϭ Vbairg mb ϭ Vb(air Ϫ he ) m p From pV ϭ mRT and ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏ ᎏ V RT pV b 1 1 mb ϭ ᎏᎏ ᎏᎏ Ϫ ᎏᎏ T Rair Rhe (3. To what volume must the balloon expand? (c) The balloon is now completely full and cannot expand any more.324 Ϫ ᎏ2ᎏ( ᎏ3ᎏ0.317 h ϭ 26. The helium displaces air. How much sand ballast must be released if the balloon is to rise to 3000 m where the air pressure is 0. The balloon needs to rise further to get over some mountains.00753)cubeg ϭ 0.1 J kg؊1 K؊1.46) 165 . This must be balanced by buoyancy from the helium. the buoyancy force is FB ϭ (0. (b) The balloon rises to 2000 m where the air pressure is 0. the buoyancy force is equal to the weight of displaced fluid: FB ϭ waterVdisplacedg ϭ 1000(0. Calculate the volume of helium that must be put into the balloon so that it can rise? R for air is 287.795 bar and the temperature is 275 K. provided that the balloon is in equilibrium with the surrounding air. (a) At ground level the air pressure is 1.027)g ϭ 0.4 mm Figure 3. Helium must be vented if it rises any higher to prevent it bursting.Fluid mechanics However.43 h A helium balloon has a mass of 300 kg (balloonist ϩ balloon structure).0352h)water g Equate FB ϭ W 12.21 ϫ 10 cube ϭ 0.027 is the depth of immersion.317 N When the depth of immersion is h. but has mass that must be balanced.7012 bar and the temperature is 269 K? (d) Show that the buoyancy of the balloon is related only to the mass of helium with which it is filled. an additional 400 kg of sand ballast is also carried.017h ϭ 0. Equate W ϭ FB Ϫ 4 4.

7012 ϫ 105 ϫ 806.2 ● In a fluid at rest. but the volume remains at 806. ● Where a fluid is in contact with a surface. the pressure gives rise to a force acting perpendicular to the surface.01 ϫ 105Vb 1 1 700 ϭ ᎏᎏ ᎏᎏ Ϫ ᎏᎏ 300 287.6 m3. pressure increases with depth according to the relationship ⌬p ϭ g⌬h ● The pressure at the base of a column of fluid of depth h is equal to the pressure at the top ϩ g⌬h ● Pressures can be measured by manometers. (b) The balloon rises to 2000 m where air pressure is 0.2 kg So the balloonist must jettison 700 Ϫ 631.7012 bar and the temperature is 269 K.795 bar and the temperature is 275 K (assume that the balloon is in equilibrium with surrounding air).6 m3 ϭ volume to which the balloon expands at 2000 m. p ϭ 1.1 2077 mb ϭ 631. ● In a fluid at rest. (c) The balloon rises to 3000 m where the air pressure is 0. Key points from Section 3. From equation (3.46) pVb 1 1 mb ϭ ᎏᎏ ᎏᎏ Ϫ ᎏᎏ T Rair Rhe From pV ϭ mRT pVb ᎏᎏ ϭ mheRhe T Rhe mb ϭ mhe ᎏᎏ Ϫ1 Rair So the mass that can be lifted is determined solely by the mass of helium in the balloon.795 ϫ 105Vb 700 ϭ ᎏᎏ 275 1 1 ᎏ Ϫ ᎏᎏ ᎏ 287.46) 0.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 At ground level. Therefore.1 2077 Vb ϭ 806. ● Surface tension can affect the readings of manometers.8 kg of ballast. ● On a submerged vertical surface the pressure increases with depth and the centre of pressure is below the centroid.6 1 1 mb ϭ ᎏᎏᎏ ᎏᎏ Ϫ ᎏᎏ 269 287. (d) From equation (3. ● On a submerged horizontal surface the pressure is constant and the centre of pressure is also the centre of area (centroid).01 bar and the temperature is 300 K 1. pressure acts equally in all directions. From equation (3. pressure is constant along a horizontal plane.46) 0. helium must be vented (assume that the balloon is in equilibrium with surrounding air). ● In a fluid at rest.1 2077 Vb ϭ 692 m3 ϭ volume of helium that must be put into the balloon at ground level.2 ϭ 68. 166 .

the vertical force is equal to the weight of the volume of water vertically above the surface and its line of action passes through the centre of gravity of that volume. An ideal fluid (liquid or gas) is one that has the following properties: ● zero viscosity (viscosity causes friction in a fluid between the fluid and a surface it is flowing over and within the fluid itself between regions moving with different velocity. This is applied to the flow of fluids in pipes. horizontal or vertical surface. The application of the law of conservation of mass is used to derive the continuity equation. for instance that there would be no loss in pressure in an ideal fluid flowing along a pipe). In the context of fluid mechanics. ● A body fully immersed in a fluid experiences a vertical upwards force equal to the weight of the volume of fluid displaced. and the method of calculating pressure losses in single pipe systems and the energy needed for pumping is explained. evaluate the horizontal and vertical components of force on a submerged. the law of conservation of energy is applied to derive the Euler and Bernoulli equations.‘ideal’ has a specific meaning. inclined. Learning summary At the end of this section you should be able to: ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ determine the pressure at any depth below the surface of a liquid at rest. 3.Fluid mechanics ● On an inclined flat or curved surface the horizontal force and its line of action is equal to the horizontal force on the vertical projection of the inclined or curved surface. the steady flow energy equation is derived and the flow of fluids with energy dissipation due to viscosity is considered. by making some simplifying assumptions that a fluid has a constant density and no viscosity. ● On an inclined flat or curved surface. flat. there are a number of practical applications where ideal flow gives a good approximation to reality and useful calculations can be carried out. Following the description of some introductory concepts in fluid flow.3 Fluids in motion The third section of this chapter is concerned with fluids in motion. calculate buoyancy forces on submerged and floating objects and determine the conditions for equilibrium. calculate the pressure difference indicated by a manometer. such as flow-measuring devices.Ways of reducing energy loss to make systems more sustainable are described. Finally. ● A floating body displaces its own weight in liquid. However. Introductory concepts Ideal fluid (inviscid fluids – no viscosity) The actual flow pattern within a moving fluid is often complex and difficult to model mathematically. Assuming zero viscosity neglects these frictional effects and means. flat or simple curved surface and determine the resultant force and line of action for some simple shapes. which are then applied to a variety of practical fluid flow situations. the theory can be simplified considerably by the assumption that the fluid is ideal and although there are limitations to the theory developed for ideal flow. 167 . Then. a very common problem in engineering. the basic equations of fluid flow are derived from the laws of physics. calculate by integration the magnitude and line of action of the force due to fluid static pressure on a submerged.

46 Actual velocity profile and equivalent one-dimensional profile Representing fluid flows There are a number of different ways of representing the pattern of fluid flow by using lines to show the direction of flow. does not change phase (phase changes will not be considered in this chapter). It will be explained later that gas flows can be assumed to be incompressible if the velocity is less than 30 per cent of the speed of sound in the gas). The different ways of doing this are described below and it is useful to understand what they are and how they differ. Steady flow In general a steady flow process involves no changes with time. v1 p2. then the flow is non-uniform. the velocity of water at the nozzle is likely to be higher than that in the supply pipe. Uniform flow In uniform flow the properties are the same at all points within the volume being considered at any given instant. such as high-speed flow in a pipe. uniform flow is a useful approximation that can be made in many situations.44 Uniform flow uniform. In practice.When a fluid flows along a pipe the velocity is zero at the wall and there is a layer of slower-moving fluid next to the wall owing to the effects of viscosity. However. constant over area A1 Figure 3. For example. there will be changes in velocity from one position to another – e.. A hose-pipe spraying a garden exhibits steady flow if the velocity of the fluid flow at any particular place does not change with time. The maximum velocity is at the centre of the pipe. However. if all the fluid in a section of straight pipe is moving with the same velocity and it is at a constant density and pressure it may be regarded as uniform. If properties vary from place to place within the control volume at a given instant. a c b If va ϭ vb ϭ vc and pa ϭ pb ϭ pc. 168 .g. due 2 to viscosity. ρ2. etc. the assumption of one-dimensional flow simplifies analysis and can provide sufficiently accurate results in many situations. at the same instant. v2 constant over area A2 p1 ≠ p2 v1 ≠ v2 in either direction or magnitude One-dimensional flow In one-dimensional flow it is assumed that all properties are uniform across a plane perpendicular to the flow direction. This would occur while the hose-pipe is being turned on and the flowrate increases from zero to a steady value. Properties within a fluid may vary from place to place in the volume of fluid being considered but are constant at any given place. the fluid next to a surface (e.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 ● ● ● incompressible (i.g. One-dimensional flow also rarely occurs in practice. at a pipe wall) will be moving more slowly than the bulk of the fluid and so uniform flow 1 rarely occurs. Unsteady flow involves changes with time. does not change volume. In this chapter all fluid flow processes considered will be assumed to be steady flow. then the flow is Figure 3. Properties thus vary in only one direction – usually the direction of flow – as indicated below. no matter what pressure is applied. but gases and vapours can usually only be assumed to be incompressible when velocities are relatively low.e. and hence has constant density. Nevertheless. zero surface tension (surface tension acts on the free surface of a liquid and in moving liquids is generally important only when there are very thin films or small droplets less than a few millimetres in thickness or diameter). ρ1. p1.45 One-dimensional flow Flow Flow Actual velocity profile 1-D velocity profile Figure 3. This is a reasonable assumption to apply to liquids.

In a uniform flow. A Pathline of particle 1. at a given instant. If the flow is unsteady. If the flow is unsteady. all particles that have passed through a given point over a given period of time. leaving A at time t2 Figure 3. leaving A at time t1 Pathline of particle 2. streamlines must be straight and parallel as shown in Figure 3.47 Streamline patterns for uniform and non-uniform flow: (a) uniform flow. No fluid particle can cross a streamline and streamlines never cross. then the flow is non-uniform. for example a neutrally buoyant particle – one which has the same density as the fluid and so moves with the fluid. velocity vectors that are tangential to the line. as shown below. the velocity varies in direction and the flow is again non-uniform. a) Uniform flow a c d va = vb = vc = vd and so on b b) Non-uniform flow c) Non-uniform flow Streamlines are straight but not parallel and the flow is accelerating as the duct converges to a smaller cross-section Streamlines are curved Figure 3.47(a). (b) non-uniform flow. By definition: A streamline is a line along which all fluid particles have. During unsteady flow the 169 . It is equivalent to a time-exposure photograph which traces the movements of visible particles. the irregular pathlines indicate that the speed and direction of particles that leave A vary with time. In steady flow there are no changes with time and hence the streamline pattern does not change. Pathlines may cross.47(c)). Soap bubbles can be used to show large-scale movement of air. If the streamlines are not parallel (Figure 3. the flow changes with time and so the streamline pattern may also change with time. there is no component of velocity across a streamline.48 Pathlines Streakline A streakline joins. at a given time. (c) non-uniform flow If the streamlines are straight but not parallel.Fluid mechanics Streamlines Streamlines provide a picture of the complete flow field at a given instant and they represent the direction of the velocity of the particles.47(b)). for instance. Pathlines A pathline shows the route taken by a single fluid particle in a time interval. These are the lines produced. Thus. or are curved (Figure 3. by a dye line or a smoke stream produced from a continuous supply of dye or smoke.

then the mass within the region does not change and the flow in must equal the flow out.49. the lines ab and cd are coincident with the inner surface of the duct wall. pathlines and streaklines are coincident and do not vary with time.51 showing a flow in a duct. ᎏᎏ ➝ ᎏᎏ ϭ m ␦t dt ␦m . the route taken by every single particle (the pathline) must be the same as the route taken by a string of particles (the streakline) and these lines must coincide with the streamline. so considering a fixed volume. 7 kg/ s R a te of increase in mass ϭ 4 kg/ s 3 kg/ s Figure 3.50. However. if 7 kg sϪ1 is flowing into the region and 3 kg sϪ1 is flowing out. For the volume. every particle passing through point 1 will proceed in the same direction to point 2. but v1 v2 v3. during the time interval dt Mass flow in Ϫ mass flow out ϭ increase in mass within the volume abcd ␦m1 Ϫ ␦m2 ϭ m ϩ ␦m Ϫ m ϭ ␦m The rate of change in mass within the volume is ␦m ␦m1 ␦m2 ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ Ϫ ᎏᎏ ␦t ␦t ␦t ␦m dm .50 Principle of conservation of mass If conditions are steady (that is. let mass ␦m1 enter the control volume at section 1 and mass ␦m2 leave at section 2. then the mass within the region must be increasing by 4 kg sϪ1. each of which shows the historical route taken by a different particle over a given or different time period. In the absence of a nuclear reaction. at point 2 it will always have the same velocity v2. the flowrate in minus the flowrate out must equal the rate at which mass accumulates in the volume. under steady flow conditions streamlines. Continuity equation The principle of conservation of mass is expressed in fluid mechanics by the continuity equation. starting at point 1. Let the mass of fluid within the duct in the volume abcd be m at time t and (m ϩ ␦m) at time (t ϩ ␦t).An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 streamline pattern (showing the instantaneous directions taken by ‘all’ particles) can change from moment to moment and will not be the same as a series of pathlines.49 Flow over an aerofoil 3 v3 4 v4 5 v5 Under steady conditions. For example. Therefore. matter is neither created nor destroyed. . velocity v2 at point 2 will always be the same and so on. v2 1 2 v1 Figure 3. By conservation of mass. Consider the flow over an aerofoil shown in Figure 3. ᎏᎏ ϭ m1 Ϫ m2 ␦t δm1 a b δm2 v2 v1 c d Figure 3. at point 3 it will always have the same velocity v3 and so on. Streaklines will also differ from streamlines and pathlines. as illustrated in Figure 3. defined by abcd. The line drawn as a tangent to these directions forms streamline S for steady non-uniform flow. During time interval ␦t. Assuming steady flow.51 Conservation of mass with flow in a duct As 170 . consider Figure 3. the velocity v1 at point 1 will always be the same in magnitude and direction. For a steady flow: Mass flowrate entering ϭ mass flowrate leaving For more than one inlet or outlet the expression generalizes to: Sum of mass flowrates entering ϭ sum of mass flowrates leaving For a slightly more detailed proof. not changing with time). ␦t ➝ 0.

m1 ϭ m2 1A1v1 ϭ 2A2v2 This is a very commonly used equation for flows in pipes and ducts.Fluid mechanics . .9 m s 171 . Thus. Thus. the inlet diameter is 27 mm and the outlet diameter is 43 mm. be A1. . V1 ϭ V2 A1v1 ϭ A2v2 ᎏᎏ(0.53 so Ϫ 1 v2 ϭ 3. m1 ϭ 1A1v For steady flow. m1 and m2 are the inlet and outlet mass flowrates. then. and hence dm ᎏᎏ ϭ 0 dt . which is the general continuity equation. the density is constant and .043)2v2 4 4 Figure 3. The mass of this element of fluid is ␦m1 ϭ 1A1 ␦x1. Under steady flow conditions.027)2 ϫ 10 ϭ ᎏᎏ(0. i. indicating that the mass flowrate is constant at any point along the duct for steady flow. so . anywhere in the pipe the mass flowrate is constant. . the density 1 and the velocity v1 are taken to be uniform over the inlet area A1. Here. that the velocity is constant across the whole cross-section of the pipe. .e. perpendicular to the flow direction at 1. what is the mean outlet velocity? As the fluid is incompressible. It applies to any shape of pipe or duct. If the mean inlet velocity is 10 m s؊1. not just to circular ones. In practice the velocity is not uniform over the cross-section but a mean velocity is used which gives the true mass flowrate when multiplied by the cross-sectional area and mean density of the fluid.52 Let the inlet area. 1 A1 v Pipe or duct δx Figure 3. Flow in ducts or pipes Consider the flow in a pipe and assume one-dimensional flow. An incompressible fluid flows along the pipe shown. In time ␦t the volume of fluid passing point 1 is A1 ␦x1. Assume one-dimensional flow. Hence ␦m1 ␦x1 ᎏᎏ ϭ 1A1 ᎏᎏ ␦t ␦t Therefore . the mass within the volume remains constant. m1 ϭ m2.

density and acceleration on fluid pressure. (iii) zero shaft work (no work input from a pump or fan).An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 A 10 litre bucket takes 2 minutes to fill with water (density 1000 kg m؊3) from a hosepipe of 20 mm diameter. so there is no motion perpendicular to a (p+ δp) δA v streamline. δs Fluid pressure varies from p to p ϩ ␦p across the element in the s-direction. The following assumptions are made: (i) steady flow. For a fluid in motion. Equations describing all of these effects are quite complex and it is useful to start in a simple way.54 Small element of fluid travelling along a streamline . be ␦A and let the length of the element be ␦s. What is the mass flowrate of water through the hose? What is the mean velocity of water in the hose? .33 ϫ 10Ϫ5 m3 sϪ1 t 120 .0833 kg sϪ1.02)2v 4 8. V 10 ϫ 10Ϫ3 V ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 8. The equation can be derived for flow in one direction.e. m ϭ V . (ii) frictionless (inviscid) flow – no viscosity.e. The net force on element in the s-direction is ␦F ϭ p␦A Ϫ (p ϩ ␦p)␦A Ϫ g␦m cos Elevation z can be related to distance along the streamline s by ␦z cos ϭ ᎏᎏ and ␦m ϭ p ␦A ␦s ␦s 172 z-direction local s-direction Area δA p δA g δm δs θ δz δz cosθ = — δs Figure 3.27 m sϪ1. the pressure varies with elevation. i. V ϭ Av ϭ ᎏᎏ(0. . the pressure depends not only on density and elevation but also on: ● acceleration (a pressure difference within the fluid is required to supply the necessary force).0833 kg sϪ1 Therefore. Streamlines are always parallel to the flow.27 m sϪ1 2 ᎏᎏ(0. properties at a given point. . the mass flowrate is 0. m ϭ V ϭ 1000 ϫ 8. no shear stress. but no acceleration with time takes place). nothing changes with time (the flow may accelerate as it moves from one position to another. by considering an element of fluid of mass ␦m moving with velocity v and acceleration a in a direction s (i. .33 ϫ 10Ϫ5 ⇒v ϭ ϭ 0.54). The Euler equation (Euler is pronounced ‘oiler’) is a relatively simple expression that allows only for the effect of elevation. perpendicular a to the s-direction.33 ϫ 10Ϫ5 ϭ 0. the velocity of water in the pipe is 0. ● and on any mechanical work done on or by the fluid (such as the work input from the rotor of a pump or work output if the fluid flows through a turbine to produce mechanical power. ● viscosity (a pressure difference is required to provide the force to overcome resistance from shear stress). along a streamline) at a given instant (see Figure 3. along a streamline. Gravity also acts on the element. Let the cross-sectional area of the element. are constant.02) 4 Therefore. Mechanical work interactions such as these are known generally as shaft work). Fluids in motion – the Euler equation In a fluid at rest.

47) dv Acceleration. Therefore. of the element of fluid will.47) above yields dz dv 1 dp ᎏᎏ ᎏᎏ ϩ g ᎏᎏ ϩ v ᎏᎏ ϭ 0 ds ds ds This is the Euler equation. It only applies for: ● steady flow. s).48) 173 . v. ᎏᎏ is the variation in velocity with distance. a. time) remain ץs constant). dt ץt the velocity. v ϭ f (t. ● zero shaft work. dt The velocity. Also. and consequently ᎏᎏ ϭ 0. Dividing by ␦t gives ␦v ץv ␦s ץv ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ ␦t ץs ␦t ץt dv ץv ds ץv ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ dt ץs dt ץt which in the limit becomes Under steady conditions. Euler’s equation is often also written as dp ᎏᎏ ϩ g dz ϩ v dv ϭ 0 (3. in general. vary as a function of both time and location. ᎏᎏ ϭ v.g.Fluid mechanics so ␦F ϭ Ϫ␦p ␦A Ϫ g ␦A ␦z Applying F ϭ ma ␦F ϭ ␦ma Ϫ␦p ␦A Ϫ g ␦A ␦z ϭ ␦A ␦s a Divide through by (␦A ␦s). and then ␦z 1 ␦p ᎏᎏ ᎏᎏ ϩ gᎏᎏ ϩ a ϭ 0 ␦s ␦s and in the limit dz 1 dp ᎏᎏ ᎏᎏ ϩ gᎏᎏ ϩ a ϭ 0 ds ds (3.e. when other variables (e. and hence dv dv ᎏᎏ ϭ v ᎏᎏ dt ds Substituting back into equation (3. so a change in velocity. is equal to ᎏᎏ. the velocity at any point does not change with time (the velocity of ץv ds the fluid may change with position but not with time). ● flow along a streamline. can be expressed in terms of the two variables s and t as ץv ץv ␦v ϭ ᎏᎏ␦s ϩ ᎏᎏ␦t ץs ץt ץv ץv where ᎏᎏ and ᎏᎏ are the partial derivatives of velocity with respect to distance and time ץs ץt ץv (i. ␦v. ● inviscid flow (no viscosity).

zero shaft work. 2 The Bernoulli equation simply states that the energy in a fluid due to pressure.48)): dp ͵ᎏ ᎏ ϩ g͵dz ϩ ͵v dv ϭ 0 dp v ͵ᎏ ᎏ ϩ gz ϩ ᎏᎏ ϭ constant 2 2 If it is assumed that the density is constant (i. Each term in the Bernoulli equation has the units of energy massϪ1.49) inviscid flow. and it applies only for the following situations: ● ● ● ● ● (3. incompressible flow. steady flow. for a fluid at rest. and the equation is a special statement of the law of conservation of energy that applies to an ideal flow in which there are no frictional losses or energy transfers such as work taking place. 174 . and. velocity v is zero. elevation and motion is conserved provided that there is no external energy input from a pump or fan (no shaft work) and that there is no viscosity to dissipate kinetic energy as heat. v2 The third term ᎏᎏ relates to the velocity. The Bernoulli equation may also be rearranged into slightly different forms. It is a potential energy term. This term is sometimes known as flow work or flow energy. The three terms in the equation relate to three different types of energy that the fluid may have: p ● The first term ᎏᎏ is a pressure term and is the energy needed to move the fluid against the local pressure in the fluid. } Ideal flow flow along a streamline. by integrating along a streamline. The Bernoulli equation The Euler equation is a differential equation. The Bernoulli equation is obtained by integrating the Euler equation (equation (3. a practical equation can be derived. and so the Euler equation becomes dp ᎏᎏ ϩ g dz ϭ 0 dp ϭ Ϫg dz which integrates to give ⌬p ϭ Ϫg⌬z which is the familiar equation relating pressure change with depth in a stationary fluid. as shown opposite.e. This is a similar concept to assuming frictionless motion in mechanics.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Note that. known as the Bernoulli equation. and so it represents the kinetic energy in the fluid. ● ● The second term gz is an elevation term and relates to the energy needed to raise the fluid against gravity. that the fluid is incompressible). then p v2 ᎏᎏ ϩ gz ϩ ᎏᎏ ϭ constant 2 This is the Bernoulli equation.

and p ϩ gz is the piezometric pressure. then each term has the units of length (elevation) and is called a head. and so between two locations. there is no change in total head: HT1 ϭ HT2 The quantity (Hp ϩ z) is called the piezometric head. Piezometric head has no particular significance and is simply a convenient combination. 175 1 . Thus Hp ϩ z ϩ Hv ϭ HT HT is constant. 1 and 2. Pressure form of the Bernoulli equation If each term in the Bernoulli equation is multiplied by . The head form of the Bernoulli equation is p v2 ᎏᎏ ϩ z ϩ ᎏᎏ ϭ constant g 2g (3. and so between two locations. Head represents energy weightϪ1. HPZ. there is no change in total pressure head: pT1 ϭ pT2 The quantity p ϩ gz is called the piezometric pressure. The pressure form of the Bernoulli equation is p ϩ gz ϩ ᎏ2ᎏv2 ϭ constant The three terms in the Bernoulli equation are referred to as p gz 1 2 ᎏᎏv 2 1 (3.50) The use of the term head within fluid mechanics is very common. Thus p ϩ gz ϩ ᎏ2ᎏv2 ϭ pT pT is constant. The three terms in the Bernoulli equation are referred to as p ᎏᎏ ϭ Hp ϭ pressure head g z ϭ elevation head v2 ᎏᎏ ϭ Hv ϭ velocity head 2g The sum of all three heads is referred to as the total head. then each term has the units of pressure.Fluid mechanics Head form of the Bernoulli equation If each term in the Bernoulli equation is divided by g.51) static pressure elevation pressure associated with the height relative to some datum dynamic pressure related to the velocity of the fluid The sum of all three pressures is referred to as the total pressure pT. HT. 1 and 2.

for steady flow. so .e. then the velocity head is 2 v1 Hv1 ϭ ᎏᎏ 2g By definition. as illustrated in Figure 3. then. HT1 ϭ HT2 that is HPZ1 ϩ Hv1 ϭ HPZ2 ϩ Hv2 Also. m1 ϭ m2 ⇒ 1A1v1 ϭ 2A2v2 but 1 ϭ 2 and A1 ϭ A2 so v1 ϭ v2 and then Hv1 ϭ Hv2. abs Ϫ pa ϭ gHp1 Thus. The corresponding piezometric head is p1 HPZ1 ϭ ᎏᎏ ϩ z1 g and is represented physically by the distance (z1 ϩ HP1). we consider the central streamline. at section 2 2 p2 v2 HT2 ϭ ᎏᎏ ϩ z2 ϩ ᎏ ᎏ ϭ HPZ2 ϩ Hv2 g 2g Each streamline has its own values of z. Also. Hp and Hv. . inviscid (frictionless) flow of an incompressible fluid at constant velocity (and with zero shaft work) the piezometric head is constant irrespective of the inclination of the pipe. At the pipe centre-line: p1. Measured from the pipe centreline at section 1 (height z1 above the datum). abs ϭ pa ϩ gHp1 p1.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Applications of the Bernoulli equation Flow along a pipe Consider the flow of an ideal. If the mean velocity at section 1 is v1. the height of the liquid column in the piezometer is equal to the pressure head (based on gauge pressure). z1 ϭ z2 and p1 ϭ p2.55. For pipe and duct flow. for the steady. and hence HPZ1 ϭ HPZ2. the two equations to apply are as follows: Bernoulli: 2 ϭ p ϩ gz ϩ ᎏᎏv2 p1 ϩ gz1 ϩ ᎏ2ᎏv1 2 2 2 2 1 1 Continuity: 1A1v1 ϭ 2A2v2 176 z2 z1 1 HPZ1 HT1 . the total head 2 p1 v1 HT1 ϭ ᎏᎏ ϩ z1 ϩ ᎏ ᎏ ϭ HPZ1 ϩ Hv1 g 2g HV2 = v22/2g Hp2 = p2/ρg HV1 = v22/2g Hp1 = p1/ρg HT2 HPZ2 Fluid flow 2 Datum Figure 3. but in one-dimensional steady flow it is usual to take the elevation z to the centre-line of the full pipe. and irrespective of the angle of inclination of the pipe. For an ideal fluid and steady flow.55 Flow of an ideal fluid along a pipe Similarly. constant density liquid along a uniform diameter. the height of the column of liquid in the piezometer is Hp1. Therefore. gauge ϭ p1. i. inclined pipe. the mass flowrate is constant. if the pipe is horizontal.

which is 6 m above the level of A. assuming that v1 is uniform over A1 and that v2 is uniform over A2: 1A1v1 ϭ 2A2v2 As the fluid is incompressible. incompressible) along a venturimeter and apply the Bernoulli equation to the central streamline: 2 2 p1 v1 p2 v2 ᎏᎏ ϩ z1 ϩ ᎏ ᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϩ z2 ϩ ᎏ ᎏ g 2 g g 2g Rearranging yields 2 Ϫ v2 v1 2 ᎏ ᎏ ϭ HPZ1 Ϫ HPZ2 ϭ ⌬HPZ (3. 1 2 X z1 Δz zx Datum X z2 Flow The standard venturimeter has a 30° included angle convergent part and a 7° included angle divergent part (as this is found to minimize the d1 Figure 3. the velocity. The venturimeter can easily be installed in a pipeline and creates very little overall pressure loss. if there are no frictional losses.15m2 B A 6m AA =0.Fluid mechanics A pipe carrying water tapers from a cross-section of 0. is 1.3 kPa. If frictional effects are negligible.3 m2 at A to 0. the velocity increases owing to the change in flow area. In practice there are always some frictional losses and these result in a small overall loss of pressure across the device. it follows that 1 ϭ 2.82 Ϫ 3.8m/s Figure 3. assumed uniform. the flow area is increased to the original value and the flow velocity is reduced and the pressure increases again. The divergent section with a gradual taper restores the fluid to almost its original state (pressure).3 kPa Therefore. so A2 v1 ϭ ᎏᎏ v A1 2 177 . there is no overall change in velocity and. Figure 3.3m2 pA =117kPa guage vA =1. As the fluid passes from 1 to d2 2.8 m s؊1 and the pressure is 117 kPa gauge.As the inlet and outlet areas are the same.15 AB Apply Bernoulli between A and B (central streamline) to find the pressure at B: 2 ϭ p ϩ gz ϩ ᎏᎏv2 pA ϩ gzA ϩ ᎏ2ᎏv A B B 2 B 2 2 PB ϭ PA ϩ g(zA Ϫ zB) ϩ ᎏ2ᎏ (vA Ϫ vB ) 1 1 1 AB =0. Venturimeter The venturimeter is a well-known fluid flowmeter. then there will be no change in pressure. the gauge pressure at B is 53. widely used in industry.56 pB ϭ 117 ϫ 103 ϩ (1000 ϫ 9.15 m2 at B.81 ϫ (Ϫ6)) ϩ 500(1.57 Venturimeter pressure loss) and a diameter ratio ᎏᎏ ϭ 2.6 m sϪ1 0.As the flow travels through the divergent section. determine the pressure at B. Consequently the pressure falls and this differential pressure can be measured.8 ϫ 0. Consider the steady flow of an ideal fluid (inviscid. Apply continuity between A and B to find the velocity at B: vAAA ϭ vBAB vAAA 1.3 І vB ϭ ᎏ ᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 3. Essentially the venturimeter is a convergent-divergent pipe. At A.52) 2g Apply the continuity equation between 1 and 2.57 illustrates a venturimeter.62) ϭ 53.

Bernoulli’s equation gives a good approximation to the real flowrate. Vreal Vreal mreal . 2g⌬HPZ Videal ϭ A2v2 ϭ A2 2 1 Ϫ ᎏᎏ A1 ͱ The real volume flowrate will be less than the ideal value. . as any real fluid will have a viscosity. viscosity. Water flows along a horizontal venturimeter which has inlet and throat areas of 180 cm2 and 45 cm2 respectively. The coefficient of discharge is 0. if the flow were frictionless and therefore represents the maximum velocity at the throat of the venturi. It accounts for the effects of friction and non-uniformity of velocity profile through the device d2 . Cd is called the coefficient of discharge or discharge coefficient.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 and hence A2 2 Ϫ v2 ϭ v2 1 Ϫ ᎏ ᎏ v2 1 2 A1 Substituting this into equation (3.600 kg m؊3).0. the flowrate. It is usual to account for this difference by mulitplying the ideal volume flowrate by a discharge coefficient. The coefficient Cd is determined experimentally.53) This is the velocity that would exist. The volume flowrate .99 for low-viscosity fluids such as water and air. This means that some of the mechanical energy in the fluid is dissipated as heat. . Cd: . vertical or inclined venturimeters. since Cd is so close to 1. for the given pressure difference. . 178 .52) gives 2ϭ v2 2 2g⌬HPZ A2 2 1 Ϫ ᎏᎏ A1 (3. ϭᎏ ϭᎏ Cd ϭ ᎏ mideal Videal Videal where is constant for liquids and low speed gas flows.96.95 and 0. A mercury-under-water manometer connected to the inlet and throat sections shows a difference in mercury levels of 10 cm. and is typically found to be between 0. since ⌬HPZ allows for the appropriate elevations z1 and z2. by individual calibration of the venturimeter with a particular fluid. . . m Vϭ ᎏ ϭ v2A2 (ϭ v1A1) The volume flowrate calculated will be the ideal volume flowrate because it is based on the assumption of an ideal fluid: . Vreal ϭ CdVideal ϭ CdA2 ͱ 2g⌬HPZ A2 2 1 Ϫ ᎏᎏ A1 This applies to horizontal. so the fluid slows down and the flowrate will be lower. Calculate the pressure difference between inlet and throat and the mass flowrate of the water (w ϭ 1000 kg m؊3 and m ϭ 13. surface roughness and the positions of manometer and depends on ᎏᎏ d1 tappings. For the venturimeter. defined by . .

Vreal ϭ CdVideal ϭ CdA2 so .25 m p1 p2 ⌬HPZ ϭ ᎏ ᎏᎏ ϩ z1 Ϫ ᎏ ᎏᎏ ϩ z2 g g Figure 3.18 kg sϪ1 Therefore. Vreal ϭ 0.02218 m3/s and ͱ ͱ 2g⌬HPZ A2 2 1 Ϫ ᎏᎏ A1 2 ϫ 9. If the actual rate of flow is 40 litres s؊1 and Cd is 0.36 ϫ 103 ⌬HPZ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ g 1000 ϫ 9.2 kg sϪ1.02218 ϭ 22. A vertical venturimeter carries a liquid of relative density 0.96 ᎏᎏ 0.81 ϫ 1.81(⌬HPZ) 75 4 1 Ϫ ᎏᎏ 150 2 z2 1 z1 Δzm and ⌬HPZ ϭ 4. . calculate: a) the pressure difference between inlet and throat and b) the difference of levels in a vertical U-tube mercury manometer connected between inlet and throat (m ϭ 13. ⌬p 12. the mass flowrate of water is 22.58 10cm and.Fluid mechanics ⌬pϭ ⌬zm(m Ϫ )g ϭ 0.600 kg m؊3).0752 4 ͱ ͱ 2g(⌬HPZ) A2 2 1 Ϫ ᎏᎏ A1 Flow 2 ϫ 9.1(13 600 Ϫ 1000)9.26 45 2 1 Ϫ ᎏᎏ 180 .59 179 .36 kPa p1 p2 ϩ z1 Ϫ ᎏᎏ ϩ z2 ⌬HPZ ϭ ᎏᎏ g g 1 2 Flow Figure 3.26 m .96. .81 ϭ 12.81 ϭ 1. For the venturimeter .96 ϫ 45 ϫ 10Ϫ4 ϭ 0.8 and has inlet and throat diameters of 150 mm and 75 mm respectively. . mwater ϭ V ϭ 1000 ϫ 0. as z1 ϭ z2. Vreal ϭ CdVideal ϭ CdA2 and hence 40 ϫ 10Ϫ3 ϭ 0. The pressure connection at the throat is 150 mm above that at the inlet.

A2. This enables the pressure difference (p1 Ϫ p2) or the difference in piezometric head (⌬HPZ) to be determined. where the gradual divergence after the throat avoids flow separation and recirculation and helps to minimize energy dissipation and overall pressure losses. the ratio ᎏᎏ and the flow conditions.25 ϩ 0. Vreal ϭ CdAj ͱ 2g(⌬HPZ) Aj 2 1 Ϫ ᎏᎏ A1 Cd usually lies between 0.25 ϭ 0. The inlet area is taken to be A1 (as before) and the throat area.2 kg sϪ1.95 and 0. Nozzle flow meter A nozzle flow meter (illustrated in Figure 3. the mass flowrate of water is 22.60 Nozzle flow meter the nozzle and this causes a recirculation region in which.53 kPa For the manometer p1 ϩ z1g ϭ p2 ϩ g(z2 Ϫ ⌬zm) ϩ mg⌬zm p1 p2 ᎏᎏ ϩ z1 ϭ ᎏᎏ ϩ z2 Ϫ ⌬zm ϩ ᎏm ᎏ⌬zm g g ⌬HPZ ϭ ⌬zm ᎏ ᎏm ᎏϪ1 І ⌬zm ϭ 4. the real flowrate through the nozzle flow meter is . It is also shorter and can be installed easily in between two flanges. the nozzle shape. designated Aj. This is in contrast to the venturimeter. This means that there is little recovery of pressure after the nozzle and so there is a significant overall pressure loss. is replaced by the . The nozzle (convergent part) can be formed from a plate or cast and is simpler and cheaper to make than a complete venturi. its value depending upon the positions of tappings 1 and dj 2. The same analysis is used as for the venturimeter and Bernoulli’s equation is applied at sections 1 and 2.15) ϭ 34.98.81(4.60) is essentially a venturimeter with the divergent section omitted.266 m 13 600 ᎏᎏ Ϫ 1 800 Therefore. nozzle outlet area. where Aj ϭ ᎏᎏd 2 4 j Thus. d1 180 . in real fluids with viscosity. Pressure tappings 1 and 2 are provided where piezometer tubes or the limbs of a differential manometer can be connected. Pressure tappings 1 2 dl dj Immediately after the nozzle exit there is a jet of fluid separating from Figure 3.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 І p1 Ϫ p2 ϭ g(⌬HPZ ϩ (z2 Ϫ z1)) ϭ 800 ϫ 9. much of the kinetic energy of the fluid at the nozzle exit is dissipated by friction.

A disadvantage is that the orifice plate is much more susceptible to wear than the nozzle meter. Values of Cd for orifice plates are in the range 0.54) . This is called the vena contracta and has an effective flow area Aj. the flow continues to converge downstream of the hole for a short distance. As the edge becomes rounded Cd increases. The discharge coefficient (Cd) is much lower than for the venturimeter or nozzle flow meter.6 for a thin orifice plate with a sharp edge for turbulent flow. The two areas are related by a coefficient of contraction Cc.Fluid mechanics Orifice plate meter This consists essentially of a flat round plate containing a central sharpedged hole and is placed concentrically across the flow.75 per cent). where A 2 Aj dj Cc ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ Ao Ao do A2 ϭ CcAo The coefficient of contraction varies with the ratio of the orifice diameter to the pipe diameter and the flowrate and is typically in the order of 0. becoming parallel at about position 2.61 Orifice plate meter As in previous cases. It is determined experimentally from . and appropriate values can be found in the standards for orifice plates. The area of the vena contracta.62. This phenomenon of the vena contracta commonly occurs wherever a flow passes through a thin sharp-edged hole and it effectively reduces the area of the hole. Ao. pressure tappings 1 and 2 enable (p1 Ϫ p2) or ⌬HPZ to be determined. As the orifice has a sharp-edged hole and is quite thin. Aj. Pressure tappings 1 2 d1 do Figure 3.62 The streamlines in an orifice plate meter 2 (3.6–0. or possible build-up by deposits. It tends to be less accurate than the venturimeter (in the order of Ϯ 2 per cent error compared with Ϯ0. Any erosion of the sharp edge by the fluid. Cd is the discharge coefficient and depends on the positions and type of the pressure tappings and on whether the flow is laminar or turbulent. typically to around 60 per cent of the actual diameter. affects the value of discharge coefficient and hence the calibration. There is a British Standard covering their calibration and installation (BS 1042). is less than the orifice area.2 Ͻ ᎏᎏ d1 Orifice plates are extensively used in industry because they are cheap and easy to install. 181 Pressure tappings 1 2 d1 do d Vena contracta Figure 3.75 and high flowrates. Vreal ϭ CdAo ͱ 2g(⌬HPZ) Ao 2 1 Ϫ ᎏᎏ A1 where A1 is the upstream pipe diameter and Ao is the diameter of the hole in the orifice plate. depending on the upstream flow conditions. The analysis is basically the same as for the nozzle flow meter and the flowrate is given by the equation: . as shown in Figure 3. It is simpler and cheaper to make than the nozzle meter but has a much higher overall pressure loss as there is more flow separation and recirculation downstream of the orifice plate.65 for 0. readings of m and ⌬HPZ. do Ͻ 0. Consequently the minimum flow area is not at the orifice itself but at 2. The main reason for this is because of the way the flow separates from the orifice plate.

If pϩ and p can be measured. The pressure difference across the orifice is 0.64). Orifice plate equation . . Calculate the mass flowrate assuming that the fluid is paraffin of density 755 kg m؊3.64 Flow round a fixed body whether the front of the body is round or bluff (as in Figure 3.36 ϫ 10Ϫ3 ϭ 7. Let the upstream pressure.36 ϫ 10Ϫ3 m3 sϪ1 .1 ϫ 105 ⌬HPZ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 1.1 2 Pitot-static probe Pitot-static probes are used to give velocity information at a point within a flowfield.6.062 4 ϭ 9. v and z respectively: py p 2 ϩ gz ᎏᎏ ϩ v 2 ϩ gz ϭ ᎏᎏ ϩ v y y However. vy ϭ 0. then the velocity of flow can be deduced: 1 pϩ Ϫ p ϭ ᎏ2ᎏv 2 182 60mm ͱ 2g(⌬HPZ) A0 2 1 Ϫ ᎏᎏ A1 1 2 . velocity and elevation be p.066 kg sϪ1 ͱ Figure 3.63 2g(1.64) the flow may separate from the body at a separation point (X in Figure 3.64.06 1 Ϫ ᎏᎏ 0. if the streamline is horizontal. Consider a stream of fluid flowing towards a fixed body. p is the static pressure and is the dynamic pressure. then z ϭ zy.1 bar ⌬p p1 p2 І ⌬HPZ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϩ z Ϫ ᎏᎏ ϩ z ϭ ᎏᎏ g g g ⌬P 0. Sharp corners always cause separation.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 An orifice plate meter situated in a horizontal pipe of 100 mm diameter has an orifice of diameter 60 mm and Cd ϭ 0. and. Point Y is referred to as the stagnation point as the fluid stagnates there.35 m 755 g g . Fluid flowing along the central streamline hits the body at Y and is brought suddenly to rest. b Free The fluid is deflected by the object and flows around it as indicated by Y stream the streamlines.1 bar. They are widely used in experimental fluids and also in many industrial applications. although flow may still separate even if the body is smooth and rounded. Vreal ϭ 0.35) 0. as illustrated in Figure 3. Vreal ϭ CAo 100mm ⌬p ϭ p1 Ϫ p2 ϭ 0. and so 1 py ϭ p ϩ ᎏ2ᎏv 2 py is called the stagnation pressure and is often denoted by pϩ. Depending on Figure 3.6 ᎏᎏ 0. m ϭ V ϭ 755 ϫ 9. Stagnation streamline X a Region of separation Apply Bernoulli’s equation to the central streamline between a point upstream where the flow is undisturbed by the body and point Y. Some fluid will flow along the vertical face of the body and will follow streamline a and some streamline b.

Pitot-static probes can be used for fluids and gases where density can be assumed constant. p1.65 Pitot tube and piezometer However. resulting in a lower pressure difference and hence under estimate of the flow velocity. Stagnation pressure –10% Differential These holes must be located at a sufficient distance from the 0° 10° 20° pressure front. If the probe Figure 3.While fluid in the pipe flows past the piezometer opening.66 Pitot-static probe (reproduced from Fluid Mechanics by Frank M.Fluid mechanics so vϭ 2 ᎏ(p Ϫ p) Ίᎏ ϩ The static pressure p can be measured using a piezometer attached to a static pressure tapping and the stagnation pressure. pressure. as z1 ϭ z2 and velocity v1 is constant as the pipe is of constant diameter. around which the fluid accelerates and the pressure Yaw angle θ transducer decreases. This consists of two concentric tubes. then the stagnation pressure measured is lower and the static pressure can be higher. White) is not directly facing the oncoming flow. ≈ The inner tube is subject to the stagnation pressure while the 8D pressure pressure v radial holes in the outer tube are static pressure tappings. with a small tube known as a pitot tube facing upsteam directly into the flow. Error Static Free-stream 183 . This can be a limitation if the predominant flow direction is not known in advance. the fluid in the tubes is at rest. as shown in Figure 3. fluid flowing directly towards the pitot tube opening is brought suddenly to rest at 2 and hence exerts the stagnation pressure p2ϩ. p2+ Figure 3.When equilibrium is reached. pϩ.66). is very close to the static 4 to 8 holes pressure in the upstream region. The rounded ellipsoidal front +10% p0 ps Static pressure of the probe prevents separation of the flow and helps to ensure 0 that the flow over the static pressure holes is fairly uniform. by careful design of the probe. Some of the liquid flowing along the horizontal pipe rises into the piezometer and some into the pitot tube to levels which depend on p1 and p2ϩ respectively. The static pressure at 1 is p1 ϭ pa ϩ g(ha ϩ h) The stagnation pressure at 2 is pϩ 2 ϭ pa ϩ g(hb Ϫ h) Therefore pϩ 2 Ϫ p1 ϭ g(hb Ϫ ha) Piezometer ha h Flow pa Pitot tube pa =atmospheric pressure pa hb h Upstream.65.65. v1 Stagnation point. Thus. The two tubes (piezometer and pitot) can be combined in a single instrument called a pitotstatic probe. The instrument must also be aligned accurately with the flow direction (see inset graph on Figure 3. it follows that 1 ᎏᎏ 2 pϩ 2 Ϫ p1 ϭ 2v1 and so 2 g(hb Ϫ ha) ϭ ᎏ2ᎏv1 1 Thus v 1 ϭ ͙ෆ 2g(hb Ϫෆ ha) This is a useful result because v1 can be determined from measurements of hb and ha. θ ps the annular space between the two tubes is subject to a pressure Stagnation pressure that. as shown in Figure 3.

Consider the exit flow through a hole in the wall of a tank as illustrated in Figure 3.8 bar.3 ϫ 10) p 0.8 ϫ 105 ϭ ᎏ ᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 1. in situations such as flows in 184 . Applying the Bernoulli equation between 1 and 2 gives 1 2 gz1 ϭ gz2 ϩ ᎏ2ᎏv 2 which simplifies to ෆ g(z1 Ϫෆ z2) ϭ ͙ෆ 2gh v2 ϭ ͙2 This kind of analysis is only appropriate where the drop in the free surface is negligible and steady conditions exist. If the hole had a smooth rounded intake (similar to the orifice in a nozzle flow meter) the discharge coefficient would be close to unity. the pressure is also atmospheric. then the Bernoulli equation can be applied with good accuracy.6. The volume flowrate through the hole would depend on the size and shape of the hole. At the water surface the pressure is atmospheric and. The pressure difference measured by the probe is 3. A hole with a sharp edge may behave like an orifice plate and then the discharge coefficient may be about 0. In devices where there are significant changes in velocity. if the tank is large. All streamlines must start from the free surface (otherwise there would be a situation with fluid being removed from within the flow and not being replenished). elevation pressure and/or dynamic pressure.68 Applicability of the Bernoulli equation The Bernoulli equation can be used in flows where the fluid can be considered to be incompressible and where the pressure losses due to viscosity in the fluid are small compared to the changes in static pressure. the velocity is negligible.3 kPa.67 Free surface flow There are many applications for the Bernoulli equation in free surface flows.1 ϫ 275 Velocity ϭ 80. However. What is the speed of the plane in miles per hour? For a pitot-static probe pϩ Ϫ ps ϭ ᎏ2ᎏv 2 1 3.7 m sϪ1 ϭ 181 miles hϪ1 Figure 3. Take the gas constant for air to be 287.013 kg mϪ1 RT 287. 1 h 2 Figure 3.3kPa І 2 v 2 ϭ ᎏᎏ(3.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 A pitot-static probe is attached to the wing of a light aircraft flying at an altitude of 2000 m.68. At 2. such as the flow meters considered earlier or in the discharge of fluids from a large reservoir through a small hole. where the air temperature is 2 °C and the pressure is 0.1 J kg؊1 K؊1.

the fluid has a relatively low velocity. However.g. Fluid in direct contact with the surface has zero velocity because surface irregularities trap molecules of the fluid. the greater the viscosity. T is the absolute temperature and ␥ is the ratio of the specific heat capacity at constant pressure to the specific heat capacity at constant volume for a gas. Viscosity can be defined in terms of the forces generated at rate of shear or velocity gradient. It is generally found that in gas flows where the velocity of the gas is less than 30 per cent of the sonic velocity (the speed of sound).69 Velocity gradient near a fixed surface . but in the free-stream region. in continuous random motion. for a given applied shear stress. it is the mixing of molecules as they move.4. Viscosity arises from two effects: in liquids. and this acts like friction. y vf vf Zero velocity gradient. v Maximum velocity gradient ∴ maximum τ 185 0 Figure 3.69. horizontal surface as shown in Figure 3. Consider the straight and parallel flow of a fluid over a fixed. where R is the specific gas constant. A short distance from the surface. the pressure changes along the pipe are dominated by frictional effects due to the viscosity of the fluid. pipelines). Slower layers tend to retard faster layers. the lower is the rate of shear deformations between layers. The higher the viscosity of a fluid. and. the greater is the resistance to motion between fluid layers. The study of compressible flow in gases is beyond the scope of this book and readers are advised to consult a more advanced fluid mechanics text. between regions of faster and slower moving fluid that causes friction due to momentum transfer. As guide. These situations will be considered later in this chapter. hence resistance. water flows (can be poured) more readily than some oils and we say that oil has a higher viscosity. then compressibility effects are generally negligible and the Bernoulli equation can be applied with good accuracy. vf Distance perpendicular to surface. the sonic velocity a in a gas is given by the equation a ϭ ͙ෆ ␥RT. the velocity is vf. The greater the resistance to flow. ␥ is approximately 1.Fluid mechanics long horizontal pipes of constant diameter (e. Liquids can be considered incompressible under most practical situations and so the Bernoulli equation can be applied.4 Viscous (real) fluids Viscosity A fluid offers resistance to motion due to its viscosity or ‘internal friction’. at higher velocities the Bernoulli equation can give large errors. Free-stream velocity. intermolecular forces act as drag between layers of fluid moving at different velocities. For air. for example in the discharge of compressed air from pipes. ∴ zero τ Velocity profile Fluid flow v+ δy v + δv v y v + δv v δv δy Fixed surface Velocity. For example. in gases. 3.

at point A. the velocity gradient is not necessarily equal to the rate of shear.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 ␦v distance y. for a fluid exhibiting Newtonian properties. known as the velocity profile.70 shows the relationship between ᎏᎏ and for Newtonian and dy non-Newtonian fluids. . and is denoted by . Figure 3. increases as temperature increases due to increasing momentum of molecules leading to greater momentum exchange. The equation is limited to straight and parallel (laminar) flow. In some fluids the viscosity varies with the rate of shear and these are known as nondv Newtonian fluids. ␦v dv ᎏᎏ ➝ the value of the differential ᎏᎏ at a point such as point A. At a The constant of proportionality is called the dynamic viscosity or often just the viscosity of the fluid. at the fixed surface d y dv where ᎏᎏ has its maximum value. If angular velocity is involved. However. For a Newtonian fluid there is a linear relationship and the gradient of the line. and on inter-molecular (cohesive) forces. on fluid pressure. For liquids decreases as temperature increases due to reduced cohesive forces between molecules. The ratio ᎏᎏ ␦y is the average velocity gradient (rate of change of velocity with distance) over the distance ␦y. τ Fluid 1 Typical nonNewtonian fluid Fluid 2 μ1 > μ2 at given τ and given temperature 0 δv — δy Figure 3. to a very small extent. as ␦y tends to zero. For gases. is constant for each fluid at a given temperature. is a maximum. ϭ 0.70 Relationship between velocity gradient and shear stress for Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids 186 . ␦y dy dv ᎏᎏ at point A is the true velocity gradient. on molecular motion between fluid layers. let the velocity be v and at a distance y ϩ ␦y. let the velocity be v ϩ ␦v. dy The value of depends on the type of fluid. and fluids that obey it are known as Newtonian fluids. dv The equation indicates that. in the main stream and is usually represented by a smooth curve. Thus: dv dv ϰ ᎏᎏ or ϭ constant ᎏᎏ dy dy The velocity of flow increases continuously from zero at the fixed surface to vf. Hence dv ϭ ᎏᎏ dy This is Newton’s law of viscosity. in the main stream where ᎏᎏ ϭ 0. varies inversely with the velocity gradient. or rate of shear. For fluids. and. is independent of velocity gradient and shear stress but depends considerably on fluid temperature and. but. it is found that the shear stress is directly proportional to the velocity gradient when straight and parallel flow is involved. Only if the flow is of this form does dv represent the time rate of sliding of one layer over another. subject to a given and a given temperature. dy For most fluids used in engineering.

for a more sustainable system. second): 1 poise ϭ 0. denoted by v.72 While a lubricant is necessary to reduce wear and friction between two surfaces. 187 . The details of lubrication theory are beyond the scope of this book. This represents an energy loss in the system. water. (Another commonly used unit of viscosity is the poise. so.) Kinematic viscosity. This can be achieved by using an oil of lower viscosity. Viscosity and lubrication Many commonly occurring fluids in engineering applications conform to Newton’s law of viscosity (e. In some fluids (a common example is tomato ketchup) the viscosity can be made to decrease when a high rate of shear is applied for a period of time. so if you shake the bottle the ketchup flows more easily. the thickness of the film of a lubricant is not fixed but determined by the loads between the two surfaces and the details of the oil flow in the gap. For a cylindrical journal bearing r Ϸ ᎏᎏ t Drag torque T ϭ (2rL)r 2r 3L Power dissipated ϭ T ϭ ᎏᎏ 2 t Shaft. The unit of kinematic viscosity is m2 sϪ1. gases and many oils).g. gram. In these lubrication cases. such that dv ϭ ᎏᎏ dy These fluids are Newtonian. Conversely. although the lubricating effect must be maintained. the unit of dynamic viscosity is the pascal second (Pa s) or kg m sϪ1. system of units (centimetre. velocity V Stationary plate Figure 3. N s [] ϵ ᎏ ϵ ᎏᎏ ᎏᎏm ϵ [Pa s] m2 m dv ᎏᎏ dy ΄ ΅ ΄ ΄ ΅ kg m 1 s kg ᎏ ᎏᎏ ᎏᎏm ϵ ᎏᎏ ϵ ᎏ2 s m2 m ms ΅ ΄ ΅ Thus. In general the velocity gradient is not known. but where thin films exist (such as lubricating flows) the velocity gradient can be approximated as linear and an estimate of shear stress obtained. radius r Figure 3. The units of can be found by considering the dimensions of the quantities involved.Fluid mechanics There are different kinds of non-Newtonian fluid in which the viscosity varies in different ways with the applied shear stress. or by having a thicker lubricating film. some fluids increase in viscosity when the rate of shear increases. speed ω. is defined as the ratio /.71 Thin oil film. it is desirable wherever possible to reduce the frictional drag due to oil viscosity. which was derived from the c. there is a drag force due to the viscosity of the lubricant. for instance. thickness Y Oil film thickness t Bearing length L and the drag force F on the plate is thus equal to the viscous shear stress multiplied by the area of the plate A subject to the stress: F ϭ A.1 Pa s. such as hydrodynamic bearings. the frictional drag due to the viscosity in the fluid is often a significant force and can be estimated as follows: In this case V ץv ϭ ᎏᎏ Ϸ ᎏᎏ Y ץy Moving plate.g. where is the fluid density. In many situations.s.

Further increase in flowrate did not change the flow pattern. At higher flowrates the filment was initially smooth but became wavy at a certain distance along the pipe. the surface of the water is smooth and there may be no perceptible changes in the flow with time. the filament fluctuations increased until there came a point where the dye filament suddenly mixed across the tube.85 and kinematic viscosity 400 mm2 s؊1. What is the viscous force resisting the motion when the ram moves at 120 mm s؊1? ץu ϭ ᎏᎏ ץy ϭ v ϭ 400 ϫ 10Ϫ6 ϫ 850 ϭ 0.2 mm in diameter.34 kg mϪ1 sϪ1 ץu u ᎏᎏ Ϸ ᎏᎏ ץy y so u 120 ϫ 10Ϫ3 ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 0. the flow from a tap at low velocity is steady. and the annular clearance is filled with oil of relative density 0.2 ϭ 307.74 Sketch of Reynolds’ experiment As the valve was opened and the flowrate increased. 188 .1 ϫ 10Ϫ3 Figure 3. At high velocities pathlines tend to be very irregular and cross over one another. At low flowrates the dye filament was smooth and unbroken along the length of the pipe. If the flowrate is increased. Dye injected into flow Slow Large tank of water Valve to control water flow Glass tube φ 7–27mm Fast Figure 3.73 F ϭ ᎏᎏ A І F ϭ 408 ϫ 0. but the point at which mixing occurred moved closer to the inlet. As the flowrate was increased further. These two distinct types of flow are known as laminar and turbulent.6 N Therefore.74. For example. there are very noticeable unsteady local disturbances in the flow.2 ϫ 1.34 ᎏᎏ ϭ 408 N mϪ2 y 0. For flow at relatively low velocities. the surface breaks up and is rough and although the bulk flow may be steady. Reynolds observed different flow patterns.2 m long moves wholly within a concentric cylinder 200. Laminar and turbulent flow Experimental visualization shows that there are essentially two types of flow.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 A hydraulic ram 200 mm in diameter and 1. His experimental test facility is shown below in Figure 3. Osbourne Reynolds (1842–1912) carried out a series of simple experiments to illustrate and distinguish these two types of flow. the drag force on the ram is 308 N. it is found that the fluid pathlines tend to be smooth and parallel.

Turbulence occurs where there is shear in a flow and different layers of fluid move at different velocities. A substantial amount of mixing takes place within the flow and consequently the dye line in Reynolds’ experiment dispersed very rapidly when the flow became turbulent. Because the fluid stays in distinct layers there is no mixing across the streamlines (except for a small amount due to molecular diffusion). In the atmosphere. Turbulence is inhibited by viscosity in the fluid. and it is found that more viscous fluids need to move at higher velocities before turbulence commences. This is a fundamental principle in fluid mechanics and is known as the no-slip condition at the wall. Fluid particles touching solid surfaces do not move but stick to the surface. This swirling motion causes what are known as eddies.When a fluid moves over a surface. These are localized unsteady disturbances and cause mixing to take place between the streamlines. for instance in the rushing of the wind past your ears or when someone blows into a microphone. The localized rapid changes in velocity cause small pressure fluctuations in the fluid and these can be heard. and so the fluid particles become trapped in the crevices. Turbulent flow At high flowrates. particularly near to buildings. when there is a wind blowing. viscous. the boundary layer can be tens of metres thick and the turbulent eddies are very large. so the tendency for a flow to become turbulent depends on the viscosity of the fluid and the velocity of the flow which can be characterized by its momentum. locally it is very unsteady with many small-scale fluctuations. This can also be seen when a thick cream is poured into a cup of coffee and it is noticed that the turbulent eddies are much reduced or non-existent. In the boundary layer the velocity increases as the distance from the wall increases and results in a velocity gradient. At very low rates the flow may be entirely laminar (smooth) across the whole cross-section of the pipe. However. for instance when pouring milk into black coffee or in the smoke coming out of a chimney. Although the bulk flow may be steady. Transition Between fully laminar and fully turbulent flow there is a transition region and the flow may oscillate between laminar and turbulent. and a rolling. Most flows in engineering situations are turbulent. A simple numerical parameter is used to distinguish between laminar and 189 . the paths taken by individual particles are not straight but very disorderly. At low velocity. unsteady turbulent eddies swirling along in the air. It is evident that the turbulence causes mixing as the milk mixes well with the coffee. Viscosity in a fluid causes shear stresses within the boundary layer as viscosity acts like friction between the layers of fluid moving at different velocity. It occurs because of the adhesive forces between the fluid and solid molecules and also because the surface of a solid is not smooth. At higher flowrates turbulent conditions prevail across the pipe except for a very thin region of laminar flow adjacent to the wall.Fluid mechanics Laminar flow Laminar flow occurs at low flowrates. They can be observed in everyday life. there is sliding between the layers of fluid against the wall and the fluid further away from the wall and this region of slower moving fluid near to the wall is known as a boundary layer. The fluid particles move in smooth parallel lines and the fluid can be considered to be moving in layers or laminae. The gusts experienced on a windy day are large. The size of the turbulent eddies depends on the scale of the flow. on a molecular scale. However. swirling motion occurs between the layers of fluid. the layers of fluid do not slide smoothly over each other but the flow becomes unstable. but rough. the fluid particles slide smoothly over each other and the flow is laminar. laminar flows are the usual type in lubrication applications and in the flow through porous media. where the presence of the wall prevents the turbulent fluctuations taking place. as the velocity (and momentum) of the flow increases. which provide large disturbances to the air flow.

In fluid mechanics there are many such non-dimensional groups. V is the fluid velocity. 190 .An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 turbulent flows. where v is the characteristic velocity and L is the characteristic length. the most influential factor is the magnitude of the viscous forces. l is a characteristic linear dimension in the flow and is the fluid viscosity. inertia forces dominate and Re is large. the flow is laminar. L2v 2 inertia forces Reynolds number ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ vL viscous fo rces vL Reynolds number (Re) ϭ ᎏᎏ If the flowrate is low. The choice of the velocity v and characteristic dimension l is important and defined for different flow situations. However. it is called the Reynolds number (Re) and is the ratio of the dynamic forces in the fluid (characterized by momentum) to the viscous forces (characterized by the viscous shear stress). then the viscous shear stress is (v) proportional to ᎏᎏ. If the flowrate is high. Newton’s law of viscosity states that the shear stress is ץu ϭ ᎏᎏ ץy If some characteristic velocity and distance are chosen. viscous effects are less significant. it follows that v Viscous forces ϰ ᎏᎏ L2 ϭ vL L In turbulent flow. In laminar flow. Because Re is a ratio of forces. Inertial forces due to accelerations can be represented by F ϭ ma: m ϰ L3 dv a ϭ ᎏᎏ dt so v a ϰ ᎏᎏ and t v2 a ϰ ᎏᎏ L L t ϭ ᎏᎏ v І and hence v2 Inertia forces ϰ L3 ᎏᎏ ϭ L2v 2 L The ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces is called the Reynolds number and is abbreviated Re. As L force is equal to stress times area (area ϰ L2). it has no units and is referred to as a non-dimensional or dimensionless group.) are. for flows over the outside of bodies or surfaces (known as external flows) the velocity used is the free stream velocity (the velocity far away from the object) and the dimension is a characteristic diameter for flows over objects or a distance along a surface in the flow direction for flows over a surface. The derivation of the number is explained below. viscous forces dominate and Re is small. etc. For flows in pipes or ducts (known as internal flows) the velocity is the mean velocity in the pipe and the dimension is the pipe diameter or some equivalent diameter for non-circular ducts. momentum exchange. but inertial effects (mixing. It is defined by the equation: vl Re ϭ ᎏᎏ where is the fluid density.

200 ml of water is collected in a measuring beaker in 43 s. For flow in a smooth circular pipe. if the appropriate non-dimensional numbers are the same then the flow behaviour will be the same. calculate the Re: 1000 ϫ 0. consider the flow along a circular cross-section pipe.133 ϫ 1 ϭ 13.003 vd Re ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏᎏ ϭ 1980 0.300 Re ϭ ᎏᎏ 10Ϫ3 These two flows will behave in the same manner because they have the same Reynolds number.001 viscosity flows steadily along a pipe of 3 mm internal diameter.300 Reair ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ 1.65 ϫ 10Ϫ6 ϭ 0. the flow is likely to be transitional.001 As the Re is approaching 2000.8 ϫ 10Ϫ5 Water flowing in a 1 m diameter pipe at 0. For example. calculate the volume flowrate: .65 ϫ 10Ϫ6 m3 s t 43 Then calculate the mean flow velocity: . Water of 1000 kg m؊3 density and 0.66 ϫ 0. under normal engineering conditions the following approximate values can be assumed: Re Ͻ 2000 laminar flow 2000 Ͻ Re Ͻ 4000 transitional flow Re Ͼ 4000 turbulent flow These figures are only an approximate guide and will be significantly affected by surface roughness.133 m sϪ1 has an Re 1000 ϫ 0. transitional or turbulent? First. 191 · vϭ 4. V ϭ vA ϭ v ᎏᎏd 2 4 І Finally. and v ϭ mean velocity ϭ . The Re is vd Re ϭ ᎏᎏ where d ϭ diameter of the pipe. V A Atmospheric air flowing at 10 m sϪ1 in a 10 mm diameter pipe has an Re vd 1.Fluid mechanics Non-dimensional groups are very important in fluid mechanics because it is found that when comparing two similar flow situations.01 ϭ 13.003 4 Ά . What is the Re of the flow? Is the flow laminar.66 m sϪ1 2 ᎏᎏ0. V 200 ϫ 10Ϫ6 V ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 4.2 ϫ 10 ϫ 0. regardless of the actual dimensions and fluids involved.

Fluid leaves at section 2. total energy E Datum δWs z2 Control volume boundary Figure 3. The Bernoulli equation is a statement of the law of conservation of energy but only accounts for mechanical forms of energy. either the shaft is attached to a rotor and the fluid causes the rotor to turn (this is a turbine and gives a work output) or the shaft may drive the rotor to give an increase in fluid pressure (this is then a pump. In this section the steady flow energy equation (SFEE) will be derived. A2 δm2 Inlet p1.75 Open system undergoing a steady flow process During the process heat ␦Q may be transferred to or from the control volume in time ␦t and shaft work ␦Ws may be done on or by the fluid. where the fluid velocity. In a real viscous fluid. Control volumes A control volume is an imaginary boundary drawn to facilitate analysis of a flow. at mean height z1 above the datum. A1 δm1 z1 Control volume. This is a fuller mathematical statement of the law of conservation of energy and includes thermal energy terms as well as mechanical energy terms but only applies to steady flows. 192 . v2. degrades mechanical energy into heat. δQ Outlet p2. in that the forces on an object can be analysed without having to understand the details of the stresses within the object. for example in an object sliding along a surface. (For shaft work. The region within the control volume is analysed in terms of the energy and mass flows entering or leaving the control volume and it is not necessary to understand the detail of the flows inside the control volume.75 through which a flow moves. Fluid enters at section 1. at mean height z2 (in general. Control volumes may be likened to free body diagrams in solid mechanics. for instance. the effect of viscosity is to degrade mechanical energy into heat. mass m. pressure and temperature is known. It is drawn at places where the fluid flow conditions are known. viscous frictional losses are very important and the next section examines how to consider these types of flow. or where a good approximation can be made. Derivation of the SFEE A control volume is shown in Figure 3. To take into account the effects of viscosity in which some mechanical energy is converted into heat. For flows in long pipes. At this stage the mechanical details are not of interest as the concern is only with overall changes in energy. The equation can be derived by considering an open system or control volume that undergoes a steady flow process and a brief introduction to the concept of a control volume is needed first.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Steady flow energy equation So far. z1 z2) above the datum. with velocity v1 and pressure p1. v1. with velocity v2 and pressure p2. ideal flows have been considered in which there are no viscous frictional losses and the Bernoulli equation has been derived and applied to some situations where frictional losses are not significant. a fuller expression of the energy conservation law must be made. in the same way that mechanical friction. fan or compressor and work is input to the control volume).

Let the specific energy (energy per unit mass) of the fluid of mass ␦m1 be e1. E includes all possible forms of energy possessed by a fluid in motion: ● internal energy (thermal energy). Similarly. assumed uniform over A1. the total energy of mass ␦m1 is ␦E1 ϭ e1 ␦m1 and similarly ␦E2 ϭ e2 ␦m2 As the system is operating steadily. Thus. The work done on ␦m1 to push it across section 1 against pressure p1. ␦W is the total work done on the system and ␦E is the total change in energy within the control volume and is equal to the difference between the energy in the mass entering the control volume (␦E1) and the energy in the mass leaving the control volume (␦E2): ␦E ϭ ␦E2 Ϫ ␦E1 ϭ e2 ␦m2 Ϫ e1 ␦m1 The total work ␦W is ␦W ϭ ␦Ws ϩ net flow work Flow work is the work needed to push the mass into the control volume against the pressure within the control volume. therefore all properties are constant with time at any given location. An expression for flow work can be obtained as follows. heat transfer and shaft work rates are steady and do not change with time.56) . the energy entering the control volume due to heat transfer and work must equal the change in energy in the control volume in a given time interval: ␦Q ϩ ␦W ϭ ␦E (3. ● potential energy.55) where ␦Q is the heat transferred to the system in time ␦t. so the inlet flow work is done by the surroundings on the system to push mass ␦m1 into the control volume and outlet flow work is done on the surroundings by the system as mass ␦m2 is ejected. e1 will be uniform over the whole of inlet area A1 and will be constant with time. the mass within the control volume does not change. and mass ␦m2 leave in the same time interval. where 2 v1 e1 ϭ u1 ϩ ᎏ ϩ gz1 2 In words this means Specific energy ؍specific internal energy ؉ specific kinetic energy ؉ specific potential energy For uniform (one-dimensional) flow at the inlet and for steady conditions. ● kinetic energy.Fluid mechanics Steady flow exists. For steady flow conditions the mass m of fluid within the control volume and the total energy E of the fluid within the control volume must be constant with time. so the mass entering in time ␦t (␦m1) must be the same as the mass leaving (␦m2). is Flow work done on ␦m1 ϭ p1A1 ␦x1 ϭ p1 ␦V1 where ␦V1 is the volume of the element entering. flow work is done by the system on ␦m2: 193 (3. It is further assumed that all properties are uniform over the whole of the inlet and outlet areas A1 and A2. Let mass ␦m1 enter the control volume in time ␦t. Hence ␦m1 ϭ ␦m2 Applying conservation of energy to the control volume. Mass flowrate.

Also. gas or vapour and to any steady flow process. the specific enthalpy p h ϭ u ϩ pv ϭ u ϩ ᎏᎏ Thus. It applies to any fluid. the total head is defined as p v2 HT ϭ ᎏᎏ ϩ z ϩ ᎏᎏ g 2g So equation (3. applicable to incompressible fluids. is to use the concept of friction head loss. ␦m ␦Ws ␦m ws ϭ ᎏᎏ . 1 ϭ 2.59) can be written as ws (u2 Ϫ u1) Ϫ q ᎏᎏ ϭ HT2 Ϫ HT1 ϩ ᎏ ᎏ g g 194 ΄ ΅ (3. A1 (3.76 ΄ ΅ ΄ ΅ (3. A1 δx1 Figure 3. the net flow work done on the closed system in moving through the control volume is ␦W ϭ ␦Ws ϩ (p1 ␦V1 Ϫ p2 ␦V2) Combining equations (3. The SFEE (equation 3. ␦m1 ϭ ␦m2 ϭ ␦m. ␦m ␦V1 ␦m 2 ϭ ᎏᎏ ␦V2 From the definition of enthalpy.58) can be rearranged as 2 Ϫ v2 v2 p2 p1 1 Ϫ ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏ ᎏ ϩ g(z2 Ϫ z1) q ϩ ws ϭ (u2 Ϫ u1) ϩ ᎏᎏ 2 2 1 or 2 2 v2 v1 p2 p1 ws ϭ ᎏᎏ ϩ gz2 ϩ ᎏᎏ Ϫ ᎏᎏ ϩ gz1 ϩ ᎏᎏ ϩ (u2 Ϫ u1) Ϫ q 2 2 2 1 ΄ ΅ ΄ ΅ (3.55). 1 ϭ ᎏᎏ. (3.57) gives ␦Q ϩ [␦Ws ϩ (p1 ␦V1 Ϫ p2 ␦V2)] ϭ e2 ␦m2 Ϫ e1 ␦m1 However. mechanical energy degrades into heat energy and one way of expressing this loss.60) . Extended Bernoulli equation – friction losses When friction is present. equation (3.59) For an incompressible fluid.57) δm1 p1.58) can be rewritten as 2 Ϫ v2 v2 1 q ϩ ws ϭ (h2 Ϫ h1) ϩ g(z2 Ϫ z1) ϩ ᎏ ᎏ 2 This is the steady flow energy equation.56) and (3.58) where ␦Q q ϭ ᎏᎏ. Therefore ␦Q ␦Ws ␦V2 ␦V1 ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ ϩ (e2 Ϫ e1) ϩ p2 ᎏᎏ Ϫ p1 ᎏᎏ ␦m ␦m ␦m ␦m Substituting for the specific energy terms gives 2 2 v2 v1 p2 p1 q ϩ ws ϭ u2 ϩ ᎏᎏ ϩ gz2 ϩ ᎏᎏ Ϫ u1 ϩ ᎏᎏ ϩ gz1 ϩ ᎏᎏ 2 2 2 1 Inlet p1. This equation is commonly used in thermodynamics and may already be familiar. liquid.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Flow work done on ␦m2 ϭ (Ϫp2A2) ␦x2 ϭ Ϫp2 ␦V2 Thus. v1.

Fluid mechanics Each term in equation (3. compressors.62) and determining it from changes in total head. It is the difference in internal energy in a flow between inlet and outlet of the control volume (u2 Ϫ u1) after allowing for any heat transfer q and so represents the conversion of energy into heat. is dimensionless.02. the roughness of surfaces over which flow takes place and the detail of the shape of the flow passages including the existence or otherwise of sharp corners and other geometrical details. its value depends on the pipe roughness and also on the Reynolds number. Estimation of Hf The value of Hf represents the energy lost due to friction and depends upon the particular flow system.002–0.62)) applies.) This equation applies to any steady flow process but for incompressible fluids only. in most cases. Therefore.63) . In this case: HT1 Ϫ HT2 ϭ Hf (3. The friction head loss represents the amount of mechanical energy converted into heat (internal energy). Although the head loss due to friction is expressed in terms of changes in internal energy and heat transfer.) (2g) In the Darcy equation. In most situations it is not possible to calculate from first principles the friction loss. the fluid involved (viscosity). etc. The friction factor. except by using advanced numerical techniques such as computational fluid dynamics. such as entrance and exit losses. expansions and contractions. as this is the velocity head. The Darcy equation states that 4fl v 2 Hf ϭ ᎏᎏ ᎏᎏ d 2g v2 (NB Head losses are usually quoted as multiples of ᎏᎏ. (Note that m gHf therefore gives the power dissipated owing to friction.60) has the units of elevation or head. expressed in terms of pressure. One of the key experimentalists was the French engineer Henri Darcy (1803–1858) and the standard formula for friction loss in pipes is named after him.61) . turbines. f. the velocity of flow. bends. the changes in temperature are too small to be measured accurately. f is called the friction factor and takes values in the range 0. It is applicable to the flow of real (viscous) liquids along pipes or channels. it is impractical to determine it from measurements of temperature as. Pipes of uniform diameter For fully developed flow in round pipes of uniform roughness it was found experimentally that piezometric head falls uniformly along the pipe. for most practical purposes frictional losses are determined from experimental measurements and methods for applying these to predict losses are given below for incompressible flow in pipes and ducts and for other features in piping systems. A further simplification can be made if the control volume involves no shaft work (i. 195 (3. Hence ws ᎏᎏ ϭ HT2 Ϫ HT1 ϩ Hf g (3. no pumps. The quantity (u2 Ϫ u1) Ϫ q ᎏ ᎏ g ΄ ΅ is called the friction head loss and is denoted by Hf. l is the length of pipe. Frictional head loss is therefore more easily measured by using equation (3.e. Incompressible flow in pipes and ducts For incompressible flow in pipes where there is no shaft work (pump or fan) involved the extended Bernoulli equation (equation (3. d is the pipe diameter and u ෆ is the mean flow velocity.62) This is often referred to as the extended Bernoulli equation (EBE).).

25 0.01 0. For example.000.77 Moody chart (reproduced from ‘Mechanics of Fluids’ by B. the friction factor is independent of pipe roughness.0005 0.0004 0. d where d is the internal diameter of the pipe and k is the roughness.079(Re)Ϫ 4 can be used to approximate friction factors for smooth pipes for Re values between 4000 and 105.0006 0.02 0. There is an alternative form of the Darcy equation.018 0. The Moody chart is reproduced in Figure 3. and it is usually expressed as relative roughness ᎏᎏ . (Note that the scales in the Moody chart are logarithmic.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 16 For laminar flow it can be shown that f ϭ ᎏᎏ and is independent of pipe roughness unless the Re roughness is so great that the pipe diameter can be regarded as varying. when the Re is 105 and the pipe is made of cast iron and k 0. ● Above a certain Re for rough pipes. the size of the ‘bumps’ in the wall of the pipe. ● In the transition zone.0008 0.02 0.003 0. S. the friction factor has its lowest values and it continues to 1 decrease even at very high values of Re.006 0. rough pipes 16 Laminar flow f = — Re k (mm) 1–10 0.000.016 0. ● It should be noted that there are two conventions for friction factor. In the Darcy equation (3. For turbulent flow k (Re Ͼ 2000).012 0.045 0. f 0.0001 0. Moody charts can be drawn either to give the Fanning or Darcy–Weisbach friction factors and engineers must be aware which friction factor they are 196 Relative roughness. although it should only ever be regarded as a good approximation as the roughness of a pipe always has a certain degree of uncertainty.63) the friction factor f is known as the Fanning friction factor. Massey) The Moody chart is used to give the friction factor when the Reynolds number and pipe roughness are known. the friction factor indicated by the Moody d 250 chart is 0.04 0. roughness is important.008 Re crit 0.001 0. the friction factor decreases as Re increases in the turbulent region.0002 0. k/d 0. a constant friction factor is reached that is dependent only on the pipe roughness.0015 0.005 Riveted steel 0.002 0. Friction factors for typical commercial pipes and tubing have been compiled into a chart by Lewis Moody an American engineer (1880–1953) and the Moody chart is the most widely employed method of predicting the friction factor f.15 0.) There are four distinct areas on the Moody chart: For laminar flows (Re Ͻ 2000). e on w flo zon on z r l i a sit in ca m r iti an r a L T C 0.004 .015 0. The Blasius formula f ϭ 0.3–3 0. known as the fl v 2 Darcy–Weisbach equation.0025 Concrete Wood stave Cast iron Galvanized steel Asphalted cast iron Commercial steel or wrought iron Drawn tubing e Complete turbulance.006 0.002 103 104 0. in which the friction factor f is four times as large as the d 2g Fanning friction factor.77.0055.01 Friction factor.007 0. Hf ϭ ᎏᎏ ᎏᎏ.12 0.004 0.001 107 0.008 0.001 .025 0.005 105 106 ud Reynolds number Re =— v Smooth pipes 0. and this is the friction factor shown on the Moody chart.014 0.05 0.03 0.25 has a diameter of 250 mm ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 0.2–1 0. ● For perfectly smooth pipes.00001 108 Figure 3.

Calculate the hydraulic diameter and mean velocity of the water in the rectangular duct and then calculate the head loss from the Darcy equation.02 ϫ 0. Therefore k 0. 197 . When the duct or pipe is not completely full.81 ϫ 0.19 ϭ 1. Calculate the difference in pressure between two points a distance of 20 m apart.81 ϫ 1.17 ϫ 104 Pa The pressure loss is 0. whereas the Darcy–Weisbach friction factor is often used in the USA.04) D ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 0. 4flv 2 Hf ϭ ᎏᎏ 2gD 4A 4(0.0062.0267 Extended Bernoulli equation: HT1 Ϫ HT2 ϭ Hf v p v ᎏ ϩ z ϩ ᎏᎏ Ϫ ᎏᎏ ϩ z ϩ ᎏᎏ ϭ H ᎏ 2g g 2g g p1 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 f z1 ϩ z2 І v1 ϩ v2 p1 ϩ p2 ϭ gHf p1 Ϫ p2 ϭ 1000 ϫ 9.001 V v ϭ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 1.19 m 2 ϫ 9.25 m sϪ1 (0. therefore f must be estimated because Re is unknown.117 bar.25 ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 0. the friction factor is 0. 0.005 ϫ 20 ϫ 1. The velocity is unknown.01. The crosssection of the pipe is 20 ϫ 40 mm and the friction factor is 0. Non-circular ducts or pipes For non-circular ducts and pipes the Darcy equation can still be applied but the diameter used is an equivalent diameter known as the hydraulic diameter dh given by the equation 4 (pipe cross-sectioned area) dh ϭ ᎏᎏᎏ perimeter Note that for a circular pipe the hydraulic diameter is the same as the pipe diameter.04) . From the Moody chart the roughness of the cast iron pipe is 0.02 ϩ 0.25 mm. Calculate the steady rate at which water (of kinematic viscosity 10؊6 m2 s؊1) will flow through a cast iron pipe 100 mm in diameter and 120 m long under a head difference of 5 m.0025 d 100 Using the Moody chart (Figure 3.78).02 ϩ 0. The Fanning friction factor is often used in the UK. then 4 (flow ar ea) dh ϭ ᎏᎏ wetted peri meter Water flows along a horizontal rectangular duct at 1 litre؊1.0267 m P 2(0.04) A 4 ϫ 0.Fluid mechanics using in calculations. and assuming a high Re.252 Hf ϭ ᎏᎏᎏ ϭ 1.

004 . rough pipes 16 Laminar flow f =— Re k (mm) 1–10 0. The flowrate can thus be determined from the velocity: v ϭ 1.008 0.1 litres sϪ1 4 Therefore.002 0.001 107 0.005 105 106 ud Reynolds number Re = — v Smooth pipes 0. Entrance.01 0.25 0. use the Moody chart again to make a better estimate of the friction factor.8 ϫ 105 v 1 ϫ 10Ϫ6 Then.1 І Re ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 1.001 0.8 ϫ ᎏᎏ 0.78 104 0.0063.0015 0.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 n e zo low n r f al zo tion a si in c m iti an La Cr Tr 0. V ϭ vA ϭ 1.12 0.81 m s Ίᎏ 4 ϫ 0.018 0.004 0.0025 Riveted steel Concrete Wood stave Cast iron Galvanized steel Asphalted cast iron Commercial steel or wrought iron Drawn tubing e Complete turbulence.15 0.81 ϫ 0.3–3 0.05 0.02 0. k/d 0.03 0.0008 0. bends and in components such as 198 Relative roughness.0002 0.04 0.01 0. as well as the losses in the long straight pipes there are head losses due to friction in other parts of the system such as entrances.000 and a relative roughness of 0.045 0. This is sufficiently close to the previous value.025 0. exits. the flowrate is 14. In the Darcy equation this gives a new velocity of 1.0025.005 0.0006 0.2–1 0.000.007 0. At Re ϭ 180.000.016 0.02 0. so no further iterations are needed.81 ϫ 0.015 0.00 120 62 ϫ Ϫ1 vd 1. the friction factor is 0.00001 108 Calculate the velocity in the pipe from the Darcy equation: 4flv2 Hf ϭ ᎏᎏ 2gD І vϭ vϭ H 2gD ᎏ Ίᎏ 4fl f 5 ϫ 2 ϫ 9.014 0.002 103 Figure 3.008 Re crit 0.006 0.8 m sϪ1 .003 0.012 0.1 litres sϪ1.006 0.0001 0. using the Re.8 m sϪ1.0005 0.1 ᎏ ϭ 1.0004 0.12 ϭ 14. exit and other losses In a pipe flow system.

Sudden enlargement At a sudden enlargement there is flow separation and loss in the eddies: If d1 ϭ d2. v2 Hf ϭ ᎏᎏ 2g v is the velocity in the pipe.80 Eddies d1 d2 2 Figure 3.When there is an inlet with a sharp corner there is flow separation. Pipe exit loss Where a pipe exits into a larger reservoir. these minor losses may dominate. the velocity reduces to zero and all the dynamic head is lost as friction. These other losses are often referred to as minor losses. but in many pipe systems the flow is fully turbulent and the loss factors at high Re are generally found to be independent of Re.79 Vena contracta Reservoir Figure 3. It is conventional to express these other losses in terms of velocity head: v2 Hf ϭ K ᎏ ᎏ 2g where K is the loss factor and has a value which depends on the geometry and component involved. The value of K is approximately 0. K Ϸ 0. The loss factors do vary with Re and data may be given.Fluid mechanics valves. so the loss factor K ϭ 1. although when a system only involves short lengths of pipe. Manufacturers usually produce data sheets for components such as valves and complicated fittings.When there is a change in diameter in a component. K ➝ 1. and can result in frictional loss. A number of standard and illustrative loss factors are tabulated below and further information can be found in the references at the end of this chapter. In many cases it is based on the flow velocity downstream of the component. For a rounded smooth pipe entry the K value is much lower.5 for sharp corners (K Ϸ 0.5 ᎏᎏ 2g v is the mean velocity in the pipe.0.1 for smooth entry) v2 Hf Ϸ 0.0 For other values of diameter ratio a fairly accurate expression is A2 Ϫ1 K ϭ ᎏᎏ A1 2 v2 Hf ϭ K ᎏᎏ 2g Reservoir Eddies Sharp corners Figure 3. the flow reduces in area at the vena contracta and there are frictional losses due to eddies. K ϭ 0 If d1 ϽϽ d2.81 199 . it is important to understand on which velocity the K factor is based. Loss factors for standard components are available in data books. The magnitude of the losses depends on the details of the flow pattern and features such as sharp corners and changes in cross-section. Pipe entry loss When a flow enters a pipe from a larger reservoir the head loss depends critically on the shape of the inlet.5.

552 Hf ϭ 5 ᎏᎏ ϭ 1. The head loss is based on the downstream velocity: d2 ᎏᎏ d1 K 0 0. Application of the steady flow energy equation to include pumps By including the shaft work term in the steady flow energy equation.16–0.) v2 Hf ϭ K ᎏ ᎏ 2g .66 ϭ 16 300 Pa The pressure loss is 0.45 0.82 d2 For fairly high Re the following are representative. the performance of a pump can be determined.0 0 0.66 m 2 ϫ 9.005 vϭ ϭᎏ ϭ 2.14 90° elbow (sharp bend) K ϭ 0.2 0. For the pump itself.28 0.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Sudden contraction For a sudden contraction with a sharp corner 2 v2 Hf ϭ K ᎏᎏ 2g Eddies d1 Vena contracta Figure 3.81 ϫ 1. The SFEE is 2 2 v2 v1 p2 p1 Ϫ u1 ϩ ᎏᎏ ϩ gz2 ϩ ᎏᎏ ϩ gz1 ϩ ᎏᎏ q ϩ ws ϭ u2 ϩ ᎏᎏ 2 2 2 1 ΄ ΅ ΄ ΅ 200 .05 (based on outlet velocity) and can often be ignored.5 0. What is the pressure loss due to friction in the valve when it is half open? (Assume K for a half-open gate valve to be 5.2 Half open: K ϳ 5 Figure 3.9 90° smooth bend K ϭ 0. apply the SFEE between the inlet and outlet flanges.005 m3 s؊1 along the pipe.8 1.16 bar.83 A gate valve is located in a pipe of diameter 50 mm. Gate valve Wide open: K ϳ 0.81 ⌬p ϭ gHf ϭ 1000 ϫ 9.6 0. V 0.55 m sϪ1 A 2 ᎏᎏ(0.35 depending on bend radius Nozzle K is very small Ϸ 0.4 0.05 ) 4 2. Water flows at 0.38 0.

● inlet and outlet pipes are of the same diameter (v1 ϭ v2). transfers of heat and work into the system are positive and transfers of heat and work out of the system are negative). so q ϭ 0 (there is frictional dissipation.0 Valve.84 z2 =200m 201 . DATA: Total length of pipe ϭ 10 km Pipe length from A to pump inlet ϭ 20 m Internal diameter of pipe ϭ 0. ● the flow is incompressible ( is constant).0 f ϭ 0.i could be expressed as ᎏ ᎏ.i (ideal) HP ϭ ᎏ ᎏ ws (actual) (p2 – p1) In this expression.5 Pipe exit (into B) K ϭ 1. K ϭ 3. Hence the work done on the system is positive (according to the sign convention. (c) the pressure at pump inlet. The required work input is increased by the friction head loss Hf. ● there is no external heat transfer. the ideal work input ws. Using the data listed. but frictional effects can be allowed for more conveniently by using the hydraulic efficiency. It is found that the efficiencies of pumps HP lie between 50 per cent (small pump) and 90 per cent (large pump).Fluid mechanics This can then be simplified by assuming the following: ● inlet and outlet pipes are at approximately the same elevation (z1 ϭ z2). determine: (a) the power required to drive the pump. Water is pumped from reservoir A to reservoir B. and so the fluid will get hotter. but there is no external heat input).005 2 3 Valve Pump z3 =30 m B A z1 = 50 m Figure 3. The head loss can be estimated for a particular machine operating under given conditions.2 m Mean velocity in pipe ϭ 1 m s؊1 Hf for pump ϭ 25 m Loss coefficients: Pipe entrance (from A) K ϭ 0. defined as ws. (b) the total power dissipated in friction. The SFEE then reduces to p2 Ϫ p 1 ws ϭ ᎏ ᎏ ϩ gHf For a hydraulic pump the pressure is raised by the pump and p2 is greater than p1.

Ws ϭ m ws .2 v2 12 Hentry ϭ k ᎏᎏ ϭ 0.81 ϫ 0. Calculate m : ws ϭ g[(z2 Ϫ z1) ϩ Hf. friction ϭ ᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏᎏ ϭ 0.81 ϫ 0.2 Hf.2] ϭ 69.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 (a) Find the total head loss due to friction in the pump and pipework. total] and .81 ϫ 76.005 ϫ 10 ϫ 103 ϫ 12 ϭ ᎏᎏᎏ ϭ 50.97 ϩ 25 ϩ 0. (c) Apply the extended Bernouilli equation from 1 to 3. v2 Ϸ 0 because the velocity at the surface is negligible.025 m 2g 2g Hf.42 kg sϪ1 4 . pipe ϭ ᎏᎏ (Darcy equation) 2gd 4 ϫ 0.42 ϫ 9.5 ᎏᎏ ϭ 0. Therefore.23 ϭ 76. HT1 Ϫ HT3 ϭ Hfl ➝ 3 Friction loss from 1 to 3: 4flv2 4 ϫ 0. ΄ ΅ p1 ϭ p2 ϭ patmospheric.005 ϫ 20 ϫ 12 Hf. Ws ϭ 31.22 ϫ 1 ϭ 31. which simplifies to . total g 2g v1 Ϸ 0.95 bar or p3 ϭ 1. So the frictional power dissipation is 23. entrance.5 ϩ 1 ϩ 3) ᎏᎏ ϭ 0.95 bar If p1 ϭ 1 bar.102 m 2gd 2 ϫ 9.97 m 2 ϫ 9.127 m g 2g 0 Ϫ 12 p1 Ϫ p3 ϭ g 0.95 bar gauge.2 ϭ 23. Friction in the pipe: 4flv 2 Hf.49 kW. (b) Power dissipated in friction ϭ m gHf (because gHf is the specific energy) ϭ 31.42 ϫ 9.2 m Apply SFEE for between 1 and 2 ws ᎏᎏ ϭ HT2 Ϫ HT1 ϩ Hf g gives 2 Ϫ v2 p2 Ϫ p 1 v2 1 ws ϭ g ᎏ ᎏ ϩ ᎏ ᎏ ϩ (z2 Ϫ z1) ϩ Hf. ΄ ΅ 202 . m ϭ Apipevpipe ϭ 1000 ϫ ᎏᎏ 0.5 kW. Pipe losses.95 bar gauge. exit and valve: v2 Hf ϭ (kentry ϩ kexit ϩ kvalve) ᎏᎏ 2g І 12 ϭ (0.pump is given as 25 m.127 m HT1 Ϫ HT3 ϭ Hfl ➝ 3 2 Ϫ v2 p1 Ϫ p 3 v1 1 ᎏ ϩ ᎏ ᎏ ϩ (z1 Ϫ z3) ϭ Hf ϭ 0.72 kW . total ϭ 0.total ϭ 50. then p3 ϭ 2. the pressure at the pump inlet is 1.127 Ϫ (50 Ϫ 30) Ϫ ᎏᎏ 2g ϭ Ϫ1.81[(200 Ϫ 50) ϩ 76.23 m 2g Hf.

Learning summary At the end of this Section you should be able to: ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ calculate the mass flowrate of a steady flow in a pipe or duct. ● The Bernoulli equation can be expressed in three ways: in terms of specific energy. ● The Moody Chart can be used to estimate the frictional losses in pipe and duct flows. (where D is pipe diameter). Larger pipes use more material resources and are more expensive to manufacture and so a life cycle environmental and economic analysis is required to determine the optimal pipe size to use. be able to apply the Bernoulli equation to calculate flows in pipes including the performance of venturi. calculate the Reynolds number of flows in pipes and ducts and determine whether the flow is likely to be laminar or turbulent. ● Viscosity in a fluid creates frictional drag in a fluid flow. ● The Bernoulli equation expresses the relationship between pressure. ● There are two fundamental types of fluid flow: laminar and turbulent. ● A one-dimensional flow is one where flow properties only vary in one direction. To make a system more sustainable it is therefore important to minimize the frictional losses and so reduce the pumping power input. and is incompressible. elevation and velocity in an ideal fluid for steady flow along a streamline.4 ● A steady flow is one that does not change with time. calculate the performance of a pump needed in a simple pipe flow system. understand the three forms of the Bernoulli equation. For a constant mass flow in a pipe. 203 . No real fluid is ideal but the simplification is valid in some situations. ● An ideal (inviscid) fluid has no viscosity. ● For a steady flow. Substituting in the Darcy equation D2 1 (3. the pump puts energy into the flow to compensate for the losses due to pipe friction and other losses.63) shows that the head loss due to friction is proportional to ᎏᎏ . ● The Bernoulli equation can be used for real fluids when losses due to friction are negligible and the fluid is incompressible. ● The Euler equation is a differential equation for the flow of an ideal fluid. using larger diameter pipes is an effective way of reducing pumping power. ● The steady flow energy equation can be applied to the flow of real fluids and leads to the extended Bernoulli equation that can be used to describe the losses resulting from viscous friction in a flow. ● The SFEE can be used to determine the performance of a pump needed in a pipe system. nozzle and orifice plate flow meters and a pitot-static probe. calculate the pressures and flows in simple single pipe systems accounting for losses due to friction in pipes and other components of pipe systems. pressure or head. Key points from Section 3.Fluid mechanics In a pumped pipe flow system. calculate the drag forces created by viscosity in thin films between moving surfaces. assuming that the friction D5 factor is constant. it can be shown from the continuity equation that the mean 1 velocity is proportional to ᎏᎏ . They can be characterized by the Reynolds number of the flow. ● A uniform flow is one where the properties do not vary across a plane or within a volume. estimate the pressure losses in flows in pipes due to friction. the law of conservation of mass (continuity) means that the flow entering a volume must equal the flow leaving a volume. Therefore.

Forces acting on control volume through engine mounting strut Momentum of jet exhaust Control volume Weight of The control volume is drawn sufficiently far in front of the engine that engine the air velocity entering can be assumed to be at atmospheric pressure and the air velocity is negligible.85 and the pressure is atmospheric. In its most general form. So a suitable control volume could be as shown in Figure 3. The forces produced in a fluid when it undergoes an acceleration will be described by applying Newton’s second law of motion – force equals rate of change of momentum. There are also the aerodynamic/hydrodynamic forces (lift and drag) on an aircraft wing or hydrofoil. to understand the details of the flows in each part of the jet engine.All these forces are dynamic forces and they are associated with a change in the momentum of the fluid. At exit of the engine the control volume is drawn close to the jet exhaust where the velocity is known Figure 3. and so on. external pressure of gravity) and the momentum in the flows crossing the control volume boundary that are considered. Since force and momentum are both vector quantities. The most convenient way of analysing momentum problems is to use control volume analysis and so this principle will be further explained first. Example The thrust produced by a jet engine on an aircraft at rest can be analysed simply in terms of the changes in momentum of the air passing through the engine. then a more detailed analysis of that component would be required. However. For a complex fluids system a control volume can be drawn around the part that is being analysed and Newton’s laws of motion applied to that control volume. The details of all the complex flows within the engine inside the control volume do not need to be known – the thrust produced can be determined simply in terms of the forces and flows crossing the control volume.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 3. Control volumes A control volume is an imaginary boundary drawn to facilitate analysis of a flow.Analysis using linear momentum is useful when considering the force produced on an object by fluid flowing over it. the force on a pipe bend caused by the fluid flowing within it. it is essential to specify both magnitudes and directions. For momentum analysis the region within the control volume is analysed in terms of the mass flows entering or leaving the control volume and other forces such as gravity and pressure acting on it. the thrust from a jet engine.85. there is a force exerted on a solid surface by a jet of fluid impinging on it. 204 . or where a good approximation can be made. Linear momentum equation The magnitude of the forces due to momentum is determined essentially by Newton’s second law of motion.5 Fluids in motion – linear momentum In the fourth and final part of this chapter the motion of fluids is considered from a different perspective. For example. It is only the external forces that act on the control volume (due to reactions from solid structural components. The control volume cuts the strut attaching the engine to the aircraft and there will be a force transmitted across the control volume there to oppose the forces on the engine created by the thrust and gravity. It is not necessary to understand the detail of the flows inside the control volume. Newton’s second law states that: The net force acting on a body in any direction is equal to the rate of increase of momentum of the body in that direction. It is drawn at places where the fluid flow conditions are known. the combustion chamber or turbine for example.

the streamlines are straight and parallel so that there are no accelerations perpendicular to them. tot Figure 3.87. is . the control volume should be selected so that at the sections where fluid enters or leaves it. in However. Fz. in the y and z-directions . (A stream tube is a region of fluid in which all the fluid flows parallel to the tube and no fluid crosses the sides of the tube. Fx. in . in many cases the inlet and outlet flows will be approximately uniform or a mean flow velocity can be applied and only these cases will be considered in this chapter. Total force The total force (F) acting on the control volume is made up of forces due to pressure at the control volume boundaries and externally applied forces (such as structural reaction forces from pipes and gravitational forces).87). Applications of the linear momentum equation Force on fluid as it flows over a vane A vane is a device for changing the direction of a jet of fluid (see Figure 3. in) In real flow situations. . Fx ϭ total force on CV in x-direction ϭ m(vx. .) The change of momentum in the x-direction is given by . out Ϫ vx. . Newton’s second law can be applied to the flow in a stream tube.86 Flow along a stream tube Thus. In general. It therefore makes the calculations easier if gauge pressure is used throughout in the flows as this effectively compensates for atmospheric pressure. tot ϭ ⌺mvz. Draw a control volume some distance away from the vane in a position where you can be sure that you know the velocity and direction of the jet. therefore. out Ϫ vx. in) D Fx. y Consider the control volume ABCD around a stream tube. tot ϭ ⌺mvy. similarly. the total force on the fluid in the control volume in the x-direction is given by: . as shown in Figure 3. . When attempting linear momentum problems. tot ϭ ⌺mvx. Fx. Assume that the flow is smooth and steady and the stream tube remains stationary with respect to the fixed coordinate axes and has a cross-section sufficiently small that the velocity can be considered uniform over both planes AB and CD. the velocity will change across inlet and outlet planes and so all the forces from all the elemental stream tubes that make up the complete flow need to be summed. equal to the net force on the control volume. in) Similarly for the y-direction. tot ϭ total force on streamtube in x-direction ϭ m(vx. Fy. Change in x-momentum ϭ m(vx. the rate of change in momentum in the x-direction.Where a mean flow velocity can be applied. tot A C B x Fy.Vanes are often used in pumps and turbines to change the direction of a flow of fluid. out Ϫ ⌺m vy. 205 . The control volume can also be selected so that atmospheric pressure acts on all surfaces where there is no flow.86. out Ϫ ⌺m vx. out Ϫ vx. In the case in Figure 3.Fluid mechanics To derive a relation by which force may be related to the fluid within a given space. in and. Consequently the net force due to atmospheric pressure is zero (in any direction). out Ϫ ⌺m vz. the fluid is a discrete jet of water open to the atmosphere and so the pressure all around is atmospheric.

the fluid exerts equal and opposite forces to Fx and Fy on the vane. Equal and opposite forces are exerted by the vane on the surroundings. . In that case Fx ϭ gravity force in the x-direction ϩ structural force from vane support on control volume in the x-direction. in) Fy ϭ vinAin(voutsin Ϫ 0) Fx and Fy are the forces that must be exerted on the control volume to maintain it in equilibrium. Note that larger forces are produced when the water is deflected by a greater angle – giving a larger change in momentum. Fx is thus the sum of all forces acting on the control volume. in) .87 Flow around a horizontal vane 206 . it would be one of the forces acting on the control volume along with the structural force from the vane support. Fx and Fy are the structural forces that must be exerted by the vane support on the vane to hold it in position. Fxϭ m(voutcos Ϫ vin) By continuity . out Ϫ vy. Note that in this case. The forces that occur when a jet of water changes direction by passing over an object can easily be investigated in the kitchen by holding a spoon under a running tap. m ϭ vinAin ϭ voutAout Fx ϭ vinAin(voutcos Ϫ vin) and similarly in the y-direction: . gravity acts in the z-direction. so it has no component in the x and y directions and there is no gravity force acting on the control volume.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Apply the linear momentum equation to the control volume in the x-direction: The force on the control volume in the x-direction equals the rate of change of momentum in the x-direction. As the vane support is the structure that passes out of the control volume. out Ϫ vx. Similarly. Fy ϭ total force on the control volume in y-direction ϭ m(vy. Fxϭ total force on the control volume in x-direction ϭ m(vx. Figure 3. If gravity were acting in the xy plane.

Similarly. as shown in Figure 3. The conditions at sections 1 and 2 are uniform with the streamlines straight and parallel. this is the force that must be exerted on the pipe bend through the pipe structure to hold it in position.69(30sin60) ϭ 1837 N and 1837 N acts on the CV in the y-direction. p1A1 Ϫ p2A2 cos ϩ Fx ϭ m(v2 cos Ϫ v1) so Fx can be calculated.89 Force caused by the flow of a fluid around a bend in a pipe When the flow is confined within a pipe. Find the resultant force on the CV: F2R ϭ 18372 ϩ 14842 І FR ϭ 2362 N 1837 tan ϭ ᎏᎏ ⇒ ϭ 51.90 Flow around a pipe bend and A1. the static pressure will vary with the location along the pipe. and thus Fy can be obtained: . so there are no changes of elevation and the weights of the pipe and fluid act in a direction perpendicular to the plane and so do not affect the forces in the x and y directions. The force exerted by the fluid on the bend is equal and opposite to this. so the fluid adjacent to this cross-section exerts a force p1A1 on the fluid in the control volume. Similarly. Let forces Fx and Fy be the x and y components of the structural force acting on the control volume to maintain equilibrium. 2 v2 p2A2 1 θ v1 p1A1 Fx Fy y x The mean gauge pressure and cross-sectional area at section 1 are p1 Figure 3. A control volume is selected that includes the pipe between sections 1 and 2. Fy ϭ m(v2sin60 Ϫ 0) ϭ 70. The force on the vane is equal and opposite to this force on the CV. 207 . the forces due to static pressure must be taken into account. the total force in the y-direction acting on the control volume is equal to the increase in y-momentum.90.1° above horizontal on the CV. Ϫp2A2 sin ϩ Fy ϭ V(v2 sin Ϫ 0) From the components Fx and Fy. As the pressure differs from atmospheric. the magnitude and direction of the total force that needs to be exerted on the control volume to maintain equilibrium can readily be calculated. The total force in the x-direction on the control volume equals the increase in x-momentum of the fluid as it passes through the control volume: . As the pipe structure crosses the control volume boundary. For simplicity the axis of the bend is in the horizontal plane. Consider a pipe bend in which not only the direction of flow but also the cross-sectional area is changed. there is a force p2A2 acting at section 2 on the fluid in the control volume.1° 1484 So 2362 N acts at 51.Fluid mechanics Apply the linear momentum equation for the fluid in the y-direction: . 1837 N FR 1484 N Figure 3.

425 m3 s؊1. Neglecting friction.5 m sϪ1. v2. Fy Ϫ p2A2 sin45 ϭ V(v2 sin45 Ϫ 0) Fy ϭ 1000 ϫ 0.96 kN 2ෆ FR ϭ ͙32. The pressure at the inlet is 140 kPa and the rate of flow of water through the bend is 0.0 m sϪ1 4 Find the pressure at 2 using the Bernouilli equation: 2 2 v1 v 2 p1 ϩ gz1 ϩ ᎏᎏ ϭ p2 ϩ gz2 ϩ ᎏᎏ 2 2 z1 ϭ z2 pipe bend in horizontal plane І 2 Ϫ v 2) ϭ 140 ϫ 103 ϩ 500(1.96 tan ϭ ᎏᎏ ⇒ ϭ 13.425m3/s p1A1 v1 p2A2 v2 45° φ2 300mm Fx y x Figure 3.27 7.32)sin45 4 Fy ϭ 7. Assume water density is constant (1000 kgmϪ3).27 Figure 3. Fx ϩ p1A1 Ϫ p2A2 cos45 ϭ V(v2 cos45 Ϫ v1) Fx ϭ 1000 ϫ 0. A 45° reducing pipe bend (in a horizontal plane) tapers from 600 mm diameter at the inlet to 300 mm diameter at the outlet.62 v1 ⇒ v1 ϭ 1. the other may be deduced from the Bernoulli or extended Bernoulli equation if frictional effects are significant.425 ϭ ᎏᎏ0.62 Ϫ 123. calculate the net resultant horizontal force exerted by the water on the bend.27 ෆ ϩ 7.9° 32.27 kN Apply the linear momentum equation in the y-direction for the fluid: . v2 ϭ 6.24 kN 7.425(6 sin45 Ϫ 0) ϩ 123. Fy φ1 600mm p1 =140kPa V=0. . Volume flowrate V ϭ A1v1 ϭ A2v2 І 0.96 Force on CV 32.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Where only one of the pressures p1 and p2 is included in the data of the problem.32 cos45 4 4 and Fx ϭ Ϫ32.5) Ϫ (140 ϫ 103 ᎏᎏ0.52 Ϫ 62) p2 ϭ p1 ϩ ᎏ2ᎏ(v1 2 1 p2 ϭ 123.91 Find v1. If the bend is located in a vertical plane.1 ϫ 103(ᎏᎏ0. the weight of the water inside the control volume and also the weight of the pipe structure inside the control volume must also be included.425(6 cos45 Ϫ 1.92 208 .1 ϫ 103 ᎏᎏ0.1 kPa Apply the linear momentum equation in the x-direction for the fluid: .962 ෆ ϭ 33.

which has D1 ϭ 150 mm and D2 ϭ 30 mm.8 4 ϭ 14. the mass flowrate from the nozzle may be known.82) p1 ϭ pa ϩ 588.152 0.The vertical distance between 1 and 2 is 0.What is the vertical force provided by the flange bolts to hold the nozzle fixed.269 Pagauge 209 1 . then p2 will be atmospheric pressure (zero gauge pressure).The mass of the nozzle and flange is 2.95 1 Fz z x 2 ϭ p ϩ gz ϩ ᎏᎏv 2 p1 ϩ gz1 ϩ ᎏ2ᎏv1 2 2 2 2 1 1 p2 ϭ pa ϭ 0 Pagauge 2 Ϫ v 2) p1 ϭ pa ϩ g(z2 Ϫ z1) ϩ ᎏ2ᎏ(v 2 1 1 p1 ϭ pa ϩ g(0. The mass of fluid between 1 and 2 is 2.93: Assume uniform conditions with streamlines straight and parallel at the sections 1 and 2 so that the force exerted in the x-direction on the control volume between planes 1 and 2 is given by . If the upstream pressure is given.Fluid mechanics Force at a nozzle and the reaction of a jet The forces exerted on nozzles can also be determined from momentum.9 kg. The continuity equation can be used to calculate v1.6 ϩ 199 680 ϭ 200.14 kg sϪ1 p1A1 mg Figure 3. in which case the velocities v1 and v2 can be calculated from continuity and then the upstream pressure p1 can be calculated from the Bernoulli equation. and so the equation becomes . Alternatively.8 m sϪ1 . then.94 p2A2 Control volume І v1 ϭ 0.93 2 1 Draw a control volume around the nozzle as shown: .5 kg. p1A1 Ϫ p2A2 ϩ Fx ϭ V(v2 Ϫ v1) If the fluid is directed into the atmosphere. Consider a horizontal nozzle as shown in Figure 3. p1A1 ϩ Fx ϭ V(v2 Ϫ v1) Fx is the force that needs to be exerted on the nozzle to hold it in equilibrium and represents the structural force at the interface between the nozzle and the supply pipe. assuming that there are no frictional losses between 1 and 2? 1 p1A1 v1 2 v2 p2A2 y x Fx Figure 3. m ϭ 1A1v1 ϭ 1000 ϫ ᎏᎏ 0. m1 ϭ m2 d1 2 A1v1 ϭ A2v2 ⇒ v2 ᎏᎏ v 2 d2 1 150 2 ϭ ᎏᎏ v1 ϭ 25 v1 30 v2 ϭ 20 m sϪ1 Figure 3.06 m and the velocity at 2 is 20 m s؊1. . assuming that the nozzle is relatively short. frictional losses will be small and the Bernoulli equation can be used to calculate the jet velocity.06) ϩ ᎏ2ᎏ(202 Ϫ 0. Water flows through the vertical nozzle shown below.

Fz ϩ p1A1 Ϫ p2A2 Ϫ mg ϭ m(vz2 Ϫ vz1) Fz ϩ (200 269)ᎏᎏ0. would be a shear force exerted by the surface on the fluid. If the jet has uniform density and velocity over its cross-section. being parallel to the surface. The force caused by a jet striking a surface When a steady jet of fluid strikes a solid surface. y-direction 2 dA per unit In the y-direction the jet carries a component of momentum equal to sin 1v1 1 time.0 ϩ 52. a force in the y-direction would have to be applied to the fluid. the integral reduces to . Therefore 2 dA Fx. Consider the forces in the x.97 ϭ Ϫ3214 N Fz is the force on the CV. will have no component of velocity and therefore no momentum in the x-direction. the fluid is deflected. Thus. after passing over the surface.96 Jet striking a large plane surface Force on control volume in x-direction ϭ rate of increase in x-momentum Since the pressure is atmospheric. Consider a jet striking a large.8) 4 ΄ ΅ Fz ϭ 271. both where the fluid enters the control volume and where it leaves. The water thus exerts an upward force on the nozzle.152 Ϫ 5. A suitable control volume is that indicated by dotted lines. For an ideal fluid moving over a smooth surface. V1 ϭ v 1A1.14(20 Ϫ 0. and then leaves the surface tangentially. This is provided by the tension in the bolts. on surface ϭ cos 1v1 1 ͵ in the x-direction. 2 cos dA ϭ V v cos Fx ϭ 1v1 1 1 1 1 ͵ where . a downwards force of 3215 N is needed to hold the nozzle in position. plane surface as shown in Figure 3. moves over the solid surface until the boundaries are reached. y Fx x θ x-direction If the x-direction is taken perpendicular to the plane.4g ϭ 14. no shear force is ͵ 210 .An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Apply the linear momentum equation in the y-direction: . the fluid. the force on the control volume can be provided only by the solid surface (effects of gravity being neglected). For this component to undergo a change. on control volume ϭ Ϫcos 1v1 1 ͵ Fx is the force that must be exerted on the control volume to keep it in equilibrium and it is equal and opposite to the force exerted by the fluid on the surface which is thus: 2 dA Fx. The rate at which x-momentum enters the control volume is ͵ v v 1 1 x1 dA1 ϭ cos ͵ Fy 2 1v1 dA1 Figure 3.and y-directions. Such a force.96.49 Ϫ 3539.

3600 Applying the momentum equation to a control volume around the vane: . Calculate the force needed to hold the vane in position. the force in the y-direction may be calculated if the final velocity of the fluid is known as it leaves the plate in all directions.04 m sϪ1. the force F needed to hold the vane in position is 342 N.28(Ϫ11. similar techniques of calculation may be used. ● The linear momentum equation states that for a steady flow: The force in a particular direction on a control volume is equal to the rate of change in momentum of the fluid flowing in that direction. Assume that the density of the water is 1000 kg mϪ3. This is equal and opposite to the force of the water on the vane. A horizontal jet of water is directed at a curved vane. Angle ϭ 20°.9 N Therefore. . including external pressure. Except when ϭ 0. 211 .5 ● The forces exerted by fluids when they change velocity and direction can be evaluated using the momentum equation derived from Newton’s second law of motion. This. ϪF ϭ m(Vout cos Ϫ Vin) ϪF ϭ 15. ● The force on the control volume is the sum of all the forces acting.04 ϫ cos20 Ϫ 12) F ϭ 341. When the fluid flows over a curved surface.97 Force(F) to support vane Vane The velocity of the water leaving the vane is 0.Fluid mechanics 2 dA would be unchanged. however. gravity and structural forces from solid object crossing the control volume boundaries. The water jet is deflected such that half the water passes over each side of the vane. on the surface. Key points from Section 3. be sin 1v1 1 ͵ ͵ For a real fluid the rate at which y-momentum leaves the control volume differs from the rate at which it enters as there will be frictional drag. The water leaves the vane in the direction shown in the diagram. the spreading of the jet over the surface is not symmetrical and the net momentum of the fluid leaving the surface will 2 dA . and equal to the rate at possible and so the component sin 1v1 1 which y-momentum leaves the control volume. θ Water jet θ x Figure 3. requires further experimental data. and the volume flowrate is 55 m3 h؊1. with 92 per cent of the velocity at which it impacts on the vane. due to viscosity. In general. as shown below.28 kg sϪ1.92 ϫ 12 ϭ 11. The mean velocity of the water jet is 12 m s؊1. 1000 The mass flowrate of water is V ϭ 55 ϫ ᎏᎏ ϭ 15. ● Control volumes are the easiest way to analyse momentum flow problems.

2008. and readers are advised to refer to the other fluid mechanics textbooks for a more detailed coverage. F. S. The chapter has been introductory in nature. Fox. ● the variation in pressure with velocity and elevation in an ideal (inviscid) fluid (Bernoulli equation) and the application of this to some flow-measuring devices and other simple situations.3145 ϫ 103 J/kmol K) Reynolds number K temperature (°C. 6th Edition. Fluid Mechanics by J. Gasiorek. Pritchard. Introduction to Fluid Mechanics by R. A. ● the buoyancy force on a submerged object.White. J.Ward-Smith. ● the forces produced by a static fluid on a submerged surface. Massey and J. 2005. Mechanics of Fluids by I. J. 5th Edition.81 m/s2) centre of gravity enthalpy per unit mass depth below a liquid surface head piezometric head (p/g ϩ z) Bulk modulus of elasticity Loss factor length mass molar mass moment p q Q R R Re T u(U) V v v w W W z ␥ pressure heat transfer per unit mass heat transfer specific gas constant Universal gas constant (8. 3. 8th Edition. A.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 3. temperature in degrees Celsius ϭ T(K)–273) J/kg specific internal energy (internal energy. ● the calculation of the drag forces due to viscosity in some simple flow situations. Douglas. McGraw-Hill 5. ● the determination of the forces resulting from a change in the momentum of a fluid flow. H. J.d e E F f g G h h H Hpz K K L m m M m2 J/kgK J/kgK m J/kg J N m/s2 J/kg m m m N/m2 m kg kg/kmol Nm area discharge coefficient coefficient of contraction specific heat capacity at constant pressure specific heat capacity at constant volume diameter specific energy energy force friction factor acceleration due to gravity(ϭ9. the two fundamental types of fluid flow – laminar and turbulent – have been described. B. Additionally. 2. 2006. Mechanics of Fluids by B. 6th Edition. Techniques have been described to allow calculations to be carried out for the following situations: ● the variation in pressure with depth in a static fluid. M. Pearson 4. Fluid Mechanics by F. Shames. T. McGraw-Hill. 2004. and the use of the dimensionless Reynolds number has been introduced as a means of characterizing whether a flow would be laminar or turbulent. McDonald and P. John Wiley and Sons Nomenclature A Cd Cc cp cv D. Taylor and Francis. M.6 Chapter conclusion In this chapter the behaviour of fluids has been considered and methods of analysing a number of commonly occurring fluids problems in mechanical engineering have been introduced. J) m3 volume m/s velocity specific volume (volume per kg) m3/kg J/kg specific work N weight J work W rate of work or power m height above datum N/m surface tension kg/s(ϭNs/m2) dynamic viscosity kinematic viscosity m2/s density (1/v) kg/m3 shear stress N/m2 N/m2 J/kg J J/kgK J/kmol K 212 . 4th Edition. 2003. ● the estimation of the pressure losses in pipes owing to fluid friction and the size of the pump necessary to pump a fluid through a pipe system.W. Swaffield and L. Jack. References 1.

water and steam ■ Types of process and their analyses for work and heat transfer ■ Modes of heat transfer and steady-state heat transfer rates ■ Cycles. the Clausius inequality. A key to the notation used is given at the end of the chapter. This was a time when more and efficient generation of mechanical power from thermal energy released by burning coal was a pressing need for industry and the thermodynamics of power generation remains an important topic today: the plant of power stations operates on a thermodynamic 213 . its conversion from one form to another. the properties of working fluids. The term is derived from the Greek thermos meaning heat and dynamics meaning power. the means by which it can be transferred and the efficiency with which it can be harnessed to do work. in a publication in 1849. heat engines. potential and strain energy. These are set out in the following pages.1 Introduction Thermodynamics is about energy. Thermal forms of energy are evident on the microscopic scale and in the movement and interactions of atoms and molecules.Thermodynamics Unit 4 Thermodynamics Paul Shayler UNIT OVERVIEW ■ Introduction ■ The first law of thermodynamics. such as that possessed by a weight oscillating on the end of a spring. in thermodynamics. Like many other subjects. The first and second laws of thermodynamics – two laws of unchallenged importance which stand at the centre of the subject – are introduced and the analysis of work and heat transfer. Mechanical forms include kinetic. these forms make up the internal energy of matter. entropy and irreversibility ■ Open systems. thermodynamics has its own language and some key terms and definitions with which to become familiar. power plant and engines 4. the steady flow energy equation and enthalpy ■ The properties of perfect gases. work and heat transfer ■ The second law of thermodynamics. The first recorded use of the term thermodynamics was by Lord Kelvin. Although energy exists in many forms. conservation of energy. greatest attention is given to mechanical and thermal forms that can be manipulated through work and heat transfer. The treatment of laws and principles presented in this chapter is aligned to applications in mechanical engineering. and the efficiency of cycles producing power are described. mass flow continuity.

The examples of conceptual diagrams given in Figure 4. allowing matter to flow into or out of the cylinder. and the mass of matter within the system might vary.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 cycle and thermodynamic machines – steam turbines – drive the alternators which generate the electrical power. As a convenience. The same atoms of matter stay within the boundaries of this type of system and the boundaries are said to be impermeable. More generally. The atoms of matter within the system can be exchanged. In an open system. When any openings and valves of a piston-and-cylinder unit are closed. or the mass transfer from the pump chamber into the tyre when the tyre valve opens. it may be a real boundary. more than one billion people use bicycles and the bicycle is the principal means of transportation in many parts of the world. this would be an open system. although this might depend on the analysis required. like the surface of a wall. In this example. The boundary is usually shown as a dashed line in conceptual diagrams. Producing a conceptual diagram is a useful way of summarizing information which often requires no more than a simple sketch with key words and arrows. No matter can cross the boundary of a closed system. BBC radio listeners voted the bicycle as the most significant technological innovation since 1800. In a 2005 poll. thermodynamics allows the performance of engines to be understood and their efficiency to be analysed. this will be a closed system. This is defined as a region of space containing a quantity of matter. the piston is attached to the rod extending from the handle. the matter contained within or flowing through a system can be referred to as the working fluid. A system is fully enclosed by a boundary which separates it from its surroundings. making it feel warm.1 represents a piston-and-cylinder unit which has many important uses. like the entrance to a pipe. the behaviour of which is under investigation. This is required to design the internal combustion engines for cars and the jet engines for aircraft. Before a problem can be solved. The conceptual diagram shown in Figure 4. the unit can be changed from a closed system to an open system by opening the valves.1 A conceptual diagram represents physical components such as a piston-andcylinder combination in a simplified or symbolic form Piston-in-cylinder is a closed system Flow through a pipe is an open system Figure 4. There are two types of system: a closed system and an open system. One simple form of this is the pump used to inflate bicycle tyres. the increase in air temperature which drives heat transfer to the barrel of the pump.2 show what are likely to be the most appropriate choice of boundary positions in each case. regardless of whether it is a gas.2 Examples of closed and open systems. or an imaginary boundary. If the piston-in-cylinder had valves which were open. it has to be defined and understood. Today. But how many of us will have thought about the thermodynamics involved? There is the work transfer which occurs as the piston is advanced. the compression process raising the air pressure in the cylinder and increasing the resistance to the piston movement. How does a refrigerator cool a cold space in a hot room? To what temperature will a brake disc rise during braking? These questions have answers provided by thermodynamics. which is everything outside the boundary. matter can flow into or out of the system across parts of the boundary which are imaginary or permeable. or a combination of sections which are real or imaginary. so pumping up a bicycle tyre is a task familiar to many of us. Figure 4. trapping the contents. liquid or vapour. The barrel of the pump is a cylinder. A piston-and-cylinder unit is an example of a thermodynamic system. with boundaries shown by the dashed lines 214 . Knowledge of thermodynamics is used to design the cooling systems for computers and to develop efficient heating systems for homes.

metres (m). and so on. or SI system of units. which are returned to later in this chapter.325 kN mϪ2. Of these nine. energy (joule) and force (newton) are not capitalized although their symbols are the capitals K. For example. volume and mass.9 bar (90 kN mϪ2) at 1000 m above sea level. which is numerically equal to a value in newtons per metre squared. As altitude above sea level increases. The remaining three. Although information on these and other properties can be presented in other units. The conversion between these is 1 bar ϭ 105 N mϪ2 ϭ 105 Pa Pressure can be measured by several methods.01325 bar or 101. the fundamental units of mass. which is the inverse of density. James Joule and Isaac Newton. Length should be in metres not millimetres. there is now the almost universal adoption of Le Systeme International d’Unites. Two others can be deduced from values of volume and mass: density. plus velocity and height relative to a datum. but pressure is also commonly stated in the unit of bars. From knowledge of the weight (w) of the water in the column and the cross-sectional area (A) of the column. The SI unit of pressure is the pascal or Pa.Thermodynamics The properties of a system are characteristics which can be measured or calculated from measurements. as water depth 215 . such as its volume. Pressure is defined as the force exerted per unit area at a boundary. temperature.3 A manometer measures gauge pressure (that is. mass should be in kilograms not grams. N mϪ2. For the absolute pressure (p) of the gas. The principle is illustrated in Figure 4. In the SI system. absolute pressure values are required for calculations and this is referred to simply as pressure. Pa h Liquid density P P = Pa + gh Figure 4. Although several systems of units have been devised and used in the past. that is. form a set of properties commonly examined or used to describe changes when something is done to or by the system. enthalpy and entropy. the units of temperature (kelvin). the higher the gas pressure. A property has a numerical value which depends on the units of measurement or calculation. without the absolute. the higher is the height of the water column this supports. the thermodynamic properties that can be measured are pressure. we obtain the gauge pressure (pg) of the gas: w p g ϭ ᎏᎏ A This is called gauge pressure because it is being measured relative to the pressure of the surrounding air. length.A property can be a characteristic defining something particular to the system. Values of pressure and temperature are most likely to catch out students because these are particularly likely to be quoted in non-SI units. these must be added together: p ϭ pg ϩ pa Usually.3. air pressure falls. perhaps because of past practice or because they appear to reflect size or some other feature of a problem better. J and N and the units are named in honour of real scientists: Lord Kelvin. Nine thermodynamic properties. are determined from measurements of the others. seconds (s) and degrees kelvin (K) respectively. and specific volume. to around 0. time and absolute temperature are kilograms (kg). it is important that these are converted to values in SI units for calculations. Note also that by convention. a manometer records the height of a water column which the pressure supports. internal energy. relative to atmospheric pressure) in units of the height of liquid supported Atmospheric pressure at sea level remains close to the value of standard atmospheric pressure. which is the mass per unit volume. The boundary can be real or imaginary: a gas filling a container will exert a pressure on the real walls of the container and also on imaginary surfaces within the enclosed volume. Gas pressure acts at the boundary between the gas and the water. throughout the seasons. thermodynamics is concerned with a relatively small number. relative to ambient pressure (pa ) which acts on the other end of the water column. or in relative not absolute units. 1. or it can be a property of the working fluid. for engineering.Although a lengthy list of properties can be drawn up.

15 In principle. the movement is energetic. and at absolute zero it is stilled. but remember that the SI unit of temperature is the kelvin. the state of the system is defined. it is said to be an absolute scale of temperature. From the ratio of these two properties. the tick indicates whether the property is an intensive or extensive property. The conversion of temperature values from one scale to the other entails simple addition or subtraction. Thermodynamic material properties form a second set of properties which remain constant or change relatively little as system properties change. Thermometers and thermocouples give a value for temperature but not an explanation of what temperature is. doubling to around 2 bar (200 kN mϪ2) at 10 m below the surface. Material properties can be described without reference to the system under examination.013 bar). at high temperatures. Rogers and Mayhew. On the kelvin scale the temperature at which water freezes at a pressure of 1. a change of 1 degree is the same in degrees kelvin or celsius. their symbols and units are summarized in Table 4.1. relating this to energy stored in the free movement and vibration of gas molecules. 216 . Some properties have extensive and intensive forms which are differentiated by using upperand lower-case symbols – volume V and specific volume v. The celsius (and centigrade) scale of temperature was invented as a one-hundred-point scale of temperatures between two reference conditions which were easy to reproduce (the freezing and boiling points of water at a pressure of 1. The kinetic theory of gases developed in the nineteenth century is more helpful in understanding temperature. gases and liquids which can be drawn upon (for example. °C) ϩ 273. On the Kelvin scale. temperatures used in multiplication or division calculations should always be in degrees kelvin (not following this simple rule is a common source of numerical errors made by students). In many cases of practical importance. for example. from near vacuums of a few thousandths of a bar up to several hundreds of bars. the values of material properties required for the solution of example or exercise problems are given in the problem description. the variations of velocity and height of matter passing through the system are also required. for example. and the thermal conductivity of a solid. the volume V (m3) of a system can be easily calculated from measured dimensions. pressures in engineering systems vary over a much wider range. The mass of matter in a system. The thermodynamic system properties.15 °C: T (in degrees kelvin. One early instrument for measuring temperature is the thermometer. knowing the values of only two independent properties is sufficient. because matter moves and its kinetic energy and potential energy may change. 1995). In the final two columns. The others in the table are intensive properties. K) ϭ T (in degrees celsius. For an open system. They include the specific heats and the specific gas constant of a gas. which is the mass occupying unit volume. two others can be deduced: density (kg mϪ3). the characteristics of a particular working fluid which connect changes in state properties. pressure increases. but there are many sources of data for common solids.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 below sea level increases. which makes use of the observation that a liquid will expand as its temperature is raised to indicate a point on a temperature scale. An extensive property provides information on a total quantity or extent. On this scale. Compared with this. and on the Celsius scale absolute temperature corresponds to Ϫ273. Although temperature differences in kelvin and degrees celsius will have the same numerical value. They define. zero degrees kelvin is absolute zero. These provide no indication of size or total quantities. temperatures below freezing are negative – at odds with the connection between temperature and energy. and specific volume v (m3 kgϪ1). If the values of enough properties of a system can be determined through measurements or calculation to allow the values of all others to be found. Values of temperature (T) may also be presented in more than one unit. and mass m (kg) can be calculated by dividing measured weight by the gravitational constant (g ϭ 9. either in degrees celsius or degrees kelvin.013 bar is assigned the value 273. at low temperatures it is relatively slow.81 m sϪ2).15 K. Mercury thermometers were widely used until recent years but have now been largely replaced by thermocouples. and the volume of a system are both extensive properties. which is the volume occupied by unit mass. for a closed system. Typically.

Thermodynamics Property

Pressure Temperature Volume Mass Specific volume Density Internal energy Entropy Enthalpy

Symbol

p T V m

Units

N mϪ2 or Pa K m3 kg

Intensive

✓ ✓

Extensive

✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓

ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ

U S H m V

V m

m3 kgϪ1 kg mϪ3 J J KϪ1 J

Table 4.1 System properties may be intensive or extensive

A state is defined if values of all properties can be defined for all locations, but this will not necessarily be a state of thermodynamic equilibrium. This can be described precisely for a closed system as: if a closed system is isolated from its surroundings and its properties are unchanging, the system is said to be in a state of thermodynamic equilibrium. This requires thermal equilibrium (uniform temperature), mechanical equilibrium (uniform pressure) and chemical equilibrium (uniform chemical composition) to be achieved.Within an open system, although property values can vary with location, these can be related to a local state of thermodynamic equilibrium. When the state of a system or the working fluid passing through a system changes, it is said to undergo a process. The initial and final states of a closed system undergoing a process are normally states of Gas Vacuum thermodynamic equilibrium. Similarly, the inlet and outlet states of matter passing through an open system are assumed to be states of thermodynamic equilibrium. During some processes, the states in Burst between will also be states of thermodynamic equilibrium. This type of diaphragm process is reversible: the changes in the system state can be defined exactly and reversed to restore the initial conditions in the system and Gas the surroundings. In a closed system, for example, during a reversible process, a property will have the same value everywhere within the system at any time. All other processes are irreversible. A common Controlled expansion Uncontrolled expansion cause of irreversibility is the generation of kinetic energy in fluids and Figure 4.4 Types of expansion. Slowly gases, perhaps by the rapid movement of a piston, which is subsequently retracting, the piston will produce a dissipated by friction. All real processes are irreversible to some extent reversible expansion; the bursting of the but often the effect is small enough to neglect and the process can be diaphragm will produce an irreversible idealized as reversible. If the movement of the piston is slow, the expansion generation of kinetic energy is small and the variation of pressure and temperature throughout the cylinder can be neglected and the process can be treated as reversible. Two cases representing reversible and irreversible expansion processes are shown in Figure 4.4. The description of a process can become complicated and, on occasion, difficult to absorb. Sketching a process or state diagram is a useful way of summarizing the information in a concise form, showing how the state of matter or a system changes during the process. Remember that for a closed system in a state of thermodynamic equilibrium the values of only two properties are required to define the state. It follows that a reversible process can be plotted on a two-dimensional diagram with axes of any pair of independent properties. Pressure–volume, temperature–volume and temperature–entropy diagrams are three of the most commonly used. Figures 4.5–4.10 illustrate how descriptions of processes can be represented on process diagrams. The descriptions are given in italics, and then interpreted before plotting.

217

An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1

A reversible constant-pressure process during which the volume is doubled. Pressure and volume are the appropriate choices of properties for the axes of the process diagram. If pressure is plotted on the vertical axis, as shown in Figure 4.5, a constant-pressure process appears as a horizontal line. It is usual to identify the initial state as state 1 and the final state as state 2, and to use a suffix to denote the value of a property at the beginning or end of the process, i.e.V1 is the volume at state 1. A reversible expansion during which pv ϭ constant. An expansion is a process during which the volume or specific volume increases, so we can anticipate that v1 will be smaller than v2. The description indicates that the product of pressure and specific volume is constant during the expansion, which requires pressure to decrease as specific volume increases and hence for p1 to be greater than p2 , and because the product is a constant, the process line will appear as a hyperbola on the diagram, as illustrated in Figure 4.6. A closed system undergoes a reversible constant-volume process during which pressure increases from 1 bar to 3 bar, followed by a reversible constant-pressure compression during which the specific volume decreases from 5 to 2 m3 kgϪ1. In this example, illustrated in Figure 4.7, the system undergoes a sequence of two processes. The second begins at state 2 and ends at state 3. Both processes can be plotted on the same process diagram (and in principle, the system might undergo a sequence of several processes all of which could be plotted on the same diagram). The constant-volume process from state 1 to state 2 is a vertical line; the constantpressure process which follows appears as a horizontal line. This progresses from a larger to a smaller specific volume, which will be a compression process.

p (bar) 3 2

p

1

2

v1

v2 ϭ 2v1 v

Figure 4.5 A reversible constantpressure process during which the volume is doubled

p 1

2

3

v

Figure 4.6 A reversible expansion during which pv is constant

1

1

2

5 v (m3/kg)

Figure 4.7 A closed system undergoes a reversible constant-volume process during which pressure increases from 1 bar to 3 bar, followed by a reversible constant-pressure compression during which the specific volume decreases from 5 to 2 m3 kg؊1

T

p T 3.5 A reversible compression process obeys ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ . Find temperatures T2 and T3 if p1 T1 p2 ϭ 3 bar and p3 ϭ 5 bar given that p1 ϭ 2 bar and T1 ϭ 500 K. Plot the process connecting states 1, 2 and 3 on a state diagram with axes of temperature and pressure. In this example, calculating T2 and T3 aids defining the process line. The power law used to define the relationship between pressure and temperature variations is often used in the description of processes undergone by gases, and the ability to manipulate power law relationships is a valuable skill. To calculate the temperatures, the power law is manipulated to make temperature the subject, p 1/35 T ϭ T1 ᎏᎏ , and the known values of pressure are substituted to obtain p1 T2ϭ 561 K and T3ϭ 650 K.When plotted, the states 1 to 3 lie on a curve, as shown in Figure 4.8.

3 1 2

p

Figure 4.8 A reversible compression p T 3.5 process that obeys ᎏᎏ ؍ᎏᎏ p1 T1

218

Thermodynamics

A reversible expansion during which pvn ϭ constant and the pressure falls from 5 to 3 bar, followed by an irreversible compression back to the original specific volume and a final pressure of 4 bar. All the previous examples describe reversible processes. In this one, the compression process is irreversible, and, although we can plot its initial state (2) and its final state (3), we connect these with a dashed line to indicate that we cannot define the intermediate states. The process diagram is shown in Figure 4.9 The final example is an illustration of a cycle. Here is the definition: If a closed system undergoes a series of processes such that the initial and final states of the system are the same, the system has undergone a cycle. This will appear on the state diagram as a closed contour, with points denoting the start and end states of each process. For a cycle to be reversible, each of the processes must be reversible. If any one or more of the processes is irreversible, the cycle will be irreversible even though the initial and final states are the same. A cycle comprising a reversible constant-volume reduction in pressure (1 to 2), a reversible constant-pressure expansion (2 to 3) and an irreversible compression (3 to 1) is illustrated in Figure 4.10.

p 1 p 1

3 2

2 v

Figure 4.9 A reversible expansion during which pv n ؍constant and the pressure falls from 5 to 3 bar, followed by an irreversible compression back to the original specific volume and a final pressure of 4 bar

3 v

Figure 4.10 A cycle comprised of a reversible constant-volume reduction in pressure (1 to 2), a reversible constant-pressure expansion (2 to 3), and an irreversible compression (3 to 1)

Learning summary

✔

You should be familiar with and understand the key terms and definitions given in this section. They are shown in bold. The terminology is used throughout the following sections in the presentation of subjects. You should also familiarize yourself with the properties, nomenclature and units introduced here. Some or all of these properties feature strongly in any thermodynamic analysis. Take care to identify the correct units to use in calculations: if in doubt, use SI units and absolute values of pressures and temperatures. Learn to sketch processes on process or state diagrams to aid understanding, and note given values of properties or other defining information on these. This summarizes information in a concise and useful form.

✔

✔

219

An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1

**4.2 The first law of thermodynamics, conservation of energy, work and heat transfer
**

Changes in the state of a closed system during a process are brought about by work transfer and heat transfer. These are the means by which energy is transferred across the system boundaries. Neither work nor heat is a form of energy; nor are they properties of a system. In mechanics, work is said to be done when a force moves through a distance. In thermodynamics, work can equally be described as ‘the energy transfer across the boundary when a system changes its state due to the movement of a part of the boundary under the action of a force’. These statements are consistent and equivalent. Heat can be defined in a similar way, as the energy transfer across the boundary when a system changes its state due to a difference in temperature between the system and its surroundings.‘Heat transfer’ is a shortform way of saying ‘energy transfer by virtue of a temperature difference’. Because the direction of energy transfer can be into or out of the system, a convention for the positive direction is required. Here, work done on the system and heat transfer to the system are taken to be positive.

According to the convention adopted, transfers of energy to the system from the surroundings are positive.

The effect of positive work or heat transfer is to raise the energy of the system and deplete the energy of the surroundings by the same amount. The energy of the system and the surroundings together remains constant. This is the principle of conservation of energy, which holds whether the energy is transferred by heat transfer or by work transfer. The first law of thermodynamics is a statement of the same principle, deduced from experiments carried out by James Joule (1818–1899) on closed systems (energy conservation also applies to open systems, which are considered later). The first law is an axiom – known to be true from experience – which has never been disproved.

When a closed system is taken through a cycle, the sum of the net work transfer and the net heat transfer is zero.

In other words, if the system is returned to its original state, the quantity of energy within the system will be the same; the energy transferred into the system must be equal to the energy transferred out of the system during the cycle.

Work transfer

Work transfer to a closed system can be achieved by any mechanism which moves a force acting on the boundary through a distance. The work done on the system is, according to the mechanics definition: Wϭ

͵ F dx

x2 x1

(4.1)

where F is the force and dx is the incremental distance moved in the direction of the force. This does not prescribe either how a force can be applied, or how it can move to do work on a system. It can be achieved by moving a piston forming part of the boundary of a system, or by turning a paddle wheel immersed in a system. The arrangement of the paddle wheel which stirs the matter in a closed system is illustrated in Figure 4.11.Work transfer occurs as the shaft turns without any change in the volume of the system – it is a constant-volume

220

Figure 4.11 A shaft that rotates against a resisting torque (created by the paddle wheel in the illustration) will produce work transfer across the system boundary without a change in volume

Thermodynamics

process – and for this reason it can be called shaft work. The boundary of the system lies on the surface of the paddle wheel and moves as the wheel is turned. As the wheel rotates, it exerts a force F on the matter which is equal and opposite to the force resisting motion. In this problem, movement is rotational, not linear, and we can choose to describe work transfer as an applied torque rotated through an angle. Equation (4.1) is transformed by observing that, if the force F acts at a radius r from the axis of the wheel, it moves through a distance r d as the wheel rotates through an angle of d radians. Substituting r d for dx in equation (4.1) and changing the limits of integration to be consistent with (x2 Ϫ x1) 2 Ϫ 1 ϭ ᎏ ᎏ r gives Wϭ

͵ ͵

2

1

Fr d

**or, if To is the torque required to turn the paddle wheel, Wϭ
**

2 1

To d

(4.2)

The movement of a piston illustrated in Figure 4.12 does change the volume of the system – this is necessary for work transfer to occur – and the work done in this case can be called boundary work. In most cases, work transfer in closed systems is boundary work and is usually referred to simply as the work done on or by the system. Piston movement to the left is shown to be positive, because this will produce the compression process giving work done on the system.

x2 x1

pA

F

Figure 4.12 In closed systems formed by the piston-in-cylinder, work transfer takes place during a compression or expansion process produced by the movement of the piston. A compression process produces positive work transfer

If the piston has no mass and is free to move, the external force acting on the outer surface of the piston will always be opposed by an equal force exerted by the system on the inner surface of the piston. The piston will move to maintain this equilibrium of forces at all times, and the external force will dictate what pressure will act on the other face of the piston. If the piston area is A and pressure in the system is p, then F ϭ pA and if the external force F causes the piston to advance into the cylinder from an initial position x1 to any other position x, then substituting for F in equation (4.1) gives Wϭ

͵ pA dx

x x1

(4.3)

Clearly, as the piston moves further into the cylinder, the volume of the system will contract from V1 to a value V when the piston is in position x. The changes are related by (V Ϫ V1) x Ϫ x1 ϭ Ϫᎏᎏ A

221

An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1

2dV Differentiating this gives dx ϭ ᎏ , which can be rearranged as Adx ϭ ϪdV and substituted A into equation (4.3) for W ϭ Ϫ p dV

v1

͵

v

(4.4)

Unlike equations (4.1) and (4.2), there is an important restriction on the validity of using equation (4.4) to calculate the work done during a process:

If p is taken to be system pressure, the process must be reversible, because otherwise the pressure cannot be defined.

Equations (4.1) and (4.2) are derived by considering how the surroundings act on the system, and there are no restrictions on their validity. Note that if the local pressure p, at the piston surface, is known at all times during the process, the force acting on the piston can be calculated and equation (4.4) can be used without qualification. Recall, though, that pressure will only be the same everywhere in the system when this is in a state of thermodynamic equilibrium. Although energy transferred across the boundary of a closed system by heat transfer is indistinguishable from energy transferred by work, the quantity of heat transferred is often inferred by applying the first law to the system rather than by calculation using the heat transfer equivalent to equation (4.4) for work transfer.When applied to a closed system undergoing a cycle, the first law can be expressed as Wnet ϩ Q net ϭ 0 or Q net ϭ ϪWnet

(4.5)

where Wnet (ϭ ͛ dW ) is the sum of positive and negative work transfers which take place during the cycle, and Q net (ϭ ͛ dQ) is the sum of positive and negative heat transfers which take place during the cycle. If the cycle is reversible, the work done can be calculated for each of the processes making up the cycle, and the net heat transfer found from equation (4.5). For example, consider the cycle undergone by the piston-and-cylinder system in Figure 4.13. The cycle is made up of two constant-volume processes and two constant-pressure processes. Denoting the work done during the process with a suffix indicating the start and end points of the process: Wnet ϭ W12 ϩ W23 ϩ W34 ϩ W41 Applying equation (4.4) to each term in turn: Wnet ϭ 0 ϩ p2(V3 Ϫ V2) ϩ 0 ϩ p4(V1 Ϫ V4) No work transfer occurs during the two constant-volume processes (dV ϭ 0 for these), and for the other two processes, pressure is a constant that can be taken outside the integral. Substituting the pressure and volume values shown in Figure 4.13 gives a value of Ϫ400 kJ for Wnet. The negative value indicates that a net amount p of work is done by the system on the surroundings. From equation ((4.5), 3 Qnet must be 400 kJ, indicating that 400 kJ of heat transfer has occurred to 1000 kPa the system from the surroundings. In this example, the system has received a net heat transfer and produced an equivalent amount of work transfer to the surroundings. The system will produce a net amount of work output (to the surroundings) over the cycle every time the cycle is repeated. It behaves as an. engine. If the cycle is continually repeated, the engine produces power,W , defined as the rate of work transfer. The unit of power are J sϪ1, or watts. If the cycle were to be repeated once per second, the power output of the engine would be 400 kJ sϪ1 or 400 kW.

222

2 Constant pressure processes Constant volume processes v

200 kPa

4 0.5 m3

1 1.0 m3

Figure 4.13 Process diagram for a cycle made up of two constant-volume processes and two constant-pressure processes

Thermodynamics

Internal energy

Although over the cycle there is no net change of energy in the system, in general it can increase or decrease during the various processes which make up the cycle as work and heat transfers take place. In a thermodynamic system, this will be a change in internal energy of the matter in the system. Internal energy U (measured in joules, J) and specific internal energy u (measured in joules per kilogram, J kgϪ1) are properties. The connection between changes in internal energy and work and heat transfers during a process is stated in a corollary (corollary 1) of the first law:

The change in internal energy of a closed system is equal to the sum of the heat transferred and the work done during any change of state.

That is, for a process during which the state of the system is changed from state 1 to state 2, W12 ϩ Q12 ϭ U2 Ϫ U1

(4.6)

Equation (4.6) is valid for any reversible or irreversible process undergone by a closed system, and requires only that the states 1 and 2 are states of thermodynamic equilibrium. If no work or heat transfers take place during a process, by inspection of equation (4.6) there is no change in internal energy, and U2 Ϫ U1 ϭ 0 This can be stated as a second corollary of the first law:

The internal energy of a closed system remains unchanged if the system is thermally isolated from its surroundings.

In this statement, thermally isolated means no work or heat transfer can take place. This would be the case, for example, if the system boundaries were rigid and fixed like the walls of a rigid container, so that no work transfer could occur, and the surfaces were thermally insulated to prevent heat transfers. (Although isolated and insulated sound similar, work transfer might still be possible if a system was thermally insulated but not isolated.) The principle of conservation of energy is now readily accepted and the idea that work and heat transfers to a system will raise internal energy may seem obvious. Two hundred years ago, however, the equivalence of energy transfer by work and heat was yet to be established through experiments carried out by James Joule – the discovery is marked by an inscription on Joule’s grave – and the existence of internal energy was unproven. The proof is remarkably simple and based on the comparison of two cycles with a common process, as illustrated in Figure 4.14. The first law says that, for both cycles A–C and B–C, from equation (4.5) Wnet ϩ Q net ϭ 0 and because process C is common to both cycles, the work and heat transfers to the system during the process are the same for both cycles. It then follows that if the totals for the complete cycles are to be the same, and the contributions of C are the same, the sum of work and heat transfers must also be the same for A and B. In other words, the result is the same regardless of whether process A or B is used to change the state of the system from state 1 to state 2:

p B 2 A

1

C

v

Figure 4.14 The application of the first law to two cycles with one process common to both allows the existence of internal energy to be proven

͵ (dW ϩ dQ) ϭ constant

2 1

Because the result is the same constant for both processes, it must be the difference between the values of a property at the two states. The property is internal energy, and the result is equation (4.6). Because energy is conserved, if the energy within the system is raised by work

223

An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1

and heat transfer, the energy of the surroundings must be depleted by the amount. This principle is depicted in Figure 4.15. How can different forms of energy be converted and transferred across the boundary of the system? The energy in the surroundings can be in any of several forms: potential energy, kinetic energy, strain energy, or internal energy. When the internal energy of a closed system is raised, energy is transferred from the surroundings through work and heat transfer. Two examples of ways this can be brought about are illustrated in Figures 4.16 and 4.17 and the following analyses.

Figure 4.15 Work and heat transfer are the mechanisms by which energy is transferred across the boundary of a closed system

In Figure 4.17, air trapped in the cylinder by the piston is heated by heat transfer through the cylinder walls. As heat transfer occurs, pressure in the cylinder rises and the piston moves to the right. The position of the piston is dictated by equilibrium of forces acting on the piston: pA ϭ pa A ϩ F

224

Thermodynamics

where p is the pressure inside the cylinder, pa is ambient pressure and F is the force exerted on the piston by the spring. The spring obeys Hooke’s law, such that the spring force is F ϭ kx where x is the compression of the spring from its unconstrained or free length and the spring constant k is 100 kN m؊1. If the area A of the piston is 0.01 m2, the pressure in the cylinder rises from 2 to 4 bar, and ambient pressure is 1 bar, calculate the work done on the air in the cylinder and the change in strain energy stored in the spring.

PaA F PaA

Figure 4.17 Heat transfer to the system produces a pressure rise which in turn causes the movement of the piston to the right. During this expansion process, the system does work on the surrounding air and the spring. As the spring is compressed, the strain energy stored in the spring increases

There are several aspects of this problem to understand. First, the interior walls of the cylinder and the piston (shown dashed in the figure) define the boundaries of a closed system containing the air. As heat transfer occurs and the piston moves to the right, the system volume increases. This is an expansion process and work is done by the system on the surroundings; by our sign convention, it is negative work done on the system. As the piston moves, work is done on the ambient air because this exerts a resistive force pa A on the outer face of the piston. In addition, work is done on the spring, compressing its length and increasing its strain energy. The strain energy in a spring obeying Hooke’s law is equal to the work done compressing (or stretching) the spring; this is a mechanical form of energy. Equating the change in strain energy to the work done compressing the spring from length x1 to length x2 yields ⌬SE ϭ

͵

x2

x1

Fdx ϭ

͵

x2

x1

2 kxdx ϭ ᎏ2ᎏk(x2 2 Ϫ x1)

1

The initial and final values of compressed spring length can be found from equilibrium of forces on the piston. Using Hooke’s law and rearranging the equation given in the question: A x ϭ (p Ϫ pa) ᎏᎏ k Substituting the initial and final cylinder pressures in turn gives 0.01 x1 ϭ (2 ϫ 105 Ϫ 1 ϫ 105) ᎏᎏ ϭ 0.01 m 10 5 and 0.01 x2 ϭ (4 ϫ 105 Ϫ 1 ϫ 105) ᎏᎏ ϭ 0.03 m 10 5 Hence

2 5 2 2 ⌬SE ϭ ᎏ2ᎏk(x 2 2 Ϫ x 1) ϭ 0.5 ϫ 10 ϫ (0.03 Ϫ 0.01 ) ϭ 40 J 1

At the same time as the spring is being compressed, the piston movement is opposed by the force exerted by the surrounding ambient. The work done overcoming this is W ϭ paA(x2 Ϫ x1) ϭ 105 ϫ 0.01 ϫ 0.02 ϭ 20 J The work done by the air in the cylinder will therefore be (40 ϩ 20) or 60 J, and hence the work done on the air in the cylinder will be Ϫ60 J.

225

An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1

Can changes in potential and kinetic energy contained within closed systems be neglected? Although a closed system is said to undergo non-flow processes, matter in contact with a moving boundary such as the surface of a moving piston will move with it and have velocity. As a result, kinetic energy is imparted to the matter and there can be some non-uniformity of conditions throughout the system. Similarly, there can be a change in the potential energy of matter in a system if its centre of mass is raised as a system boundary is moved. In principle, these changes can be finite and contribute with the change in internal energy ⌬U to the energy change so that: W12 ϩ Q12 ϭ ⌬U ϩ ⌬PE ϩ ⌬KE In practice, the displacement of matter is usually too small for the change in potential energy to be significant and kinetic energy is dissipated into internal energy by friction as conditions of thermodynamic equilibrium are established. Thus, in the analysis of closed systems undergoing reversible processes, generally the changes in potential energy, ⌬PE and kinetic energy, ⌬KE of matter contained within the system can be neglected. How can a closed system containing a spring be analysed? This type of closed system might be a shock absorber taking the form of a closed piston–cylinder system containing gas and a spring. Heat transfer will change only internal energy but the movement of the piston can compress the spring and the gas inside the cylinder, changing both strain energy and internal energy. In this case, the problem can be analysed as the combination of thermodynamic and mechanical systems shown in Figure 4.18. The first law is applied to the thermodynamic system, Hooke’s law to the spring, and equilibrium of forces on the piston can be used to determine the split of work transfer to these.

Figure 4.18 This combination of spring within a piston-in-cylinder can be analysed as a mechanical system plus a thermodynamic system

Work W and heat transfer Q are not properties, but it is sometimes convenient to consider quantities of work and heat transfer per unit mass of matter in the system. These are described as specific work w and specific heat transfer q and have units of J kgϪ1.

For example, using specific values, equation (4.6) W12 ϩ Q12 ϭ U2 Ϫ U1 becomes w12 ϩ q12 ϭ u2 Ϫ u1 Throughout this section, the suffix of w12 and q12 denotes the specific work and heat transfer taking place during the process connecting 1 and 2. If a second process 2–3 followed this, the work and heat transfers would be w23 and q23 respectively. In cases where it is not necessary to distinguish between the values for different processes, the suffix can be dropped. In some of the sections which follow, the suffix has a different meaning. In Section 4.2, for example, a suffix is used to differentiate between heat supplied and heat rejected.

226

Prime mover Work output W Heat rejected Q2 Cold reservoir Figure 4. entropy and irreversibility Although energy is conserved when it is transferred. when applied to a closed system undergoing a process 1–2.Thermodynamics Learning summary ✔ Work and heat transfer are the means by which energy can be transferred across the boundary of a closed system. When a closed system undergoes a process that changes its state from state 1 to state 2. energy transfer by work or heat transfer will raise or lower the internal energy of the system. The source of heat transfer might be the high-temperature products of combustion in a furnace. one source of heat transfer to the heat engine and one sink of heat transfer from the heat engine. A heat engine is any device or system designed to convert heat into work output through a cycle of processes. and rejecting the balance to a heat sink.Changes in other forms of energy will usually be negligible. Hot reservoir Heat supplied Q1 Prime movers are typically turbines delivering shaft work or reciprocating pistons transferring work to a crankshaft. when applied to a closed system undergoing a cycle.19 A heat engine with a prime mover operating between two reservoirs 227 . The convention for the energy transfer to the prime mover to be positive is the same as for the closed systems considered in earlier sections. When applied to a closed system undergoing a cycle. The second law of thermodynamics recognizes the implications. W12 ϩ Q12 ϭ U2 Ϫ U1 ✔ ✔ ✔ 4. but in diagrams arrows are used to show the direction of transfer. The first law of thermodynamics embodies the principle of conservation of energy. it must have at least one prime mover. work transfer is more valuable than heat transfer. nor is there any net change in the energy stored in the system. converting some of this to a net work output.19. These are not properties of the system. A heat reservoir is an ideal source or sink which is able to supply or absorb heat without its temperature changing. Two important results from the application of the first law of thermodynamics to a closed system are that. A representation of a heat engine operating between two reservoirs is shown in Figure 4. The Kelvin–Planck statement of the law is this: No heat engine can produce a net amount of work output while exchanging heat with a single reservoir only. Although work can be converted entirely to heat. there is no net transfer of energy into or out of the system over the cycle. Our convention is that work or heat transfer to the system will be positive. only some of the heat supplied to a system undergoing a cycle can be converted to work. Wnet ϩ Qnet ϭ 0 and. Heat engines operate by drawing on a supply of heat from a source. the Clausius inequality.3 The second law of thermodynamics. the sink receiving heat transfer from the engine typically might be a large mass of water such as a lake or sea. and in equations Q and W are the magnitudes of energy transfers. heat engines. some of the heat transferred to the system will always be transferred back to the surroundings.

The inevitability of a penalty can be illustrated with reference to Figure 4. The efficiency of engine A will be equal to the Carnot efficiency: T2 carnot ϭ 1 Ϫ ᎏᎏ ϭ 0. First. The efficiency penalty of operating between more than two heat reservoirs has important practical applications in the design of efficient plant for power generation. the heat engine is irreversible. Efficiency is reduced if some heat is supplied at a temperature below the highest available or rejected at a temperature above the lowest available. The very highest value that can be achieved turns out to be dependent only on the highest temperature at which heat is being supplied and the lowest temperature at which heat is being rejected. There must be some heat rejected. The second Carnot principle is that the efficiency of a heat engine operating between two reservoirs will be less than the Carnot efficiency if the heat engine is irreversible. This upper limit on efficiency will not be achieved if either the heat engine is irreversible or it operates with more than two heat reservoirs. it is useful to consider the efficiency of two reversible heat engines each operating between two of three heat reservoirs. will be less than the Carnot efficiency if it operates between more than two heat reservoirs. If any of the processes are irreversible. which is the desired product. and the conditions which apply to this. the Carnot efficiency and the Carnot principles The efficiency of a heat engine is defined as net work output W ϭ ᎏ ᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ heat supplied Q1 (4. To satisfy the second law. In the first instance. The first law connects these through energy conservation: Q 1 ϭ W ϩ Q2 Combining the two equations shows that Q2 ϭ 1 Ϫ ᎏᎏ Q1 (4. reversible or irreversible.20. of the heat reservoirs. and temperatures T1 and T2 are the absolute temperatures. but not by how much.8) The second law says this must be less than 100 per cent. which can be stated as: The efficiency of any heat engine. For a heat engine to be reversible.Q1. are described in statements of two Carnot principles. There is also an efficiency penalty associated with using more than two reservoirs.9) where carnot is the Carnot efficiency. The first principle is that all reversible heat engines operating on any cycle between the same two reservoirs will have efficiency equal to: 2 carnot ϭ 1 Ϫ ᎏᎏ T T1 (4. all the processes making up the cycle must be reversible. which has to be paid for in fuel consumed. the value of efficiency must always to be less than 100 per cent.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Efficiency. The Carnot efficiency is the highest value of efficiency which can be achieved by any heat engine operating between heat reservoirs with upper and lower temperatures T1 and T2. reversible heat engine A operates on its own between the hottest (T1 ϭ 1000 K) and the coldest (T2 ϭ 400 K) reservoirs.6 T1 228 . The highest values that can be achieved.7) Efficiency is a measure of success in converting heat supplied Q1. in kelvin. into a net quantity of work output W.

Thus the reversible heat engine operating between the three reservoirs must have a lower efficiency than a reversible heat engine operating between the hottest and coldest reservoirs.Thermodynamics Now a third reservoir with a temperature T3 between T1 and T2 and a second reversible heat engine B. This must be lower than the Carnot efficiency of heat engine A because the ratio of reservoir T3 T2 T2 temperatures. If no heat transfer takes place during any other process in the cycle. imagine the cycle of the heat engine has only one process during which all the heat supply Q1 takes place from the hot reservoir at constant temperature T1. and one process during which all the heat rejection Q2 takes place to the cold reservoir at constant temperature T2. then dQ Q Q ᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ Ϫ ᎏᎏ Ώᎏ T T T 1 2 1 2 (4. the dQ integral around the cycle of ᎏᎏ will be zero.2 if this is the cold reservoir or 0.8) and (4. T1 ϭ 1000 K T3 ϭ 800 K ϵ 1000 K 800 K A ϩ B T1 ϭ 400 K 400 K 400 K The next step in the analysis is to recognize that. This inequality can be expressed mathematically as dQ ᎏр0 Ώᎏ T (4.10) The result applies to any heat engine or closed system undergoing a cycle.8) and (4. they could be replaced by one operating between three reservoirs that will have the same overall efficiency.9) and the Carnot principles can be used to derive the Clausius inequality: For any reversible heat engine (or closed system undergoing a reversible cycle). producing part of the required output are introduced. this integral will be negative. either ᎏᎏ or ᎏᎏ will be higher than the ratio ᎏᎏ.9) for efficiency are valid. First. It T1 T3 T1 follows that. The efficiency of the combined engines A ϩ B (and the efficiency of the single replacement engine) can be found using the definition of efficiency given in equation (4.20 A heat engine operating between more than two reservoirs will always have an efficiency less than the Carnot efficiency The Clausius inequality Equations (4. for all irreversible heat engines (or closed T systems undergoing an irreversible cycle). both expressions (4. the efficiency of engine B is 0. B is reversible and operates between the new reservoir at T3 and one of the original heat reservoirs. if the efficiency of engine B is lower than the efficiency of engine A. and the split of the total heat supplied between the two engines. Its efficiency will be equal to the Carnot efficiency calculated using the temperatures of these reservoirs. If the temperature of the third reservoir is 800 K. regardless of the number of heat reservoirs involved.5 if it is the hot reservoir. because both engines contribute to the work output of the unit.11) If the cycle is reversible. and can easily be demonstrated to be true for a heat engine operating between just two heat reservoirs. This requires Q2 T2 ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ Q1 T1 229 .7): QAsB ϩ QBsA WA ϩ WB A ϩ B ϭ ᎏ ᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ Q As ϩ Q Bs QAs ϩ QBs The value of the efficiency depends on whether the third reservoir is a heat sink or a heat source. Figure 4. the efficiency of the combined two engines must also be lower than the efficiency of A.

that which applies to the operation of a reversible heat engine: dQ ᎏϭ0 Ώᎏ T (4. the cycle will be irreversible and the efficiency of the heat engine must be lower than the Carnot efficiency. the result is true for any closed system undergoing a reversible or irreversible cycle. but the analysis of engineering problems usually requires changes in entropy to be determined and any convenient datum for entropy can be used. 1 and 2: S2 Ϫ S1 ϭ dQ ͵ ᎏ ᎏ T 2 1 (4. A–C and B–C. The intensive form is specific entropy (s).9) now require Q1 Q2 ᎏᎏ Ͻ ᎏᎏ T1 T2 and so Q1 Q2 ᎏᎏ Ϫ ᎏᎏ Ͻ 0 T1 T2 Substituting this into equation (4. T dQ it will have the same value for both cycles. Ͻ Carnot. equations (4.12) If the cycle contains irreversible processes. Entropy (S ) and specific entropy (s ) Entropy (S ) is an extensive property that has units of joules per degree kelvin ( J KϪ1). The result for the reversible cycle has particular significance. This observation provides a route to proving entropy exists. dQ Because the integral of the quantity ᎏᎏ between state 2 and state 1 is common to both cycles. the absolute values of S1 and S2 are not defined – for this. which has units of J kgϪ1 KϪ1. and begin with the application of equation (4.11) gives the result for the second part of the Clausius inequality.14. which he named entropy.13) Although the Clausius inequality has been derived here through arguments applied to heat engines. or entropy per unit mass. defining the entropy of a pure crystalline substance as zero at a temperature of absolute zero. that which applies to the operation of an irreversible heat engine: dQ ᎏϽ0 Ώᎏ T (4. the change is independent of the path taken and must be the change in value of a property. as it led Clausius to conclude that he had discovered a new property.11) gives the result for the first part of the Clausius inequality. It now follows that.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 and hence Q2 Q1 ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ T2 T1 Substituting into equation (4. This leads to the definition of the change in entropy between any two states. Finally. As for any other property such as pressure or temperature. In this case.13) to two cycles.14) reversible Note that this is the change in entropy. as illustrated in Figure 4. with one process (C) in common. the change between state 1 and state 2 must be the same for both cycles. because the path connecting states 1 and 2 are different for the two cycles. if the integration of ᎏᎏ around T either complete cycle is to be zero. The third law of thermodynamics provides this. the change in the entropy between two states of thermodynamic equilibrium of a closed system must have a value that does not depend on the process connecting these. the absolute value of entropy at a reference state must be defined. 230 .8) and (4. The steps are the same as they were for the proof that internal energy exists.

around the cycle.21.21 Entropy is created during process B only when this process is irreversible If. During process A the change in entropy is given by S2 Ϫ S1 ϭ dQ ͵ ᎏ ᎏ T 2 1 reversible During process B. order has decreased and entropy has increased. because there is no heat transfer. during which no heat transfer occurs. with all windows and doors in place and no missing roof tiles. 1 2 A Property Y 2 dQ dQ dQ ᎏ ϭ ͵ ᎏᎏ ϩ ͵ ᎏᎏ ϭ (S Ϫ S ) ϩ 0 ϭ S Ϫ S Ώᎏ T T T 2 1 2 1 2 1 If we now choose to make process B reversible. the cycle is reversible dQ ᎏᎏ ϭ 0 T and S1 ϭ S2 Ώ 1 B Property X Figure 4.Thermodynamics Equation (4. will have a particular value for a specified state. as a measure of order (or lack of order). but not vice versa. however.14) can be thought of as connecting heat transfer to entropy changes during a reversible process undergone by a closed system in a similar way to how work transfer is related to changes in volume: W ϭ Ϫ p dV 1 ͵ 2 Qϭ ͵ T dS 2 1 What is entropy? Entropy is a property that. everything that makes up the building has its place. The increase must have been generated by the irreversibility of the process. so minimizing the increase in entropy can be a measure of our success. during which heat transfer can occur. none has been possible because no heat transfer has occurred. In engineering. changing state 1 to state 2. During the demolition. so there is a cost. without work input. This can be illustrated by analysing the cycle shown in Figure 4. like any other. A simple analogue to aid understanding entropy and the cost of disorder is this: visualize a building in good condition. Now suppose the building is smashed to rubble. instead. In this ordered state. the cycle is irreversible: dQ ᎏϽ0 Ώᎏ T and S1 Ͼ S2 Comparing the two cases shows that entropy increased during B when this process was irreversible. we make process B irreversible. It has wider significance. This has a structure which is well ordered. there can be no entropy transfer from the system and so. Entropy increases as disorder increases.‘Order’ tends to deteriorate into ‘disorder’. What price is there to pay? The cost of the work involved in rebuilding the structure. 231 . The cycle has a reversible process A. The increase is not due to a transfer of entropy from the surroundings. the building has a low value of entropy. A remarkable implication of the Clausius inequality is that: Entropy is created during an irreversible process. increases in entropy are often associated with inefficiencies in machine performance or processes which we want to eliminate as far as possible. and part of its value in analysing problems is as a measure of the deterioration. followed by a second process B. reducing the materials to a disordered state (debris).

extract heat from a reservoir. Work can be converted continuously and completely into heat. where it gives up energy. where it receives energy. It is not conserved. ✔ 232 .An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 However. There are. unlike internal energy or mass. but also that it provides a measure of order and irreversibility. If a system is operating in a cycle while exchanging heat with only one reservoir. but heat cannot be converted completely and continuously into work. not work transfer. Instead of producing work output. if a net transfer of work occurs it must be to the system. If no heat transfer takes place. but the direction of heat transfer is now from the cold reservoir and to the hot reservoir. like pressure or temperature. It is important to remember that entropy is a property. limits on how efficiently heat can be drawn from a source and converted into work output using a system which operates in a cycle: It is impossible to construct a system which will operate in a cycle. The refrigerator operates between a cold reservoir (the interior cold space) and a hot reservoir (the surroundings of the refrigerator) like a heat engine. the total entropy of the universe is raised each time an irreversible process occurs. Does that not mean that ͛dS ϭ 0? Well. and the principle of energy conservation is not violated. which are conserved. Efficiency is the measure of success in achieving this. This does not contradict the first law. the entropy generated by irreversibilities must be transferred to the surroundings. this may result in an increase in entropy of the system and/or of the surroundings. The refrigerant has to be at a lower temperature than the cold space in this part of the circuit and at a higher temperature than the surroundings when in this part of the circuit. This pumps a refrigerant around a circuit passing between the cold space. Before leaving this section. and a completed cycle returns the system to its initial state and value of entropy. and the entropy of the universe is increasing continuously as the result of the myriad irreversible processes taking place: an implication of the Clausius inequality is that entropy is created during an irreversible process. entropy is a property. 2 carnot ϭ 1 Ϫ ᎏᎏ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ T T1 The existence of entropy is a corollary of the second law. This transfer requires there to be heat transfer to the surroundings. a system operating in a cycle and producing work output must be exchanging heat with at least two reservoirs at different temperatures.We do not have to think on this scale to recognize the implications. ✔ As a consequence of the second law. the entropy within a closed system remains constant during reversible processes and increases during irreversible processes. not the net heat transfer. here is a note on the question posed in the introduction: How does a refrigerator cool a cold space in a hot room? The answer: It operates as a reversed heat engine. yes! But. The highest possible efficiency that can be achieved is the Carnot efficiency. Learning summary ✔ By the end of this section you should understand that the second law of thermodynamics distinguishes between work and heat transfer and recognize that work transfer is the more valuable of these. only about a system and its surroundings. however. If an irreversible process creates entropy within the system. The efficiency of a heat engine designed to produce a net work output is defined as net work output W ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ heat supplied Q1 Note that it is the heat supplied that we are trying to convert to work output. and do an equivalent amount of work on the surroundings. energy transferred by one is indistinguishable from energy transferred by the other. and the surroundings. Entropy can only be transferred across the boundary of a closed system with heat transfer. and an irreversible cycle must have one or more processes during which heat transfer occurs. there has to be work input to the refrigerator. like mass of energy.

but varies during a process Open system Denotes locations within the system at which a continuous process starts and ends The fluid undergoes a process as it passes through the system The fluid state varies with location through the system.4 Open systems. The processes undergone in open systems are flow processes. The state of fluid at a particular location is constant State Relationships between properties Mass conservation Same for both systems The mass of matter in the system remains constant because no matter can cross the boundaries of the system. Closed system Use of suffix to define time or location to which conditions apply Processes Denotes initial and final states of the system during a discrete process The fluid undergoing the process is retained within the system The fluid state is uniform throughout the system. its boundaries can move and the quantities of energy and matter within it can vary with time. if its location changes. 233 . . for many open system problems arising in engineering it is possible to apply assumptions which simplify the analysis. m1 ϭ m2 Steady flow energy equation Energy conservation (first law) Reversible specific work ͵ 2 wϭ ͵ v dp ϩ ⌬KE ϩ ⌬PE 2 1 Table 4.2. open system and non-flow. The matter will have kinetic energy and. so might its potential energy. The results for open systems are developed in the following. closed system problems are defined and analysed are set out in Table 4. and the analysis of steady flow problems is the main topic of this section. mass flow continuity. the steady flow energy equation and enthalpy By definition. . m ϭ constant Q ϩ W ϭ U2 – U1 w ϭ Ϫ p dv 1 Under steady flow conditions the mass of matter within the system remains constant because the rate at which matter flows into the system is exactly equal to the rate at which matter flows out of the system. and some of the results applied to closed systems in earlier pages will not apply. The motion of matter in an open system must be considered. However. For open systems. One of the most important is the assumption that steady flow conditions exist. This is a fundamental difference from a closed system and there are important differences between the ways the behaviour of the two types of system is analysed. The main differences in the way steady flow. additional elements of theory are required. as described in this section.Thermodynamics 4.2 Comparison of closed systems (non-flow processes) and open systems (steady flow processes) The volume of an open system can change in the most general definition of possibilities. This is different to what happens in a closed system which undergoes non-flow processes and only internal energy changes within the system are significant. matter can cross part or parts of the boundary of an open system.

it follows that the mass of matter entering the volume during a given interval of time must exactly equal the mass of matter leaving during the same interval. the quantities of matter and energy within the system boundaries are each constant and do not change with time.15) a c For the open system shown in Figure 4. there will be mass flow continuity The mass flowrates entering and leaving the open system. mass flow continuity requires The mass flowrate across the boundary at an inlet and outlet is related to the cross-sectional area A of the passage.22 Under steady flow conditions. It follows that the net flows of matter and energy into the system must both be zero. m ϭ AC (4. and one outlet c. All the sources of energy transfers into and out of the system must be accounted for. L The parcel will have a mass ␦m ϭ AL and it will take time t ϭ ᎏᎏ seconds C to cross the boundary. including the energy transported by matter flowing into and out of the system as well as work and heat transfers at the boundaries.22.23. Since mass flowrate is the mass of matter crossing the boundary in unit time.16) b Figure 4. . Mass conservation and mass flow continuity The mass m of matter in the volume defined by the boundaries of an open system is given by the integration of density over the volume: mϭ ͵ dV v 0 Under steady-state conditions this is constant and since matter is neither being created nor destroyed. so more generally the mass flow continuity equation is Αm ϭoutlet Αm inlet . there are two inlets a and b. . the mass density and the velocity C of the flow normal to the boundary by the mass flowrate equation: .23 Mass flowrate is the mass of matter passing across the boundary in unit time 234 . are equal. (4. the combined rates of mass flow into the open system through inlets a and b is equal to the rate of mass flow leaving the system through outlet c This equation can be derived by considering the movement of a parcel of matter of mass dm across the boundary shown in Figure 4. There is no restriction on the number of inlets or outlets of mass flow that a control volume can have. for this case.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 For steady flow through an open system which has fixed boundaries. . This principle of mass conservation leads to the requirement that: Under steady flow conditions. we obtain AL ␦m . and. in kg sϪ1. m ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏ L ϭ AC t ᎏᎏ C Length L Area A Velocity C Figure 4. ma ϩ mb ϭ mc .

Thermodynamics Figure 4.147 kg sϪ1 Applying the mass flowrate equation to flow through inlet b yields 2.147 kg sϪ1 4 Mass continuity requires mb ϭ mc Ϫ ma ϭ 4.24. In addition.0 ϭ 2. The equation is valid for all reversible and irreversible steady flow processes undergone by a working fluid passing through an open system. the energy entering the system during any time interval must be equal to the energy leaving during the same interval. applied to steady flow through an open system. at outlet c.22 illustrates a junction in a high-pressure gas distribution system operating under steady flow conditions. Kinetic energy Work transfer Internal energy Heat transfer Potential energy Figure 4. work and heat transfer contributions to the SFEE 235 . The forms in which energy is transported into or out of the control volume by the movement of matter are illustrated in Figure 4. the density is 11 kg m؊3 and the gas flows with a velocity of 3 m s؊1.0 ϫ ᎏᎏ 4 The steady flow energy equation and enthalpy Like mass. Part of the work done at the boundaries is done by the working fluid itself. The mass flowrate of gas passing through inlet pipe a is 2 kg s؊1. because it is work done by matter in motion on matter in front of it on the other side of the system boundary. This is called flow work. at the inlets and outlets to the system.252 b Ab 10.147 mb Cb ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏᎏ ϭ 4. 25 cm and 40 cm respectively.402 mc ϭ c AcCc ϭ 11. This is the principle of conservation of energy.0 ϭ 4. The equation which expresses this in mathematical form is the steady flow energy equation (or SFEE).0 ϫ ᎏᎏ ϫ 3.147 Ϫ 2. If the density at inlet b is 10 kg m؊3. or the first law of thermodynamics.24 Energy transport.374 m sϪ1 ϫ 0. energy is transferred across the boundaries by work and heat transfer. what is the gas velocity in this inlet pipe? The mass flowrate of gas passing through outlet c will be ϫ 0. if the energy contained within the system boundaries does not increase or reduce with time. energy is conserved and in steady flow problems. b and c are 20 cm. The internal diameters of the pipes a.

The increase is made up of gains in C22 C21 specific internal energy (u2 Ϫ u1)..25 depicts an open system with a parcel of matter A upstream and outside the system boundary and a second parcel. the SFEE can be written as C22 C21 q ϩ w ϩ p1v1 Ϫ p2v2 ϭ u2 ϩ ᎏᎏ ϩ gz2 Ϫ u1 ϩ ᎏᎏ ϩ gz1 2 2 (4. This is work done on and by matter flowing across the system boundaries. and in B v2 ϭ ᎏᎏ.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 If all the energy inflows and outflows are to balance over a time interval. continuously and these are defined as a rate of heat transfer Q or power W. it does work p2A2x2 on fluid outside the system. for which the mass flows into and out of the system are equal and also constant. and work transfers take place . A1x1 A2x2 then the matter in parcel A has a specific volume v1 ϭ ᎏ ᎏ. Under steady flow conditions. B. specific kinetic energy ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ and 2 2 specific potential energy (gz2 Ϫ gz1). Thus: . As B passes across the boundary at plane 2.17) The right-hand side of the equation expresses the difference between energy transported into and out of the system per unit of mass flow. in J sϪ1 or watts. The final term in the SFEE is the specific flow work (p1v1 Ϫ p2v2). The heat transferred per unit mass (q) is equal to ᎏ m . A will pass through plane 1. the specific kinetic energy requires the matter to have velocity. Figure 4. Each exerts a force on the matter downstream of it. Those at the back of the crowd press forward on those in front. W .W. X2 X1 B A P2 P1 Area A1 Area A2 Figure 4. The force exerted by A will be p1A1. inside the downstream boundary of the system. who tend to be assisted forward without so much effort. as B passes through plane 2. and a change in potential energy requires the matter to have changed height above a datum position. The difference between these is the flow work (p1A1x1 – p2A2x2) done on the closed system as the transfers across 1 and 2 take place. imagine the flow of matter as people hurrying towards the same destination. then Heat work flow work energy transported out energy transported into ϩ ϩ ϭ Ϫ transfer transfer transfer of control volume by matter control volume by matter On the left side of the equality are the sources of energy transfer across the boundary to matter within the control volume. it pushes fluid ahead of it and does work p1A1x1 on fluid inside the system. This is the energy gained by 1 kg of matter as it passes through the system from inlet to outlet. energy transfers can be expressed as values of energy transferred per unit of mass passing through the system. The specific internal energy is the same form of energy possessed by matter in a closed system. heat. Because we are considering only steady flow conditions. the force exerted by B will be p2A2. They have the same mass. where z is taken to be zero. and. The quantities on the right side are energy being transported across the boundaries by matter. the work transferred per unit mass (w) is equal to ᎏ m Using these specific quantities. To visualize how flow work is done. If A and B each contain mass ␦m.25 Specific flow work is done at the boundaries of an open system As A passes across the boundary at plane 1. ␦m ␦m Hence the work done per unit of mass entering or leaving the system is (p2A2x2 Ϫ p2A2x2) Specific work flow ϭ ᎏ ᎏ ␦m ϭ p1v1 Ϫ p2v2 236 . Q .

(This is a property of the matter. and the change in potential energy produced by raising the height above the datum by 3 m is 29.) After substituting h for u ϩ pv and regrouping the terms on the right side. but it is usual to place the flow work term on the right-hand side of the SFEE: C2 C2 2 1 q ϩ w ϭ p2v2 Ϫ p1v1 ϩ u2 ϩ ᎏᎏ ϩ gz2 Ϫ u1 ϩ ᎏᎏ ϩ gz1 2 2 or C2 C2 2 1 q ϩ w ϭ u2 ϩ p2v2 ϩ ᎏᎏ ϩ gz2 Ϫ u1 ϩ p1v1 ϩ ᎏᎏ ϩ gz1 2 2 The important combination of properties u ϩ pv will always appear in the analysis of energy conservation applied to open systems. C2 C2 . say. and a quantity of m kilograms of matter has mh joules of enthalpy H. the heat input is required as a specific value of heat transfer per unit mass. Each time. the change in kinetic energy produced by raising velocity from 1 to 10 m sϪ1 is 49. the outlet velocity of the flow was to be calculated. The outlet of the duct is 15 m below. the changes could be important. the specific enthalpy increases by 16 kJ kg؊1.17) and substituting values: 2 C2 ᎏᎏ ϭ 16 667 Ϫ 16 000 Ϫ 147. For example. because matter passing across the boundaries of the system will always do flow work and possess internal energy. the change in enthalpy is often much larger than the changes in kinetic energy and potential energy. the change in specific enthalpy (h2 Ϫ h1) is 16 000 J kgϪ1. Calculate the air velocity at the exit. For gas flows through open systems at velocities up to tens of metres per second and rising or falling through heights of a few metres. a rise in air temperature from 20 to 30 °C produces a change in the specific enthalpy of air of 10. then (4. the specific kinetic energy ᎏᎏ is 312. this is called specific enthalpy.19) will apply to all steady flows through open systems.5 J kgϪ1. In many cases such relatively small changes in kinetic and potential energy may be neglected in calculations of heat and work transfer but if. the SFEE becomes C2 C2 2 1 q ϩ w ϭ h2 Ϫ h1 ϩ ᎏᎏ Ϫ ᎏᎏ ϩ gz2 Ϫ gz1 2 2 If both sides are multiplied by the mass flowrate. 2 1 Q ϩ W ϭ m h2 Ϫ h1 ϩ ᎏᎏ Ϫ ᎏᎏ ϩ gz2 Ϫ gz1 (4. To apply the SFEE in the form given in equation (4.Thermodynamics The calculation of flow work can be repeated each time parcels of matter enter and leave. Because this is a combination of properties.18) and (4. Rearranging 2 (4.050 J kgϪ1. and at inlet the air velocity is 25 m s؊1. .18) .3 J kgϪ1 2 and the air velocity at the outlet is C2 ϭ 28.2 J kg . In the intensive form.18). This happens only when there is movement of matter. and has units of joules per kilogram (J kgϪ1). and the change in specific potential energy g(z2 Ϫ z1) is C2 1 Ϫ 1 147.8 m sϪ1 237 .4 J kgϪ1. q: 50 ϫ 103 q ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 16 667 J kgϪ1 3 There is no work transfer taking place. h. Air is heated at the rate of 50 kW as it flows at a steady rate downwards through a vertical duct.5 ϭ 832. At the inlet.2 ϩ 312. it must be a property itself: at a given state. it will have a particular value. so w is zero.19) 2 2 Equations (4. Between the inlet and outlet. for any reversible and irreversible process changing the state of matter from state 1 to state 2. and is a transfer of energy between quantities of matter. The mass flowrate of air is 3 kg s؊1.5 J kgϪ1. the work done represents a transfer of energy across the boundaries of the open system from matter on one side to matter on the other side as a result of flow.

22) Both equations (4.20) The next step in the development requires the process undergone by matter passing through the system to be reversible. gives dh ϭ du ϩ d(pv) ϭ du ϩ p dv ϩ v dp which can be substituted into (4. and for a reversible process undergone by a closed system. the first law gives dq ϭ du ϩ p dv (4. If this matter is imagined to be sealed inside small parcels with flexible but impervious walls.19) to obtain dq ϩ dw ϭ du ϩ p dv ϩ v dp ϩ d(KE) ϩ d(PE) (4. and with incremental changes d(KE) in kinetic energy and d(PE) in potential energy per unit mass this becomes: dq ϩ dw ϭ dh ϩ d(KE) ϩ d(PE) Taking the definition of specific enthalpy.23) 238 .21) (4. in fluid mechanics this is more commonly applied as the Bernoulli equation with head loss terms. Since conditions in the open system are reversible. Historically. internal energy cannot be converted into these other forms and heat transfer raises internal energy. the processes undergone by matter in the moving closed system must also be reversible. In differential form. The SFEE (4.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 What is the connection between the SFEE and the Bernoulli equation with head loss terms? Although the SFEE can be applied to compressible and incompressible flows through open systems. frictional dissipation can convert kinetic energy into internal energy thereby representing a loss of energy which might be harnessed to produce work output.22) can be applied to the same matter. and simplifying. h ϭ u ϩ pv. fluid mechanics has been the study of incompressible fluids in which only mechanical forms of energy are utilized: if density is constant. we obtain dw ϭ v dp ϩ d(KE) ϩ d(PE) and the specific work done between 1 and 2 in a reversible process is w ϭ v dp ϩ ⌬KE ϩ ⌬PE 1 ͵ 2 (4.18) is the starting point for the development. after substituting v ϭ ᎏᎏ. Hence. this would usually be presented as 2 p1 C 2 p2 C 2 1 ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ ϩ gz1 ϩ w ϭ ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ ϩ gz2 ϩ gHlosses 2 2 1 2 in which the ‘loss’ term gHlosses represents the dissipation of mechanically available energy into internal energy. Equation (4. the matter is both inside the closed system and flowing through the open system. and differentiating. To obtain this form.21) and (4. by equating expressions for dq. On the other hand. The specific work transfer and power input to an open system can be calculated using the SFEE without qualification.19) can be applied to any steady flow problem and any reversible or irreversible process undergone by the matter flowing through the system. each parcel can be treated as a miniature closed system being transported in the flow.18) or (4. If the flow process is reversible. the result is 2 p1 C 2 p2 C 2 1 ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ ϩ gz1 ϩ w ϭ ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ ϩ gz2 ϩ (u2 Ϫ u1 Ϫ q) 2 2 1 2 In fluid mechanics. the dependence of specific work on pressure and specific volume can be expressed explicitly. the SFEE is rearranged from C2 C2 2 1 q ϩ w ϭ p 2v2 Ϫ p1v1 ϩ u2 ϩ ᎏ ᎏᎏ ϩ gz2 Ϫ u1 ϩ ᎏᎏ Ϫ gz1 2 2 1 For an incompressible fluid.

the matter in or flowing through a system has been described in the most general way as the working fluid. Here. The analysis of steady flows through open systems is based on the mass flow continuity equation: inlets ✔ Α mϭΑm outlets . for the same state change 1 to 2. ✔ Specific enthalpy h is a property defined as the combination of properties (u ϩ pv). we consider how behaviour depends on the nature of the matter and a set of material properties which have constant or weakly varying values. is obtained by multiplying by mass flowrate: . C2 2 C2 2 These equations apply to both reversible and irreversible flow processes. . these include pressure.5 The properties of perfect gases and steam In earlier sections. . The specific work done during any. Enthalpy and specific enthalpy have the units of energy (J) or specific energy (J kgϪ1) respectively. 239 . This combination appears as a natural grouping in the steady flow equation. Under steady flow conditions. steady flow process can be determined using the SFEE if the remaining terms have known values. reversible or irreversible. W ϭ m v dp ϩ m (⌬KE ϩ ⌬PE) ͵ 1 If the changes in kinetic energy and potential energy are small enough to be neglected. defining the state of the matter and the system under investigation. and the SFEE . temperature and density. matter enters and leaves the system at the same mass flowrate and the mass of matter in the system remains constant. 2 . the specific work can also be determined from wϭ ✔ ͵ v dp 2 1 ✔ You must be careful not to confuse this with the corresponding result for specific work done during a reversible process on a closed system: w ϭ Ϫ p dv 1 ͵ 2 4. although of course not all gases and fluids behave in the same way or have the same property values. . (4. The matter passing through an open system undergoes a flow process. The treatment is selective but provides an introduction to a model of gas behaviour which is widely used in engineering and to the behaviour of water and steam as an important special case of a condensable vapour. w Ϫ͵ v dv shows these are not the same. Section 4. Learning summary ✔ Open systems have parts of their boundary which matter can cross. Comparing this to the specific work done on a closed system during a reversible process.6 contains results for specific work for different types of reversible process when kinetic and potential energy changes can be neglected. These are distinguished by differences in the values and interdependence of their thermodynamic and transport properties. but these have no independent physical meaning and enthalpy can be considered to have been invented as a convenience rather than discovered.23) becomes w ͵ v dp. In the restricted case of a reversible flow process in which kinetic energy and potential energy changes can be neglected. in watts.Thermodynamics The rate of work transfer or the power input. including results which apply to closed system problems. and others. The properties considered earlier are system properties which change in value when a state change occurs. 2 1 2 1 the work done on matter flowing through an open system is greater than the work done on a closed system because of flow work. QϩW 2 1 ϭ m h2 Ϫ h1 ϩ ᎏᎏ Ϫ ᎏᎏ ϩ gz2 Ϫ gz1 .

that is. The perfect gas equation can be expressed as pV ϭ mRT or. No gas is really perfect. The value of R can be calculated from R R ϭ ᎏ~ ᎏ m where R is the same for all gases. ~ ~ ~ ~ Values of the molar masses and specific gas constants of some common gases are given in Table 4. described in this section: (a) gas behaviour obeys the perfect gas equation. since V v ϭ ᎏᎏ m pv ϭ RT and. ˜ is the molar mass R is the universal gas constant ( R ϭ 8. The perfect gas equation is an equation of state. oxygen and small amounts of other gases.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Perfect gases Many real gases and mixtures of gases (such as air) can be treated as if they are a perfect gas for approximate calculations of properties. illustrating that a mixture of perfect gases will also behave as a perfect gas. and not on the system containing the gas nor on the type of any process undergone. because 1 ϭ ᎏᎏ v p ϭ rRT (4. m (kg kmolϪ1) of the gas.24) (4. which is a mixture of nitrogen. This depends only on the characteristics of the gas.3145 ϫ 103 J kmolϪ1 KϪ1). temperature T (K) and density (kg mϪ3). this is numerically equal to the molecular weight of the gas. Gas Molar mass m (kg kmol؊1) 29 40 58 44 28 4 2 16 28 32 44 ~ Specific gas constant R ~ ~ R ϭ R /m (J kg؊1 K؊1) 287 208 297 189 297 208 412 189 297 260 189 Specific heat cp (J kg؊1 K؊1) 1005 520 1716 846 1040 5193 14 307 2254 1039 918 1491 Specific heat cv (J kg؊1 K؊1) 718 312 1573 657 744 3116 10 183 1735 743 658 1679 Air (–) Argon (Ar) Butane (C4H10) Carbon dioxide (CO2) Carbon monoxide (CO) Helium (He) Hydrogen (H2) Methane (CH4) Nitrogen (N2) Oxygen (O2) Propane (C3H8) Table 4. For a gas to be perfect it must meet two requirements.3 Perfect gas properties of some common gases 240 .3. The table includes air. and (b) specific heats cp and cv are constants.26) Each gas has a specific gas constant R (J kgϪ1 KϪ1) which is a gas property and a constant.25) (4. it defines a relationship between the pressure p (Pa or N mϪ2). but this idealization is very useful in modelling the behaviour of gases over moderate ranges of pressure and temperature.

3922 kg mϪ3 which is accurate to three significant figures. and avoids the most common source of calculation errors.3 ᎏᎏ ᎏᎏ T2 P1 273 ϩ 900 200 ϫ 103 Note that the temperatures and pressures have been converted to SI units for the calculation. with p1 < p2 < p3 241 . After the mixture has burned. and using the value of R of 287 J kgϪ1 KϪ1.3145 ϫ 103 R1 ϭ ᎏ ᎏ ϭ ᎏ ᎏ ϭ 729. It is always good practice.26–4.When applied to air.Thermodynamics A flammable gas mixture with a molar mass of 114 kg kmol؊1 is burned in a rigid container with a fixed volume. Initially. T or v when the other two property values are specified. P2V2 ϭ m2R2T2 Although R2 is unknown because the value of the molar mass has changed during combustion. the variation of the other two are linked. because the products of combustion also behave as a perfect gas.28. yields T1 P2 273 ϩ 30 400 ϫ 103 ϭ 376. ~ The perfect gas equation defines the value of either p. the perfect gas equation is sufficiently accurate to use in the majority of applications to engineering problems where pressures are typically between small fractions of a bar and ϳ102 bar and temperatures are between 200 and 1500 K. Calculate the specific gas constant for the products of combustion. Use suffix (1) for conditions before combustion. This is a model of gas behaviour – there are other models which can be used to describe gas behaviour more accurately.8 J kgϪ1 KϪ1 R2 ϭ R1 ᎏᎏ ᎏᎏ ϭ 729. If one is held constant. the pressure is 400 kPa and the temperature is 900 °C.26 The variation in temperature T with specific volume v at fixed values of pressure p. and substituting values. T p3 p2 p1 Line of constant pressure v Figure 4. the density calculated using the perfect gas equation is 0. as illustrated in Figures 4. assuming the initial gas mixture and the products of combustion behave as perfect gases.013 bar and a temperature of 900 K. Initially the pressure in the container is 200 kPa and the temperature is 30 °C.3 J kgϪ1 KϪ1 ~ 114 m1 and because the gas mixture is a perfect gas P1V1 ϭ m1R1T1 After combustion. at a pressure of 1. and (2) for conditions after combustion. For example. but the perfect gas equation is the simplest and most widely used across the range of engineering thermodynamic problems. Hence m V 1 V2 ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ m1 m2 and using the perfect gas equation R1T1 R2T2 ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ P1 P2 Rearranging this. the specific gas constant will be R 8. the volume of the container and the mass of gas do not change. so values V of ᎏᎏ can be equated.

with T1 < T2 < T3 Line of constant volume p Figure 4.3. The specific heat at constant volume. cp (J kgϪ1 KϪ1). enthalpy and entropy must be added to the list of key properties such as pressure. enthalpy and entropy were introduced in earlier sections. temperature and density which change in value when the state of matter changes.27) u2 Ϫ u1 ϭ cv(T2 Ϫ T1) 242 . The process is reversible. Because the values of the specific heats of a perfect gas are constants that do not depend on volume. is the change in du specific internal energy (u) per degree temperature rise. viscosity and the specific heats which vary more with temperature than pressure or specific volume but. There are other properties of matter influencing thermodynamic behaviour which do not change in value nearly so much when the state changes. the variation with temperature is weak and often neglected when the range of temperatures of interest is a few hundred degrees or less.27 The variation in pressure p with specific volume v at fixed values of temperature.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 T Line of constant temperature T v3 v2 v1 T3 T2 T1 v Figure 4. These include thermal conductivity. internal energy through the study of closed systems. For example. The specific heat at constant pressure. cv ϭ ᎏᎏ. with v1 < v2 < v3 Internal energy. during a constant-pressure process. the definitions can be rearranged and integrated to give expressions for the changes in specific internal energy and specific enthalpy between any two states 1 and 2: (4. although the significance of these properties extends more widely than this. pressure or temperature.Values of dt the specific heats of some gases commonly treated as perfect gases are given in Table 4. cp ϭ ᎏᎏ. cv (J kgϪ1 KϪ1).28 The variation in temperature T with pressure p at fixed values of specific volume. during a constant-volume dt process. so specific work is w ϭ Ϫ p dv 1 ͵ 2 and for a constant-pressure process this becomes w ϭ Ϫp(v2 Ϫ v1) Applying the first law to the closed system gives q ϭ u2 Ϫ u1 ϩ p(v2 Ϫ v1) ϭ (u2 ϩ pv2) Ϫ (u1 ϩ pv1) ϭ h2 Ϫ h1 Internal energy. The specific heats cv and cp are properties which relate temperature changes (which can be measured) of a substance to changes in internal energy and enthalpy (which cannot be measured directly). entropy through the study of heat engines and enthalpy through the SFEE. is the change in specific dh enthalpy (h) per degree temperature rise. even so. the specific heat transferred to a closed system during a reversible constantpressure expansion from 1 to 2 is equal to the change in specific enthalpy of the system.

transferring energy to the surroundings. so applying the first law to the process: qv ϭ u2 Ϫ u1 and the specific heat at constant volume is qv cv ϭ ᎏᎏ T2 Ϫ T1 In the experiment to determine cp. consider how values of specific heats might be determined experimentally by heating a closed system containing matter.27) and (4.28) The value of cp is always greater than cv for a gas. the experiment is carried on a closed system with a fixed. Figure 4. (4. given the symbol ␥.29 An imagined experiment in which a closed system is made to undergo a constantpressure process in order to determine cp 243 .29. in the constant-pressure case. is always greater than cv unity. U2 Ϫ U1 ϭ mcv(T2 Ϫ T1) and for the change in specific enthalpy h2 Ϫ h1 ϭ cp(T2 Ϫ T1) or enthalpy H2 Ϫ H1 ϭ mcp(T2 Ϫ T1) A relationship between the specific heats and the specific gas constant can be obtained from the definition of specific enthalpy. To determine cv. It follows that cp must be greater than cv and the ratio cp of specific heats ᎏᎏ. the joules of heat transfer required to raise the temperature by one degree kelvin is recorded. h ϭ u ϩ pv. as illustrated in Figure 4.Thermodynamics or for the change in internal energy. but. and the change between two states 1 and 2: h2 Ϫ h1 ϭ (u2 Ϫ u1) ϩ (p2v2 Ϫ p1v1) Substituting from equations (4. In this case. The value of ␥ varies between close to 1 for a gas with a 5 large molar mass and ᎏ3ᎏ for helium which has the lowest molar mass. the heat transfer occurs in a constant-pressure process. This can be achieved by allowing the system volume to change.28). cancelling out (T2 – T1) values gives c p ϭ cv ϩ R (4. constant volume. requiring this to be larger to achieve the same rise in temperature. Applying the first law to this heating process yields qp ϭ (u2 Ϫ u1) ϩ p(v2 Ϫ v1) and qp cp ϭ ᎏᎏ T2 Ϫ T1 Comparing the results for qv and qp shows the increase in internal energy is the same. No work is done on the system because the volume is constant. To understand why.29) (4. In these experiments.25) yields cp(T2 Ϫ T1) ϭ cv(T2 Ϫ T1) ϩ R(T2 Ϫ T1) and hence. work transfer returns to the surroundings some of the energy supplied by heat transfer. work is done by the system.

To determine the change in specific entropy of a perfect gas.30) Equation (4.31) can be derived to relate specific entropy changes to changes in temperature and pressure.30) and (4.31) Two other forms of equations (4. These are included in Table 4. an open system or enclosed in a closed system. m(s2 Ϫ s1) is the increase in the rate of entropy flow between locations 1 and 2. but the change must always be the same. du ϭ cv. dT. and thus for this case v T cv dT R dv ds ϭ ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ v T or.30) can be applied to find the entropy change per unit mass either flowing through . 244 .29) and the ratio of specific heats can be combined to find two more useful relationships: R cv ϭ ᎏᎏ (␥ Ϫ 1) and ␥R cp ϭ ᎏᎏ (␥ Ϫ 1) Calculating the change in entropy of a perfect gas Calculating the change in the value of any property during a process connecting two states. 2 2 cv dT R dv s2 Ϫ s1 ϭ ᎏ ᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ v T 1 1 ͵ ͵ and hence the change in specific entropy (in J kgϪ1 KϪ1) between two states 1 and 2 is T2 v2 s2 Ϫ s1 ϭ cv lnᎏᎏ ϩ R lnᎏᎏ T1 v1 (4. This is a very valuable observation. integrating. In closed system problems. In an open system.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Equation (4.30) by the mass m of matter contained in the system: T2 v2 S2 Ϫ S1 ϭ mcv lnᎏᎏ ϩ mR lnᎏᎏ T1 v1 (4. Because the result must always be the same. we can choose to follow a reversible process undergone by a closed system and in this case. in which the relationships for perfect gases are summarized. from the perfect gas equation. the incremental changes in specific heat transfer and work done are given by results for a reversible non-flow process: dq ϭ T ds dw ϭ Ϫp dv From the first law dq ϩ dw ϭ du and substituting the results for dq and dw gives a relationship between properties that is independent of the system type or process undergone: T ds ϭ du ϩ p dv or du p dv ds ϭ ᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ T T p R For a perfect gas. or pressure and volume.4. is more difficult for some processes than others. The result will be independent of the type of process or whether this is reversible or irreversible. the increase in entropy (J KϪ1) when the system state changes from 1 to 2 is found by multiplying (4. we can select a process to connect the states which we can analyse. 1 and 2. and. ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ.

refrigerators for chilling enclosures and heat pumps for warming enclosures so there are many applications where the change of phase of a working fluid is essential to the efficient performance of a machine or system.Thermodynamics Property or equation name Perfect gas equation Specific heats and specific gas constant Equation(s) pV ϭ mRT or pv ϭ RT or p ϭ RT ϳ R R ϭ cp Ϫ cv and R ϭ ϳ m cp ␥ ϭ ᎏᎏ cv ␥R R cp ϭ ᎏᎏ and cv ϭ ᎏᎏ (␥ Ϫ 1) (␥ Ϫ 1) U2 Ϫ U1 ϭ mcv(T2 Ϫ T1) H2 Ϫ H1 ϭ mcp(T2 Ϫ T1) and and u2 Ϫ u1 ϭ cv(T2 Ϫ T1) h2 Ϫ h1 ϭ cp(T2 Ϫ T1) cv and cp are constants Internal energy and specific internal energy Enthalpy and specific enthalpy Entropy and specific entropy T2 v2 S2 Ϫ S1 ϭ mcv lnᎏᎏ ϩ mR lnᎏᎏ or T1 v1 p2 v2 S2 Ϫ S1 ϭ mcv lnᎏᎏ ϩ mcp lnᎏᎏ or p1 v1 T2 p2 S2 Ϫ S1 ϭ mcp lnᎏᎏ Ϫ mR lnᎏᎏ and T1 p1 (S2 Ϫ S1) s2 Ϫ s1 ϭ ᎏ ᎏ m Table 4. there are others (notably water and refrigerants) which may change phase within the range of conditions which arise in particular applications. the water is a subcooled liquid. an equal quantity of energy is released at constant temperature. A fluid is described as a gas if its temperature exceeds the critical value above which changes of phase by evaporation or condensation do not occur. Fluids also have a critical pressure above which phase changes do not occur. The 245 . but now the closed system contains water. Fluids undergoing a phase change at constant pressure from liquid to vapour by evaporation absorb energy at constant temperature. vapour or a gas. The line will start at the initial temperature and specific volume of the water. At this point (A).29. Heating the water raises the temperature and increases the volume of the water until the temperature reaches the saturation temperature.6 °C at 1 bar. more generally matter can exist as a solid. The use of these can be illustrated by considering what happens to water being heated at constant pressure. (This is the same set-up as shown in Figure 4. The water is now a saturated liquid and the temperature stays constant as the liquid changes phase to vapour by evaporation as further heat addition takes place.) The water is heated gradually and when the temperature and volume changes are plotted on a temperature–specific volume diagram. for example. Although in previous sections the working fluid has been a perfect gas or an incompressible fluid. additional information is required to define the state of the fluid and the relationship between properties. liquid. and a fluid at the critical pressure and critical temperature is said to be at the critical state. When the matter under investigation changes phase or can exist as a mixture of two phases. Several new terms used to describe the behaviour of a condensable vapour are summarized in Table 4. that a quantity of tap water at 20°C is sealed in a container with a lid which is free to rise or fall to control the pressure in the container to 1 bar.4 Relationships for perfect gases Properties of fluids which change phase In addition to the gases and fluids which remain in the same phase over the range of conditions of interest.5. which is 99. the line of constant pressure will appear as illustrated in Figure 4. Suppose.30.When condensing from vapour to liquid. This behaviour is exploited in the operation of thermodynamic plant such as steam for power generation.

vapour pressure. The point at which the saturated 246 . the temperature of a saturated liquid or saturated vapour at a given pressure. As the water evaporates. liquid at a temperature below the saturation temperature or at a pressure above the saturation pressure.30 A line of constant pressure on a temperature-specific volume diagram for water SATURATED LIQUID (suffix f) SATURATED VAPOUR (suffix g) SATURATION TEMPERATURE (ts) Liquid on the point of evaporation or the liquid formed during condensation of a vapour. Eventually. to 1 when all the water is in the saturated vapour state. Joining the points at which evaporation begins for each pressure forms a line on the diagram called the saturated liquid line. when all the water is saturated liquid. The difference between the temperature of a superheated vapour and the corresponding saturation temperature. a saturated vapour containing small droplets of liquid. the pressure of a saturated liquid or saturated vapour at a given temperature. Vapour at a temperature greater than the saturation temperature corresponding to the pressure of the vapour.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 saturated vapour and the remaining saturated liquid coexist in the container as a saturated mixture in a state of thermodynamic equilibrium. the change in specific volume of the mixture is large. The proportion by mass of saturated vapour in a given quantity of wet vapour. As pressure is raised. An UNSATURATED OR COMPRESSED LIQUID. This is shown in Figure 4. a series of constant pressure lines can be generated and regions of the diagram in which water or steam is in one or more phases can be identified. This is due to the specific volume of saturated vapour being much larger than that of saturated liquid at the same pressure and temperature. A mixture of saturated liquid and saturated vapour. also called the QUALITY of a wet vapour. repeating the task for the points at which evaporation is completed gives a second line called the saturated vapour line. The energy supplied per unit mass by heating to evaporate the fluid from saturated liquid to saturated vapour is equal to the specific latent heat of vaporization. Energy required as heat to completely evaporate unit mass of saturated liquid to saturated vapour. The vapour is now a superheated vapour. all the liquid will have evaporated to saturated vapour. The temperature at which evaporation or condensation take place at a given pressure. T (°C) Saturated liquid Superheated vapour Saturated mixture g f Subcooled liquid A Saturated vapour v (m3/kg) Figure 4. enclosing the saturated mixture region where saturated vapour and saturated liquid coexist. the change in specific volume between the saturated liquid and saturated vapour states shrinks and the two lines curve towards a point where they meet. The pressure required for evaporation or condensation to take place at a given temperature.31. The dryness fraction of the mixture increases from 0. with a degree of superheat equal to the temperature increase above the saturation temperature.When all the water has become saturated vapour. continued heating will raise the temperature above the saturation value.5 Terminology of phases of substances Temperature–specific volume diagram If the same experiment is repeated for different values of pressure. equal to (hg Ϫ hf ) SATURATION PRESSURE (ps) SUBCOOLED LIQUID SUPERHEATED VAPOUR DEGREE OF SUPERHEAT SATURATED MIXTURE DRYNESS FRACTION (x) SPECIFIC LATENT HEAT OF VAPORIZATION (hfg) Table 4. the boiling point. Vapour on the point of condensation or the vapour formed during evaporation of a liquid.

The value of the specific volume of the mixture will be given by sum of a vapour contribution plus a liquid contribution. To the right of the saturated vapour line. As the pressure is raised. This is because. the vapour is described as being supercritical steam.16°C Subcooled liquid region Critical point Saturated mixture region P ϭ 221. Dryness fraction (x) has relevance only in defining the state of a saturated mixture at a given temperature or pressure. The saturated vapour will occupy a volume equal to its specific volume multiplied by its mass fraction. For example. vapour or mixture in a saturated condition will be at a v (m3/kg) particular saturation pressure and saturation temperature. the vapour is described as being superheated steam. the for water saturation temperature increases. water is in the subcooled liquid state. but properties which have an intensive form are not. the pressure is equal to the critical pressure and the temperature is equal to the critical temperature. T (°C) Supercritical steam region T ϭ 374. The saturated liquid will occupy a volume equal to its specific volume multiplied by its mass fraction which will be (1 Ϫ x).1 bar and the critical temperature is 374. when the mixture is all saturated liquid. meaning the mixture contains no liquid. the volume change between the saturated liquid and saturated vapour states decreases and the heat transfer required to evaporate the liquid to vapour is reduced. per unit mass. nor greater than 1. that is. the pressure and temperature of the mixture are independent of the value of x. Dryness fraction is never less than zero. specific internal energy u and specific enthalpy h of the mixture are also found as mass-weighted sums of saturated liquid and vapour values.1 bar Lines of constant pressure Superheated vapour region Saturated liquid line (f ) Saturated vapour line (g) Any liquid. fixing one fixes both values and we can refer to the Figure 4. If the temperature and pressure are raised above their critical values. These are inseparable. At the same time. In the saturated condition. which will be x.Thermodynamics liquid and saturated vapour lines meet is the critical point at which liquid and vapour states become indistinguishable. or in the region where pressure is below the critical pressure but above the critical temperature.16 °C. In each case the suffix ‘f ’ is used to denote a saturated liquid value and the suffix ‘g’ is used to denote a saturated vapour value: s ϭ (1 Ϫ x)sf ϩ xsg u ϭ (1 Ϫ x)uf ϩ xug h ϭ (1 Ϫ x)hf ϩ xhg Expanding the last of these gives h ϭ hf Ϫ xhf ϩ xhg ϭ hf ϩ x(hg Ϫ hf) 247 . To the left of the saturated liquid line and at temperatures below the critical temperature.31 The regions of different phases and saturation temperature at a given pressure or the saturation states of a temperature–specific volume diagram pressure at a given temperature. as pressure increases the latent heat of vaporization decreases. then the specific volume of the mixture will be v ϭ (1 Ϫ x)vf ϩ xvg The specific entropy s. For water. the critical pressure Pcrit is 221. when the mixture is all saturated vapour and sometimes described as ‘dry’ saturated vapour. these may have significantly different values for saturated liquid and saturated vapour. the specific volume of saturated vapour can be 10–1000 times that of saturated liquid at the same temperature. It provides a convenient measure of the vapour content in the mixture: mg x ϭ ᎏᎏ mg ϩ mf where mg is the mass of saturated vapour and mf is the mass of saturated liquid in the mixture. Thus if the specific volume of saturated vapour is vg and the specific volume of saturated liquid is vf .

Because of this.04977 0.5) ϭ 562 kJ kgϪ1 Alternatively. or the use of tables of values generated from the equation of state and other property relationships.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 The difference hg Ϫ hf is the specific latent heat of vaporization hfg and. This point is on the line of constant pressure for 20 bar but at a temperature below the saturation temperature. Figure 4. the temperature of TA ϭ 133.4 series of state points are labelled by letter with sufficient 10 bar B information to determine the missing values. The water and steam tables in 40 bar the booklet are arranged to separately cover the regions of the temperature-specific volume diagram identified in 250 Figure 4. hA) is 561 kJ kgϪ1. using this.32. although these are not referred to as latent values: u ϭ uf ϩ xufg s ϭ sf ϩ xsfg Evaluating steam properties For steam.4 °C and point A is therefore in the subcooled liquid region. and h ϭ h f Ϫ cp(T Ϫ TA) ϭ 909 Ϫ 4. In the simplified version of this. it is usually referred to as ‘steam’. In this case.When water is in the vapour phase. At this saturation condition hf (and to a good approximation. or is a mixture of vapour and liquid. h is equal to the value for saturated liquid at the same temperature. The tables (Rogers T (°C) P ϭ 221.1 bar and Mayhew. A 3 bar 133.5 G C H 0.31.4 Ϫ 133.39 ϫ (212.32 Points on the temperature-specific volume diagram associated with property calculations described in the text Point A. a 20 bar 212. this is 212. there is no simple equivalent to the perfect gas equation. and to a good approximation.0065 0. hf at 20 bar is 909 kJ kgϪ1 and cp at 172. the expression for specific enthalpy can be written in the alternative form h ϭ hf ϩ xhfg The corresponding increases in specific internal energy and specific entropy between the saturated liquid and saturated vapour states can also be used.39 kJ kgϪ1. the mathematical functions used to describe the relationships between property values are far more complicated than they are for a perfect gas. From the tables. For 20 bar.9 °C is 4.1115 v (m3/kg) Figure 4. data is taken D h ϭ 2718 kJ/kg from these to illustrate some of the calculations involved in 425 establishing values of properties.5 °C is the saturation temperature at for a pressure of 3 bar. 248 . 1995) are widely used and here. h ϭ h f Ϫ cp(Tf Ϫ TA) where cp is the value of specific heat at the average temperature between points f and A. The specific enthalpy can be calculated using property values at 20 bar. determine the value of specific enthalpy. the calculation of property values from the equation of state may require a computer.

The specific volume at point C is given as 0.447 kJ kgϪ1 KϪ1 and sfg is 3.1944 Ϫ 0. vg is 0. This is the difference between the superheated steam temperature at point C.6 ϫ 1890 ϭ 2043 kJ kgϪ1 Point C. The degee of superheat at point C is therefore (250 – 212.893 kJ kgϪ1 KϪ1.6.1944 m3 kgϪ1 and vf is 0.893 ϭ 4. Substituting these values into the equations for specific entropy and specific enthalpy in the saturated mixture region: s ϭ sf ϩ xsfg ϭ 2.252 (0.4) ϭ 37.4 °C.1115 m3 kgϪ1. h ϭ u ϩ pv.447 ϩ 0. the property values given in the tables do not include specific internal energy.00113. the required specific enthalpy values are hf ϭ 909 kJ kgϪ1 and hfg ϭ 1890 kJ kgϪ1. determine the specific entropy and specific enthalpy. Rearranging and substituting known values.783 kJ kgϪ1 KϪ1 h ϭ hf ϩ xhfg ϭ 909 ϩ 0. determine the degree of superheat.00113) (v Ϫ vf) xϭᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏᎏ ϭ 0. This point also lies on the 20 bar constant pressure line. meaning the mixture at point B contains 60 per cent saturated vapour and 40 per cent saturated liquid. The dryness factor x is 0. At point G the specific volume is equal to the specific volume of saturated vapour at 40 bar or (from tables) 0. which together with the pressure (20 bar) defines the state.6 ϫ 3.0065) ϫ 10Ϫ3 ϭ 2539. but do give enough information for the u to be calculated from the definition of enthalpy. The required property value is the temperature at point C and from the superheat tables. From tables. and. Given that at H the pressure is 10 bar.00113) (vg Ϫ vf) 249 . working in units of kJ kgϪ1: u ϭ h Ϫ pv ϭ 2718 Ϫ (275 ϫ 105 ϫ 0.Thermodynamics Point B. Point D. sf is 2. the specific volume defines the second property required to fix the state and determine x from v ϭ (1 Ϫ x)vf Ϫ xvg Rearranging this gives (0. point H lies at one end of the constant volume line connected to point G where it intersects the saturated vapour line at a pressure of 40 bar.04977 Ϫ 0.04977 m3 kgϪ1. determine the specific internal energy. from tables. and the saturation temperature at the same pressure.3 kJ kgϪ1 Point H. On the diagram. this can be found to be 250 °C.6 °C. at 20 bar. taking care to use consistent units – in this case. In this example. in this case 212. determine the dryness fraction x.

33.6 u1 ϭ uf1 ϩ [uf2 Ϫ uf1] ϫ ᎏᎏ ϭ 1082 ϩ 15 ϫ ᎏᎏ ϭ 1094 kJ kgϪ1 42 Ϫ 40 2 Find the specific volume of saturated vapour at 123 bar.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Use of interpolation When the state of interest does not correspond to the entries given in the tables. values of enthalpy are tabulated for temperatures T1ϭ400 °C (h1 ϭ 3177 kJ kgϪ1) and T2 ϭ 450 °C (h2 ϭ 3301 kJ kgϪ1). This is clear in the thumbnail figure. allowing points 1 and 2 to be plotted. 5. h (kJ/kg) 3301 hϭ? 3177 b B 2 3 a A 1 400 440 450 T (°C) Figure 4. Note that the specific volume of saturated vapour reduces as pressure increases.6 Ϫ 40 1. p. property values can be determined from the nearest state conditions using linear interpolation. using data from Rogers and Mayhew (1995. State 1 2 P (bar) 40 42 uf (kJ kg؊1) 1082 1097 Table 4. in this case for the specific enthalpy at 60 bar and 440 °C Find the specific internal energy of saturated liquid at 41. The required enthalpy is given by point 3 on the line joining 1 and 2. Suppose we require the specific enthalpy h of superheated steam at a pressure of 60 bar and a temperature of 440 °C.33. 41.34. A property value at an intermediate condition can be determined from the proportions of similar triangles illustrated in Figure 4. a A tan ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ b B and Ab h ϭ h1 ϩ a ϭ h1 ϩ ᎏᎏ B (h2 Ϫ h1) и (440 Ϫ 400) h ϭ h1 ϩ a ϭ ᎏᎏᎏ (450 Ϫ 400) h ϭ 3279 kJ kgϪ1 Here are two more examples. saturated water and steam table).6 bar given the two known state points in the table.33 A plot of known local state points is useful in arriving at the correct interpolation relationship. which helps avoid mistakes in the interpolation. 250 . The nearest state points tabulated are given below. From the tangent of the angle common to both triangles. This assumes the variation in properties between listed conditions will be linear. Figure 4. and the diagram is similar to Figure 4.6 This interpolation task is similar to the one given above. At 60 bar. Following the same procedure.

and models of behaviour which define how the working fluid will respond to changes in state. pv ϭ mRT In addition. The equation of state is more complex than the perfect gas equation and usually evaluated using a computer.Thermodynamics By inspection of the similar triangles in Figure 4.013449 Table 4. A perfect gas obeys the perfect gas equation: This is the equation of state of the gas. 1995). The behaviour of air and many other gases used in engineering thermodynamic systems can be modelled as that of a perfect gas. The behaviour of working fluids must be understood as part of the analysis of system behaviour.34. ✔ ✔ ✔ 4. Ab vg ϭ vg2 ϩ a ϭ vg2 ϩ ᎏᎏ B (125 Ϫ 123) vg ϭ vg2 ϩ (vg1 Ϫ vg2) и ᎏᎏ (125 Ϫ 120) 3 Ϫ 1 vg ϭ 0. Results are presented in tables (in Rogers and Mayhew. This requires knowledge of the properties which distinguish one working fluid from another.6 Types of process and their analyses for work and heat transfer Many of the processes undergone by closed and open systems fall into one of a small number of types. Understanding how a process will change the state of the working fluid and what work and heat transfer have taken place are tasks central to the analysis of many 251 .01426 1 State 1 2 P (bar) 120 125 vg (m3 kg؊1) 0. These are considered in this section together with some useful results for processes undergone by perfect gases.7 vg ϭ ? 0.01349 A a b 2 B 120 123 125 p (bar) Figure 4.34 Specific volume–pressure diagram for the interpolation to find the specific volume of saturated vapour at 123 bar Learning summary ✔ The working fluids commonly used in thermodynamic systems are gases and condensable vapours which may change phase at conditions of interest.01426 0. Water is the example of a condensable vapour covered in this section.01380 m kg vg (m3/kg) 0. the specific heats of a perfect gas are constants which do not change as temperature or pressure changes.

These terms alone do not completely define a process.0 and 1. making it appear to rotate the process line clockwise. Note that increasing n increases the gradient of a polytrope.32) or p2 v2 ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ p1 v1 Ϫn (4. Up to this point processes have been described as reversible or irreversible.34) eliminates pressure and gives a relationship between temperature and specific volume: T2 v2 ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ T1 v1 (4. to determine the effect on other property values.36. steam tables can be used to find the values corresponding to a given pair of pressure and specific volume values.7. and several types of process obey the polytropic law with particular values of n.33) and (4. A polytropic process is one which obeys the polytropic law pv n ϭ constant.34) nϭ1 Equating (4.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 thermodynamic problems. However. the perfect gas equation provides the connection between pressure. in which n is a constant called the polytropic index. this is useful to remember when sketching a series of processes on a state diagram. specific volume and temperature. the polytropic law can be written as: n ϭ p vn p1v1 2 2 p Initial state n increasing Compression Process Expansion Process Figure 4.36 Variation of temperature with specific volume during a polytropic process 1 (n Ϫ 1) . the working fluid must be defined. the perfect gas equation pv ϭ RT can be applied to states 1 and 2 to eliminate the specific gas constant R: p1v1 p2v2 ᎏ ᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ T1 T2 or p2 T2 v1 ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ᎏᎏ p1 T1 v2 T nϭϱ 1Ϫn (4. For any polytropic process between states 1 and 2. Many real processes undergone by gases or vapours are approximately polytropic with a polytropic index typically between 1. The variation of pressure with specific volume for positive values of polytropic index n greater than unity is illustrated in Figure 4. If the working fluid is a perfect gas. or provide sufficient information for an analysis of changes in system states to be carried out.35 Polytropic process lines (or polytropes) for positive values of polytropic index n equal to unity or greater (4.35) nϭ2 An illustration of the variation of temperature with specific volume is given in Figure 4.35. and as being non-flow or steady flow processes. however.33) If the working fluid is a perfect gas. superheated steam or a gas which does not behave as a perfect gas. The polytropic law connects pressure and specific volume without reference to any restriction on the working fluid that can undergo a polytropic process: in general this will be a compressible gas or vapour. Equation (4.35) can be rearranged to obtain v1 T2 ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ v2 T1 252 Figure 4. it can be a two-phase mixture of vapour and liquid. If this is steam.

36) An illustration of the variation of pressure with temperature during a polytropic process is given in Figure 4. process. the working fluid must be defined to map this onto other process diagrams. this becomes a constant-volume. during which entropy is constant. Other constant-property processes are the isothermal process. and the isentropic process.8. during which temperature is constant. the perfect gas equation gives pv ϭ constant and the polytropic index n ϭ 1.38. in Section 4. the relationship between pressure and specific volume can be defined using the polytropic law with a different value of the polytropic index. For a perfect gas. or isobaric. The value of the index n is 1. These bound the sectors in which all polytropic compression and expansion processes fall for positive values of n. or isochoric. For an isothermal process.4 in this example. (The terms isothermal and isentropic are widely used and commonly confused. An example is given in Figure 4. since T is constant.1. Pressure. the Isobaric (n ϭ 0) Perfect gas isothermal (n ϭ 0) Perfect gas isentropic (n ϭ ␥) Isochoric (n ϭ ϱ) Figure 4. p In the limit of n tending to zero. In the limit of n tending to infinity. with index values of zero and infinity respectively 253 .Thermodynamics Substituting into (4. so it is worth making the effort to memorize which is which). note that although the definition of a polytropic process relates pressure and specific volume.37 Example of plotting a polytropic process undergone by a perfect gas on different process diagrams Several other types of process are special cases of the polytropic process. For a perfect gas undergoing one of these processes.38 Constant-pressure (isobaric) and constant-volume (isochoric) processes are special cases of the polytropic process. process. refrigeration cycles are often plotted on enthalpy-entropy diagrams and open cycle gas turbine cycles are usually plotted on temperature–entropy diagrams) and being able to transform a process line from one to another diagram is a useful skill. volume and temperature are not the only properties plotted on process diagrams (for example.34) to eliminate volume gives the result connecting pressure and temperature: n p2 T2 (n Ϫ 1) ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ p1 T1 (4. as shown in Figure 4. P 1 T 1 2 2 P 1 2 2 T 1 S Figure 4. a polytropic becomes a constantpressure. during which enthalpy is constant.37. the isenthalpic process.

The results are different for closed and open systems. to open systems. sketching out the processes on a state or process diagram helps fix thoughts on how property values will change. If the process is reversible.40 An isothermal compression from v1 to v2 followed by a polytropic expansion with n ؍1.4) in p2 v2 s2 Ϫ s1 ϭ cv ln ᎏᎏ ϩ cp ᎏᎏ p1 v1 yields. on the pressure-volume diagram. For an isentropic process. which is the polytropic law with the polytropic index n ϭ ␥.37) p1 v1 or pv␥ ϭ constant. and substituting s2 Ϫ s1 ϭ 0 (from Table 4. and minimize the likelihood of misinterpretation.4 back to v1 Figure 4. it is useful to summarize the information: sketch details of the system in a conceptual diagram. The value of sketching processes on process diagrams Descriptions of thermodynamic problems are commonly quite lengthy – it is in the nature of the subject – and to avoid the need to re-read the question. the change in entropy is zero. reversible adiabatic and isentropic processes will obey the same polytropic law with n ϭ ␥.39 An isothermal expansion from v1 to v2 followed by a polytropic compression with n ؍1. 254 . Work done during reversible processes Regardless of whether a process is reversible or irreversible.4 to v1 The last type of process introduced here is the adiabatic process. For a perfect gas. Since ␥ is always greater than unity. This will usually be the only route to determining the work done when the process considered is irreversible. A reversible adiabatic process will be isentropic: no entropy is created if the process is reversible and none can be transferred to or from the system if no heat transfer occurs.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 isenthalpic process is also isothermal (since dh ϭ cp dT ) so again the polytropic index n ϭ 1.39 and 4. Two examples of processes sketched on pressure-volume diagrams are given in Figures 4. Importantly. The starting points for deriving the results are the equations for specific work done during a reversible process. An adiabatic process is one during which no heat transfer occurs. list any property values given and keywords defining any process involved. after rearranging. explicit expressions for the specific work done can be derived for various processes undergone by a perfect gas. identify what parameters need to be calculated. p2 v2 Ϫ␥ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ (4.40 below. the first law can be applied to closed systems and. the isentropic polytrope will appear on the clockwise side of isothermal and isenthalpic polytropes. p 3 2 1 2 3 1 p Figure 4. in the form of the SFEE.

for which pv is constant.39) n Recalling that c ϭ p2v2 or c ϭ p1v n 1. and the result of the integration has a different form. the integrals of ᎏᎏ and ᎏᎏ are the same and so the specific work done on a perfect gas v p during an isothermal process is the same for both a closed system and an open system.44) If the changes in kinetic and potential energy can be neglected. substituting to eliminate v using v ϭ 1 where c* is a second constant (in fact. the corresponding result for a perfect gas undergoing an isothermal process in an open system is: 2 dp p2 p2 ϭ RT ln ᎏᎏ w ϭ c* ᎏᎏ ϭ c* ln ᎏᎏ p1 p1 1 p ͵ or v2 ϪRT ln ᎏ v1 (4. as shown by the results given in Table 4. yields vn 2 2 dv v1 Ϫ n 2 ϭ Ϫ c ᎏ ᎏ w ϭ Ϫ p dv ϭ Ϫc ᎏᎏ n 1Ϫn 1 1 1 v ͵ ͵ ΄ ΅ (4.38).44) shows that the specific work done for a given change in the product pv is n times higher for an open system. where c is a constant.41). This is an exception to the rule that specific work will be different for the closed and open system cases. pn we obtain w ϭ c* or ͵ dp ϩ ⌬KE ϩ ⌬PE 2 1 pn 1 (4. This is because flow work is done at the boundaries of only the open system.42) (4. then comparing (4.8.23): w ϭ v dp ϩ ⌬KE ϩ ⌬PE 1 ͵ 2 (4. then from (4. By inspection it can be seen that both (4.40) and (4. This is because n ϭ 1 is a special case. when pv is constant. the perfect gas equation shows that temperature will also be constant: RT ϭ pv ϭ c Hence.46) Interestingly. 255 .38) c Eliminating p using the polytropic law p ϭ ᎏᎏ . and simplifying.45) w ϭ Ϫ p dv ϭ Ϫc ᎏᎏ ϭ Ϫc ln ᎏᎏ v v v1 1 1 1 ͵ ͵ If kinetic and potential energy changes are neglected.Thermodynamics For a closed system: w ϭ Ϫ p dv 1 ͵ 2 (4. c* ϭ c n ). because the product of pressure and specific volume is constant during the dv dp process.40) and (4.43) n w ϭ ᎏᎏ[p2v2 Ϫ p1v1] ϩ ⌬KE ϩ ⌬PE (n Ϫ 1) n w ϭ ᎏᎏ[p2v2 Ϫ p1v1] (n Ϫ 1) nR ᎏᎏ[T2 Ϫ T1] (n Ϫ 1) Neglecting changes in kinetic and potential energy: or (4.41) 1 c* and now. we have [p2v2 Ϫ p1v1] ᎏ wϭᎏ (n Ϫ 1) or R[T2 Ϫ T1] ᎏ ᎏ (n Ϫ 1) (4. for a perfect gas undergoing an isothermal process in a closed system: 2 2 dv v2 v2 ϭ ϪRT ln ᎏᎏ (4. For a perfect gas.44) will have a divide-by-zero if n is equal to 1 and the solution for specific work fails.40) The corresponding result for an open system is derived by integrating the result for specific work during a reversible flow process (4. from equation (4.

and heat transfer can occur q ϩ w ϭ h2 Ϫ h1 Enthalpy can change. although (as illustrated in Section 4. in this case work transfer Process Specific work done if the process is reversible Closed systems In the absence of shaft work w ϭ Ϫ p dv 1 Open systems (neglecting changes in potential and kinetic energy) ͵ 2 wϭ ͵ v dp 2 1 Isochoric (constant specific volume) Isobaric (constant pressure) In the absence of shaft work q ϭ u2 Ϫ u1 Internal energy can change.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Process Specific work done during a reversible process Isochoric (constant specific volume) Isobaric (constant pressure) Isothermal (constant temperature) Isentropic (constant entropy) Polytropic (pvn ϭ constant) Closed systems w ϭ Ϫ p dv 1 Open systems (neglecting changes in potential and kinetic energy) wϭ ͵ 2 ͵ v dp 2 1 0 w ϭ Ϫp(v2 Ϫ v1) v2 w ϭ ϪRT ln ᎏᎏ v1 w ϭ v(p2 Ϫ p1) 0 p2 w ϭ RT ln ᎏᎏ p1 [p2v2 Ϫ p1v1] ᎏ wϭᎏ (␥ Ϫ 1 ) [p2v2 Ϫ p1v1] ᎏ wϭᎏ (n Ϫ 1) w ϭ ᎏᎏ[p2v2 Ϫ p1v1] (␥ Ϫ 1) n w ϭ ᎏᎏ[p2v2 Ϫ p1v1] (n Ϫ 1) ␥ Table 4. an isentropic process must be adiabatic qϭ0 w ϭ h2 Ϫ h1 Enthalpy can change. an isentropic process must be adiabatic qϭ0 w ϭ u2 Ϫ u1 Internal energy can change. For closed systems. heat transfer can occur q ϩ w ϭ u2 Ϫ u1 Enthalpy can change. Generally. considerations of the first law and energy conservation are essential to the solution of most problems. work transfer is assumed to be by boundary work only and no work transfer occurs when the system has a constant volume. (Be sure to distinguish between closed system and open system cases in these – confusing the two is a simple but fundamental mistake. heat transfer can occur q ϩ w ϭ h2 Ϫ h1 Isothermal (constant temperature) Isentropic (constant entropy) Polytropic (pvn ϭ constant) Table 4.9 Summary of relationships which apply to non-flow and flow processes 256 . flow processes with negligible changes in kinetic and potential energy are given in Table 4. and heat transfer can occur q ϩ w ϭ u2 Ϫ u1 u2 Ϫ u1 ϭ 0 q ϭ Ϫw If reversible. and heat transfer can occur q ϭ h2 Ϫ h1 h2 Ϫ h1 ϭ 0 q ϭ Ϫw If reversible. non-flow processes and open system.8 Specific work for reversible processes undergone by a perfect gas Regardless of whether or not an explicit expression for work done exists. in types of braking system for example.) A comparison of results for closed system. work transfer in closed systems is through boundary work. The reverse is true for open systems. when shaft work transfer to a closed system is used to dissipate mechanical forms of energy into heat. Shaft work is assumed to be zero.2) there are practical applications. however.9.

8: ␥ w ϭ ᎏᎏ[p2v2 Ϫ p1v1] ϩ ⌬KE (␥ Ϫ 1) or ␥R ᎏᎏ[T2 Ϫ T1] ϩ ⌬KE (␥ Ϫ 1) or 2 (C 2 2 Ϫ C 1) cp(T2 Ϫ T1) ϩ ᎏᎏ ϭ 17 797 J kgϪ1 2 (iii) In this case. . specific work transfer is given by: w ϭ h2 Ϫ h1 and the power input is . Heat transfer is zero because the process is adiabatic. (i) This requires the application of the SFEE. In this case. Because the process is also reversible. and the potential energy change is negligible. Gas velocity increases from 20 m s؊1 at 1 to 40 m s؊1 at 2. so 2 Ϫ C2) (C2 1 w ϭ (h2 Ϫ h1) ϩ ᎏ ᎏ ϭ 500 ϩ 600 ϭ 900 J kgϪ1 2 (ii) Heat transfer is again zero. and the change in enthalpy from upstream to downstream of the turbine or compressor can be large compared to the changes in kinetic and potential energy.4 and cp ϭ 1005 J kg؊1 K؊1.1) ϩ 600 ϭ 17 797 J kgϪ1 Alternatively.2.1 K Hence from the SFEE.Thermodynamics through shaft work is most common and there are many designs of turbine and compressor which operate to extract or input work in a steady flow process. to a good approximation.8) ϩ 600 ϭ 14 469 J kgϪ1 2 (n Ϫ 1) 257 . the specific work done is 2 Ϫ C2 ) 2 Ϫ C2 ) (C2 (C2 1 1 w ϭ (h2 Ϫ h1) ϩ ᎏ ᎏ ϭ cp(T2 Ϫ T1) ϩ ᎏ ᎏ 2 2 ϭ 1005(17. specific heat transfer is small enough for the process be considered adiabatic. because the process is adiabatic. it will be isentropic and treating air as a perfect gas: p2 T2 ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ p1 T1 ␥/(␥ Ϫ 1) and p2 T2 ϭ T1 ᎏᎏ p1 (␥ Ϫ 1)/␥ ϭ 337. and (iii) a reversible polytropic process with a polytropic index value of 1. The change in potential energy of the flow is the pressure ratio ᎏᎏ p1 negligible. The temperature at 1 is 320 K and p2 is 1.3. In many of these cases. but now both work and heat transfer occur: 2 Ϫ C2 ) (C2 1 w ϩ q ϭ cp(T2 Ϫ T1) ϩ ᎏ ᎏ ϭ 1005(13. the SFEE can be simplified. Treat air as a perfect gas with ␥ ϭ 1. Calculate the specific work done on the gas and the specific heat transfer if the process is: (i) an adiabatic process and specific enthalpy increases by 500 J kg؊1. (ii) a reversible adiabatic process. this could have been calculated from the formula given in Table 4. W ϭ m(h2 Ϫ h1) Air flows at a steady rate through an open system from 1 to 2. In flows through axial flow turbines and compressors.8 K T2 ϭ T1 ᎏᎏ p1 The SFEE can be applied as before. the process is a reversible polytropic one: p2 n ϭ 333.

increases in specific kinetic energy ⌬KE and potential energy ⌬PE increase the specific work input required. across interfaces between these. to or from surfaces.8 for a reversible polytropic process: n nR w ϭ ᎏᎏ (p2v2 Ϫ p1v1) ϩ ⌬KE or ᎏᎏ (T2 Ϫ T1) ϩ ⌬KE (n Ϫ 1) (n Ϫ 1) (␥ Ϫ 1)cp . it is simply transferred from the hot end by 258 .7 Modes of heat transfer and steady-state heat transfer rates Heat transfer occurs as the result of a temperature difference.8. however. This is true for each of the three fundamental modes of heat transfer: conduction. Usually. No energy is created in this process. we have After substituting R ϭ ᎏᎏ ␥ w ϭ 17 763 J kgϪ1 and the specific heat transfer is q ϭ 14 469 Ϫ 17 763 ϭ Ϫ3294 J kgϪ1 Note that although work and heat transfer are not separated in the SFEE. but how? And at what rate will it occur? These are the questions considered in this section.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 The specific work transfer can still be calculated from the result given in Table 4. ✔ ✔ ✔ 4. etc. The rate of heat transfer by any mode increases if the temperature difference is raised. changes in property values which occur when a working fluid undergoes a process depend on the type of process and the characteristics of the working fluid. convection and radiation. in the direction of falling temperature. Dip a cold metal spoon into hot water and the handle soon begins to feel warm because heat is being conducted up the handle from the dipped part. that is. The mechanism acts always to redistribute energy from the higher temperature to the lower temperature. one mode will make the dominant contribution although it is possible for more than one mode to act simultaneously. The names of the processes are independent of the working fluid: perfect gases and steam can undergo an isothermal process or an isentropic process. Heat transfer can occur through materials in any phase. The work done during reversible processes is different for closed and open systems. and across a vacuum. Conduction Within solids. these are different for a perfect gas and steam. the source of heat must be at a higher temperature than the sink to which it is transferred. For heat transfer to occur. For a polytropic process the relationship between pressure and volume changes is fixed by the definition as n n p1 v 1 ϭ p2v 2 In general. whether solid. Learning summary ✔ You should become familiar with the common types of process described in this section and the conditions which apply in each case. liquid or vapour. The results for a perfect gas are summarized in Table 4. heat transfer occurs by conduction. and evaluating.

for non-metallic liquids.41 Heat conduction is usually the material through which heat is being conducted.07–0.10 Thermal conductivity values of a range of good and poor heat conducting materials Convection Although heat conduction occurs in liquids and gases as well as solids.6 W mϪ1 KϪ1 are representative and similar to values for non-metallic solids. such as copper.8 50–70 10–80 140–200 380 Table 4. Conversely. which can be expressed in mathematical form as: . This illustrates how heat is thermal conductivity is a material property which varies widely with transferred through the base of a material type. These are not free to migrate but they can vibrate. more energetically at higher temperatures.10. dT Q ϭ ϪkAᎏᎏ (4.08-0. The negative sign makes heat transfer positive in the direction of falling temperature. thermal conductivity is a weak function of temperature. 259 . Typical values of thermal conductivity at room temperatures (ϳ300 K) are given for a range of materials in Table 4.05 0. where Q (W) is the rate of heat conduction through a surface of area dT A (m2) owing to the temperature gradient ᎏᎏ (K mϪ1) normal to the dx surface.47) dx . the net effect is an energy flow through the solid from the hottest parts to the coolest parts at a rate which depends on the temperature difference. All solids. heat transfer by convection is likely to be important and will usually be the dominant mode of heat transfer.3 0. The thermal conductivity of gases is typically in the range 0. A material with a low value of thermal conductivity. however. values in the range 0. and the dominant mode of heat transfer in matter in other phases. Material Asbestos (good insulator) Wood shavings Wool Gypsum plaster Building brick Window glass Iron Alloy steels Aluminium alloys Copper (good conductor) Thermal conductivity k (W m؊1 K؊1) 0.4–1. and solids. Unlike conduction. if fluid motion occurs. and through this transfer energy to surrounding cooler molecules. Like conduction. Free electrons contribute to the process through energy exchanges during collisions with molecules.2 W mϪ1 KϪ1 and of the same order of magnitude as values for insulating solids. the variation can often be neglected and an average value used. will limit heat transfer to a relatively low rate and has been widely used in the past as a thermal insulating material. the second mode of heat transfer – convection – is usually more important. On the macroscopic scale.Thermodynamics the conduction of thermal energy. have some propensity to conduct heat. k is the thermal conductivity (W mϪ1 KϪ1) of Figure 4. In both gases and liquids.06 0. materials with a high value of thermal conductivity.01–0.5 0. For most engineering materials. such cooking pot by heat conduction as asbestos. The molecules within the handle are bound in position by the lattice structure of the metal. The rate at which heat conduction occurs is given by Fourier’s law. heat transfer by convection increases with increasing temperature difference between the heat source and the heat sink. might be used to achieve a high rate of heat transfer.17 0. To a first approximation and over a moderate temperature range.

Q is transferred in 2 fluid close to the surface the direction of falling temperature and A (m ) is the surface area. Although the buoyancy forces associated with temperature gradients still exist. the motion might be driven by the use of a pump or fan. h. details of fluid motion and local heat transport in the boundary layer are unknown and difficult to define. A central heating radiator in a room transfers heat to circulating air by natural convection. When fluid motion is produced by a pump or results from an imposed pressure gradient. 260 . and surface geometry and roughness. A distinction is made between these. the heat transfer rate through Hot the boundary layer is related to the overall temperature difference across it using packet a surface or convective heat transfer coefficient. Cool packet Hot surface Cool fluid region In many cases. Packets of cool fluid which move close to the surface are heated and transport energy away from the surface into the bulk. and smaller-scale motion near to surfaces which are being cooled or heated. The temperature in fluid strata adjacent to the surface rises (or falls) to the value at the surface in a thin layer called the boundary layer. or it might be produced by buoyancy forces in the fluid.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 convection is an energy transport mechanism by which a net quantity of internal energy is carried from regions of high temperature to regions of low temperature by the movement of fluid between these. Close to a hot (or cold) surface the temperature gradient will be higher than in the bulk of the fluid. and the rate of heat transfer across the layer to or from the surface is then determined using Newton’s law of cooling: . Fluid in regions of higher temperatures is less dense and experiences a body force acting upwards. h is typically in the range 5–40 W mϪ2 KϪ1 for natural convection problems and between 20 and 2000 W mϪ2 KϪ1 for forced convection problems. Warm air Cool air Figure 4.42 Heat transfer from central heating radiators depends on natural convection. Air circulation occurs as cool air is drawn in to replace the warm air which rises Cool air Warm air Figure 4. Figure 4. heat transfer is by forced convection.44 Convective heat transfer (4. through the movement of packets of ⌬T (K) is the temperature rise across the boundary layer. On a macroscopic scale. the heat transfer coefficients are typically more than an order of magnitude greater. the effect of these on heat transfer rates can normally be neglected under the conditions of forced convection. A fan heater transfers heat to air passing over the heater element by forced convective heat transfer. Instead. which has units of W mϪ2 KϪ1.42. fluid properties. bulk motion of a gas or liquid as described above.When the fluid adjacent to the surface is a gas like air.43 Electric fan heaters rely on forced convection to transfer heat from the heater element to the air flow through the heater Convective heat transfer can be associated with large-scale.48) Q ϭ hA⌬T from a hot surface to a cool fluid . As fluid moves in this direction it is replaced by cooler fluid in a continuous process. The value of the heat transfer coefficient h depends on flow regime. as depicted in Figure 4. heat transfer in the first case is by forced convection and in the second by natural convection. The buoyancy forces producing conditions for natural convection are the result of density differences in the fluid. For liquids such as water.

Radiation emerging through the hole also appears to be emitted by a black surface at the temperature of the interior of the box.49) Q ϭ AT 4 where T is the absolute temperature (K) of the surface of the body.11 Typical emissivity values for some common materials at ambient temperatures A black body absorbs radiant energy at the rate of 5 kW m؊2. absorbing little of the incident radiation. the fraction absorbed is called the absorptivity. If more radiant energy is absorbed than emitted. and is the only mode of heat transfer which can occur across a vacuum. A highly polished or silvered surface can have a high reflectivity . the incident radiation can by reflected. or transmitted. Calculate the temperature at which the rate of radiant heat transfer will be zero. Asphalt surfaces Human skin Emissivity ϳ1. part or all of the radiant energy leaving each will be incident on the other. The fraction reflected is called the reflectivity. Radiation entering the box through the hole has no escape and appears to be entirely ‘absorbed’ by the hole. Emissivity Black paint is the fraction between 0 and 1 which is actually emitted. All bodies emit radiant energy at a rate equal to or less than a maximum possible value given by the Stefan–Boltzmann law for a black body: .7 ϫ 10Ϫ9 W mϪ2 KϪ4). The net rate of heat transfer from the body will be .11. Polished metals Typical emissivity values for grey bodies are given in Table 4. ␣. Q ϭ A(T 4 Ϫ 5 ϫ 103) This will be zero when 5 ϫ 103 T ϭ ᎏᎏ 56.9 0. Most thermal radiation takes place at wavelengths between 0. The sum of these parts must account for all the incident radiant energy.0 0. At the same time as a body emits radiant energy. From the observation that there will not be any net heat exchange 261 . This is a characteristic of a black surface. If emissivity White paint does not depend on the wavelength. At the surface of the second body. How much of the radiant energy leaving one will be incident on the second depends on the geometry and relative positions of the two bodies. and the fraction transmitted is called the transmissivity.Thermodynamics Radiation The third mode of heat transfer is radiation.17 0.25 ϭ 544 K Whenever two bodies can be connected by a line of sight. which includes ultraviolet. and on radiation factors such as the angle of incidence and wavelength of the radiation.7 ϫ 10Ϫ9 0. For most solids.9 Table 4. it can absorb all or part of the radiant energy incident upon it from other sources. . transmissivity is taken to be zero. (Making a small hole in a large and otherwise fully sealed box is a simple way to produce something which acts like a black body when viewed from the outside. because thermal radiation emissions increase in proportion to T 4. absorbed. (4. while a perfectly black surface has an absorptivity ␣ of 1 and will absorb all the incident radiation. and is the Stefan–Boltzmann constant (56. but window glass has a high transmissivity for radiation at wavelengths in the visible region.9 0. . conditions at the surface of the body such as surface roughness. which is energy transfer by electromagnetic wave motion.) Material Many bodies emit less than a black body at a given temperature. there will be a net rate of heat transfer to the body and this will be the rate of radiative heat transfer. visible light and infrared parts of the spectrum.02–0.50) The distribution between these depends on the properties of the material.1 and 100 micrometres. Radiative heat transfer is more sensitive to absolute temperatures than conduction and convective heat transfer. the body is described as a grey body. so the fractions must add up to 1: ϩ␣ϩϭ1 (4.

since is now zero and ϭ1Ϫ Although the analysis of .51) Q ϭ A1 f12(T 1 2 The grey body view factor f12 allows for the effects of surface properties. grey bodies must have equal absorptivity and emissivity values.74 kW mϪ2 ᎏᎏ ϭ A ϭ f1s(T 1 s A 1 262 .54) the heat transfer rate per unit area is . if all the radiation leaving surface 1 must strike surface 2. The sheet (s) has an emissivity of 0.7 K 2 From (4.54) These rates of heat transfer must be equal if the temperature of the sheet is a constant.25 T1 2 Ts ϭ ᎏ ᎏ ϭ 853. hence. then 1 (4.53). Calculate the temperature of the sheet and the rate of radiant heat transfer per unit area from 1 to 2. For diffuse surfaces.74) ϭ 5. the emissivity valve defines the absorptivity and also the reflectivity value. and hence the sheet temperature will be 4 ϩ T 4 0.53) 1 1 ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏ ᎏᎏ Ϫ 1 1 2 Two large parallel surfaces each have an emissivity of 0. many problems is complex. ␣ϭ Hence for an opaque. in general the solution for the net rate of radiative heat transfer Q from solid body 1 at the higher temperature T1 to a second body 2 at the lower temperature T2 can be expressed in the form . geometry and the view the surfaces have of each other.7 ϫ 10Ϫ9 ϫ 0. Q1s Q ᎏ 4 Ϫ T 4) ϭ 56. In this case.2 on both sides.190 f1s ϭ 1. . the surface areas are equal and 1 f12 ϭ (4. grey body.25 ϩ 5Ϫ1 1 1 ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ Ϫ 1 1 s and. 4 Ϫ T 4) Q1 s ϭ A1 f1s(T 1 s and from s to 2 it will be . including the radiative heat transfer between plane parallel surfaces large enough for losses at the edge gaps to be neglected.190 ϫ (10004 Ϫ 853. from equation (4. A thin sheet of material is placed midway between 1 and 2.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 between two identical surfaces at the same temperature facing each other across a small gap.8. f1s and fs2 will be equal. 4 Qs2 ϭ As fs2(T 4 s Ϫ T 2) (4. The rate of heat transfer from 1 to s will be . which reflect incident radiation equally in all directions regardless of the angle of incidence.52) f12 ϭ A1 1 1 ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ ᎏ ᎏᎏ Ϫ 1 1 A2 2 There are a number of important problems this result can be applied to in simplified form. 4 Ϫ T 4) (4. Surface 1 is maintained at a temperature of 1000 K. 1 1 ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 0. surface 2 is maintained at 500 K. so per unit area of the surfaces 4 Ϫ T 4) ϭ f (T 4 Ϫ T 4) f1s(T 1 s2 s s 2 Because 1 and 2 are equal.

51): 4 Ϫ T 4) ϭ (T 2 ϩ T 2)(T 2 Ϫ T 2) ϭ (T 2 ϩ T 2)(T ϩ T )(T Ϫ T ) (T 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 and. About 80 per cent of the heat transfer from the disc occurs by 263 . 4 Ϫ T 4) ϭ 4r 2 (T 4 Ϫ T 4) Q ϭ A1 f12(T 1 1 1 2 2 ϭ 56. the value of h* has a strong dependence on temperatures T1 and T2. This is defined using an expansion of the temperature terms inside the brackets of equation (4. Disc brakes are used on vehicles of various types: cars. The average rate of energy absorption will therefore be 46. a surface emissivity of 0. and hence the heat transfer rate is . consider the second question posed in the introduction: What temperature will a disc brake rise to during braking? This is a problem of practical importance. comparing the modified equation (4.55) Clearly.12 ϫ 0.Thermodynamics Calculate the rate of heat transfer from a sphere to infinite surroundings at a temperature of 300 K. radiant heat transfer from a surface might be as or more significant than convective heat transfer occurring in parallel at the same time. where A1 is the surface area of the body and equation (4. Before leaving this section. A1. Energy is transferred from the disc by heat conduction into the wheel hub and by heat convection and radiation to the surroundings. for example. a medium-sized car weighing 1200 kg and travelling at 100 km hϪ1 must absorb about 463 kJ of kinetic energy in about 10 s under firm braking.6 kW per disc. Q ϭ h*A1(T 1 Ϫ T 2) From this.When a disc brake is applied. say. cylinder or sphere in infinite surroundings.5 and a radius of 10 cm.3 kW or 11. the effective radiant heat transfer coefficient is given by 2 ϩ T 2)(T ϩ T ) h* ϭ f12(T 1 1 2 2 (4.51) with the usual form of the convective heat transfer equation. A2 ӷ A1. One method of examining this is to examine the magnitude of an effective radiant heat transfer coefficient. The dissipated energy is transferred into the disc by heat conduction. motorcycles. trucks.5 ϫ (7004 Ϫ 3004) ϭ 413. . and this reflects the importance of radiative heat transfer at high temperatures.7 ϫ 10Ϫ9 ϫ 2 ϫ ϫ 0.3 W Using an effective radiant heat transfer coefficient It is important to assess how significant radiant heat transfer might be when. pads are pressed against the faces of the disc causing frictional heating. raising its temperature. The disc temperature during braking will continue to rise until the rate of heat transfer from the disc matches this.53) can be simplified to f12 ϭ 1 The surface area of the sphere. If the combined rate of heat transfer is too low. The discs are mounted on the wheel hubs and rotate with the wheels. The four disc brakes of. The sphere has a surface temperature of 700 K. For a plane surface. the temperature of the disc and the pads will exceed working limits and brake fade or failure can occur. is 4r 2.

The surfaces of the flasks are silvered to minimize radiative heat transfer across the gap. Although there is an energy flow in the direction of falling temperature. which has a low thermal conductivity. (h ϩ h*) is the combined convective and radiative heat transfer coefficient and A is the effective area of the disc. this is illustrated in Figure 4. Also. engineers have long worked to find ways to minimize heat transfer rates by each mode of heat transfer.45 A drinks vacuum flask has features designed to minimize heat transfer to or from the liquid The calculation of heat flows and temperature distributions in solids with surfaces exposed to fluids is common to many of these problems. The inner flask containing the drink is surrounded by a second flask. maximizing the resistance to heat transfer through the flask walls. the internal energy contained within a fixed volume remains constant and the heat transfer in must be balanced by heat transfer out. The flasks are usually made of glass. and ambient temperature is 30 °C. there must be a heat source such as a central heating radiator in the room to balance the heat loss or the temperature would drop!) Low thermal conductivity glass to minimise heat conduction Figure 4. maximizing rates of heat transfer by conduction.4 In the design of disc brakes. convection and radiation is important. The space between the flasks is evacuated to produce a partial vacuum. Silvered surfaces to minimise radiative heat transfer Hot or cold liquid Partial vacuum to minimise convection (and conduction) Steady-state heat transfer and thermal resistances Under ‘steady-state’ heat transfer conditions. the combined convective and radiative heat transfer coefficient is 80 W mϪ2 KϪ1. If the effective surface area the disc is 0.4 m2. or heat transfer through the walls of a room maintained at a constant temperature. temperatures and rates of heat transfer do not change with time and this simplifies the analysis. (Of course. minimizing heat transfer across the gap by heat conduction and convection. Q ϭ (h ϩ h*)A(T disc Ϫ T air) . the analysis is restricted to steady-state conditions. Q T disc ϭ T air ϩ ᎏ A (h ϩ h*) Substituting the given values 0. now is an 264 . The assumption that steady-state conditions exist can be applied to many practical problems such as the calculation of heat losses from the steady flow of a fluid through a pipe. then an estimate of the maximum disc temperature can be found from .An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 convection and radiation. where Q is the heat transfer rate required (80 per cent of the rate of energy absorption in this case). Rearranging for the disc temperature gives . For example.8 ϫ 11.45. a drinks vacuum flask for keeping drinks hot or cold has a combination of features designed to minimize heat transfer. Here. and surface heat transfer coefficients (h) are assumed to account for any radiant (h*) heat transfer exchanges with fluids at a constant bulk or ambient temperature.6 ϫ 103 T disc ϭ T air ϩ ᎏᎏ ϭ 320 °C 80 ϫ 0. In other cases.

Ϫ(T2 Ϫ T1) ⌬T Qϭ ϭ r r ln ᎏ2 ᎏ ln ᎏ2 ᎏ r1 r1 (2kL) (2kL) and the thermal resistance of a cylinder is r ln ᎏ2 ᎏ r1 Rth ϭ (2kL) (4. Rth ϭ ᎏ Q or . the temperature T at radial position r will be .56) and (4. and ⌬T is the temperature change across . For the cylinder.57) hA The thermal resistances for other cases can derived in the same way. dT ⌬T ⌬T Q ϭ ϪkAᎏᎏ ϭ kAᎏᎏ ϭ dx ⌬x ⌬x ᎏᎏ kA Hence. now with the temperature gradient ᎏ . 2 2 Q dr ᎏ ᎏᎏ ϭ Ϫ dT (2kL) 1 r 1 . but Q still flows towards the lower temperature): . the rate of heat transfer is easily calculated.59) Temperatures can be found for any location between the positions of known temperatures once the rate of heat transfer has been calculated.58) Steady heat conduction in the radial direction through the wall of a cylinder is a case when the temperature variation has a curved shape. the thermal resistance of a plane wall can be found from Fourier’s law. This is defined by ⌬T . ⌬T Q ϭ ᎏᎏ Rth (4. If thermal conductivity is constant. which is the resistance to heat transfer between two points at different temperatures. that of thermal resistance.56) where is the rate of heat transfer and is the magnitude of the temperature difference. we have . and for a circular cylinder of length L dr dT dT . the thermal resistance of a plane wall is ⌬x Rth ϭ ᎏᎏ kA (4. If the thermal resistance is known between points at known temperatures. This is because unlike a plane wall. For a plane wall with a constant thermal conductivity. and integrating between limits of 1 for the inner surface and 2 for the outer surface.48) shows that the thermal resistance of a surface is 1 Rth ϭ ᎏᎏ (4. the thickness ⌬x of the wall (there is no need for the minus sign in front of the ⌬T. Q r ᎏ ln ᎏ2 ᎏ ϭ Ϫ(T2 Ϫ T1) (2kL) r1 ͵ ͵ .Thermodynamics appropriate point to introduce another concept. in the cylinder wall heat is conducted through a surface area which increases with radius. Fourier’s law still dT applies. Q r T ϭ T1 Ϫ ᎏ ln ᎏᎏ (2kL) r1 265 . Q ϭ ϪkA ᎏ ϭ Ϫk(2rL) ᎏ dr dr Rearranging to separate the variables. the temperature within the solid will vary linearly. Comparing equations (4.

the rate of heat transfer through each layer must be the same (or the internal energy within the layers would not be constant and the temperature would change over time). so can any values of the unknown temperatures along the heat transfer path.07 ϫ 104 0. Like electrical resistances in series. ⌬T (1000 Ϫ 300) Q ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 80. By finding the overall resistance between points of known temperature. for example. Ϫ(T2 Ϫ T1) Ϫ(T3 Ϫ T2) Ϫ(T4 Ϫ T3) Qϭ ϭ ϭ ⌬x ⌬x ⌬x ᎏᎏ ᎏᎏ ᎏᎏ k a k b k c a b c X Figure 4. Q 80.01 m if the inner surface temperature is 1000 K.46 Steady-state heat transfer through the layers of a plane composite wall from surface 1 to surface 4. each with a different thermal conductivity as illustrated in Figure 4.1 At the mid-point position. subsequently.1 ϩ 0. applying Fourier’s law to each layer gives an independent expression for the same heat transfer rate and: . the rate of heat transfer can be determined and.1 r T ϭ T1 Ϫ ᎏ ln ᎏᎏ ϭ 1000 Ϫ ᎏᎏln ᎏᎏ ϭ 558. heat transfer through the unit area of a plane wall constructed from several layers. Consider. thermal resistance ᎏᎏ is ᎏᎏ or 10Ϫ4 K WϪ1.02 m. thermal resistance and heat transfer rate are r 0. ⌬x 0.2 ϩ 0. and (ii) a cylinder with an inner radius of 0.0001 . Hence.1 ln ᎏ2 ᎏ ᎏ ϭ 8. The heat transfer rate through the layers will be . ⌬x 700 T ϭ T1 Ϫ Q ϫ ᎏᎏ ϭ 1000 Ϫ ᎏᎏ ϭ 650 K 2k 2 (ii) Per unit length of cylinder. If the layers have different thermal conductivities. the outer surface temperature is 300 K.02 (i) Per unit area of wall surface. the material thermal conductivity k ϭ 200 W m؊1 K؊1 and the wall thickness is 0. Supposing that the temperatures of the exposed surfaces 1 and 4 are known.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Calculate the temperature at the mid-point in: (i) a plane wall.3 K (2kL) r1 2 ϫ 200 0. ⌬T (1000 Ϫ 300) Q ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 700 ϫ 104 W Rth 0. the temperature gradient will be lowest in layers with highest thermal conductivity and the temperature gradient will change at the interfaces between layers T 1 2 3 4 266 .07 ϫ 104 W Rth 8. Heat transfer through walls and surfaces in series The thermal resistance approach is particularly useful in the analysis of steady-state heat transfer through walls and surfaces contributing resistances in series. the overall thermal resistance is the sum of the individual contributions. Ϫ(T4 Ϫ T1) Qϭ ᎏ ᎏ Rth Under steady-state conditions.1 (2 ϫ 200) (2kL) . .74 ϫ 10Ϫ4 At the mid-point position. and k 200 .46.74 ϫ 10Ϫ4 K WϪ1 r1 ϭ ln ᎏ Rth ϭ 0.

Cross-sections through the old and new windows are shown in Figure 4.The heat transfer coefficient on the room-side surface of the glass (hroom) is 8 W m؊2 K؊1.47 represents a cavity wall construction through which heat transfer occurs from a room at temperature TR to the outside ambient at temperature TA. Adding these. the following set is obtained: . ⌬x Q ᎏᎏ ϭ Ϫ(T4 Ϫ T3) k c . Q ϭ ᎏᎏᎏ ⌬x ⌬x ⌬x ᎏ ᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ k a k b k c . each contributing to the total of seven heat transfer resistances.47 Steady-state heat transfer along a path with solid layers and surfaces exposed to fluids requires the surface heat transfer resistances of these to be taken into account The glass in a single-glazed window of a house is to be replaced with a doubleglazed unit. the total rate of heat transfer would be QT ϭ Q ϫ A. After Q is determined. this is surface 2. ⌬x Q ᎏᎏ ϭ Ϫ(T2 Ϫ T1) k a . ⌬T Q ϭ ᎏᎏ ⌺Rth ΄ ΅ and ⌺Rth ϭ ⌬x ⌬x ⌬x ᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ ΅ ΄ᎏ k k k a b c T This approach can be simply extended to include the resistance of any surfaces exposed to fluid. ⌬x Q ᎏᎏ ϭ Ϫ(T3 Ϫ T2) k b . Q T2 ϭ TR Ϫ ⌬x 1 ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ k a h1 (4. the temperature could be calculated from . The example illustrated in Figure 4. area is A.60) TR h1 h2 h3 h4 TA ΄ ΅ ΄ ΅ ΄ ΅ ΄ ΅ ΄ ΅ ΄ ΅ ΄ ΅ a b c X Figure 4. the rate of heat transfer will be . ⌬x ⌬x ⌬x Q ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏ ᎏ ϩ ᎏ ᎏ k a k b k and ΄ ΅ ϭ Ϫ(T Ϫ T ) c 4 1 or Ϫ(T4 Ϫ T1) . and remembering that Q is the same for each. The heat transfer path passes though four surfaces and three layers of solid. If. for example. the heat transfer coefficient (hout) is 15 W m؊2 K؊1. on the glass surface exposed to the outside ambient. . we have .The original glass pane and the two glass panes in the double-glazed unit are each 7 mm thick and have a thermal conductivity of 267 .Thermodynamics If each expression is separated and rearranged. For unit area of the wall.48. If the wall . Ϫ(TA Ϫ TR) ⌬T ᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏᎏᎏ Qϭᎏ ⌺wall resistances ϩ ⌺surface resistances ⌺Rth and ⌬x ⌬x ⌬x 1 1 1 1 ⌺Rth ϭ ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ k a k b k c h1 h2 h3 h4 . the temperature at a point between the room and the outside ambient is calculated using the sum of resistances between a point of known temperature and the point of interest.

Air fills the gap between the panes of the double-glazed unit and this offers negligible resistance to heat transfer across the gap by conduction compared with convective heat transfer resistances at interior glass surfaces.48 Double glazing a window achieves lower heat losses compared with single-glazed windows by increasing overall thermal resistance X For the original window.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 0.8 W mϪ1 ⌺R th 0.8 W m؊1 K؊1.The convective heat transfer coefficient for these surfaces is 5 W m؊2 K؊1. the thermal resistance is 1 ⌬x ⌬x 1 1 1 ⌺Rth ϭ ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ hroom kpane1 hint hint kpane2 hout Hence 1 7 ϫ 10Ϫ3 1 1 7 ϫ 10Ϫ3 1 ⌺Rth ϭ ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ ϭ 0.200 K m2 WϪ1 ΄ ΅ ΄ ΅ ΄ ΅ ΄΅ ΄ ΅ ΄ ΅ The rate of heat loss per unit area of window is .8 5 5 0. T T X Figure 4. there are three resistance contributions: 1 ⌬x 1 7 ϫ 10Ϫ3 1 1 ⌺Rth ϭ ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ 8 0. compare the rate of heat loss per unit area through the original and new window and calculate the temperature air in the gap of the double-glazed unit.Working from the room. ⌬T 20 Q ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 32.75 ϩ 66. If room temperature in the house is maintained at 20 °C and the outside air temperature is 0 °C. the thermal resistance between the room and the outside ambient is 1 1 7 ϫ 10Ϫ3 ⌬x 1 1 ⌺Rth ϭ ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ 8 0. the thermal resistance between a plane at which the temperature is known and a plane in the air gap is required.609 K m2 WϪ1 8 0.8 15 The rate of heat loss per unit area of the double-glazed window is .200 For the replacement double-glazed window.7) ϫ 10Ϫ3 ϭ 0.8 5 hroom kpane1 hint 2 Ϫ 1 ϭ 0. ⌬T 20 Q ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 100 W mϪ2 ⌺R th 0.334 K m W 268 ΄ ΅ ΄ ΅ ΄ ΅ ΄ ΅ ΄ ΅ ΄ ΅ ΄΅ ΄ ΅ ΄΅ ΄΅ ΄ ΅ ΄ ΅ ΄ ΅ ΄ ΅ ΄ ΅ ΄΅ ΄ ΅ ΄΅ .8 hroom kglass hout 15 Hence ⌺Rth ϭ (125 ϩ 8.609 For the temperature in the air gap between the two panes.

we have .The outer surface exposed to ambient (initially the outside surface of the pipe and.The thermal conductivity of the pipe wall kp is 60 W m؊1 K؊1.275 K m2 WϪ1 0. 269 .334 ϭ 9.57) and for unit length of pipe. the thermal conductivity of the lagging material kl is 0. from equation (4. for a temperature difference ⌬T between the steam and the surroundings.61) Interior surface hi Pipe wall Insulation Figure 4. This affects the resistance contribution of convective heat transfer at surfaces which. ⌬T Q ϭ ᎏᎏ ⌺Rth and. finally.Thermodynamics The temperature in the air gap can now be found from . In this case ⌬x 7 ϫ 10Ϫ3 1 1 1 1 Rth ϭ ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ ϭ 0. For the example shown in Figure 4. Tgap ϭ Troom Ϫ Q ϫ Rth ϭ Troom Ϫ 32. For radial heat transfer through concentric cylinders with inner and outer surfaces exposed to fluid. the outside surface of the lagging) has a heat transfer coefficient of 18 W m؊2 K؊1 and ambient temperature is 0 °C.The pipe has an inside diameter of 15 cm and an outside diameter of 20 cm. The lagging is 7 cm thick.0 °C ΄ ΅ ΄ ΅ ΄ ΅ ΄ ΅ ΄ ΅ ΄΅ The steady heat transfer rate through other combinations of surfaces and walls can be analysed using the thermal resistance approach.0 °C Alternatively. the rate of heat transfer per unit length of pipe will be .8 5 hout kpane2 hint 15 Giving the same air gap temperature as before. the thermal resistances must account for differences in the area through which heat is flowing. Tgap ϭ Tout ϩ Q ϫ Rth ϭ Tout ϩ 32.8 ϫ 0.275 ϭ 9.8 ϫ 0.49 Cross-section through a steam pipe lagged with a layer of insulation with low thermal conductivity to reduce heat transfer losses Calculate the reduction in heat transfer rate when a steel pipe conveying steam is lagged. the temperature could be found by working from the outside ambient (0°C) to the air gap. working radially outwards from the inner surface. the outer surface of a pipe will have a larger surface area than the inner surface.1 W m؊1 K؊1. The heat transfer coefficient for the inner surface of the pipe is 80 W m؊2 K؊1 and the steam temperature is 300 °C.49. there are four contributions to the thermal resistance: r r ln ᎏ2 ᎏ ln ᎏ3 ᎏ 1 1 r r2 ϩ ᎏ ᎏ ⌺Rth ϭ ᎏᎏ ϩ 1 ϩ 2r1h1 2r3h3 2ka 2kb Exterior surface ho (4. will be 1 Rth ϭ ᎏᎏ 2rh Heat transfer from a steam pipe lagged with a layer of thermal insulation is typical of problems involving radial heat flow.

01 ϫ 10Ϫ3 K m WϪ1 (modified contribution) 2r3ho 2 ϫ ϫ 0.4 ϫ 10Ϫ3 ⌺Rth After the lagging has been applied.17 ln ᎏ3 ᎏ ln ᎏᎏ r2 ϩ 0. the thermal resistance per unit length of the unlagged pipe will be r ln ᎏ2 ᎏ 1 1 r1 ϩ ᎏᎏ ⌺Rth ϭ ᎏᎏ ϩ 2r1h1 2r2ho 2kp where (per unit length of pipe) 1 1 ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏᎏ ϭ 26.075 ϫ 80 2r1hi r 0.9% 2.17 ϫ 18 The total resistance is now ⌺Rth ϭ 166. ((300 ϩ 273) Ϫ (0 ϩ 273)) ⌬T ϭ 1.53 Q unlagged 270 .1 ln ᎏ2 ᎏ ln ᎏᎏ r1 ϩ 0.075 ϭ 3.1 1 1 ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 52.075 ϫ 80 2r1hi r 0.1 ln ᎏ2 ᎏ ln ᎏᎏ r1 ϩ 0.45 ϫ 10Ϫ3 K m WϪ1 (additional contribution) 2kl 2 ϫ 0.53 Ϫ 1.52 ϫ 10Ϫ3 K m WϪ1 2 ϫ ϫ 0. ((300 ϩ 273) Ϫ (0 ϩ 273)) ⌬T Q ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏᎏ ϭ 2.53 kW mϪ1 118.4 ϫ 10Ϫ3 K m WϪ1 and the new rate of heat transfer to the surroundings per unit length of pipe is .1 ϭ 88.52 ϫ 10Ϫ3 K m WϪ1 (as before) 2 ϫ ϫ 0.80 kW mϪ1 Q ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏᎏ 166. ᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϫ 100 ϭ 28.4 ϫ 10Ϫ3 K m WϪ1 and the rate of heat transfer to the surroundings per unit length of pipe is: . the thermal resistance has an additional contribution and the resistance of the outside surface exposed to ambient is raised by the increase in radius by the thickness of the lagging.435 ϫ 10Ϫ3 K m WϪ1 (as before) 2kp 2 ϫ 60 r 0.4 ϫ 10Ϫ3 ⌺Rth Comparing the values of heat transfer rate before and after the lagging has been applied shows that the percentage reduction in heat transfer rate was .10 ϫ 18 The total resistance is ⌺Rth ϭ 118.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Before the lagging is applied.435 ϫ 10Ϫ3 K m WϪ1 2kp 2 ϫ 60 1 1 ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 88. ⌬Q 2.075 ϭ 3. The thermal resistance per unit length of pipe is now r r ln ᎏ2 ᎏ ln ᎏ3 ᎏ 1 1 r1 ϩ r2 ϩ ᎏᎏ ⌺Rth ϭ ᎏᎏ ϩ 2r1h1 2r3ho 2kp 2k1 where 1 1 ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏᎏ ϭ 26.80 ᎏ .42 ϫ 10Ϫ3 K m WϪ1 2r2ho 2 ϫ ϫ 0.

Radiation is the only mode which transmits energy through a vacuum and is likely to be the dominant mode of heat transfer from surfaces at high temperatures (Ͼ103 K). isothermal heat rejection (2–3). The first law applied to a closed system requires the network output of the cycle to be the difference between these. some of the many cycles proposed for the production of mechanical power from a source of heat are described. Stirling and Ericsson cycles. flow conditions and surface geometry.8 Cycles. The heat supplied during the reversible isothermal process to will be T1(S1 – S4) and the magnitude of the heat rejected will be T2(S2 – S3). convection and radiation. At moderate temperatures and temperature differences between bodies. if the temperature ratio of upper to lower temperatures is Tr ϭ ᎏᎏ . Recall that the Carnot efficiency is the maximum possible efficiency of a heat engine which will only be achieved if the heat engine is reversible and operates between only two heat reservoirs. The cycle is shown on a temperature–entropy (T–s) diagram commonly used for power cycles.50. The processes making up these cycles are treated here as being reversible and the working fluid is treated as a perfect gas or steam. Solids and surfaces offer a thermal resistance to heat transfer. Convective heat transfer to or from a surface is governed by Newton’s law of cooling. power plant and engines In this final section. others have a lower efficiency but are better suited to particular applications for practical and operational reasons. Under conditions of steady heat transfer through several layers and surfaces in series. Heat conduction in a solid is governed by Fourier’s law and the thermal conductivity of the material.Thermodynamics Learning summary ✔ The modes and processes that control rates of heat transfer have been introduced in this section. isentropic compression (3–4) and isothermal heat addition (4–1). In some cases the ideal cycle has a value of efficiency equal to the Carnot efficiency. That this cycle has the Carnot efficiency can be shown as follows. convection is usually the dominant mode of heat transport in liquids and gases. The three fundamental modes of heat transfer are conduction. the effective radiative heat transfer coefficient can be added to the convective heat transfer coefficient.9)): T2 cannot ϭ 1 Ϫ ᎏᎏ T1 The efficiency of a cycle is reduced if any process in the cycle is irreversible or if some heat is supplied at a temperature below T1 or rejected at a temperature above T2. The Carnot cycle is made up of four reversible processes: isentropic expansion (1–2). ✔ ✔ 4. Cycles which have the Carnot efficiency Three ideal cycles which have an efficiency equal to the Carnot efficiency are the Carnot. T2 1 ϭ 1 Ϫ ᎏᎏ Tr (4. This efficiency depends only on the temperatures of the two reservoirs (from equation (4. and a pressure-specific volume diagram for a perfect gas in Figure 4. Heat transfer coefficient is often taken to be a constant for a particular problem although its value may depend on fluid properties.62) 271 . Heat conduction is the prime mode of heat transfer in solids. all real cycles incur an efficiency penalty due to irreversibilities and the ideal case sets an upper limit on efficiency. and noting that (S2 – S3) is equal to (S1 – S4): T1(S1 Ϫ S4) Ϫ T2(S2 Ϫ S3) T2 Wnet ϭ ᎏᎏᎏ ϭ 1 Ϫ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ T1(S1 Ϫ S4) T1 Qsupplied T1 or. the overall thermal resistance can be determined from the thermal resistances of each layer and surface.

heat is drawn from the working fluid causing this to cool to a smaller volume. the Stirling cycle is made up of four reversible processes. The heat transferred is stored within the system and returned to the working fluid during the second constant volume process. There are.When a closed system formed by a piston–cylinder combination undergoes a cycle. During the first constant volume process.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 T P 4 4 1 1 Isothermal processes 3 Isentropic processes S 2 3 2 Figure 4. however. Like the Carnot cycle. practical Stirling engines working on the Stirling cycle which in ideal form also has the Carnot efficiency. the working fluid stays in the cylinder as it undergoes a sequence of processes. The internal heat storage and return is described as regeneration. All the fluid undergoes the same process at the same time and one process is completed before the next begins. Because regeneration does not involve heat transfer across the system boundary. the Stirling engine operates only between two external heat reservoirs.50 The Carnot cycle plotted on temperature–entropy and a pressure–specific volume diagram for a perfect gas The Carnot cycle is an ideal that is difficult to utilize in a practical engine. If only two heat reservoirs are used and all the cycle processes are reversible. T 4 Heat from store Heat supply Heat to store P 1 4 4 1 1 T 3 3 3 Heat rejection 2 2 2 S Figure 4. but not continuously during the cycle.51. the heat engine cycle must have the Carnot efficiency. The heat supply and heat rejection processes at constant temperature are retained but the other two are constant volume processes where internal heat transfer occurs. it is worth considering how a cycle can be executed in more than one way. An amount of work will be output per cycle. Reciprocating machines and engines operate in 272 . Process diagrams for a perfect gas undergoing the Stirling cycle are shown in Figure 4.51 Perfect-gas process diagrams for a system undergoing the Stirling cycle Before examining the third cycle which has the Carnot efficiency.

In the Pump boiler. kinetic energy and potential energy of the steam into a power output Figure 4. In the ideal cycle. The Carnot cycle represents an ideal that poses practical difficulties: it is difficult to stop condensation in the condenser before all the steam is condensed to the saturated liquid state. The saturated mixture flows into the condenser where steam power plant operating some of the vapour is condensed at constant pressure. The Ericsson cycle is made up of four steady flow processes and is the third ideal cycle considered here which has the Carnot efficiency. The plant is Boiler designed to take thermodynamic advantage of steam being a condensable vapour to achieve high cycle efficiency. These problems are greatly eased by allowing steam to condense to the saturated liquid condition in the condenser and superheating the steam in the boiler. lowering the dryness fraction. In this case. For steam. or to pump a liquid and vapour mixture from condenser to boiler pressure without the phases separating. the diagram is similar in appearance to a temperature–specific volume diagram. Finally. all the processes making up the cycle are steady flow processes and the work output is continuous. is shown on a T–s diagram in Figure 4. Like the Stirling cycle.53. saturated vapour is generated from saturated liquid in a constant pressure heating process. this can operate on the Carnot cycle and achieve the Carnot efficiency. commonly used to Turbine present power cycle information.53 The principal components of a from the turbine. the condenser and the pump in turn. In the Ericsson cycle. in Figure 4. T 4 Heat from store Heat supply Heat to store P 1 3 4 T 4 1 2 3 Heat rejection 2 1 3 2 S Figure 4. turbines and pumps. In the turbine expansion. A power station. usually steam. regeneration is employed to cool and then heat the working fluid during two reversible constant pressure processes. operates on a cycle in which the working fluid. the steam Condenser drives the turbine in a process which converts some of the enthalpy.52 Perfect-gas process diagrams for a system undergoing the Ericsson cycle Steam plant and the Rankine cycle with superheat A steam power plant is shown schematically in Figure 4. on the other hand. The Stirling engine also produces work output only during part of the cycle. called the Rankine cycle with superheat. The cycle is shown on a temperature–specific entropy (T–s) diagram. liquid droplets can cause severe erosion of the turbine blades. the turbine. this is a closed system in which steam circulates in a steady flow through the boiler. The saturated vapour expands reversibly and adiabatically through the steam turbine to a low pressure. if the steam dryness fraction falls too low.54. This modified cycle. flows around a circuit through components with dedicated functions: heat exchangers. The cycle is shown in Figure 4.52. In principle.55. the saturated mixture flows from the condenser into a pump where its pressure is raised to the pressure of the boiler. the turbine expansion and pump 273 . the Ericsson cycle exploits regeneration to achieve the Carnot efficiency.Thermodynamics this way.

Note the difference between this p–v diagram and the diagram for a perfect gas given in Figure 4. T 1 5 6 4 3 2 S Figure 4. . what is the mass flowrate of steam leaving the boiler? 274 .50 compression are still isentropic processes. W ϭ 0. the turbine expansion and pump compression processes are adiabatic. it is not an isothermal process in the Rankine cycle and efficiency is lower than for a Carnot cycle operating between the same upper and lower temperatures. so the SFEE reduces to . The water is saturated liquid at inlet to the pump (3).3 bar. For the heat supply and rejection processes. no work transfers occur and . . However. and heat rejection still takes place at constant temperature. so for these Q ϭ 0.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 T p 4 1 4 1 3 2 3 2 S Figure 4.55 The Rankine cycle with superheat plotted on a temperature–specific entropy diagram Calculate the efficiency of the Rankine cycle with superheat using the following information and tables given in (Rogers and Mayhew. All the processes of the Rankine cycle are steady flow processes and the changes in potential and kinetic energy across each of the components in the circuit are small compared with the enthalpy changes.54 The Carnot cycle plotted in the saturated mixture region of temperature–specific entropy and pressure-specific volume diagrams. Q ϩ W ϭ m(⌬h) . If the steam plant produces a net power output of 50 MW (50 ϫ 106 W). Boiler pressure is 120 bar and condenser pressure is 0. although heat addition in the boiler takes place at constant pressure as before. At inlet to the turbine (1) the steam temperature T1 is 400 °C. 1995).

3) ϫ 105 ϭ 0.767 and specific enthalpy can then be found using values for hf and hfg from the tables: h2 ϭ hf ϩ x. More simply.4 kg sϪ1 (1220 Ϫ 12.8 The efficiency penalty connected with the supply of heat over a range of temperatures rather than the maximum temperature is significant.00102 ϫ (120 Ϫ 0.sfg Rearranging for x and substituting values for sf and sfg given in the tables. 6.2 kJ kgϪ1 This work input is small compared with the turbine work output and sometimes neglected in calculations. including the exit of the boiler.2% 273 ϩ 400 The cycle produces a net work output of (1220 – 12.076 kgϪ1 KϪ1 Because the turbine expansion is isentropic.944 x2 ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 0.9% qs 2750. The mass flow of steam required to generate a net output of 50 MW is therefore 50 ϫ 106 . the entropy value is the same at the turbine exist and at the given condenser pressure of 0. state 4 is fixed by the known entropy (s4 ϭ s3) and pressure values and h4 can be found from the tables. then wt ϭ (h1 Ϫ h2) ϭ 3052 Ϫ 1832 ϭ 1220 kJ kgϪ1 At exit from the condenser and inlet to the pump.076 Ϫ 0.661 7. the cycle efficiency is wt Ϫ wp 1220 Ϫ 12. m ϭ ᎏᎏᎏ ϭ 41.122 ϫ 105 J kgϪ1 ϭ 12.2 ϭ 2750. the specific enthalpy at inlet to the turbine is h1 ϭ 3052 kJ kgϪ1 The specific entropy is s1 ϭ 6. the specific enthalpy rise across the pump is given by v3⌬p. The mass flowrate is steady and the same at each point in the cycle. to a good approximation. the specific enthalpy values at state points 1 to 4 must be calculated. Using the superheat tables (in Rogers and Mayhew.8 kJ kgϪ1 and finally. The specific work input by the pump to raise the pressure to boiler pressure is obtained from the SFEE: wp ϭ (h4 Ϫ h3) Because the compression is isentropic. h3 ϭ hf ϭ 289 kJ kgϪ1. This allows the dryness fraction of the steam at exit from the turbine to be calculated from s1 ϭ s2 ϭ sf ϩ x.661 ϫ 2336 ϭ 1832 kJ kgϪ1 If specific work output from the turbine is calculated as a positive value. 1995).2 ϭᎏ ᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 43.1 cannot ϭ 1 Ϫ ᎏᎏ ϭ 49.hfg ϭ 289 ϩ 0. water is in the saturated state.3 bar. as can be seen by comparing this value and the Carnot efficiency for the same maximum and minimum values of temperature: 273 ϩ 69.Thermodynamics To calculate the efficiency of the cycle.2) kJ per unit mass of steam circulating in the plant. where v3 is the specific volume of saturated liquid at the inlet pressure: wp ϭ v3(p4 Ϫ p3) ϭ 0.2) ϫ 103 275 . The specific heat supplied in the boiler is qs ϭ h1 Ϫ h4 ϭ 3052 Ϫ 301.

in aircraft propulsion. the compressor feeds a steady flow of compressed air to the combustion chamber where fuel is burned to produce high-temperature gaseous products. Heat supply Fuel Combustion chamber Compressor Turbine 1 Air a 2 3 Exhaust gas b 4 Heat rejection Figure 4. and at exit from the turbine the working fluid is cooled as it passes through a second heat exchanger before re-entering the compressor.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Gas turbine engines and the Brayton cycle In some markets for power-generating plant. The main components of a gas turbine engine are shown schematically in Figure 4. There is no recirculation of the working fluid in the gas turbine engine. This means the engine does not operate on a closed cycle. the remaining part is the net work output delivered by the engine.56 (a) A schematic of the components of a gas turbine engine and (b) an ideal gas turbine operating on a closed cycle Unlike steam plant and Stirling engines which use external sources of heat which is transferred across a system boundary. This is shown in the following p1 p4 analysis. When the working fluid is a perfect gas. Nevertheless.56(a). the efficiency of the Brayton cycle depends only on p2 p3 the pressure ratio ᎏᎏ or ᎏᎏ and the ratio of specific heats ␥. The compressor and the turbine are axial-flow designs coupled together so that some of the shaft work produced by the turbine is used to drive the compressor. If the heat exchange processes take place at constant pressure and the turbine and compressor processes are isentropic. The combustion chamber is replaced by a heat exchanger in which heat is transferred to the working fluid. downstream of the turbine the gas flow is directed into the atmosphere. upstream of the combustion chamber the working fluid is air. The cycle is shown plotted on T-s and p-v diagrams in Figure 4.56(b). an ideal gas turbine engine operating on a closed cycle can be conjured as an analogue with similar performance. downstream it becomes the products produced by the combustion of fuel and air. nor do the properties of the working fluid remain constant. gas turbine engines compete successfully with steam plant and steam turbines. This is illustrated in Figure 4. In a gas turbine engine. starting from the application of the SFEE to the heat exchangers where heat is transferred to and from the working fluid. The potential and kinetic energy terms in the SFEE are small compared to the enthalpy terms so that the specific heat supplied is qs ϭ (h3 Ϫ h2) ϭ cp(T3 Ϫ T2) The heat rejected is qr ϭ (h4 Ϫ h1) ϭ cp(T4 Ϫ T1) 276 .57. Other applications include engines for ship propulsion and. most successfully. These are expanded through the turbine produce shaft work output. the gas turbine engine is an internal combustion engine which utilizes heat released internally through the combustion of a fuel. this is the Brayton cycle.

rearranging. Reciprocating internal combustion engines and the Otto and diesel cycles Although reciprocating internal combustion engines are used to power lawn mowers. if Pr is the pressure ratio ᎏᎏ. T4 T3 ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ T1 T2 Therefore. providing flexibility. generator sets and many other machines and devices.5 per cent. Air and the gas flowing from the combustion chamber into the turbine have similar values of ␥.63) gives a value of efficiency of 57. if ᎏᎏ is T3 p1 T2 substituted for the temperature ratio ᎏᎏ. then p1 1 ϭ1Ϫᎏ ᎏ (4.4. and have a high power-to-weight ratio and good fuel economy characteristics. because the pressure ratios ᎏᎏ across the compressor and ᎏᎏ across the turbine are p1 p4 equal. power tools.Thermodynamics p 2 3 Isentropic processes 2 4 T Heat supply at constant pressure 3 1 1 4 Heat rejection at constant pressure S Figure 4. Substituting these values into (4. they are most closely identified with their use as car engines.63) ( ␥ Ϫ 1)/␥ Pr The efficiency of the cycle increases with increasing pressure ratio. the cycle efficiency becomes T1 ϭ 1 Ϫ ᎏᎏ T2 T1 p2 By inspection.57 The Brayton cycle plotted on T-s and p-v diagrams and hence the efficiency is T4 T1 ᎏᎏ Ϫ 1 T1 (T4 Ϫ T1) qr ϭ 1 Ϫ ᎏᎏ ϭ 1 Ϫ ᎏᎏ ϭ 1 Ϫ ᎏᎏ (T3 Ϫ T2) qs T3 T2 ᎏᎏ Ϫ 1 T2 p2 p3 However. this is lower than the Carnot efficiency. They are particularly well suited to this application because they deliver power and torque over a broad range of engine speeds. 277 . around 1. The pressure ratio is limited to around 20 by limits on the operating temperature of turbine blades. and. since T3 Ͼ T2. 1 Ϫ ᎏᎏ . the isentropic relationship between temperature and pressure ratios requires that T2 T3 ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ T1 T4 or. then T1 1 ϭ 1 Ϫ ᎏᎏ p2 (␥ Ϫ 1)/␥ ᎏᎏ p1 p2 or.

An isentropic compression process (1–2). followed finally by heat rejection at constant volume (4–1). Towards the end of the compression stroke. and the Otto cycle is closed by a heat rejection process which has no equivalent in the four-stroke cycle. The designs used to power vehicles are almost invariably fourstroke engines. Hence T4 T1 ᎏᎏ Ϫ 1 T1 (T4 Ϫ T1) (4. this represents only two strokes of the four-stroke cycle. the exhaust stroke. This is an engine cycle. the charge is ignited and burns to release chemical energy from the fuel. the specific heat supplied is Cv(T3 Ϫ T2).An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 The two main types of engine are the spark ignition engine fuelled by gasoline (petrol) and the diesel engine fuelled by diesel. the specific heat rejected is equal to the reduction in specific internal energy Cv(T4 Ϫ T1). to complete. Only during the compression and expansion strokes of the cycle is the cylinder a closed system. This can be V1 v1 shown using the first law and the definition of efficiency: wnet qr ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 1 Ϫ ᎏᎏ qs qs As no work is done during the heat rejection process 4–1. during which the charge is compressed to a high pressure and temperature. raising the temperature and pressure still higher. calculations of thermodynamic performance of the Otto cycle provide insights to the performance of the real engine. cylinder gases are expelled into the engine exhaust. Although the cycle is comprised of four processes. At the end of the compression stroke.58 The Otto cycle plotted on pressure-specific volume and temperature-specific entropy diagrams S If the working fluid is a perfect gas. and this part of the cycle is most readily represented by an ideal thermodynamic cycle. air (or premixed fuel and air) are induced into the engine cylinder during the induction stroke. Similarly.58. This is followed by the compression stroke. not a thermodynamic cycle: the working fluid is modified by combustion and replaced by a fresh charge each time the cycle is completed. Nevertheless. During the first part of the cycle. during the fourth and last stroke of the cycle. Finally. The Otto cycle used to represent the closed part of the spark ignition engine cycle is illustrated in Figure 4. the efficiency of the Otto cycle depends only on the ratio V2 v2 of specific heats of the gas and the compression ratio Cr ϭ ᎏᎏ or ᎏᎏ of the cycle. This is followed by an isentropic expansion process (3–4). or four piston strokes. combustion is represented in the Otto cycle by the heat addition at constant volume (2–3). meaning they operate on an engine cycle that requires two engine revolutions. during which some of the internal energy of the products of combustion is converted into work output. is followed by heat addition at a constant volume (2–3). p 3 Heat supplied 4 2 Heat rejected 1 1 2 T 3 4 Figure 4. The third stroke is the expansion (or power) stroke.64) ϭ 1 Ϫ ᎏᎏ ϭ 1 Ϫ ᎏᎏ (T3 Ϫ T2) T3 T2 ᎏᎏ Ϫ 1 T2 278 .

so . it follows that T2 v2 (␥ Ϫ 1) ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ Cr(␥ Ϫ 1) T1 v1 v3 v2 Process (3–4) is also isentropic and ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ so that v4 v1 T3 T2 ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ Cr(␥ Ϫ 1) T4 T1 If the temperature ratios are rearranged to obtain T3 T4 ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ T2 T1 Substituting equations (4.5% ϭ1Ϫᎏ Cr(␥ Ϫ 1) 9(1.67) (4. The compression ratio is 9. Maximum power output will be achieved at the maximum safe engine speed.65) A single-cylinder. The working fluid is a perfect gas with ␥ ؍1.64) gives 1 ϭ1Ϫᎏ ᎏ ( ␥ Cr Ϫ 1) (4.36 kW 2 60 ϫ 2 279 .8 J cycleϪ1 The engine undergoes the Otto cycle. the net work output from this will be W ϭ ϫ Qs where 1 1 ᎏϭ1Ϫᎏ ᎏ ϭ 58. reciprocating piston engine operates on a machine cycle that takes two engine revolutions to complete.Thermodynamics Now. The imaginary engine completes is machine cycle in two engine revolutions.66) (4. and the working fluid undergoes the Otto cycle on the second of these. so the power output of the engine will be . The maximum safe engine speed is 2400 rev min؊1.66) in equation (4.8 ϫ ᎏᎏ ϭ 9356 W ϭ 9. producing the work output only every second engine revolution. During the second revolution. since process (1–2) is isentropic and the working fluid is a perfect gas.4. N W ϭ W ϫ ᎏᎏ 2 where N is the number of engine revolutions per second.4 Ϫ 1) Hence W ϭ 0. the engine operates on the ideal Otto cycle.65) and (4.585 ϫ 800 ϭ 467. If 800 J cycleϪ1 of heat is supplied during each Otto cycle. N 2400 W ϭ W ϫ ᎏᎏ ϭ 467. the gas in the cylinder is expelled and replaced by a fresh charge during which no net work is done. Calculate the maximum power output of the engine if the heat supplied during the Otto cycle is 800 J cycle؊1. This describes an imaginary engine operating on a machine cycle similar to the fourstroke cycle of reciprocating internal combustion engines.During the first revolution.

An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 The Diesel cycle. meeting conditions for the Carnot efficiency to be achieved. 280 . the Diesel cycle has a lower efficiency than the Otto cycle.and temperaturespecific entropy diagrams T 3 1 S The efficiency of the Diesel cycle depends on the compression ratio of the cycle and a new. and neither volume nor pressure is truly constant. p 2 Heat supplied 3 2 4 4 Heat rejected 1 Figure 4. In modern designs. but the ideal Stirling and Ericsson cycles achieve an efficiency value equal to this. thermodynamic cycles.64) becomes T4 T1 ᎏᎏ Ϫ1 T1 ᎏᎏ ϭ1Ϫ T3 ␥T2 ᎏᎏ Ϫ 1 T2 (4. That is. but the specific heat addition is now cp(T3 ϭ T2). heat transfer at temperatures between the maximum and minimum available takes place internally. through regeneration. Learning summary ✔ ✔ The cycles analysed in this section are ideal.69) Comparing this with equation (4. heat addition at constant volume in the Otto cycle produces higher cycle efficiency than the heat addition process at constant pressure in the Diesel cycle. illustrated in Figure 4. The derivation of the result for efficiency is similar to that for the Otto cycle. No cycle can have a higher efficiency than the Carnot efficiency. v3 second parameter called the cut-off ratio Co ϭ ᎏᎏ which defines the duration of the constant v2 pressure heat addition process. the duration of combustion is similar for both types of engine.68) Making use of the definition of cut-off ratio.67) for the Otto cycle shows that. and equation (4. we have 1 C␥ oϪ1 ϭ1Ϫᎏ ᎏ ᎏ ᎏ ( ␥ Ϫ 1) Cr ␥(Co Ϫ 1) ΄ ΅ (4. and remembering that processes (1–2) and (3–4) are isentropic processes. is sometimes used to represent the closed part of the diesel engine cycle.59. so the association with engine type is weak.59 The Diesel cycle plotted on pressure-specific volume. External heat transfer across system boundaries occurs isothermally and only at these maximum and minimum temperatures. for a given compression ratio. The Diesel and Otto cycles differ in the way combustion is represented as a process of heat addition at constant pressure in the Diesel cycle rather than at constant volume as in the Otto cycle. These provide insights to the types of cycle used to generate mechanical power. because temperature T3 is higher. In these cycles.

C. so internal combustion engines such as gas turbines and reciprocating internal combustion engines do not operate on true thermodynamic cycles.3145 ϫ 103 J kmolϪ1 KϪ1) specific entropy (J KϪ1. The cycle is less efficient than the Carnot cycle because heat supply takes place over a range of temperatures rather than the maximum possible. compression ratio (Otto cycle) or compression ratio and cut-off ratio (Diesel cycle).Thermodynamics ✔ The Rankine cycle with superheat is the basis for a practical cycle for the generation of power output using steam as the working fluid. G. SI Units. fuel is burned within the working fluid. Ericsson and Rankine cycles have external heat supply and heat rejection and the working fluids do undergo continuous thermodynamic cycles. m (m ) ~ m n n p q Q . Plant and engines operating on the Stirling. There are similarities between the ideal thermodynamic cycles and real engine and power plant cycles. temperature in degrees Celsius ϭ T (K) – 273) specific internal energy (internal energy. and Y. The efficiencies of the Brayton. There is no need to remember the particular results for these cycles. The working fluid is replaced during successive cycles of the machine. J) heat transfer coefficient thermal conductivity mass (mass flowrate. ✔ ✔ Notation A C cp cv g h (H) h k .81) specific enthalpy (enthalpy. kg sϪ1) molar mass number of kilomoles of substance polytropic index absolute pressure heat transfer per unit mass heat transfer rate of heat transfer specific gas constant universal gas constant (ϭ8. changing its composition as well as releasing chemical energy. m3) specific work work rate of work or power dryness fraction height above datum c ratio of specific heat capacities ᎏp ᎏ cv dynamic viscosity 1 density ᎏᎏ v Reference Rogers. R. 5th edition.F. but on a machine cycles. Q R ~ R s (S) T u (U) v (V) w W . entropy) absolute temperature (°C. Blackwell. but students should understand how these are derived. W x z ␥ m2 m sϪ1 J kgϪ1 KϪ1 J kgϪ1 KϪ1 m sϪ2 J kgϪ1 W mϪ2 kϪ1 W mϪ1 KϪ1 kg kg kmolϪ1 kmol N mϪ2 J kgϪ1 J W J kgϪ1 KϪ1 J kmolϪ1 KϪ1 J kgϪ1 KϪ1 K J kgϪ1 m3 kgϪ1 J kgϪ1 J TsϪ1 or watts m kg sϪ1 (ϭN s mϪ2) kg mϪ3 area velocity specific heat capacity at constant pressure specific heat capacity at constant volume gravitational constant (ϭ9. 281 . Otto and Diesel cycles depend on the ratio of specific heats and the pressure ratio (Brayton cycle). Differences between the ideal and the real cycles are more marked for internal combustion engines. J) specific volume (volume. In these. Mayhew (1995) Thermodynamic and Transport Properties of Fluids.

This page intentionally left blank .

processing plants. The list is endless. Electromagnetic systems investigates the relationship between electric currents and magnetic fields.Electrical and electronic systems Unit 5 Electrical and electronic systems Alan Howe UNIT OVERVIEW ■ Introduction ■ Direct current circuits ■ Electromagnetic systems ■ Capacitance ■ Alternating current circuits ■ Three-phase circuits ■ Semiconductor rectifiers ■ Amplifiers ■ Digital electronics ■ Transformers ■ AC induction motors 5. One only has to think of cars with on-board computers. 283 . printing presses and even the domestic multiprogramme washing machine. It is therefore essential for the mechanical engineer to understand how electrical and electronic devices work. It also investigates how a varying current flowing through an inductor will induce an electromagnetic force in the inductor. highspeed electric trains. This chapter begins by looking at some the key principles of electrical and electronic systems before moving on to examine some practical examples that most mechanical engineers will encounter during their careers. It examines how a force is exerted on a current-carrying conductor contained within a magnetic field. the principle behind the design of electric motors.1 Introduction Why does an Introduction to Mechanical Engineering include a chapter on Electrical and Electronic Systems? The reason is that most modern mechanical systems incorporate some electrical or electronic equipment. current and resistance and examines ways to analyse simple circuits.We also look at how bridge circuits can be used to measure resistance and strain. Direct current circuits studies the relationship between voltage.

Electricity supplies are generally alternating but most electronic devices require direct voltage supplies. current smoothing or voltage stabilization is used. to help users choose the most suitable motor for each application. fans. A battery is a chemical system in which positive and negative electric charges are separated. Sequential logic introduces the bistable. inductors and capacitors supplied by an alternating voltage. Semiconductor rectifiers are used to convert alternating current to direct current. 5. Simple rectifiers produce a series of unidirectional current pulses. The energy source may be a battery or generator. compressors and mills. It investigates how the different components affect the current and power dissipation. This section explains how these motors work and discusses variations in the torque versus speed characteristics. Transformers are used to convert alternating voltage and current levels. Alternating current circuits are widespread. the load could be lamp or heater. This section demonstrates how we analyse circuits comprising any combination of resistors. creating an electromotive force or emf.With a few components it is possible to construct an amplifier that will add a number of independent signals or one that will integrate a signal. Torch light A torch or flashlight comprises a battery. Amplifiers are used to reproduce voltage signals several times larger than the original. A simple example of a dc circuit is the torch light. As most industrial machines are connected to such systems it is in the interests of safety that mechanical engineers should understand how such systems work. Analogue-to-digital converters and digital-to-analogue converters transfer data between analogue and digital systems and vice versa. AC induction motors provide the drive for many mechanical systems. They are essential for the control of complex machines. 284 .An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Capacitance examines how capacitors work and the effect of connecting capacitors in series and in parallel and connecting a capacitor in series with a resistor. load. They may also be used for electrical isolation where there is a risk of personal injury. is one of the simplest circuits to analyse. This part examines the two most common forms of three-phase connection: star and delta. The emf is measured in volts (V) and is identified on the circuit diagram by an arrow pointing towards the positive terminal of the battery. such as industrial pumps. The basic circuit comprises an energy source. Three-phase circuits are used to supply electricity to industrial users.Where the magnitudes of the pulses are too large for an application. or dc circuit for short. the simplest form of memory cell and the rudimentary component in any computer or microprocessor. light bulb and switch connected by conducting wires made of aluminium or copper. connecting wires and a switch. for example to convert the output from an accelerometer to a velocity. Simple amplifiers may be constructed using discrete transistors. consume little power and are used in a wide variety of applications from chargers and power supplies for small electronic equipment to the transmission and distribution of electrical power.2 Direct current circuits The direct current circuit. E. They have no moving parts. more advanced designs incorporate a form of integrated circuit called an operational amplifier. Digital electronics begins with an investigation of combinational logic and how logic gates may be used to construct control circuits.

I begins to flow. the current is the movement of electrons. In fact. This creates a potential difference.2) (5. Substituting for V from (5. enables us to write the equation for power V2 P ϭ ᎏᎏ R 285 (5. across the load which equals the battery emf. V. I. and is found from the equation Power ϭ voltage ϫ current P ϭ VI Power is measured in watts (W). Ohm’s law The potential difference. power can also be expressed as P ϭ I 2R Rewriting Ohm’s law V I ϭ ᎏᎏ R and substituting in (5. I + positive ter minal E – negative ter minal lamp E + – V electron movement a b Figure 5.1) Power The rate at which energy is dissipated is called power. VϭE To show that energy is dissipated in the load the potential difference is indicated by an arrow pointing in the opposite direction to the conventional current flow.Electrical and electronic systems switch current. R.3) . but once the switch is closed the battery acts as a source of energy and the current.1 While the switch is open there is no charge movement. Current is measured in amperes (A) or amps for short. called the resistance. across the load equals the current. By convention it is assumed that the current flows in the direction of the emf from the positive terminal of the battery through the circuit back to the negative terminal. P. which have negative charges and travel in the opposite direction. where resistance has the unit ohms (⍀): V ϭ IR This relationship is named after its discoverer and is called Ohm’s law. V. The movement of electric charges through the circuit transfers energy from the battery to the load where it is dissipated making the bulb glow.1).2). multiplied by a constant. (5.

l.0038 0.0005 Table 5. and a constant for the material from which it is made. Calculate the current.7 ϫ 10Ϫ8 1.1.4) A where has the units ⍀ m.59 ϫ 1. power dissipation and energy transferred from the supply to the heater in 1 h. .58 ϫ 6.30 ⍀ ᎏᎏ ϫ (1 ϫ 10Ϫ3)2 4 286 . called the resistivity.456 ϫ 106 MJ Resistivity The resistance of a conductor depends on its length. A. E ϭ supply voltage ϭ 120 V V ϭE V ϭIR V 120 I ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 8 A R 15 P ϭVI ϭ 120 ϫ 8 ϭ 960 W Alternatively P ϭ I 2R ϭ 82 ϫ 15 ϭ 960 W W ϭ Pt ϭ 960 ϫ 60 ϫ 60 ϭ 3.456 ϫ 106 J ϭ 3. Cu ϭ 1.59 ϫ 10Ϫ8 ⍀ m l R ϭ ᎏᎏ A 1.0040 Ϫ0.59 ϫ 10Ϫ8 ϫ 15 ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 0.17 ϫ 10Ϫ7 10Ϫ5 Temperature coefficient (°C)؊1 0.1 Conducting material Aluminium Copper Platinum Silver Carbon Resistivity at 0 °C (⍀ m) 2. The resistivities of some common conducting materials are listed in Table 5.1 Calculate the resistance at 0 °C of a copper wire 15 m long and 1 mm in diameter.0043 0. From Table 5. cross-sectional area. such that l R ϭ ᎏᎏ (5.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Energy The energy transferred from the source to the load may be calculated from Energy ϭ power ϫ time W ϭ Pt Time is measured in seconds (s) and energy has the units joules (J). l is measured in m and A is in m2.0039 0. An electric heater with a resistance of 15 ⍀ is connected to a 120 V dc supply.5 ϫ 10Ϫ8 10Ϫ8 1.

935 k⍀ I Series circuits Electric circuits normally have several components which may be connected in a wide variety of ways. from the supply source flows through them all. the potential differences across the resistors R1.1 The resistance of a conductor at temperature . From Ohm’s law.6) Figure 5.0005 ϫ 15) R0 ϭ 47. Calculate its resistance at 60 °C.355 ϫ 103 ϫ (1 Ϫ 0.5) Calculate the resistance of the copper wire in the previous worked example at 50 °C. Generally. V3 ϭ IR3 + E – V2 R2 V1 R1 From the circuit diagram it can be seen that E ϭ V 1 ϩ V2 ϩ V3 Substituting for V1. From Table 5. Figure 5.2 shows an example with three resistors connected in series so that the current. R2 and R3 are respectively V1 ϭ IR1. 0 oC and ␣ is the temperature coefficient of (5. V2 ϭ IR2. R15 ϭ R0(1 ϩ ␣15) 47 ϫ 103 ϭ R0(1 Ϫ 0. The resistivity of carbon falls as the temperature rises.36 ⍀ A carbon resistor has a resistance of 47 k⍀ at 15 °C.355 ϫ 103 ⍀ R60 ϭ R0(1 ϩ ␣60) R60 ϭ 47. R0 ϭ 0.V2 and V3 E ϭ I(R1 ϩ R2 ϩ R3) The total resistance E Req ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ R1 ϩ R2 ϩ R3 ϭ ⌺R I V3 R3 (5.2 287 .Electrical and electronic systems Temperature coefficient of resistance For most conducting materials the resistivity is dependent on temperature. I. Values for the temperature coefficients of some common conducting materials are shown in Table 5. measured in degrees Celsius (oC).2.0005 ϫ 60) R60 ϭ 45. can be calculated from R ϭ R0(1 ϩ ␣) where R0 is the resistance of the conductor at temperature.0043 (°C)Ϫ1 R50 ϭ R0(1 ϩ ␣50) ϭ 0.30 ⍀. From the previous example.0043 ϫ 50) ϭ 0. the resistivity of metals increases with temperature although the resistivity of some alloys are independent of temperature. ␣ ϭ 0.30(1 ϩ 0.

An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Parallel circuits Figure 5. V2 = I2R2 I1 I3 I1 node I4 E1 node A I2 I5 I4 E4 a b I2 R2 R3 I3 V3 = I3R3 Figure 5. it is necessary to use more sophisticated methods of analysis. E. we have E ϭ I1R1. Kirchhoff postulated that in any circuit the sum of currents entering a node or junction equals the sum of the currents leaving that node.4(a). This is demonstrated by the example shown in Figure 5.3 from the circuit diagram it is can be seen that the supply current. The voltage across each resistor is E. Applying Ohm’s law. E I1 ϭ ᎏ ᎏ R1 E ϭ I2R2. Kirchhoff’s Current Law The parallel circuit shown in Figure 5.7) Kirchhoff’s Laws To analyse more complex circuits.3 shows the three resistors connected in parallel with the voltage supply.4 288 .3 is an example of the application of Kirchhoff ’s Current Law. I2 and I3 1 1 1 I ϭ E ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ R1 R2 R3 The total resistance of the circuit E Req ϭ ᎏᎏ I 1 1 1 1 1 ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ ϭ Αᎏᎏ R Req R1 R2 R3 (5. E I2 ϭ ᎏ ᎏ R2 E ϭ I3R3 E I3 ϭ ᎏ ᎏ R3 + E – I I1 R1 I2 R2 I3 R3 Figure 5. These are based on two fundamental laws attributed to Kirchhoff. I equals I ϭ I1 ϩ I2 ϩ I3 substituting for I1.

5. Another example is shown in Figure 5. It has been assumed that I2 and I3 are in opposite directions. then it will be calculated as a negative value. R3 and R4 and the currents in each branch of the network I1. while voltage E4 is driving current in the opposite direction.9) is: E1 Ϫ I2R2 ϩ I3R3 Ϫ E4 ϭ 0 This may be derived directly from the circuit. starting at node A and working round in a clockwise direction.9) Voltage E1 is driving current around the loop in a clockwise direction. Calculate the voltages across the resistors R2.Electrical and electronic systems I 1 ϩ I 3 ϩ I 4 ϭ I2 ϩ I 5 Rewriting I1 Ϫ I2 ϩ I3 ϩ I4 Ϫ I5 ϭ 0 This may expressed mathematically ⌺I ϭ 0 and the current law summarized: The algebraic sum of currents entering and leaving a node is zero (5.8) Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law The series circuit shown in Figure 5. (5. The emfs are opposing each other reducing their overall effect. The directions chosen for the currents shown are arbitrary and are only for the purposes of analysis but once chosen must be strictly adhered to. assuming that all voltages acting in that direction are positive and any in the opposite direction are negative. hence the need to subtract E4 from E1. Another way of writing equation (5. producing potential differences (I2R2) and (I3R3) in opposite directions. Kirchhoff postulated that the algebraic sum of emfs in a closed loop equals the algebraic sum of potential differences (or volt drops) across components in that loop.4(b).2 is an example of Kirchhoff ’s Voltage Law. In this case E1 Ϫ E4 ϭ I2R2 Ϫ I3R3 (5. If any current is actually flowing in the opposite direction. Kirchhoff summarized this for any loop in his Voltage Law thus: ⌺V ϭ 0 The algebraic sum of voltages around a closed loop is zero.5 289 .10) A 10 V battery supplies the circuit shown in Figure 5. I2 and I3. Right loop: E Ϫ V2 ϭ 0 where V 2 ϭ I2 R 2 E ϭ V2 ϭ I2 R 2 V2 ϭ 10 V 10 ϭ I2 ϫ 5 I2 ϭ 2 A R3 = 2Ω V3 I3 node A I1 E R4 = 8Ω V4 V2 R2 = 5Ω I2 Figure 5.

An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Left loop: V 4 ϩ V3 Ϫ E ϭ 0 E ϭ V3 ϩ V4 ϭ I3 R3 ϩ I3 R4 ϭ I3 (R3 ϩ R4) 10 ϭ I3 (2 ϩ 8) I3 ϭ 1 A V 3 ϭ I3 R 3 ϭ 1 ϫ 2 ϭ 2 V V4 ϭ I3 R4 ϭ 1 ϫ 8 ϭ 8 V At node A: I1 ϭ I2 ϩ I3 ϭ 2 ϩ 1 ϭ 3 A Mesh analysis A more complex circuit is shown in Figure 5. 1. This network has two nodes. A and B and three loops. in this case a total of five equations. 2 and 3. or meshes as they are usually called.6(a). Using Kirchhoff ’s Laws we need to write a current equation for each node and a voltage equation for each mesh.6 Node A Node B Left loop (mesh 1) Centre loop (mesh 2) Right loop (mesh 3) 290 Ia ϭ Ib ϩ Ic I c ϭ Id ϩ Ie E1 ϭ IaR1 ϩ IbR2 E2 ϭ ϪIbR2 ϩ IcR3 ϩ IdR4 E3 ϭ IdR4 Ϫ IeR5 . E2 R1 node A Ia Ib E1 loop or R2 mesh 1 loop or mesh 2 R4 Ic R3 node B Ic Id loop or mesh 3 E3 Ie R5 a E2 R1 node A R3 node B R5 E1 I1 R2 I2 R4 I3 E3 mesh 1 mesh 2 b mesh 3 Figure 5.

5 I2 4 16 ϭ Ϫ9.13) may be rearranged Ϫ R2I2 E1 ϭ (R1 ϩ R2) I1 E2 ϭ ϪR2I1 ϩ (R2 ϩ R3 ϩ R4)I2 Ϫ R4I3 ϪE3 ϭ ϪR4 I2 ϩ (R4 ϩ R5)I3 and solved by substitution as demonstrated in Example 5.6(b) E1 is 48 V . I1 flows through resistor R1 and I2 passes through R3.4 ϭ 10 A I3 ϭ Ϫ6 ϩ 1 ϭ Ϫ5 A I3 is negative. Mesh 1 0 ϭ E1 Ϫ (I1R1) Ϫ (I1 Ϫ I2) R2 E1 ϭ I1R1 ϩ (I1 Ϫ I2) R2 E1 ϭ (R1 ϩ R2) I1 Ϫ R2 I2 0 ϭ Ϫ(I2 Ϫ I1) R2 Ϫ I2 R3 ϩE2 Ϫ (I2 Ϫ I3) R4 ϪE2 ϭ I1 R2 Ϫ I2(R2 ϩ R3 ϩ R4) ϩ I3 R4 E2 ϭ ϪR2I1 ϩ (R2 ϩ R3 ϩ R4) I2 Ϫ R4 I3 0 ϭ Ϫ(I3 Ϫ I2) R4 Ϫ I3R5 Ϫ E3 E3 ϭ I2 R4 Ϫ I3 (R4 ϩ R5) ϪE3 ϭ ϪR4I2 ϩ (R4 ϩ R5) I3 (5. Similarly I3 flows in R5 and (I2 Ϫ I3) passes through R4 . Calculate the three mesh currents. E2 16 V and E3 24 V. But both I1 and I2 travel through R2 flowing in opposite directions making the net current in the resistor (I1 Ϫ I2). as shown in Figure 5.12) Mesh 3 (5. Kirchhoff ’s Voltage Law is then used to derive equations for the voltage drops around each mesh.6 ϩ 0.6 Ϫ 0. R1 2 ⍀ and R5 2 ⍀.11) Mesh 2 (5.6 ϭ 6.6 ϩ 0.6(b). R1 is 4 ⍀. indicating that the current circulates around mesh 3 in an anticlockwise direction. 291 . The method assumes that currents circulate clockwise around each loop with I1 flowing in mesh 1. Mesh 1 Mesh 2 Mesh 3 48 ϭ 16 ϭ Ϫ24 ϭ 48 ϭ 16 ϭ Ϫ24 ϭ I1 ϭ (4 ϩ 1) I1 Ϫ (1) I2 Ϫ (2) I3 ϩ (2 ϩ 2) I3 Ϫ 2 I3 ϩ 4 I3 Ϫ(1) I1 ϩ (1 ϩ 5 ϩ 2 ) I2 Ϫ(2) 5 I1 ϪI1 I2 Ϫ I2 ϩ 8 I2 Ϫ2 I2 substituting for I1 and I3 48 ϩ I2 ᎏᎏ ϭ 9.2 I2 ϩ 8 I2 ϩ 12 Ϫ I2 13.11) to (5.6 In the circuit in Figure 5. R3 5 ⍀.8 I2 I2 ϭ 2 A I1 ϭ 9. I2 in mesh 2. The problem can be eased by using mesh analysis.Electrical and electronic systems These equations must be solved simultaneously to find the current distribution. quite a difficult task. etc. R2 1 ⍀.2 I2 5 Ϫ24 ϩ 2 I2 I3 ϭ ᎏ ᎏ ϭ Ϫ6 ϩ 0.13) Equations (5.

This method is more popular for solving large networks where users can employ computer software to do the hard work. ⌬ of this matrix is given by: ⌬ ϭ a11 (a22 a33 Ϫ a32 a23) Ϫ a12 (a21 a33 Ϫ a31 a23) ϩ a31 (a21 a32 Ϫ a31 a22) (5. like E3 in this example.14). R1 is 2⍀. in the resistance matrix equal the sum of the resistances in each mesh. counting rows from the top and columns from the left. The voltages are ϪE3 shown as positive when they drive current clockwise around the mesh and negative when they drive current in the opposite direction. On the extreme right of the equation we have the mesh currents to be calculated. The simplest way to explain this method is through a practical example.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 There is another way to solve the equations. E1 E2 ϪE3 (R1 ϩ R2) ϪR2 ϪR2 (R2 ϩ R3 ϩ R4) ϪR4 I1 I2 I3 ϭ ϪR4 (R4 ϩ R5) E1 E2 . whilst a23 and a32 are both equal to ϪR4 the resistance between meshes 2 and 3. E2 11 V and E3 10 V. The off-diagonal terms are all negative and have a magnitude equal to the resistance linking two meshes. the resistance linking meshes 1 and 2. R2 1⍀. There is no direct link between meshes 1 and 3. we can find its determinant. Using the circuit in Figure 5.6(b) again but with E1 is 2 V. R3 1⍀. It is conventional with matrices like this to identify individual elements by their row and column. a12 and a21 are both equal to ϪR2. The full list of elements in three rows by threecolumn matrix is: a11 a12 a13 a21 a22 a23 a31 a32 a33 On the left of the equation are the driving voltages in each mesh The value or determinant. a11 to a33. (R1 ϩ R2). Also on the right side of the equation is the resistance matrix. so a13 and a31 are both zero. (R2 ϩ R3 ϩ R4) and (R4 ϩ R5) respectively. R1 1⍀ and R5 5⍀. ⌬ ϭ 3[(3 ϫ 6) Ϫ (Ϫ1 ϫ Ϫ1)] Ϫ (Ϫ1)[(Ϫ1 ϫ 6) Ϫ (0 ϫ Ϫ1)] ϩ 0[(Ϫ1 ϫ Ϫ1) Ϫ (0 ϫ 3)] ϭ 3[17] ϩ 1[Ϫ6] ϭ 45 292 . Mesh 1 Mesh 2 Mesh 3 2 11 Ϫ10 2 11 Ϫ10 ϭ (2 ϩ 1) Ϫ1 0 3 Ϫ1 0 Ϫ1 (1 ϩ 1 ϩ 1) Ϫ1 Ϫ1 3 Ϫ1 0 Ϫ1 (1 ϩ 5) 0 Ϫ1 6 I1 I2 I3 I1 I2 I3 ϭ By substituting the elements of the resistance matrix in equation (5. The equations are first rewritten as a matrix equation. The element in the top left corner is called a11. The element to its immediate right is a12 and the one immediately below is a21. Calculate the three mesh currents.14) The diagonal terms.

7 are fixed resistors of known value called standards resistances.You should get the same answers. RC is a variable resistor the value of which may be 293 . known as the Wheatstone bridge.Electrical and electronic systems Using a technique called Cramer’s Rule the next step is to replace the first column of the resistance matrix by the three voltages and to calculate the determinant of the new matrix. you should try to solve this example using the substitution method and then solve the previous worked example using the matrix method. ⌬I1 ⌬I1 ϭ 2 Ϫ1 0 11 3 Ϫ1 Ϫ10 Ϫ1 6 ⌬I1 ϭ 2[(3 ϫ 6) Ϫ (Ϫ1 ϫ Ϫ1)] Ϫ (Ϫ1)[(11 ϫ 6) Ϫ (Ϫ10 ϫ Ϫ1)] ϩ 0[(11 ϫ Ϫ1) Ϫ (Ϫ10 ϫ 3)] ϭ 2[17] ϩ 1[56] ϭ 90 ⌬I1 ϭ equals ⌬ multiplied by I1 so ⌬I1 90 I1 ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 2 A ⌬ 45 This process is repeated to find I2 by replacing the second column of the resistance matrix by the three voltages. which is used to measure accurately the resistance of an unknown component. 3 2 0 ⌬I2 ϭ Ϫ1 11 Ϫ1 0 Ϫ10 6 ⌬I2 ϭ 3[(11 ϫ 6) Ϫ (Ϫ10 ϫ Ϫ1)] Ϫ 2[(Ϫ1 ϫ 6) Ϫ (0 ϫ Ϫ1)] ϩ 0[(Ϫ1 ϫ Ϫ10) Ϫ (0 ϫ 11)] ϭ 3[56] Ϫ 2[Ϫ6] ϭ 180 ⌬I2 180 I2 ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 4 A ⌬ 45 Finally to find I3 ⌬I3 ϭ 3 Ϫ1 0 Ϫ1 2 3 11 Ϫ1 Ϫ10 ⌬I3 ϭ 3[(3 ϫ Ϫ10) Ϫ (Ϫ1 ϫ 11)] Ϫ (Ϫ1)[(Ϫ1 ϫ Ϫ10) Ϫ (0 ϫ 11)] ϩ 2[(Ϫ1 ϫ Ϫ1) Ϫ (0 ϫ 3)] ϭ 3[Ϫ19] ϩ 1[10] ϩ 2[1] ϭ Ϫ45 ⌬I3 Ϫ45 I3 ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ Ϫ1 A ⌬ 45 To check that you have fully understood mesh analysis. Bridge measurements There is a special type of dc circuit. RA and RB in Figure 5.

This comprises a very thin layer of metal bent into a zigzag shape and bonded to the surface of a non-conducting tape.7 and RA. RB and RC are all known. IA RA IB RB V node 1 Vmeter RC RD node 2 V1 V2 Figure 5.When the load is applied and the resistance of the strain gauge changes.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 adjusted in known steps and RD is the unknown resistance. RC and RD are all set equal to the initial gauge resistance to ensure that the bridge is balanced before the member is mechanically loaded. RD can be calculated.7 With V1 ϭ V2 Voltage across RC ϭ V1 ϭ IARC and voltage across RD ϭ V1 ϭ IBRD Voltage across RA ϭ (V Ϫ V1) ϭ IARA and voltage across RB ϭ (V Ϫ V1) ϭ IBRB Dividing the equations (V Ϫ V1) IARA IBRB ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ V1 IARC IBRD RA RB ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ RC RD As RA. is calculated from the voltmeter reading using the equation derived below. the voltmeter deflects. RB RC RD ϭ ᎏ ᎏ RA (5. As force is applied to the member the strain increases and causes the resistance of the gauge to rise. The strain gauge replaces RB in the circuit shown in Figure 5.15) Strain measurement The Wheatstone bridge may be used with a strain gauge to measure the strain in a mechanical member. The most common form of strain gauge is the bonded foil type. at which point no current flows through the voltmeter. the voltages of nodes 1 and 2 are equal and the bridge is balanced. 294 . The value of RD is found by adjusting RC until the voltmeter reading is zero. The strain gauge is fixed rigidly to the member but electrically isolated from it so that no current passes through the member. such as a steel girder. The changes are small and are recorded using a modified Wheatstone bridge. The strain.

V Therefore. V ⌬R v ϭ ᎏᎏ ᎏᎏ 4 R ⌬R ᎏᎏ ϭ G R where is the measured strain and G is the strain gauge factor provided the manufacturer. v ϭ ᎏ 4 G and the measured strain. 4v ϭ ᎏᎏ VG and and V IB ϭ ᎏᎏ (2R ϩ ⌬R) VR V2 ϭ IBR ϭ ᎏᎏ (2R ϩ ⌬R) (5.16) Extreme care is needed when taking measurements.Electrical and electronic systems If R is the resistance of the unstrained gauge and the three other resistors and ⌬R is the increase in the resistance of the strain gauge when the mechanical member is loaded. so that the second gauge is only subjected to changes in temperature. 295 . Temperature changes will cause the resistance of both gauges to change by the same amount. for the bonded foil type it is around 0. the resistance of the first gauge increases as the member is loaded while the resistance of the second gauge falls by an equal amount. then V IA ϭ ᎏᎏ 2R V V1 ϭ IAR ϭ ᎏᎏ 2 voltmeter reading. By fixing one strain gauge on the side in tension and a matched device directly opposite on the side in compression. ensuring that the balance of the bridge is unaffected by changes in temperature.With both gauges subjected to the same changes in temperature. Measurement accuracy can be further improved when one side of the mechanical member is in tension and the other in compression. thereby doubling the voltmeter reading. the balance of the bridge will remain independent of temperature. To eliminate any errors due to changes in ambient conditions and to ensure that voltmeter deflections are due entirely to changes in strain in the mechanical member the resistor RD may be replaced by a compensating strain gauge.25 m⍀ per microstrain. Change in strain gauge resistance is very small. v ϭ V1 Ϫ V 2 V VR ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏ 2 Ϫ (2R ϩ ⌬R) (2R ϩ ⌬R Ϫ 2R) ϭ V ᎏᎏ 2(2R ϩ ⌬R) ⌬R ϭ V ᎏᎏ 2(2R ϩ ⌬R) with R ӷ ⌬R voltmeter reading. This has identical characteristics to the first gauge and is fixed near the former but not on the loaded member. the voltmeter reading. The resistance of gauges are also very sensitive to temperature change. for example.

To understand how they work it is first necessary to study the basic principles of electromagnetism. be capable of using Ohm’s Law to analyse simple circuits.9. as demonstrated in Figure 5. I I E I R a b c Figure 5. understand resistivity and be able to calculate the resistance of a conductor. 5. be able to distinguish between electromotive force and volt drop. be capable of using mesh analysis to analyse the current distribution in a circuit. The filings immediately form concentric circles around the wire.8(a). This is demonstrated by pushing a conductor through the middle of a piece of paper covered in iron filings and turning on a direct current.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Learning summary You have completed the section on direct current circuits and should now ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ be familiar with the constituents of an electric circuit. current and resistance. Motors are electromagnetic devices. understand the concepts of voltage. be able to use a bridge circuit to measure resistance and strain. Magnetic field around a current carrying conductor A magnetic field is established around any current carrying conductor.3 Electromagnetic systems The drive in many mechanical systems is provided by an electric motor. indicating the existence of a magnetic field. be able to calculate the equivalent resistances of series and parallel circuits. as illustrated in Figure 5.8 By convention it is assumed that a magnetic field circulates clockwise around a conductor carrying current into the page and anticlockwise around a conductor where the current flows out of the page. 296 . understand Kirchhoff’s Current and Voltage Laws. This is known as the right hand screw rule Solenoid If a current carrying conductor is wound into a cylindrical solenoid then the magnetic fields around each conductor merge to produce a field pattern similar to that associated with a bar magnet.

9 with bar magnet In the solenoid cross-section.10. (Figure 5.10 297 flux. a ring shaped core of magnetic or non-magnetic material wrapped with a conducting coil insulated from the core as in Figure 5. I Figure 5. Toroid The magnetic fields associated with both the single conductor and the solenoid are nonuniform and difficult to calculate. which in this case is upwards.Electrical and electronic systems i i a magnetic field associated b cross section of magnetic with cylindrical solenoid field associated with cylindrical solenoid N N S S c magnetic field associated d magnetic field associated with bar magnet Figure 5.9(b)) the crosses indicate current flowing into the page and dots show current flowing out. The right hand screw rule is used to find the direction of the field through the centre of the solenoid. B × area A . It is much easier to analyse a closed system like a toroid. In this case when a current flows in the coil a uniform magnetic field is established that circulates around the ring core. A current. coil of N tur ns I cross sectional area. φ = flux density.

An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Flux and flux density The magnitude of the magnetic field is called the flux. and is analogous to the emf in the electric circuit. the flux is distributed evenly across the cross-section of the core and the flux density.19) Permeability Continuing the analogy between electric circuits and magnetic systems it was shown in equation 5. R is given by l R ϭ ᎏᎏ A l ϭ ᎏᎏ A where is the electrical conductivity. This has the symbol ⌽ and the units webers (Wb). However. B can be calculated from ⌽ B ϭ ᎏᎏ A where B has the units T (tesla). By analogy in the magnetic circuit the flux. In a uniform field. This multiple is called the magnetomotive force or mmf for short. 1 Wb mϪ2) (5.1 that in an electric circuit the current. E divided by the circuit resistance. It has the symbol Fmmf. (5. R. N. ⌽ equals the mmf.18) Reluctance It was shown in section 5.20) . and has the units amperes (A). The corresponding equation for the reluctance of a magnetic circuit is l S ϭ ᎏᎏ A 298 (5. Fmmf divided by the reluctance. Fmmf ϭ IN The mmf is the ‘driving force’ in the magnetic circuit. to recognize that its magnitude depends on both the current and the number of turns the units are often referred to as ampere-turns. S. I multiplied by the number of turns in the coil.4 that the resistance of an electric circuit. This is the reciprocal of the resistivity. Fmmf ⌽ϭᎏ ᎏ S Fmmf S ϭ ᎏᎏ ⌽ where ⌽ is in Wb and S is in HϪ1 (Henries)Ϫ1 (where 1 H is defined as equal to 1 Wb AϪ1 ). I equals the emf. (where 1T is defined as equal to and A is the cross-sectional area of the core in m2.17) Magnetomotive force (mmf) The magnitude of the flux is proportional to the current. (5.

The permeabilities of magnetic materials. ϭ 0 r r is non-linear.6 2.22) This relationship is extremely important and is used extensively in magnetic circuit analysis.2 B(T) 1. (i. cross-sectional area of the toroid core).Electrical and electronic systems where l is the length of the magnetic path in m. 5000 4000 Ferr ite 3000 μr Mumetal Silicon steel 2000 Mild steel 1000 Cast steel 0.11 0.0 Magnetic field strength If the reluctance of the core is uniform.21) l H has the units A mϪ1.e. (for the toroid. A is the cross-sectional area of the magnetic path in m2. This value can also be used for all other non-magnetic materials. 0 equals 4 ϫ 10Ϫ7 H mϪ1.11. B versus H characteristic From equations (5. Some examples are shown in Figure 5. r. are found by multiplying 0 by the relative permeability. H can be calculated from Fmmf Hϭᎏ ᎏ (5. 299 .which has no units. then the effect of the magnetomotive force (mmf) will be distributed evenly throughout the length of the magnetic path and the magnetic field strength. this is the mean circumference of the core).17) and (5. and is the permeability of the core material in Wb mϪ1 AϪ1 or HmϪ1.4 Figure 5.19) Fmmf ⌽ ϭ BA ϭ ᎏ ᎏ S where Fmmf ϭ H l l S ϭ ᎏᎏ A thus A BA ϭ ᎏᎏ Hl l B ϭ H (5. The permeability of a vacuum or free space. its value depends on the flux density.8 1.

96 ϫ 108 HϪ1 flux.6 B(T) 1. 2.96 ϭ 62. Figure 5.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 In circuits with non-magnetic materials B versus H is a straight line with the slope 0 but when the core is made of a magnetic material the relationship is non-linear. flux and flux density. reluctance. It is usual for manufacturers of magnetic materials to provide B versus H graphs for their products.12 shows the B versus H characteristics for the materials shown in the previous graph. magnetic field strength.5 A flows. Fmmf ᎏ H ϭᎏ l 500 ϭ ᎏᎏ ϫ 10Ϫ2 20 ϭ 2500 AmϪ1 reluctance. l S ϭ ᎏᎏ 0A 20 ϫ 10Ϫ2 ϭ ᎏᎏ ϫ 2 ϫ 10Ϫ4 4 ϫ 10Ϫ7 ϭ 7.8 ϫ 10Ϫ8 Wb ϭ 0.628 Wb 300 .5 ϫ 1000 ϭ 500 A magnetic field strength. mean circumference 20 cm and cross-sectional area 2 cm2 is wound with a coil of 1000 turns in which a current of 0.0 1. Fmmf ⌽ ϭᎏ ᎏ S 500 ϭ ᎏᎏ ϫ 108 7.2 Cast steel 0. A toroid with a wooden core. mmf. leaving the user to calculate from the slopes of curves. Fmmf ϭ IN ϭ 0. Calculate the mmf.12 The following worked examples demonstrate how to analyse magnetic circuits.4 Mumetal Ferr ite Silicon steel Mild steel 2000 4000 6000 H(Am–1) 8000 10000 Figure 5.8 0.

mmf. He wound two coils on a toroid.85 T flux. and when he opened the switch. connected one through a switch to a battery and the other he wired to a galvanometer. the reluctance of a toroid with a magnetic core is far lower but the flux and flux density are far higher.14 mT A toroid with a silicon steel core has identical dimensions to that in the previous worked example.5 ϫ 1000 ϭ 500 A (as before) Fmmf 500 magnetic field strength. Fmmf ϭ IN ϭ 0.35 ϫ 106 HϪ1 ⌽ 3. ⌽ ϭ BA ϭ 1.7 ϫ 10Ϫ4 Wb ϭ 0.13 When he closed the switch. flux density. he observed that the galvanometer needle deflected immediately and then returned to zero. magnetic field strength. the needle moved in the opposite direction before dropping back to zero. ⌽ B ϭ ᎏᎏ A 62.37 mWb Fmmf 500 reluctance.8 ϫ 10Ϫ8 ϭ ᎏᎏ 2 ϫ 10Ϫ4 ϭ 3.12 ) B ϭ 1. flux and reluctance. it is clear that for the same mmf and magnetic field strength.85 ϫ 2 ϫ 10Ϫ4 ϭ 3. S ϭ ᎏ ᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 1. B is found from the B versus H characteristic for silicon steel (see Figure 5. Electromagnetic induction Electromagnetic induction was discovered by Michael Faraday. Calculate the mmf. which measures small voltages. 301 .7 ϫ 10Ϫ4 When the results for these two examples are compared. The number of turns and current are also the same. H ϭ ᎏ ᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 2500 AmϪ1 (as before) l 20 ϫ 10Ϫ2 flux density.14 ϫ 10Ϫ3 T ϭ 3. S N G E G a b Figure 5.Electrical and electronic systems flux density.

17).23) iN d e ϭ N ᎏᎏ ᎏᎏ A l dt A di ϭ N2 ᎏᎏ ᎏᎏ l dt l but S ϭ ᎏᎏ A N2 di e ϭ ᎏᎏ ᎏᎏ S dt N2 Let L ϭ ᎏᎏ S where L is called the inductance and has the units henries (H). N. (5. This phenomenon can be expressed mathematically d e ϭ ᎏᎏ volts dt where is the magnetic flux linkages with the coil.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 In a second experiment Faraday moved a bar magnet towards a solenoid and noticed that the galvanometer needle deflected. has the units Wb.When he moved the magnet away. and t is time. the needle deflected in the opposite direction.24) di e ϭ L ᎏᎏ dt 302 (5. Note that lower case symbols are used in this equation to indicate that values are instantaneous and continually changing. Faraday also observed that the magnitude of the needle deflection depended on the speed at which he moved the magnet. (5. Flux linkage is equal to the flux multiplied by the number of turns in the coil. From his experiments Faraday was able to deduce that the magnitude of the emf. e induced in the coil (as measured by the galvanometer) was proportional to the rate of change of magnetic flux linkages with the coil. Thus: d e ϭ N ᎏᎏ dt This equation is known as Faraday’s Law. Therefore ϭN where is the instantaneous flux.22) that ϭ BA B ϭ H Fmmf IN H ϭᎏ ᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ l l Using instantaneous values and substituting in equation (5.23) Inductance It was shown in equations (5.21) and (5. Flux linkage. (5.25) .

5 A dt mmf after 5 s.97 ϫ 108 di Induced emf.675 Wb S 5. i5 ϭ 5 ϫ ᎏᎏ ϭ 5 ϫ 0. I E R νR = iR E νR = Ldi dt tangent to curve at or igin a tangent to curve as t approaches infinity τ t b Figure 5.1 ϭ 0.35 mWb Coil with inductance and resistance A real coil has both inductance and resistance. It starts at zero and increases steadily at a rate of 0. the two components have to be separated as shown in Figure 5. Fmmf 5 ϭ i5N ϭ 0. inductance and induced emf. S ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϫ 4 ϫ 10Ϫ4 ϭ 5. A current flows in the coil.97 ϫ 108 Flux linkages after 5 . find the magnitudes of the mmf.67 mV dt For the toroid in the previous worked example.675 ϫ 10Ϫ6 Wb ϭ 1.7 ϫ 10Ϫ3 ϫ 0.675 ϫ 10Ϫ6 ϫ 2000 ϭ 3. di Current after 5 s.97 ϫ 108 HϪ1 0A 4 ϫ 10Ϫ7 N2 20002 Inductance.7 ϫ 10Ϫ3 H ϭ 6. e ϭ Lᎏᎏ ϭ 6.14 303 .5 ϫ 2000 ϭ 1000 A Fmmf 5 1000 flux after 5 s. l 30 ϫ 10Ϫ2 Reluctance. Calculate the reluctance.14(a).35 ϫ 10Ϫ3 Wb ϭ 3. 5 ϭ 5 N ϭ 1. 5 ϭ ᎏ ᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 1.Electrical and electronic systems Putting this equation into words: The emf induced in a coil is equal to its inductance multiplied by the rate of change of current flowing through it.1 As؊1. A wooden toroid with a mean circumference of 30 cm and cross-sectional area 4 cm2 is wound with a coil of 2000 turns.1 ϭ 6. flux and flux linkages after 5 s.7 ϫ 10Ϫ4 V ϭ 0.7 mH S 5. L ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 6. To examine how the resistance affects the response when an emf is applied.

di When this is achieved the rate of change of current ᎏᎏ will be zero and the current will equal dt E ᎏᎏ. i ϭ 0.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 The moment the switch is closed a current starts to flow.26) Eventually everything will settle down and the current will reach a constant steady state value. If we call this the steady state current.27) ϭI Ϫ i i ϭ I 1 Ϫ e 304 ϪRt L . When the switch is closed at t ϭ 0 the current. 0 ϭ Ϫln I ϩ K K ϭ ln I Substituting for K in equation (5. producing a voltage across the inductance di vL ϭ L ᎏ ᎏ dt and a voltage across the resistor vR ϭ iR Instantaneous values are used in these equations as the current and voltages are constantly changing. By Kirchhoff ’s Voltage Law E ϭ vR ϩ vL di ϭ iR ϩ Lᎏᎏ dt di E Ϫ iR ϭ Lᎏᎏ dt E L di ᎏᎏ Ϫ i ϭ ᎏᎏ ᎏ ᎏ R R dt (5.27) Rt ᎏᎏ ϭ Ϫln(I Ϫ i ) ϩ ln I L (I Ϫ i ) ϭ Ϫln ᎏᎏ I ϪRt IϪi L e ϭ ᎏᎏ I Ie ϪRt L (5. I then: R E ᎏᎏ ϭ I R Substituting for I in equation (5.26) L di I Ϫ i ϭ ᎏᎏ ᎏ ᎏ R dt di R ᎏᎏ dt ϭ ᎏᎏ L IϪi Integrating both sides R ᎏᎏ t ϭ Ϫln (I Ϫ i) ϩ K L where K is the constant of integration.

29) L It is this ratio ᎏᎏ that defines the speed at which the current rises.4 0.6 1. so E ϭ Lᎏᎏ dt di E ᎏ ᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ dt L di but ᎏᎏ is the slope of the graph. and hence the find the current when the time equals . L ϭ ᎏᎏ s R (5. This is the dashed line in Figure 5.999 Table 5.987 1. E ϭ 10 V . In the circuit in Figure 5. The time at which this line intersects E the horizontal line i ϭ ᎏᎏ is called the time constant. L ϭ 1 H and R ϭ 5 ⍀. Calculate the time constant of the circuit. L Time constant.900 1.2 s 10 i ϭ ᎏᎏ (1 Ϫ eϪ1) ϭ 2(1 Ϫ 0. ϭ ᎏᎏ R 1 ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 0. R E 1 From the graph the slope of tangent ϭ ᎏᎏ .729 1.14(b) shows the graph of current versus time. i ϭ 0 and there is no volt drop across the resistance. R. 3.14(a). 2.2 s 5 ϪRt Ϫt E E i ϭ ᎏᎏ 1 Ϫ e L ϭ ᎏᎏ 1 Ϫ e R R when t ϭ ϭ 0. 5 and 8.28) Figure 5. The current rises exponentially towards E the asymptote ᎏᎏ. 5 and 8.2 305 .14(b). R To find what determines the speed at which the current rises draw the tangent to the current at the origin.264 A Repeating for t ϭ 2.6 i (A) 1. ᎏᎏ R di At t ϭ 0. The larger the ratio of R inductance to resistance the slower the current will rise.Electrical and electronic systems E Substituting for I ϭ ᎏ R ϪRt E i ϭ ᎏᎏ1 Ϫ e L R (5. .0 1. t (s) 2 3 5 8 0.368) 5 ϭ 1. therefore dt E E ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ L R and the time constant.3.

15 S To find the magnitude of this force it is necessary to consider the work done to move the conductor. unlike resistors which dissipate energy. energy is only stored while current flows. ᎏᎏ and hence the induced emf. Another example occurs when a current-carrying conductor is brought in the vicinity of another magnetic field. No energy is dissipated by an inductor. B. the rate of di change of current. The interaction of magnetic fields always produces force. If the inductor current is I. N N × force. The field around the conductor interacts with the other field exerting a force on the conductor. As the stored energy is a function of current through the inductor.When the current starts to fall. Force on a current-carrying conductor You may have tried to push together two bar magnets with like poles opposing but are prevented by the force created by the distortion of the magnetic fields. then the total energy supplied ϭ Lidi 0 ͵ I ϭ ᎏ2ᎏLI 2 joules 1 (5. All the energy is returned when the current reaches zero.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Energy stored in an inductor When current flows through an inductor. F × S Figure 5. The depth of the field is l and the distance moved by the conductor is dx. Figure 5. Mechanical work done to move the conductor ϭ force on conductor ϫ distance moved by the conductor ϭ F dx 306 . I in a magnetic field with a flux density.16 shows a conductor carrying a current.30) This energy is stored in the inductor. the instantaneous power supplied to the inductor is given by: instantaneous power ϭ instantaneous voltage across the inductor ϫ instantaneous current di The energy supplied to the inductor in time dt ϭ p dt ϭ Lᎏᎏidt dt ϭ Lidi This means that the total energy supplied to the inductor is independent of time and depends only on the current flowing through it. e become negative returning energy to the dt supply.

e ϭ Bl ᎏᎏ dt To maintain the current an external voltage source equal to but opposing e must be applied to the ends of the conductor. d d e ϭ N ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ dt dt with only one conductor.Electrical and electronic systems current. N ϭ 1 and d ϭ d The flux linkages produced in moving the conductor a distance dx through a magnetic field with a flux density. F S l flux density. I N force. dt. that it takes to move the conductor dx. B dx Figure 5. e I dt dx Bl ᎏᎏ It dt (5. B and depth l is d ϭ Bldx ϭ d dx This induces an emf in the conductor. the electrical energy supplied by the external source is e I dt This energy is equal to the mechanical work done in moving the conductor. thus: Mechanical work done ϭ electrical energy supplied F dx ϭ F dx ϭ F ϭ Bl I where F is measured in newtons (N). In the time.16 The movement of the conductor in a magnetic field induces an emf in the conductor in accordance with Faraday’s Law which opposes the current flow.31) 307 .

The outer section comprises a closed ring called the yoke and two poles which are wrapped with currentcarrying coils to form north (N) and south (S) poles.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 The electrical energy supplied is converted to mechanical energy to make the conductor move. magnetic flux circulates around the magnetic path. 308 .18 The core has two parts.18(a) shows the core of a two-pole dc motor. The thumb shows the direction of the force and hence the direction of motion. half travels up the left side of the yoke.When current flows in the coils.When the flux reaches the yoke. crosses an air gap. I N pole air gap ar mature I yoke flux φ Sleft yoke mmf flux φ Sair gap Sr ight yoke Spole Sar mature Sair gap mmf S I a b Spole Figure 5. the remainder returns via the right side to the N-pole. for most practical applications the magnetic path is not uniform. where the two halves of the flux recombine. passes through the armature. Point the thumb. This form of energy conversion is exploited in the design of electrical motors. a stationary outer section and a rotating armature. Unfortunately. Align the first finger with the field and the second finger with the current. described in section 5. It leaves the N-pole. Figure 5. it divides. we use Fleming’s Left-hand Rule.10.17 Magnetic circuits Earlier in this section we calculated the flux in a homogeneous toroid. The cross-sectional area may vary along the magnetic path or the magnetic flux may travel through media of different permeability. first finger and second finger of the left hand at right angles to each other as shown in Figure 5. Fleming’s Left-hand Rule To determine the direction of the force on the conductor. crosses a second air gap and enters the S-pole. field motion current Figure 5.17.

18(b) shows the electrical equivalent circuit for the two-pole dc machine. B ϭ 0Hair 2 Hair ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 1. IN must equal the sum of the mmf drops. In Section 5. the currents substitute for the fluxes. Analysing this situation requires modifying Kirchhoff ’s Current Law. ⌺ Hl around the network where H is the magnetic field strength in each component in the system. Using the analogy between electric and magnetic circuits engineers are able to represent magnetic circuits with equivalent electric networks and to modify formulae relating to electric circuits to deal with magnetic systems.2 on dc circuits Kirchhoff ’s Voltage Law was given as:‘the algebraic sum of voltages around a closed loop is zero’ or as written mathematically in equation (5. depth 2 cm and a radial cut 1 mm wide as illustrated in Figure 5.2 ϫ 10Ϫ3 ⌽ B ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏᎏ ϭ 2. the flux density in the air gap will be the same as that in the steel. i.10) ⌺V ϭ 0 Using the analogy between electrical and magnetic systems this law may be rewritten for magnetic circuits to say that:‘the algebraic sum of mmfs around a closed loop is zero’ or ⌺Fmmf ϭ 0 (5.19 The ‘driving’ mmf in a circuit.592 ϫ 106 AmϪ1 4 ϫ 10Ϫ7 Hair lair ϭ 1. A toroid with a rectangular cross-section is manufactured of silicon steel with a mean diameter of 10 cm.19. 1.The toroid is wrapped with a coil of 1000 turns.Electrical and electronic systems The analysis of a system such as this has to take into account both the geometry and the permeabilities of the elements. In this case we will use a modified form of Kirchhoff ’s Voltage Law.592 ϫ 106 ϫ 1 ϫ 10Ϫ3 ϭ 1592 A 309 . In the second example we will examine the case where the flux is divided into two and travels along parallel paths.e. Figure 5. IN ϭ Hair lair ϩ Hsteel lsteel considering first the air gap: lair ϭ 1 ϫ 10Ϫ3 metres assuming that the flux crosses the air gap uniformly. These are simpler than the dc machine.2 mWb in the core. the resistors stand for the reluctances and Kirchhoff ’s Voltage and Current Laws are modified to analyse the magnetic circuit.32) 1mm φ i Figure 5. In the first example we will consider the case a toroid with a radial air gap.0T 3 ϫ 10Ϫ2 ϫ 2 ϫ 10Ϫ2 A for air. The voltage sources represent the magnetomotive forces (mmfs). In this case:‘driving’ mmf. To demonstrate this. and l is the length of that component. radial thickness 3 cm. Calculate the current required to maintain a steady state flux of 1. where the flux has to travel through two different media in series. two examples will be used.

4 mWb o 4 ϫ 10Ϫ4 ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 1. ⌺ ϭ 0 c ϭ ol ϩ or by symmetry ol ϭ or ϭ o c ϭ 2 o o ϭ 0.12 to equal 7200 AmϪ1 Hsteel lsteel ϭ 7200 ϫ 0. Calculate the current needed to establish a flux of 0.3132 m The flux density in the steel is the same as that in the air gap.8 mWb ϭ 8 ϫ 10Ϫ4 Wb c 8 ϫ 10Ϫ4 Flux density.The B–H characteristic for the steel is in Figure 5.3132 ϭ 2255 A IN ϭ Hair lair ϩ Hsteel lsteel IN ϭ 1592 ϩ 2255 ϭ 3847 3847 3847 I ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ N 1000 I ϭ 3. c ϭ 0.1 Ϫ (1 ϫ 10Ϫ3) ϭ 0. 2.33) .12.1 cm2. At this point we have to apply the modified form of Kirchhoff ’s Current Law for magnetic circuits:‘the sum of fluxes entering a node or junction equals the sum of the fluxes leaving that node’.20.9T flux density in outer limbs.1 ϫ 10Ϫ4 from B-H characteristic (Figure 5. Consider first the centre limb: Flux.12) magnetic field strength.The outer limbs both have a length of 10 cm and the cross-sectional area of 2.0 T and Hsteel is found from Figure 5.The length of the centre limb is 4 cm and its cross-sectional area is 4 cm2. Bc ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 2.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Considering now the steel: lsteel ϭ D Ϫ lair ϭ 0.0T Ac 4 ϫ 10Ϫ4 from B–H characteristic (Figure 5.8 mWb in the centre limb.85 A A 1000-turn coil is wound around the centre limb of a symmetrical eight-shaped silicon steel core shown in Figure 5. Hc ϭ 7200 AmϪ1 mmf drop in centre limb ϭ Hc lc ϭ 7200 ϫ 4 ϫ 10Ϫ2 ϭ 288 A At the end of the centre limb the flux divides. Ho ϭ 3660 AmϪ1 mmf drop in the outer limbs ϭ Ho lo ϭ 3660 ϫ 10 ϫ 10Ϫ2 ϭ 366 A 310 (5. Bo ϭ ᎏᎏ Ao 2.12) magnetic field strength.

analyse systems with magnetic and non-magnetic elements in series. 5. i Charge +Q V a b V Charge –Q Figure 5. In its simplest form the capacitor comprises two metal plates separated by a thin layer of insulation which is used to store electric charge for short periods.654 A Learning summary You have completed the section on electromagnetic systems and now should: ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ be familiar with the constituents of a magnetic circuit. iN ϭ Hc lc ϩ Ho lo IN ϭ 288 ϩ 366 ϭ 654 A 654 654 I ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ N 1000 I ϭ 0. A Electron flow l Current. through the battery to the other capacitor plate leaving the first plate positively charged and making the second negatively charged. The third group are capacitors. calculate magnetic fields in systems with parallel paths.Electrical and electronic systems Applying Kirchhoff ’s modified voltage law. 311 .4 Capacitance There are only three types of electrical component that are passive. calculate the current in a direct current circuit with inductance and resistance. magnetomotive force (mmf). devices whose operation is independent of the polarity of the applied voltage. IN ϭ ⌺ mmf drops around a closed loop ‘driving’ mmf. understand the concepts of flux. equation (5. compute the energy stored in an inductor. understand Faraday’s Law. flux density. understand the principles of electromagnetic induction. Resistors and inductors are both passive devices. that is. be able to analyse magnetic field in toroids with both magnetic and non-magnetic cores.32) ‘driving’ mmf. This creates a potential difference across the capacitor equal to the applied voltage. analyse the force on a current carrying conductor in a magnetic field. reluctance.21 When a battery is connected across the capacitor negatively charged electrons flow from the plate connected to the positive terminal of the battery. magnetic field strength and permeability. Plate area.

Values of r for some common insulating materials are given in Table 5. Put mathematically. q moves through the circuit.22 shows examples of how the area of the plates can be increased. a b Figure 5. Figure 5.36) Air Paper Glass (5. and l are all related to the construction of the capacitor and are combined into a constant called the capacitance. Capacitance is increased by enlarging the area of the plates. and a characteristic of the insulating medium. In Figure 5.0 3.37) Insulating oil PVC Ceramics Table 5.3 3. A.85 ϫ 10Ϫ12 FmϪ1. 0 equals 8. This current.35) r 1. The permittivity of a vacuum or free space. where A C ϭ ᎏᎏ l Capacitance is measured in farads (F). or dielectrics. Q depends on the magnitude of the applied voltage V .22(a) has several plates connected in parallel.21(a) has a relatively low capacitance.35) A r C ϭ ᎏ0 ᎏ l and Q ϭ CV (5.0 to 4. called the permittivity.22(b) an increase in area is achieved by rolling two thin strips of metal foil sandwiched between layers of insulating material into a spiral. as they are often known. at any instant: dq i ϭ ᎏᎏ dt (5. the distance between the plates l. For all other insulating materials.22 312 .5 3.2). the permittivity is a multiple of 0. C.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 The movement of electrons produces a current.0 6 to 1000 Normally r is quoted in data sheets and has to be calculated from the formula above. the cross sectional area of the capacitor plates A.34) The total charge stored on the plates. ϭ 0 r (5.0 to 3. which by convention flows in the opposite direction to the electrons (as explained in Section 5. such that: A Q ϭ ᎏᎏ V l Charge is measured in coulombs (C).0 2.8 to 10. reducing the separation between the plates. i equals the rate at which charge. using a dielectric with a high relative permittivity or any combination of these.3: Substituting for in equation (5.0 2.38) Mica Polythene (5. The capacitor in Figure 5.7 3.0 to 7.3 The capacitor shown in Figure 5. This multiple is called the relative permittivity r.

Vs as shown in Figure 5.25 C Q2 ϭ C2 Vs ϭ 1 ϫ 10Ϫ9 ϫ 100 ϭ 0. Generally in a circuit with n capacitors in parallel the total capacitance. C multiplied by the voltage across the capacitor.5 ϫ 10Ϫ9 ϫ 100 ϭ 0. C1 ϭ 2. C is given by: C ϭ C1 ϩ C2 ϩ C3 ϩ .24. then Q ϭ CVs C Vs ϭ (C1 ϩ C2 )Vs C ϭ C1 ϩ C2 The total capacitance of the circuit equals the sum of the individual capacitances.5 nF Charge on C1 Charge on C2 Charge on C3 Q1 ϭ C1 Vs ϭ 2.24 313 C1 C2 +Q V1 –Q +Q V2 –Q .5 nF C2 ϭ 1 nF C3 ϭ 4 nF C ϭ (2. the total charge on the capacitors can be found from Q ϭ C Vs Q ϭ 7. Vs the charge stored on each will be respectively: Q1 ϭ C1Vs and Q2 ϭ C2Vs The total charge stored in the capacitors. Calculate the equivalent capacitance of the circuit and the charge on the capacitors.5 ϫ 10Ϫ9 ϫ 100 ϭ 0. Q ϭ Q1 ϩ Q2 ϭ C1Vs ϩ C2Vs ϭ (C1 ϩ C2 )Vs If C is the equivalent capacitance of the circuit.…. Alternatively.10)) V s ϭ V1 ϩ V2 Figure 5.5 ϫ 10Ϫ9 ϭ 7.5 nF. To satisfy Kirchhoff ’s Voltage Law (equation (5. ϩ Cn ϭ ⌺Cn Vs C1 +Q1 C2 –Q1 +Q2 –Q2 Figure 5. V so when two capacitors C1 and C2 are connected in parallel with the supply voltage.Electrical and electronic systems Capacitors connected in parallel From equation 5.23 (5.39) 2. the voltages across the capacitors Vs will be V1 and V2 respectively. 1 nF and 4 nF capacitors are connected in parallel with a 100 V battery.4 C Adding the charges on the individual capacitors the total charge equals 0.1 C Q3 ϭ C3 Vs ϭ 4 ϫ 10Ϫ9 ϫ 100 ϭ 0.38 it can be seen that the charge. Q stored in a capacitor equals the capacitance.75 C.5 ϩ 1 ϩ 4) ϫ 10Ϫ9 ϭ 7.75 C Capacitors connected in series When two capacitors C1 and C2 are connected in series with the supply voltage.

0606 C 0. The ϩQ charge on the upper plate of C2 will in turn induce a charge of –Q on the lower plate of C2.5 nF.2 V V3 ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ 4 ϫ 10Ϫ9 C3 314 .606 ϫ 109 ϫ 100 ϭ 0.606 nF Charge on each capacitor. As these plates are electrically isolated from the rest of the circuit electronics will flow from the upper plate of C2 leaving a charge of ϩQ on the upper plate of C2.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Assuming that the charge on the upper plate of C1 is ϩQ. 1 1 1 1 ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏ ᎏ ϩ ᎏ ᎏ ϩ ᎏ ᎏ C C1 C2 C3 109 109 109 ϭ ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ 2.0606 ϫ 10Ϫ6 Q ϭ 15. Q ϭ C1V1 Q V1 ϭ ᎏ ᎏ C1 and and Q ϭ C2V2 Q V2 ϭ ᎏᎏ C2 If C is the equivalent capacitance of the circuit.606 ϫ 109 F ϭ 0.65 ϫ 109 C ϭ 0. This is equal and opposite to the charge on the lower plate of C1.25) ϫ 109 ϭ 1. Q ϭ C Vs ϭ C1V1 ϭ C2V2 ϭ C3V3 Using Q ϭ C Vs Q ϭ 0. then the charge on the lower plate will be –Q.0606 ϫ 10Ϫ6 Q ϭ 60.2 V 2. Calculate the equivalent capacitance of the circuit and the charge on and the voltage across each capacitor.40) 2.6 V V2 ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ 1 ϫ 10Ϫ9 C2 0. The lower plate is connected directly to the upper plate of C2.4 ϩ 1 ϩ 0.0606 ϫ 10Ϫ6 Q V1 ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 24. 1 nF and 4 nF capacitors are connected in series with a 100 V battery.5 ϫ 10Ϫ9 C1 0. then Q ϭ CVs Q Vs ϭ ᎏ ᎏ C But V s ϭ V1 ϩ V2 Q Q Q ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏ ᎏ ϩ ᎏ ᎏ C C1 C2 1 1 1 ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏ ᎏ ϩ ᎏ ᎏ C C1 C2 Generally for a circuit with n capacitors in series the equivalent capacitance can be found from: 1 1 1 1 1 1 ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ ϩ……… ϩ ᎏᎏ ϭ Αᎏᎏ C C1 C2 C3 Cn Cn (5.5 1 4 ϭ (0.

Electrical and electronic systems Series/parallel combination of capacitors Capacitors may be connected in configurations which involve both parallel and series combinations.667 nF Q ϭ Ceq Vs ϭ 1. A 100 V dc supply is connected across the network.0333 C Q3 ϭ C3 V// ϭ 4 ϫ 10Ϫ9 ϫ 33. the equivalent of C// in series with C1) 1 1 1 1 1 ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ Ϫ 9 Ceq C// C1 5 ϫ 10 2.5 ϫ 10Ϫ9 ϭ ( 0. Calculate the charge on each capacitor.5 ϫ 10Ϫ9 By Kirchhoff ’s Voltage Law Vs ϭ V1 ϩ V// V// ϭ 100 Ϫ 66.6 ϫ 109 Ceq ϭ 1.e.25.2 ϩ 0.1333 ϫ 10Ϫ6 315 . +Q V1 Vs=100V V// Figure 5.0333 ϫ 10Ϫ6 ϩ 0.1333 C Q ϭ Q 2 ϩ Q3 0. therefore: Q ϭ C1 V1 0. C2 is 1 nF and C3 is 4 nF. as shown in Figure 5.25 –Q C2 V// C1 +Q3 –Q3 +Q2 –Q2 C3 Let C// be the equivalent of C2 and C3 capacitors in parallel C// ϭ C2 ϩ C3 ϭ (1 ϩ 4 ) ϫ 10Ϫ9 ϭ 5 ϫ 10Ϫ9 ϭ 5 nF Let Ceq ϭ circuit capacitance (i. Capacitors C2 and C3 are connected in parallel and the combination connected in series with a capacitor C1.67 V 2. Given that C1 equals 2.67 ϭ 33.33 ϭ 0.1667 ϫ 10Ϫ6 ϭ 0.1667 C This is the charge on C1. calculate the equivalent circuit capacitance.667 ϫ 10Ϫ9 ϫ 100 ϭ 0.667 ϫ 10Ϫ9 ϭ 1.5 nF. In these cases it is necessary to break the circuit into sections and to analyse each part separately as shown in the following example.1667 ϫ 10Ϫ6 V1 ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 66.33 ϭ 0.33 V Charge on C2 Charge on C3 Check Q2 ϭ C2 V// ϭ 1 ϫ 10Ϫ9 ϫ 33.4) ϫ 109 ϭ 0.

e. Voltage across resistor.26 From equation (5.38) q ϭ CvC dvc i ϭ C ᎏᎏ dt Lower-case symbols are used to indicate parameters which are functions of time.41) . producing voltages across both capacitor C and resistor R. c Vs i r Vs c a R C Tangent to curve at or ig in Tangent to curve as t ␣ t b Figure 5. Assuming that the capacitor is initially uncharged.26(a). i. dq i ϭ ᎏᎏ dt and from equation (5. the magnitudes of which are continually varying.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Capacitor in series with a resistance To see what happens when a resistor is connected in series with a capacitor consider Figure 5. current starts to flow. vC ϭ 0 0 ϭ Ϫln Vs ϩ K K ϭ ln Vs 316 (5.When the switch is closed. vR ϭ iR dvc ϭ RC ᎏᎏ dt By Kirchhoff ’s Voltage Law Vs ϭ vR ϩ vC dvc Vs ϭ RC ᎏᎏ ϩ vC dt dvc Vs Ϫ vC ϭ RC ᎏᎏ dt dvc dt ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ RC (Vs Ϫ vC) Integrating both sides t ᎏᎏ ϭ Ϫln (Vs Ϫ vC) ϩ K RC where K is the constant of integration.34) instantaneous current. when t ϭ 0 .

the instantaneous current i is given by equation (5. Energy stored in a capacitor We saw above that when the capacitor in Figure 5. the slower the rate of rise of vC and charge. dt ϭ dW dW ϭ pdt dvc ϭ vcC ᎏᎏ dt dt ϭ vcC dvc The total energy supplied in charging the capacitor to Vs ϭ W Ws ϭ is 1 ͵ Vs 0 Cvc .42) dvc ᎏᎏ dt Vs but from Figure 5.26(b) the slope of the graph at the origin ϭ ᎏᎏ Vs Vs so ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ RC ϭ RC seconds where is called the time constant of the circuit. Έ Vs ϭ ᎏᎏ RC tϭ0 (5. q equals C vC.44) 317 W ϭ ᎏ2ᎏCVs2 joules (J) . then the time constant also determines the rate at which the capacitor is charged. thus p ϭ instantaneous current ϫ instantaneous capacitor voltage p ϭ ivc dvc p ϭ C ᎏᎏ vc dt Let energy supplied to the capacitor in time.43) The time constant determines the speed at which vC rises. As the charge on the capacitor. The larger the value of RC.42) we can find the slope of the graph at any point in time Ϫt dvc Vs RC ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ e RC dt To find the slope at the origin. By differentiating equation (5. dvc (5.Electrical and electronic systems t (Vs Ϫ vC) Thus ᎏ ϭ Ϫln ᎏ RC Vs Ϫt Vs Ϫ vC e RC ϭ ᎏ ᎏ Vs Ϫt Vs e RC ϭ Vs Ϫ vC vC ϭ Vs1 Ϫ e RC vC rises exponentially towards the asymptote Vs. Let p be the instantaneous power supplied to the capacitor.26 is being charged. we put t ϭ 0 Ϫt (5.41): dvc i ϭ C ᎏᎏ dt where vc is the instantaneous voltage across the capacitor.

3 that when a conductor is moved through a magnetic field. It is therefore essential for engineers to understand how such systems work and to be able to analyse them.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 This energy is stored in the capacitor. No energy is dissipated in the capacitor. permittivity and capacitance be able to calculate capacitance be able to compute the equivalent capacitance of capacitors in parallel. the first finger aligns with the field and the second finger shows the direction of the emf. 5. A voltage of 250 V is applied across the capacitor. This is Faraday’s Law which we saw in equation (5.0. 318 . then energy is returned to the supply. The magnitude of the emf depends on the rate of change of flux linkages.3 J Learning summary You have completed the section on capacitance and you should now: ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ understand the concepts of charge. 8. The total energy depends entirely on the capacitance and the supply voltage and is independent of the time taken to charge the capacitor.23) could be written mathematically as: d d e ϭ N ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ dt dt To determine the direction of the induced emf we use Fleming’s Right-hand Rule. Mechanical energy is used to produce electrical energy. The relative permittivity of mica is 6. Single-phase alternating current generators It was explained in Section 5. A capacitor comprises two strips of aluminium 30 ϫ 15 cm separated by a strip of mica 2 mm thick.85 ϫ 10Ϫ12 ϫ 6 ϫ 30 ϫ 10Ϫ2 ϫ 15 ϫ 10Ϫ2 or A ᎏᎏᎏᎏᎏ C ϭᎏ ᎏϭ 2 ϫ 10Ϫ3 l ϭ 1195 ϫ 10Ϫ12 F ϭ 1195 pF Energy stored ϭ ᎏ2ᎏCVs2 ϭ ᎏ2ᎏ ϫ 1195 ϫ 10Ϫ12 ϫ (250)2 1 1 ϭ 37. If the supply voltage is reduced. The thumb represents the direction of motion. Calculate the capacitance. series and combinations thereof calculate the voltage across a capacitor in a direct current circuit with capacitance and resistance understand the concept of the time constant of a circuit compute the stored energy in a capacitor. an emf is induced in the conductor.5 Alternating current circuits In the previous sections we examined circuits with direct voltage supplies but most electricity companies supply their customers with alternating voltage. Calculate the stored energy.

the left arm of the coil.3 when we calculated the force on a current carrying conductor. ecoil ϭ 2e Motion emf Figure 5. The Left-hand Rule is employed when electrical energy is being turned into mechanical energy. Generally Flux linkages. The maximum flux linkage m occurs when the coil is perpendicular to the field ( ϭ 90°) and there is zero flux linkage when the coil is parallel to the field ( ϭ 0°). conductor 1. At the same time conductor 2. as we had in Section 5.28 shows a coil rotating within a magnetic field.27 Conductor 2 e S Conductor 1 e N Conductor 2 b a S Conductor 1 in cross section N Coil rotated in anticlockwise direction ecoil ecoil = 2e ecoil /2 c 3/2 2 =ωt Figure 5. e in the conductor which is into the page. ecoil m ϭ 2m 319 (5. add) to make a coil voltage. moves downwards with respect to the field.23)) d d e ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ N ᎏᎏ dt dt As the coil has two conductors. ϭ m sin where is the angle of rotation If the coil rotates at a speed of n revolutions per second it will have an angular velocity. N ϭ 2. The Right-hand Rule is used in cases like this when mechanical energy is being converted to electrical energy. Rotating the coil anticlockwise.28 As the coil rotates. the induced emf will be given by: d ecoil ϭ 2ᎏᎏ(m sin t) dt ecoil ϭ 2m cos t and the maximum emf. These voltages aid (i.Electrical and electronic systems It is important to remember when to use Fleming’s Right-hand Rule and when to use his Left-hand Rule.e. Field Figure 5. the magnitude of the flux linkage varies sinusoidally. on the right. travels upwards inducing an emf out of the page. As t ϭ the flux linkages at time t will be given by: ϭ m sin t The emf induced in the coil can then be found by substituting for in Faraday’s Law (equation (5. This induces an emf. ϭ 2n rad sϪ1 and will move through (t) radians in t seconds.45) .

is the angular velocity in rads sϪ1 and t is the time in seconds (s). v i ϭ ᎏᎏ R but v ϭ Vm sin (2ft ) therefore Vm sin (2ft ) i ϭ ᎏᎏ R 320 . v ϭ Vm sin (2ft ) where Vm is the maximum (or peak) voltage.1).29(a).28(a) which is sufficiently robust to rotate at high speeds. The maximum voltage occurs when the magnet is parallel to the coil plane. ϭ 2n where n ϭ revolutions per second. v is given by: v ϭVm sin (t ) where Vm is the maximum (or peak) voltage. Using lower case letters to indicate instantaneous values the instantaneous current. f is the supply frequency in hertz (Hz) and t is the time in seconds (s). v can be expressed by: instantaneous voltage. A far simpler system for producing sinusoidal voltages is to rotate a magnet within a stationary coil as shown in Figure 5. The instantaneous voltage generated. It is difficult to construct a coil like that shown in Figure 5. equation (5. giving: v ϭ Vm sin (2nt ) As every revolution of the magnet induces one complete sine wave of voltage. But the angular velocity. measured in volts (V). Resistance connected to an alternating voltage supply When a resistor is connected to the alternating voltage supply a current flows. measured in volts (V). and the plane of the coil is parallel to the magnetic field.29 This arrangement is a rudimentary form of single-phase alternating current (ac) generator.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 The maximum emf is induced when t ϭ 0°. known as a cycle and the number of cycles generated per second equals the frequency. f fϭn the instantaneous voltage. e Conductor 1 N S a Conductor 2 e Conductor 1 N Conductor 2 S In cross section ecoil ecoil = 2e b Coil rotated in anticlockwise direction Figure 5. i can be calculated from Ohm’s Law.

3). The lengths of the phasors are equal to the amplitudes of the sine waves. Instantaneous current. t ϭ 0. t1 the phasors are rotated through an angle (2ft1) radians. i ϭ Im sin 2ft but ϭ 2ft Instantaneous power. The phasors in Figure 5.30(c).We saw in Section 5.Electrical and electronic systems i v = Vm sin(2ft) = Vm sim(ωt) R a b v = Vm sin(ωt) i = Im sin(ωt) t 0 1 2f 1 f c v i (2ft1) 0 t1 v i t 1 2f 1 f v i Voltage and current Figure 5. They rotate anticlockwise one revolution every cycle. The instantaneous values are equal to the vertical displacements of the phasors.5.30 letting Vm Im ϭ ᎏ R i ϭ Im sin (2ft ) The current and voltage waveforms are shown in Figure 5. To avoid drawing voltage and current waveforms every time we want to analyse a circuit. p ϭ i 2R As alternating currents and voltages are continually changing the power also varies over the cycle as in Figure 5. pϭR 1 i = Im sin(ωt) i 2 Im2 sin2t p p = RIm2 sin2(ωt) Using the trignometrical relationship sin2 ϭ ᎏ2ᎏ(1 Ϫ cos 2) Im2R p ϭᎏ ᎏ (1 Ϫ cos 2t ) 2 2 Figure 5.30(b) are shown in their starting position at time. we use phasors. Root mean square (rms) voltage and current As current flows through a resistor power is dissipated in the resistor in the form of heat. To find the instantaneous voltage and current at any other time.30(b).31 321 .31.2 that the power dissipated is given by equation (5. This is illustrated in Figure.

48) (5. The rms voltage is found using Ohm’s Law v ϭ iR Vm sin t ϭ Im sin t R Vm ϭ ImR Vm Im ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏR ͙2 ෆ ͙2 ෆ V ϭ IR where Vm V ϭ rms voltage ϭ ᎏᎏ ͙2 ෆ (5.707Im (5.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 the average power dissipated over one cycle.46) ͙2 ෆ I is the ‘effective’ value of the alternating current. It is called the root mean square or rms current and is the value normally measured and used for calculations.32 322 i . P is given by: 1 P ϭ ᎏᎏ 2 ͵ 2 0 Im2R ᎏ ᎏ(1 Ϫ cos 2t) d(t ) 2 sin 2t 1 Im2R ᎏ t Ϫ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ᎏ 2 2 2 ΄ ΅ 2 0 1 Im2R ϭ ᎏᎏ ᎏ ᎏ2 2 2 Im2R ᎏ P ϭᎏ 2 Let I equal the direct current that would dissipate the same power. P and hence produce the same heating effect Im2R ᎏ I 2R ϭ ᎏ 2 Im I ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 0.47) Inductance connected to an alternating voltage supply i v = Vm sin(2ft) = Vm sim(ωt) L a b v = Vm sin(ωt) i = Im cos(ωt) v 0 t 1 2f 1 f Figure 5.

It can be seen that at all times the current waveform is 90 ° behind the voltage.33 –j4 323 . we write j2. XL is defined as (5.Electrical and electronic systems From equation (5. The j operator indicates an anticlockwise rotation of 90 °. so that as they rotate anticlockwise the current phasor is always lagging the voltage phasor by 90 °. we draw the current phasor pointing downwards at right angles to the voltage.33(a). v ϭ Vm sin(2ft ) The current under steady state conditions will equal ϪVm i ϭ ᎏᎏ cos(2ft ) 2fL letting ϭ 2f ϪVm cos(t ) i ϭ ᎏᎏ L (5.50) XL ϭ 2fL ϭ L V So I ϭ ᎏᎏ (5. Mathematicians call this operator i but as engineers use i for current they call the operator j.707 Vm therefore Inductive reactance.49) Figure 5. This direction is called the positive imaginary axis. i. To represent this in the phasor diagram. At time. I ϭ 0. V ϭ 0. It does not give any indication that the current always lags the voltage by 90 °. see Figure 5. V V I ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ L 2fL j operator To show the phase difference between voltage and current phasors we use complex algebra and the j operator (90 ° operator). when the voltage is zero. From equation (5. a Positive imaginary axis j2 j1 b c j4 j3 j2 j1 –4 –3 –2 –1 –j1 –j2 –j3 1 2 (3 + j4) (–2 + j3) j4 j3 j2 j1 Negative real axis –2 –1 –j1 –j2 1 2 Positive real axis 3 4 –4 –3 –2 –1 –j1 –j2 –j3 –j4 1 2 3 4 (4 – j1) Negative imaginary axis Figure 5.25) we know that the instantaneous current. To describe a phasor that is two units long in a direction 90 ° anticlockwise to the positive real axis.49) Vm Im ϭ ᎏᎏ L rms current.707 Im and rms voltage.51) XL This only gives the amplitude of the current. through an inductor is related to the voltage by di v ϭ L ᎏᎏ dt with sinusoidal voltage. the current is negative with maximum amplitude.32(b) shows the voltage and current waveforms. t ϭ 0.

(5. The voltage phasor is in the direction of the positive real axis and the current is pointing downwards in the direction of the negative imaginary or (Ϫj ) axis.52) (5. the current is multiplied by (Ϫj ) and equation (5. To represent this phase difference mathematically. XL to ensure that both the magnitude and the phase angle of the current are calculated simultaneously. Calculate the current. For example. moving another 90° brings us back to 2 on the positive real axis and j ϫ j3 2 ϭ j4 2 ϭ 2 When a phasor points in a direction which is not along either axis its dimension and position are described by its coordinates to the two axes.32(b) shows the voltage and current phasors at time t ϭ 0.33(b) is described as (3 ϩ j 4) and the phasors in Figure 5. jXL ϭ j 2fL ϭ j 2 ϫ 1000 ϫ 159 ϫ 10Ϫ3 ϭ j 1000 V V I ϭ ᎏᎏ jXL 100 ϭ ᎏᎏ j 1000 ϭ Ϫj 0.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 If the phasor is turned from j 2 another 90 ° anticlockwise it would face along the negative real axis and would reach the point Ϫ2. Figure 5.54) This is demonstrated in the following example. therefore j ϫ ( j 2) ϭ Ϫ2 j ϫ j ϭ j2 so j 22 ϭ Ϫ2 j 2 ϭ Ϫ1 j ϭ ͙( ෆ Ϫ1) Rotating a further 90° from Ϫ2 we reach the negative imaginary axis.53) (5. the phasor shown in Figure 5.33(c) as (Ϫ2 ϩ j3) and (4 Ϫ j1).1A 324 . A 100 V rms 1000 Hz alternating voltage supply is connected to a 159 mH inductor.51) becomes ϪjV I ϭ ᎏᎏ XL multiplying numerator and denominator by j (Ϫj )jV I ϭ ᎏᎏ jXL but j 2 ϭ Ϫ1 V I ϭ ᎏᎏ jXL The j operator is linked to the inductive reactance. therefore j ϫ j 2 2 ϭ j 3 2 ϭ Ϫj2 Finally.

34(b).55) (5.56) 325 . 1 1 XC ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ 2fC C therefore (ϪjV) V I ϭ ϩj ᎏᎏ ϭ ϩjᎏᎏ XC (ϪjXc) (5.34 We saw in Section 5. To incorporate the phase difference in the current equation we have to insert ϩj. I ϭ ϩjCV capacitive reactance. v by equation (5. i. I ϭ CV ϭ 2fCV The waveforms and phasor diagram are shown in Figure 5.Electrical and electronic systems Capacitance connected to an alternating voltage supply i v = Vm sin(2ft) = Vm sin(ωt) C a i v 0 b v = Vm sin(ωt) t i = Im cos(ωt) 1 2f 1 f Figure 5. This time the current leads the voltage by 90°.4 that the instantaneous current through a capacitor.41) dv i ϭ Cᎏᎏ dt here v ϭ Vm sin(2ft ) and so the steady state current will be given by: i ϭ 2fCVm cos(2ft ) letting ϭ 2f i ϭ CVm cos(t ) Im ϭ CVm rms current. is related to the voltage across it.

An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 By linking the Ϫj to the capacitive reactance XC as shown in equation (5.57) we are able to calculate simultaneously the amplitude and phase of the current. To demonstrate how we can analyse such circuits we will start with a resistor and inductor in series with an alternating voltage supply.1A (5. Calculate the current. i vL v = Vm sin(ωt) b VR R2 + ω2L2 –j VωL R2 + ω2L2 L V vR I a VL v = Vm sin(ωt) i = Im sin(ωt-L) i c L v L t L V d I VR Figure 5. V I ϭ ᎏᎏ (ϪjXC ) A 100 V rms 1000 Hz alternating voltage supply is connected to a 159 nF capacitor.57) Resistance and inductance in series with an alternating voltage supply Most circuits incorporate two or more components. Ϫj ϪjXC ϭ ᎏᎏ 2 f C Ϫj ϭ ᎏᎏᎏ 2 ϫ 1000 ϫ 159 ϫ 10Ϫ9 ϭ Ϫj 1000⍀ V I ϭ ᎏᎏ ϪjXC 100 ϭ ᎏᎏ Ϫj 1000 ϭ ϩj 0.35 326 .

R Ϫ jL V I ϭ ᎏᎏ . facing in the direction of the negative imaginary axis and is called the imaginary component of current. jXL By Kirchhoff ’s Voltage Law V ϭ V R ϩ VL V ϭ I(R ϩ jXL ) V I ϭ ᎏᎏ R ϩ jXL The current magnitude and phase angle are affected by both the resistance. The second term is. because of the Ϫj. (R Ϫ jL) ϭ R2 ϩ 2L2 and the current equals: VL VR Iϭ ᎏ ᎏ Ϫj ᎏ ᎏ R2 ϩ 2L2 R2 ϩ 2L2 (5.47) VR ϭ IR From equation (5. As Figure 5. at 90 ° to the voltage.35(b) shows. XL As XL ϭ L ϭ 2fL V I ϭ ᎏᎏ R ϩ jL This equation may be rationalized by multiplying both the numerator and denominator by the complex conjugate of (R ϩ jL) which is (R Ϫ jL). Using trigonometry we find that VL R2 ϩ 2L2 tan L ϭ VR R2 ϩ 2L2 ΄ ΄ ΅ ΅ L tan L ϭ ᎏᎏ R L L ϭ tanϪ1 ᎏᎏ R 327 . the angle.59) Describing the current in terms of these components is known as the Cartesian form.54) VL ϭ I . ᎏᎏ R ϩ jL R Ϫ jL (R ϩ jL) .Electrical and electronic systems Using rms quantities From equation (5. Figure 5. R and inductive reactance.58) ΄ ΅ ΄ ΅ (5. The first term in this equation is in phase with the voltage and is called the real component of current. is somewhere between 0 ° and 90 °.35b shows the two components and the current and voltage phasors. The Ϫj before the second bracket indicates that the current lags the voltage.

An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 The magnitude of the current is calculated from the two components. because of the j operator.47).62) (5.35(c). at right angles to the current as shown in Figure 5. The vectorial sum of VR and VL equals the supply voltage. rotate anticlockwise. is given by 2 ϩ ෆ 2L2 ෆ ͉ Z ͉ ϭ ͙R (5.54) and (5. the circuit resistance and inductance are often combined into one parameter called the impedance or complex impedance. maintaining the angle between them at all times. VR is in phase with the current and the voltage across the inductor. V ϭ V R ϩ VL The voltage across the resistor.61) The minus sign before the L indicates that the current lags the voltage. VR ϭ IR voltage across the inductor. shown in Figure 5.60) (5. L by L L ϭ tanϪ1 ᎏᎏ R (5. adding the squares of the components and taking the square root such that 2 VL VR ᎏ ᎏ ϩ ᎏ ᎏ 2 2 2 2 R ϩ L R ϩ 2L2 V 2 ϩ ෆ 2L2 ͉I͉ ϭᎏ ᎏ ͙R ෆ R2 ϩ 2L2 ͉I͉ ϭ ΅ ΄ ΅ Ί΄ 2 V ͉ I ͉ ϭ ᎏᎏ 2 ͙R ෆ ϩ 2 ෆ L2 The equations for current magnitude and phase angle may then be put together to express the current in what is called the polar form.58) voltage across the resistor. VL ϭ I jXL and the supply voltage. (5. Z such that: complex impedance Z ϭ R ϩ jL where the magnitude of Z. To simplify circuit analysis. V I ϭ ᎏᎏ Є Ϫ L 2 ϩ ෆ 2L2 ͙R ෆ where L L ϭ tanϪ1 ᎏᎏ R (5. To complete the phasor diagram we need to add the voltages across the resistor and the inductor.63) and the phase angle. using Pythagoras’ Theorem.64) 328 .35(d). From equations (5. VL is. V . As the voltage and current waveforms sweep out the phasors.

12) A (Ϫ0. ϭ cos(L) ϭ cos tanϪ1ᎏᎏ R A 200 V rms ac supply feeds a 100 mH inductor in series with a 800 ⍀ resistor. p.12) L ϭ tanϪ1 ᎏᎏ ( 0.f.65) It is unusual to quote the phase angle in degrees or radians. L power factor.8 Alternatively.9° lagging power factor.Electrical and electronic systems Z can be written in polar form 2L2 Є ϩ Z ϭ ͙ෆ R 2 ϩ ෆ L (5. jXL ϭ j 2 f L ϭ j 2 ϫ 955 ϫ 100 ϫ 10Ϫ3 ϭ j 600 ⍀ Using the Cartesian form circuit impedance. for short. Calculate the circuit impedance. ϭ cos L ϭ cos (36. phase angle and power factor when the frequency is 955 Hz. current.16) ϭ 36. p.16 Ϫj 0. This problem may be solved using either Cartesian or polar forms. solving using polar form 2 2 ϩ Xෆ ෆ Z ϭ ͙R L Є ϩ L the Ϫj indicates that the current lags the voltage where XL L ϭ tanϪ1 ᎏᎏ R 600 2 ϩෆ Z ϭ ͙800 ෆ 6002 Є tanϪ1 ᎏᎏ 800 ϭ 1000 ⍀ Є ϩ36. Z ϭ (R ϩ jXL ) ϭ (800 ϩ j 600) ⍀ V V I ϭ ᎏ ᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ Z (R ϩ jXL ) 200 I ϭ ᎏᎏ (800 ϩ j 600) 200 ϫ ( 800 Ϫ j 600) ϭ ᎏᎏᎏ (8002 ϩ 6002) ϭ (0.f. Both are demonstrated here.9°) ϭ 0.f. It is more common to express it in terms of its cosine and call it the power factor or p.9° V V ᎏ I ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏ 2 Єϩ 2 Z ͙R ෆ ϩ XL ෆ L V Є Ϫ L ϭᎏ ᎏ 2 ͙ෆ ෆ R2 ϩ X L 329 .

9° 1000 ϭ 0.9°) ϭ 0.9° lagging power factor ϭ cos(L) ϭ cos(36.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 200 600 ϭ ᎏᎏ Є tanϪ1 ᎏᎏ 2 2 800 ͙800 ෆ ϩෆ 600 200 ϭ ᎏᎏ Є Ϫ36.8 current lags the voltage Resistance and capacitance in series with an alternating voltage supply i vC v = Vm sin(ωt) vR a I V ωC +j 2 R + 1 ω2C2 c R2 VR + 1 ω2C2 V i c c v = Vm sin(ωt) i = Im sin(ωt+c) v c t=0 1 2f 1 f t b VR I c V d Vc Figure 5.36 330 .9° L ϭ 36.2A Є Ϫ36.

68) The current and voltage waveforms are shown in Figure 5.36(c). The current leads the voltage by an angle of ϩC. VR and VC.67) 1 C ϭ tanϪ1 ᎏᎏ CR (5. as shown in Figure 5.Electrical and electronic systems When the inductor is replaced by a capacitor VR ϭ IR and VC ϭ I(ϪjXC) using rms quantities. VR ϭ IR VC ϭ I(ϪjXC) 331 .69) To complete the phasor diagram we need to add the voltages across the resistor and capacitor. By Kirchhoff ’s Voltage Law V ϭ V R ϩ VC V ϭ I(R Ϫ jXC) V I ϭ ᎏᎏ R Ϫ jXC but 1 1 XC ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ C 2fC V ᎏᎏ j Iϭ R Ϫ ᎏᎏ C and so Rationalizing the current equation.f. The power factor is equal to the cosine of C 1 p. ϭ cos tanϪ1 ᎏᎏ CR (5.66) The imaginary component has (ϩj ) which signifies that the current leads the voltage.36(b) Using trigonometry and Pythagoras’ Theorem (as we did in the case of inductor and resistor) we find that the current in polar form is: V I ϭ ᎏᎏ ЄϩC 1 R2 ϩ ᎏ ᎏ 2C2 where Ί (5. I is given in Cartesian form as Iϭ ΄ VR 1 ᎏ R2 ϩ ᎏ 2C2 ΅΄ ϩj V ᎏᎏ C 1 R2 ϩ ᎏ ᎏ 2C2 ΅ (5.

An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 and V ϭ V C ϩ VR The current is in phase with VR and leads VC by 90°.9° V V I ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏᎏ Z ϪXC 2 2 ϩ Xෆ Ϫ1 ᎏᎏ ͙R ෆ C Є tan R ϪXC V Є ϪtanϪ1 ᎏᎏ R ϭ ᎏᎏᎏ 2 2 ͙R ෆ ϩ Xෆ C 332 . Ϫj ϪjXC ϭ ᎏᎏ 2 f C Ϫj ϭ ᎏᎏᎏ 2 ϫ 1668 ϫ 159 ϫ 10Ϫ9 ϭ Ϫj600 ⍀ Using the Cartesian form Z ϭ (R Ϫ jXC ) ϭ (800 Ϫ j 600) ⍀ V V I ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏ ᎏ Z (R Ϫ jXC ) 200 ϭ ᎏᎏ (800 Ϫ j 600) 200 ϫ (800 ϩ j 600) ϭᎏ ᎏ (8002 ϩ 6002) ϭ (0. where Z ϭ ͉ Z ͉ Є Ϫc ͉Z͉ϭ 1 ϩᎏ ᎏ ΊR C 2 2 2 (5. R and capacitive reactance. Z ϭ R Ϫ ᎏᎏ C and in polar form.36(d).70) and 1 C ϭ tanϪ1 ᎏᎏ CR A 200 V rms ac supply feeds a 800 ⍀ resistor in series with a 159 nF capacitor.16 ϩ j 0. ϪjXC ϭ ᎏᎏ are in series and so the total impedance C of the circuit. current. Z is equal to their sum such that: j in Cartesian form. Ϫj The resistance. phase angle and power factor when the frequency is 1668 Hz.12)A In polar form current leads voltage ϪXC 2 2 ϩ Xෆ Ϫ1 ᎏ Z ϭ ͙R ෆ ᎏ C Єtan R Ϫ600 2 ϩෆ ϭ ͙800 ෆ 6002 ЄtanϪ1 ᎏᎏ 800 ϭ 1000 ⍀ ЄϪ36. Calculate the circuit impedance. V as shown in Figure 5.When the two voltages are added vectorially they equal the supply voltage.

2A Єϩ 36. inductance and capacitance in series with an alternating voltage supply We are now in a position to explore the situation when we have a resistor.9° 1000 ϭ 0.9°) ϭ 0.37 e 0 333 .9° leading power factor ϭ cos(C ) ϭ cos(36.9° C ϭ 36.8 current leads voltage Resistance.Electrical and electronic systems Ϫ600 200 ϭᎏ ᎏ ЄϪtanϪ1 ᎏᎏ 2 2 ϩෆ 600 800 ͙800 ෆ 200 ϭ ᎏᎏ Єϩ 36. i C vC v = Vm sin(ωt) L vL R vR a VL VR I VL V=VR V I VL (VL–VC) V VC (VC–VL) b VC c VC d VR I Figure 5. an inductor and a capacitor all connected in series.

at low frequencies when 2f L Ͻ ᎏᎏ.74) (5.71) (5. Z ϭ R ϩ j L Ϫ ᎏᎏ C which has a magnitude ͉Z͉ϭ Ί 1 R2 ϩ L Ϫ ᎏᎏ C 2 Rationalizing the equation for the current 1 V L Ϫ ᎏᎏ VR C I ϭ ᎏᎏ Ϫ j ᎏᎏ 1 2 1 2 R2 ϩ L Ϫ ᎏᎏ R2 ϩ L Ϫ ᎏᎏ C C which can be simplified in Cartesian form to V 1 I ϭ ᎏᎏ 2 R Ϫ j L Ϫ ᎏᎏ 1 C R2 ϩ L Ϫ ᎏᎏ C ΄ ΅ (5. when 2f L ϭ ᎏᎏ 2fC 1 3. Three cases must be considered: C 2fC 1 1.75) and re-written in polar form Iϭ V ᎏᎏᎏ 1 2 ЄϪs R2 ϩ L Ϫ ᎏᎏ C Ί (5. 2fC 1 2.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 The voltage drops across the three components are VR ϭ IR VL ϭ I(jXL) VC ϭ I(ϪjXC) and the total voltage across all three components is equal to V ϭ VR ϩ V L ϩ V C Combining these equations V ϭ I [R ϩ jXL Ϫ jXC ] ϭ I [R ϩ j(XL Ϫ XC )] But XL ϭ L Therefore and 1 XC ϭ ᎏᎏ C (5.76) where s ϭ tanϪ1 1 L Ϫ ᎏᎏ C ᎏᎏ R (5.72) (5.73) V I ϭ ᎏᎏ 1 R ϩ j L Ϫ ᎏᎏ C 1 The denominator is the complex impedance. at high frequencies when 2f L Ͼ ᎏᎏ. 2fC 334 .77) The phasor diagram (and hence the waveforms) depend on the relative values of L (ϭ 2fL) 1 1 and ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ .

37(c) when L ϭ ᎏᎏ the voltages across the inductor and C capacitor are equal cancelling each other. To satisfy equation (5. Likewise the current in a capacitor leads the voltage across it so VC is 90° behind the current.78) fo ϭ ᎏᎏ 2͙ෆ LC The variation in current magnitude with frequency is illustrated in Figure 5. leaving the current in phase with the supply voltage and the voltage across the resistor VR equal to the supply voltage. Calculate the current and phase angle when the frequency is (i) 1078. This phenomenon is called series resonance and is utilized in analogue radio tuners to centre on the frequency of the chosen station. so the voltage across the inductor VL is 90° ahead of the current.73).74) the vector sum of the three voltages is equal to the supply voltage.37(d). VR is in phase with the current.VL and VC and their individual directions with respect to the current are defined by equations (5.6 ϫ 159 ϫ 10Ϫ9) ϭ Ϫj 928 ⍀ V 250 I ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ R ϩ jXL Ϫ jXC 250 ϩ j 678 Ϫ j 928 250 ϭ ᎏᎏ 250 Ϫ j 250 335 . See Figure 5. 1 In case 3 at high frequencies when L is much greater than ᎏᎏ the voltage across the C inductor is dominant and the current lags the supply voltage. and (iii) 1476. 1 In case 1 at low frequencies when L is much less than ᎏᎏ the voltage across the capacitor C is far larger than that across the inductor and the current leads the supply voltage as shown in Figure 5.Electrical and electronic systems In all cases the magnitudes of VR . Thus: V I ϭ ᎏᎏ Є0° R If the resistance is low.6 Hz. The voltage across the resistor. the current will be large and produce very high voltages across both the inductor and the capacitor which may be far larger than the supply voltage.71) to (5. At 1078.6 ϫ 100 ϫ 10Ϫ3 ϭ j 678 ⍀ Ϫj ϪjXC ϭ ᎏᎏ 2fC Ϫj ϭ ᎏᎏᎏ (21078.37(b).6 Hz XL ϭ j 2fL ϭ j 2 ϫ 1078.57(e). (ii) 1262. The current lags the voltage in an inductor. 1 At resonance 2 fL ϭ ᎏᎏ 2 fC If fo is the series resonant frequency 1 (5. 1 In case 2 shown in Figure 5.1 Hz. A 250 V rms ac supply feeds a 250 ⍀ resistor in series with a 100 mH inductor and a 159 nF capacitor.6 Hz.

Power dissipation The instantaneous power in any circuit is given by: instantaneous power dissipation ϭ instantaneous voltage ϫ instantaneous current pϭvϫi In alternating current circuits the instantaneous voltage is v ϭ Vm sin(t).1 ϫ 159 ϫ 10Ϫ9) ϭ Ϫj 793 V 250 I ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ R ϩ jXL Ϫ jXC 250 ϩ j 793 Ϫ j 793 250 ϭ ᎏᎏ 250 ϭ (1. the instantaneous current is i ϭ Im sin(t ϩ ) and when the current is lagging. i ϭ Im sin(t Ϫ ).An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 250 ϭᎏ ᎏ (250 ϩ j 250) 2502 ϩ 2502 ϭ (0.6 Hz jXL ϭ j 2 ϫ 1476.707A ЄϪ 45° The current lags the voltage.5)A ϭ 0. so generally i ϭ Im sin(t Ϯ ) 336 .0 A Є0° The current is in phase with the voltage.8 Ϫ j 677. This is resonance.8 250 V I ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏᎏ R ϩ jXL Ϫ jXC 250 ϩ j927.8 250 ϭ ᎏᎏ 250 Ϫ j 250 250 ϭᎏ ᎏ (250 Ϫ j 250) 2502 ϩ 2502 ϭ (0.0 ϩ j 0)A ϭ 1.6 ϫ 159 ϫ 10Ϫ9) ϭ j 677.5 Ϫ j 0.5)A ϭ 0. At 1476.707A Єϩ 45° The current leads the voltage At 1262.8 Ϫj ϪjXC ϭ ᎏᎏᎏ (2 ϫ 1476.1 Hz jXL ϭ j 2 ϫ 1262. When the current is leading.6 ϫ 100 ϫ 10Ϫ3 ϭ j 927.5 ϩ j 0.1 ϫ 100 ϫ 10Ϫ3 ϭ j 793 Ϫj ϪjXC ϭ ᎏᎏᎏ (2 ϫ 1262.

(5. As a result.1° ϭ 0. The first term in the bracket is a constant. Figure 5.38 hence net power transfer.38 where it is assumed that the current is lagging. over a complete cycle there is a net power transfer given by VmIm Pϭᎏ ᎏ cos 2 but rms voltage. p ϭ vi ϭ Vm sin(t)Im sin(t Ϯ ) using the trigonometrical relationship cos (A Ϫ B) Ϫ cos (A ϩ B) ϭ 2 sinA sinB and setting A ϭ t and B ϭ (t Ϯ ) VmIm ᎏ [cos(Ϯ) Ϫ cos(2t Ϯ )] pϭᎏ 2 This equation is plotted in Figure.1° 200 V I ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ Z 1000 Є 53. The second term represents an oscillation of power to and from the load throughout each cycle. jXL ϭ j 2fL ϭ j 2 ϫ 1273 ϫ 100 ϫ 10Ϫ3 ϭ j 800 ⍀ X 2 2 ϩ Xෆ Ϫ1 L Z ϭ ͙R ෆ L Є tan ᎏᎏ R 800 2 ϩෆ ϭ ͙600 ෆ 8002 ЄtanϪ1 ᎏᎏ 600 ϭ 1000 ⍀ Є53.1° L ϭ 53.2 ϫ 0. Vm V ϭ ᎏᎏ ͙2 ෆ Im I ϭ ᎏᎏ ͙2 ෆ P ϭ VI cos Vm Imcos 2 2 v = Vm sin(ωt) i = Im sin(ωt-) 2 and rms current.6 Power dissipated ϭ VI cos ϭ 200 ϫ 0.6 ϭ 24 W 337 .5.Electrical and electronic systems instantaneous power. Calculate the power dissipated when the frequency is 1273 Hz.1° lagging cos L ϭ 0.2A Є Ϫ53.79) A 200 V rms ac supply feeds a 600 V resistor in series with a 100 mH inductor.

V1 and V2 equal. and l is the distance between the plates. C1 is adjusted until there is no current through the voltmeter making the voltages. Figure 5. 338 . It is used to measure capacitance very accurately. Figure 5. r is the relative permittivity of dielectric.80) Displacement measurement An ac bridge can be used in conjunction with a capacitance or displacement transducer to measure accurately very small movements.At this point IA R1 ϭ IB R2 1 1 I A ᎏ ᎏ ϭ IB ᎏ ᎏ jC1 jCT dividing the first equation by the second jC1R1 ϭ jCTR2 C1R1 CT ϭ ᎏ ᎏ R2 Hence the value of CT is found. The bridge is balanced and the transducer capacitance found using equation (5. The moving part is displaced by the distance to be measured. A is the area of overlap of the plates. The resistors R1 and R2 are fixed and of known value. In the second device the capacitance is changed by altering the area of overlap of the plates. This is the most linear device. The capacitance of the first transducer is changed by adjusting the separation of the plates. the bridge is rebalanced and the new transducer capacitance calculated. 0rA Cϭᎏ ᎏ l where 0is the permittivity of free space.39 IA R1 IB R2 V V1 Vmeter Cl CT Transducer V2 (5. The value of CT is unknown.37) that the capacitance C of a parallel plate capacitor is given by: capacitance. This type is the most sensitive. Moving this part changes the transducer capacitance. a b Deflection c Wedge shaped dielectr ic Moving plate Fixed plate Moving plate Fixed plate Changing the spacing Figure 5. C1 is a variable standard capacitor where its value can be adjusted in small known steps.40 shows three types of transducer. here the capacitance is altered by varying the permittivity of the dielectric in the space between the plates. The displacement is found from the change in capacitance.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Alternating current bridges A special form of alternating current circuit is the ac bridge. By measuring the capacitance both before and after the part is moved.80).40 Adjusting the plate overlap Var ying the dielectr ic between the plates Before tests begin the transducer is connected in the circuit shown in Figure 5. the displacement can be calculated.39. The transducers have a part which moves the distance to be measured. It was shown in equation (5. The third type is the least common. as illustrated in the following worked example. The capacitance can be changed by altering any of the last three parameters.

39. Negligible differences in measurement will be detected if the effects are small. A high-quality transducer should be used with a pure capacitor and a voltage supply that produces a true sine wave to ensure that the point at which the bridge is balanced can be clearly determined.25 pF. R1 is 100 k⍀ and R2 is 1 M⍀.2125 mm For maximum bridge sensitivity. the two capacitors should be equal and the resistances equal to the capacitive reactance at the measuring frequency. detector and power source systematically. The supply voltage is 5 V .Electrical and electronic systems The plates in the capacitance transducer shown in Figure 5. Errors may be incurred if it is difficult to identify a good balance. the bridge C1 is set at 44. r. CЈT is given by 100 ϫ 103 CЈT ϭ 40 ϫ 10Ϫ12 ϫ ᎏᎏ 1 ϫ 106 CЈT ϭ 4 pF from equation 5. frequency is 10 kHz.425 pF When moveable plate is displaced C1 reset to 40 pF and the new value of transducer capacitance.10625 ϭ ᎏ l l ϭ 2 mm І displacement ϭ l ЈϪ l ϭ 0. Calculate the transducer capacitance. Precautions must also be taken to prevent/minimize the effects of stray capacitance between the leads and the ground. To balance. 339 . The movable plate of the transducer is then displaced from its original position and C1 readjusted to 40 pF to rebalance the bridge.425 ϫ 10Ϫ12 ϭ ᎏᎏ l K Ϫ 12 CЈT ϭ 4 ϫ 10 ϭ ᎏᎏ lЈ lЈ 1. The transducer is connected in a bridge circuit as shown in Figure 5. A are all constant let 0r A ϭ K І and Dividing these equations K CT ϭ 4.2125 mm l Ј ϭ 2.25 ϫ 10Ϫ12 ϫ ᎏᎏ 1 ϫ 106 CT ϭ 4. This can be checked by reversing connections to the transducer.80 R1 CT ϭ C1 ϫ ᎏᎏ R2 with the transducer plates 2 mm apart 100 ϫ 103 CT ϭ 44.37 capacitance of a parallel plate 0r A capacitor ϭ ᎏ ᎏ l in this case l is variable and 0. Calculate the new value of transducer capacitance and displacement of the movable plate.40(a) are initially 2 mm apart. from equation 5.

be able to draw a phasor diagram for a circuit comprising at least two components.As a result most machines are driven by three-phase electric motors.41(b). inductive or capacitive.41(c) by showing the phasors 120° apart. each displaced from the original and from each other by 120° as illustrated in cross section in Figure 5. be able to calculate the magnitude and phase angle of a current in a circuit comprising at least two different types of component. while Vm sin (Ϫ120°) is being induced in Y–YЈ and Vm sin (Ϫ240°) in B–BЈ. but has two additional coils.41 340 . know how to convert between Cartesian and polar coordinates. most mechanical engineers will use three-phase systems and need to appreciate some important differences to single-phase networks. It is conventional to label the coil conductors red–redЈ (or R–RЈ for short). A threephase generator is similar. R B' S N Y' VBB' v VRR' VYY' VBB' 120° time VRR' 120° Y a R' B T 3 2T 3 T VYY' T = per iodic time = 1/frequency Figure 5. The magnitudes of the three voltages are the same. This phase shift is depicted in the phasor diagram. understand the meaning of inductive and capacitive reactance. yellow–yellowЈ (Y–YЈ) and blue–blueЈ (B–BЈ).An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Learning summary You have now completed the section on alternating current circuits and should: ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ understand how sinusoidal voltages are induced in an alternating current generator.41(a). be able to calculate the magnitude and phase angle of a current in a circuit that is wholly resistive.6 Three-phase circuits While domestic electricity users have their electricity delivered via a single phase supply. sinusoidal voltages are induced in each of the coils. Three-phase generator In Section 5. but because of the physical displacement of the 2 coils.5 it was shown that an elementary single-phase alternating current (ac) generator comprises a magnet rotating within a coil inducing a sinusoidal voltage in the coil. Figure 5. know how a capacitance transducer can be used to measure small displacements. it is more economic to provide industrial users with a three-phase supply. During their careers. At time t ϭ 0 no voltage is being induced in the coil R–RЈ. be able to calculate the power dissipation in an alternating current circuit. understand what is meant by root mean square (rms) currents and voltages. be familiar with the concept of a phasor. 5. understand what is meant by lagging and leading currents. As the magnet rotates. there is a phase shift of 120° ᎏᎏ radians between the voltages as shown in Figure 3 5.

VRY is the voltage of the red line R (the first suffix) with respect to yellow line Y (the second suffix).44 341 . The initial selection of voltage directions is arbitrary and is only for the purposes of analysis. Applying Kirchhoff ’s Voltage Law to this circuit we can see that VRY ϭ VRN Ϫ VYN These voltages are not in phase and so the equation must be solved using phasors as shown in Figure 5. All these voltages are marked in Figure 5.44.42 Star connection R IR VRN VBN B I B N VYN I Y Y IR VBR IR VRY IN IY IB Z R Z N Z IY Y Load VYB B IB Generator Figure 5. These names are not universal and in some countries they are B called wye and mesh respectively R IR VRR' R' B' Y' IB IR IR IR R Z R' Y' Z Z IY Y VYY' IY IB Y B IY IB Figure 5. however. once chosen must be strictly adhered to. N.Electrical and electronic systems Three-phase connections Loads may be connected to the three generator coils in a number of ways. Similarly VRN is the voltage of R with respect to (wrt) the neutral. as illustrated in Figure 5. For example.42. VBR VBN 30° –VRN 30° VYN –VYN VRY 30° VRN(reference) –VBN VYB Figure 5. The simplest method is to connect each coil to a separate load as shown in Figure 5. YЈ and BЈ are combined to form a common return called the neutral. The two most common connections are star and I B delta. N and VYN is voltage of Y wrt N. This requires six conductors.43.43.43 In star connection. All the voltages have an arrow to show the assumed voltage direction and are labelled with two suffixes to identify the points between which the voltage is being measured. the ends of the return conductors RЈ. VBB' Alternative methods reduce the number of conductors needed and are thus more economical.

Z. is connected across each phase of the generator. the three-phase voltages are of equal magnitude and displaced from each other by 120°) and the load is balanced (i.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Using the cosine rule VRY2 ϭ VRN2 ϩ VYN2 Ϫ 2 VRN VYN cos 120° with ⏐ VYN ⏐ ϭ ⏐ VRN ⏐ VRY2 ϭ 3 VRN2 ⏐VRY ⏐ ϭ ͙3 ෆ⏐VRN ⏐ ϭ ͙3 ෆ⏐VYN ⏐ VRY is called a line voltage as it is measured between two lines (red and yellow).82) When the supply is balanced (i. VBR is found from VBR ϭ VBN Ϫ VRN ⏐VBR⏐ ϭ ͙3 ෆ⏐VBN ⏐ ϭ ͙3 ෆ⏐VRN ⏐ where VBR leads VBN by 30°. VYB and VBR are all equal in magnitude and equal to ͙3 ෆ times the magnitude of the phase voltages VRN. VYB can be found from VYB ϭ VYN Ϫ VBN ⏐VYB ⏐ ϭ ͙3 ෆ⏐VYN ⏐ ϭ ͙3 ෆ⏐VBN ⏐ where VYB leads VYN by 30°. It is the same current flowing in the line as in the phase from which we can deduce: line current ϭ phase current I l ϭ Ip (5.e. The other currents can be deduced from the result as illustrated in the following example. 342 . VYN and VBN. it is found that ⏐VRY ⏐ϭ⏐VYB⏐ϭ⏐VBR ⏐ ϭ ͙3 ෆ⏐VRN ⏐ ϭ ͙3 ෆ⏐VYN ⏐ ϭ ͙3 ෆ⏐VBN ⏐ The line voltages VRY. This may be generalized as: ⏐line voltage ⏐ ϭ ͙3 ෆ⏐phase voltage ⏐ which is usually written as Vl ϭ ͙3 ෆVp (5. so currents will flow from the generator through the lines to the load such that: VRN IR ϭ ᎏ ᎏ Z VYN IY ϭ ᎏ ᎏ Z VBN IB ϭ ᎏᎏ Z These currents all leave a generator phase. Phasors always rotate anticlockwise. VRN is a phase voltage as it is measured across one of the phases. so VRY leads VRN by 30°. flow along a line and enter a phase of the load. between one line (in this case the red line) and the neutral.e. each phase of the load has the same impedance) the magnitudes of three currents are the same and we only have to calculate the current in one line. N.81) A load impedance. Combining these equations. Similarly.

6 Ip ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ (4 ϩ j 6.Electrical and electronic systems A balanced three-phase 415 V (line) 50 Hz supply feeds three coils each with an inductance of 20 mH and resistance 4 ⍀ connected in star.28) R ϩ jXL (4 Ϫ j 6.18A ЄϪ57.5° in polar coordinates From equation (5. Z ϭ R ϩ jXL ϭ (4 ϩ j 6. Vl ϭ 415 V From equation (5.28) 239. Only at the end do we convert back to line quantities.81) phase voltage.7 ϭ ᎏᎏ 55.5° ϭ 32.5° With VRN as the reference this is the current in the red phase.18A Єϩ62. Vp 239.18A ЄϪ57. to find IY and IB. Ip ϭ 32.18A ЄϪ177.18A ЄϪ297. VYN lags VRN by 120° and VYN ϭ VRN ЄϪ120° and Therefore.28) (4 Ϫ j 6. IR .44 ϭ (17. line voltage.29 – j27. VRN is the reference phase current. Vl 415 Vp ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 239.14) A in Cartesian coordinates or ϭ 32.28⍀ complex impedance of one phase of the load.5° 343 .6 ϭ ᎏᎏ ϫ ᎏᎏ (4 ϩ j 6. The analysis begins by converting all line quantities to phase values.4 Ϫ j 1504.28) ⍀ Assume that the red phase voltage. all we have to do is subtract 120° and 240° respectively from the angle of IR such that: IY ϭ 32.82) line current Il ϭ phase current. Calculate the line current and phase angle. The main calculations are done using only phase quantities.28) 958. VYN IY ϭ ᎏ ᎏ Z so VBN and IB ϭ ᎏᎏ Z VBN lags VRN by 240° VBN ϭ VRN ЄϪ240° inductive reactance.6 V ͙3 ෆ ͙3 ෆ jXL ϭ j2fL ϭ j 250 ϫ 20 ϫ 10Ϫ3 ϭ j 6.5° IB ϭ 32.

I N. By Kirchhoff ’s Current Law IN ϭ IR ϩ IY ϩ IB This is a vectorial sum.45 These currents can then be added to the phasor diagram as shown in Figure 5. to form the neutral current. This is always the result when we have a balanced supply and load. The currents converge at the neutral. and is the phase angle between the phase voltage and phase current. which is solved graphically in Figure 5. I N is zero.83) . Total power dissipated ϭ 3VpIp cos In star connection where ෆVp Vl ϭ ͙3 and I l ϭ Ip the total power dissipated is 3V l ᎏᎏIl cos ͙3 ෆ ϭ ͙3 ෆVl Il cos 344 (5. As a result we can dispense with the neutral conductor and use only three conductors to supply the load.5 that the net power transferred to and dissipated in a single-phase load is given by P ϭ VI cos Hence the power dissipated in one phase of a balanced three-phase load will be P ϭ Vp Ip cos where Vp is the phase voltage.45(b). which on a long run can be quite significant. Power dissipation in a star-connected load It was shown in Section 5.45(a).An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 IB VBR VBN IY VRN(reference) IN = 0 IY VYN IR VYB IY b VRY IB IB IR a Figure 5. saving the cost of a conductor. N. and the total power dissipated will be three times this. Ip is the phase current.

47 IR 345 . This is shown in Figure 5.18 A and phase angle. This time.18 ϫ cos(57. VRY ϭ VRRЈ .84) Figure 5.5° ෆVlIl cos ϭ ͙3 ෆ ϫ 415 ϫ 32. IY –IRY IBR VBR IB 30° IYB 30° –IYB VRY(reference) VYB –IBR IRY Figure 5. VYB ϭ VYYЈ .47.43 kW Delta connection Delta or mesh connection is another way to connect the three generator coils. line voltage. VBR ϭ VBBЈ line voltage ϭ phase voltage R VBB' B B Y' VYY' B' IR Z VRY IBR B Z VYB Load IYB R IRY Z R VRR' R' Y Y VBR IY IB Vl ϭ VP The line currents divide at the load. ϭ Ϫ57.Electrical and electronic systems Calculate the power dissipated in the star connected load in the previous worked example.46.46 Generator These currents are mutually displaced by 120° as shown in the phasor diagram Figure 5. Vl ϭ 415 V From the same worked example the line current Il ϭ 32. such that IR ϭ IRY Ϫ IBR IY ϭ IYB Ϫ IRY IB ϭ IBR Ϫ IYB With a balanced voltage supply and balanced load ⏐IRY ⏐ ϭ ⏐IYB ⏐ ϭ ⏐IBR ⏐ Y (5.5°) Total power ϭ ͙3 ϭ 12.

28⍀ complex impedance. Calculate the line current and phase angle. IR relative to the phase currents. Z ϭ R ϩ jXL ϭ (4 ϩ j 6. jXL ϭ j 2f L ϭ j 250 ϫ 20 ϫ 10Ϫ3 ϭ j 6. IR2 ϭ IRY2 ϩ IBR2 Ϫ 2 IRY IBR cos 120° IR2 ϭ 3 IRY2 ⏐IR ⏐ ϭ ͙3 ෆ⏐IRY⏐ similarly ෆ⏐IYB⏐ ⏐IY ⏐ ϭ ͙3 ෆ⏐IBR⏐ ⏐IB ⏐ ϭ ͙3 which may be generalized ⏐line current⏐ ϭ ͙3 ෆ⏐phase current⏐ ⏐Il ⏐ ϭ ͙ෆ 3⏐IP⏐ Each of the line current lags its respective phase current by 30°.01) A in Cartesian coordinates or ϭ 55. ⏐Il ⏐ ϭ ͙3 ෆ ϫ 55.85) A balanced three-phase 415 V (line) 50 Hz supply feeds three coils each with an inductance of 20 mH and resistance 4 ⍀ connected in delta.54A ⏐Il ⏐ ϭ ͙3 346 .28) ϭ ᎏᎏ 55. The line currents are found at the end.28) R ϩ jXL 415(4 Ϫ j6.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Using the cosine rule.73 ϭ 96.44 ϭ (29.5° in polar coordinates where the phase angle.28) ⍀ Vp 415 Ip ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ (4 ϩ j6. Taking VRY as reference line voltage ϭ phase voltage ϭ 415 V inductive reactance. (5. As with star connection the magnitudes and phase angles of the phase currents are calculated using the phase voltage and complex impedance of the load.73A ЄϪ57. This is demonstrated in the following worked example. we can find the magnitude of the line current.94 – j47. ϭ Ϫ57.5° ෆ ϫ phase current⏐IP⏐ line current.

5° This is the current in the red line.5° IB ϭ 96. the line currents were three times larger in delta than in star. the total power dissipated ϭ ᎏᎏcos ͙ෆ 3 ϭ ͙3 ෆVlIl cos This is the same formula as for star connection. ϭ Ϫ57.86) Calculate the power dissipated in the load in the previous worked example.Electrical and electronic systems The line current lags the phase current by 30°.5°) ϭ ͙3 ϭ 37. Il ϭ 96. to avoid tripping the circuit and then. One important consequence of this for mechanical engineers is that some large three-phase induction motors (see Section 5. 347 .5° ϭ 96. The currents in the yellow and blue lines lag by 120° and 240° respectively.54 A and phase angle. to drive full power to the load.5° ෆ VlIl cos Total power ϭ ͙3 ෆ ϫ 415 ϫ 96.5° ϭ Il ϭ 96. (5.54 ϫ cos (Ϫ57.54A Єϩ32. so Il ϭ 96.29 kW We saw earlier that with the same line supply voltage and same load impedance. using a special switch. As a result. when the motor is running at a steady speed.82) with the same line voltage and same load impedance.5° Comparing this worked example with that after equation (5. the power dissipated in a delta-connected load is also three times larger than that dissipated in a star-connected load.54A ЄϪ327. IR. IY ϭ 96.11) are started with motor windings connected in star. Power dissipation in a delta connected load Like star connection. reconnected into delta.54A ЄϪ207. the power dissipated in one phase of a balanced three-phase load is: P ϭ Vp Ip cos and the total power dissipated is 3VpIp cos In delta connection Vl ϭ Vp and ෆ Ip Il ϭ ͙3 3 V l Il therefore.54A Єϩ152. line voltage ϭ 415 V From the previous worked example.54 A Є–87. the line currents are three times larger in delta connection than in star.

8 ϫ 10Ϫ8 ⍀m and aluminium. At room temperature it has a resistivity of 2000 ⍀m. of a valency 5 element. silicon is called a semiconductor. the negatively charged electrons drift towards the positive terminal as illustrated in Figure 5. Each atom has a nucleus with an effective positive charge of ϩ4e and four valence electrons. be able to analyse star and delta connected systems. 2. the power dissipated in a delta connected load is three times larger than in a star load. This is higher than the resistivities of common conductors such as copper. the movement of free electrons is random. such circuits require direct voltage supplies but most electricity supplies are alternating. before examining a range of practical rectifier circuits. be able to distinguish between star and delta connections. Hence.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Learning summary You have completed the section on three phase circuits and should now: ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ know how three phase voltages are generated. each with a negative charge –e. Si) which has a valency of 4. phosphorus. where e equals 1. as it is usually called. Normally. remember that with the same supply voltage and same load impedance. arsenic or antimony. remember that in delta connection line voltage equals phase voltage and line current equals ͙3 ෆ phase current. remember that in star connection line voltage equals ͙3 ෆ phase voltage and line current equals phase current.48(a). but when an electric voltage is applied across the silicon. leaving one electron to move freely through the crystal. between one part per million and one part per 100 million. This is pure or intrinsic silicon. 348 . The four electrons are shared with the atom’s four nearest neighbours to form a crystal lattice in which the nuclei are held rigidly. remember that in a balanced supply the voltages are of equal magnitude and are mutually 120° apart. be able to draw a phasor diagram for a three phase network. to form n-type silicon. Only four electrons are needed to link with the adjacent silicon atoms to complete the rigid lattice.6 ϫ 10Ϫ19 C. calculate the power dissipated in a three phase load. Generally. 5.4 ϫ 10Ϫ8 ⍀m. rectifiers are non-linear semiconductor devices which produce an output that is a series of unidirectional current pulses To minimize the effects of these pulses on electronic devices it is common to use either current smoothing or voltage stabilization. 1.48(c). Semiconductors The most commonly used material for the manufacture of semiconductors is silicon (chemical symbol. This section begins by looking at how semiconductor rectifiers operate.48(b) thereby increasing conduction. as shown in Figure5. Manufactured from silicon.7 Semiconductor rectifiers Mechanical engineers occasionally need to design electronic circuits to control equipment. as shown in Figure 5. Ac can be converted to dc using a rectifier.Valency 5 atoms each have a nucleus with an effective charge of ϩ5e and five valence electrons. be able to differentiate between phase and line currents and voltages. The silicon may be doped by adding a small quantity.

but when an electric voltage is applied the holes act like positive charges and move towards the negative terminal. Junction diode A junction diode is formed by making a crystal which is one half n-type silicon and the other half p-type. creating a negatively charged zone close to the junction as shown in Figure 5. When an external voltage is applied across the crystal.Electrical and electronic systems +4 Shared electrons +4 +4 +4 +4 +4 +4 +4 +4 Free electron +4 +5 +4 +4 +4 +4 +4 +4 +4 a Intr insic (pure) silicon b n-type silicon +4 +4 +4 Electrons +4 +4 +4 +4 +4 d +4 +4 +4 +4 +4 +5 +4 +4 +4 +4 Hole +4 +3 +4 +4 +4 +4 n-type silicon with applied voltage c p-type silicon Figure 5. In the absence of an electric field. free electrons will move randomly through the n-type region.49 n-type 349 . aluminium. producing a positively charged zone in the n-type. holes cross the boundary from p-type to n-type. this region is called the depletion layer. This leaves holes in the bonding as shown in Figure 5. which is called the Effective charge of impur ity atoms nuclei held in r ig id lattice Depletion layer – – – – – – – – – + + + + + + + + + + Holes Free electrons p-type – Boundary + potential 0V – Figure 5. to form p-type silicon. As a result. thereby creating new holes. The build-up of charge close to the boundary establishes a potential difference between the regions and inhibits further charge migration across the junction. Similarly.49.48(d). The zones each side of the boundary are both left without any free charge carriers. where they combine with free electrons close to the junction. Some cross the boundary and enter the p-type where they fill the gaps left in the atomic bonding. the current that flows depends on the polarity of the supply.48 Silicon may also be doped with a valency 3 element. In the absence of an electric field. gallium or indium. the holes drift through the silicon randomly. for example boron. The bonding forces between atoms are very strong and incomplete bonds attract electrons from other bonds. The impurity atoms only have three positive charges in the nuclei and three valence electrons to link with the neighbouring silicon atoms. Connecting the positive terminal of the supply to the p-type.

Devices that conduct in only one direction are called rectifiers. thereby closing the depletion layer.50(b) shows the circuit redrawn using conventional circuit symbols. This connection is called reverse biased. Figure 5. allowing both holes and electrons to move freely.7 V.V No current flows I=0 – Anode Holes – – – – – – – – + + + + + + + + + Vd = V Cathode Electrons p-type n-type Depletion layer a b Anode Cathode Figure 5. This is illustrated in Figure 5. I – Anode Holes – – – – – p-type – – – + + + + + + + + + Cathode Electrons Vd = 0. the applied voltage opposes the potential difference across the boundary. the diode has a high resistance and the supply voltage appears across the diode.V Current. the depletion layer is widened as holes and electrons are both attracted away from the junction.51 350 .51(a).With no free charge carriers in the depletion layer.50(a). This connection is called forward biased. I Current. current cannot flow. V Applied voltage. The depletion layer disappears when the applied voltage exceeds 0.50 When the supply terminals are reversed as shown in Figure 5. named the cathode. V Applied voltage. establishing a current in the diode and giving it a low resistance.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 anode and the negative terminal to the n-type. leaving no holes and no electrons near the boundary.7V n-type Depletion layer b a Anode Cathode Figure 5.

when the potential of the anode is positive with respect to that of the cathode. the current has to be limited by other components in the circuit.53(c). as illustrated in Figure 5.52(b) shows the idealized current versus voltage characteristic for the junction diode.7V R Vd. To avoid destroying the diode when it is forward biased. I 0. As a result. I.Electrical and electronic systems Figure 5. voltage across diode a I = V-Vd = V-0.53 2 t d 351 .53(b) ). the current waveform comprises a series of positive half sine waves. the diode conducts only during the positive half cycles (Figure 5.52(a).52 Rectifying alternating currents When the battery in Figure 5.7 R R amperes b Figure 5.53(a). as shown in Figure 5. such as a resistor. Vs 2 t b I Anode Cathode I Vs R Vo c 2 t Vo a Vm Figure 5. current through diode V Current.52(a) is replaced by an alternating (ac) voltage supply as shown in Figure 5.7V Vd = 0.

352 . Once the current in the main circuit has been triggered. Rms supply voltage. The average value is calculated by dividing the area under the graph in Figure 5. Figure 5.0 V Vdc average dc load current. Calculate the average load current.With the anode potential positive with respect to the cathode (Figure 5.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 The voltage across the resistor is given by: V0 ϭ iR This voltage is continually changing. Vm ϭ ͙2 Vm Average dc output voltage.54(d) and (e) show the effect of triggering the thyristor at an angle ␣ after every positive supply voltage zero. usually low.53(d) that the instantaneous voltage varies from a peak of 28. A 20 V (rms) 50 Hz supply feeds the circuit in Figure 5. the time elapsed before the signal repeats).e. Current continues flowing until it falls to zero. The waveforms in Figure 5. no current flows from cathode to anode. but it operates differently when forward biased. The thyristor acts like a diode when it is reverse biased. Current cannot flow in the main circuit when the thyristor is reversed biased. Calculate the average dc output voltage.54(d).3 V to zero where it remains for half of the time.87) This circuit is called an uncontrolled half wave rectifier. as shown in Figure 5. Hence 1 average dc output voltage.54(a). it quickly establishes itself flowing from anode to cathode. so triggering the gate during this period has no effect. Current will only be re-established when the thyristor is forward biased and the gate has been triggered again. when it will be extinguished. no current will flow between the terminals until the gate is triggered by a small pulse from another.53(a). Figure 5. I ϭ ᎏᎏ R 9 ϭ ᎏᎏ 900 ϭ 10 ϫ 10Ϫ3 A ϭ 10 mA Although the average dc output voltage is 9 V. i. Vdc ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 9. Vo ϭ ᎏᎏ Vm sin(t)d(t) ϩ 2 0 Vm ϭ ᎏᎏ[Ϫ cost] 0 2 Vm ϭ ᎏᎏ ΄͵ ͵ 2 0d(t) ΅ (5. voltage source independent of the main supply.53(d) by the periodic time (i. V ϭ 20 V ෆ ϫ 20 ϭ 28.3 V Maximum supply voltage.54(c).54(b). Thyristor The thyristor is similar to the diode but has a third terminal called a gate.e. The load resistance is 900 ⍀. it is clear from Figure 5.

1 ␣ Average dc output voltage.54(e) by the periodic time 2 .88) Vm By varying ␣ from 0 to the average output voltage can be adjusted from ᎏᎏ (the same as for the diode rectifier) to 0. dividing the area under the graph in Figure 5.Electrical and electronic systems Anode Th Cathode gate I Vs Vs Vo 2 t a b Gate pulses 2 t c I Current extinction Current initiation d 2 t No current can flow when thyr istor is reverse biased Vo Vm ␣ Figure 5. The thyristor circuit is called a controlled half-wave rectifier. 353 .Vo ϭ ᎏᎏ 0d(t) ϩ Vm sin(t)d(t) ϩ 2 0 0 Vm ϭ ᎏᎏ[Ϫ cos t] ␣ 2 Vm ϭ ᎏᎏ[1 ϩ cos ␣] ΄͵ ͵ ͵ 2 0d(t) ΅ (5.54 2 ␣ t ␣ = delay angle e The average dc voltage across the resistive load is calculated in a similar way to that for the diode.

55(a). overcomes this problem.56. Half the input signal is lost in the rectification process. The bridge rectifier. shown in Figure 5. this circuit is called an uncontrolled full wave rectifier.90) Vm ϭ ᎏᎏ[1 ϩ cos ␣] 354 . (5. the diodes in the bridge must be replaced by thyristors as shown in Figure 5. The direction of the current through the load is the same. Average dc output voltage 1 ϭ ᎏᎏ ΄͵ V ␣ m sin(t)d(t) ΅ (5.89) Controlled full-wave rectification To achieve controlled full wave rectification.When B is positive with respect to A the current flow is through diode D2. Thyristors Th1 and Th3 are triggered at an angle ␣ after every positive going supply voltage zero and Th2 and Th4 are triggered at the same angle after the negative going voltage zeros. the resistive load and diode D4.55 c 1 Average dc output voltage ϭ ᎏᎏ ΄͵ V sin(t)d(t)΅ 0 m 2Vm ϭ ᎏᎏ As both the positive and negative halves of the input signal are rectified and the output voltage cannot be adjusted.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Full-wave rectifiers It was seen above that a single diode blocks the negative half cycles of current and allows only the positive half cycles to flow through the load. A D4 Vs D3 B a b Vs D1 i 2 t Vm D2 Vo Vo Vm 2 t Figure 5.When the potential of point A is positive with respect to B the current flows through diode D1 down through the load and diode D3 back to the supply. doubling the number of half sine waves in the output waveform and with it the average dc voltage.

the voltage is positive and rising.57. the variation in output voltage from rectifiers such as these is too large. vR 4 t 2 1 f t1 t2 3 Figure 5. so the diode will conduct Vs D Vm Vs C Vo 2 3 4 t a b Charge time Vo Vm Sinusoidal r ise Vdc Linear approximation Discharge time Linear approximation Exponential fall r ipple voltage.57 c t 2 f t3=t1+ 1 f 355 .When the supply is first switched on.Electrical and electronic systems A Th4 Vs Th3 B a b Vs Th1 i t Vm Th2 Vo 2 Vo Vm ␣ 2 t Figure 5. Consider the example of the smoothed uncontrolled half-wave rectifier in Figure 5.56 c Smoothed supplies For many applications where direct voltages are needed. In these situations it is necessary to smooth the output voltage by connecting a capacitor in parallel with the resistive load.

(5. Vm. i ϭ load resistor current ϭ ᎏᎏ R Substituting in equation (5.34) and (5.93) Vdc CVr ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ R t Vdc t C ϭ ᎏᎏ ᎏᎏ Vr R From equation (5. it can be seen from Figure 5. This continues until the positive supply voltage again exceeds the capacitor voltage when the diode starts to conduct again enabling the capacitor to be recharged to Vm volts and the process repeats. Immediately the supply voltage starts to fall.41) dq dv i ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ C ᎏᎏ dt dt dv By assuming that the fall in capacitor voltage. the diode becomes reversed biased and the capacitor starts to discharge through the load resistor.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 current charging the capacitor to the maximum voltage. However. then both ᎏᎏ and the capacitor dt current.t2 ) 1 but t3 ϭ ᎏᎏ ϩ t1 f where f ϭ supply frequency 1 1 (5. Using equations (5.92) making the discharge time ϭ ᎏᎏ ϩ (t1 . Manufacturers of equipment which require dc supplies will specify both the average dc voltage and the maximum ripple voltage for their products.92) 1 discharge time ϭ ᎏᎏ Ϫ charging time f 356 (5. Vdc is equal to VR Vdc ϭ Vm Ϫ ᎏ (5. The variation in capacitor voltage (and hence output voltage) is called the ripple voltage. As a result this equation may be simplified to: q v i ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ C ᎏ ᎏ t t where v is the total fall in capacitor voltage.94) . sometimes expressing the latter as a percentage of the average dc voltage. Vr During discharge the capacitor current flows through the load resistor hence: Vdc Capacitor current.t1) and discharge time ϭ (t3 .93) However. the total fall in capacitor voltage ϭ ripple voltage. v is linear. and t is the discharge time.t2) ϭ ᎏᎏ Ϫ charging time f f When the capacitor discharges current only flows through the capacitor and load resistor. a reasonably accurate approximation can be found by assuming that both the rise and fall are linear. i are constant.57(c) that the average dc output voltage.91) 2 where Vm ϭ peak ac supply voltage VR ϭ ripple voltage The capacitor charges between t1 and t2 and discharges between t2 and t3 giving a charging time ϭ (t2 . To calculate the precise value of smoothing capacitance required for a particular application can be difficult as the rise in capacitor voltage is sinusoidal and the fall is exponential. Making this assumption.

In the next section ways to reduce the ripple voltage to less than 0.95) Vdc 1 C ϭ ᎏᎏ ᎏᎏ Vr f R 9 1 C ϭ ᎏᎏ ϫ ᎏᎏ ϭ 286 F 0. the ripple voltage is 0. It may therefore be assumed that the former 1 can be ignored and the discharge time is approximately equal to ᎏᎏ giving: f Vdc 1 C ϭ ᎏᎏ ᎏᎏ Farads Vr fR (5. real diodes will conduct in the reverse direction if the reverse voltage is sufficiently large for the diode to breakdown.58(b). In practice. manufacturers specify a minimum reverse operating current below which a device should not be used.95) The average dc output from the smoothed uncontrolled half wave rectifier shown in Figure 5. Using equation (5.7 V ripple can be too large for many electronic applications. Beyond the ‘knee point’ the voltage remains constant over a wide variation in current. Zener diode The characteristic of an ideal diode. This voltage depends on the levels of doping in the silicon semiconductor.57 is 9 V . illustrated in Figure 5.61 V ͙2 ෆ ͙ෆ 2 Vdc 9 load current ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ R 900 ϭ 10 ϫ 10Ϫ3 A ϭ 10 mA from equation (5.7 50 ϫ 900 Even a 0. known as zener diodes.When the diode is reversed biased no current flows.Electrical and electronic systems If the ripple voltage is small compared to the average dc output voltage.52(b) shows that the diode only conducts when it is forward biased. The supply frequency is 50 Hz. manufacturers are able to produce devices. that break down at prescribed voltages between 3 V and 20 V. The voltage at which the reverse current suddenly rises is called the breakdown or zener voltage. as shown in Figure 5.Vz. then the charging time will be small in comparison to the discharge time. the load current and capacitance.1 V will be examined.7 V and the load resistance is 900 ⍀. small changes in current will produce large changes in voltage. Calculate the supply rms voltage. As the main purpose for a zener diode is to provide a stable voltage. 357 . If a device is used outside this region. By regulating the doping levels.35 V Vm 9.7 9 ϭ V m Ϫ ᎏᎏ 2 Vm ϭ 9.91) VR Vdc ϭ Vm Ϫ ᎏ 2 0.35 Supply rms voltage ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 6.

I V I Vz Knee point Nor mal operating range 0. R is the series resistance and VR is the voltage across it. If the drop is too large. then the diode current falls below the minimum specified by the manufacturer. the voltage across the diode starts to fall and voltage stabilization is lost. The following example demonstrates how a circuit is designed to ensure that this does not happen. R across the output of a smoothed rectifier and connecting the load resistor directly across the terminals of the zener diode. Vo is the voltage across the load. Iz is the zener diode current. as shown in Figure 5. Io is the load current.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Current through zener diode. Is will also be constant. From Kirchhoff ’s Laws Is ϭ Io ϩ Iz Vdc ϭ Is R ϩ Iz Rz ϩ Vz Vdc ϭ Is R ϩ (Is Ϫ Io) Rz ϩ Vz Is R ϭ Vdc Ϫ (Is Ϫ Io) Rz Ϫ Vz R is chosen to be significantly larger than Rz so that the second term on the right side of the equation may be ignored and Is is approximately equal to Vdc Ϫ Vz Is ϭ ᎏᎏ R As Vdc . Vdc is the average dc output voltage of the smoothed rectifier. Rz is the effective resistance of the diode when it is conducting.96) .59. it is possible to produce dc output voltages with a very small ripple. voltage across diode Vd R a b Figure 5. 358 Diode IS R VR IO Smoothing capacitor. Is is the rectifier output current. Vz is the zener voltage. C VS VDC IZ RZ VO VZ Figure 5. Iz ϭ ( Is Ϫ Io ) falls.58 Voltage stabilizer By connecting a zener diode in series with a resistor. As a result as the load current.7V Vd. Vz and R are all constant.59 (5. Io is increased the current through the zener diode.

9.02 V from equation (5.59 is supplied by a smoothed rectifier with an average dc output voltage of 13.0 ϭ 0.118 V The variation in V0 between no load (Io ϭ 0) and full load ( Io ϭ 10 mA) ϭ 9. minimum current of 2mA and an effective resistance when conducting of 10 ⍀.002 ϭ 0. therefore.8 V .0118A ϭ 11. the ripple voltage ϭ 0. V0 ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 9. The maximum stabilizer output current.0118 Rz ϩ Vz ϭ 0.069 V 2 359 .118 ϩ 9.8 Ϫ 9.012 Operating the voltage stabilizer on no load I0 ϭ 0: I s ϭ Iz V 0 ϭ Is R z ϩ V z But Vdc Ϫ Vz I s ϭ ᎏᎏ R ϩ Rz (13. Vz of 9 V.0118 ϫ 10 ϩ 9.0 ϭ 9.002 ϫ 10 ϭ 9. Calculate the series resistance. The zener diode has a zener voltage. Iz min ϭ 2 mA flows through the zener diode Vo ϭ Vz ϩ Iz Rz ϭ 9 ϩ 0.012 A ϭ 12 mA Vdc ϭ Is R ϩ V0 Vdc Ϫ V0 R ϭ ᎏᎏ Is 13. I0 ϭ 10 mA: minimum current. Io is 10 mA.0) ϭ ᎏᎏ (398 ϩ 10) ϭ 0. Operating the voltage stabilizer at maximum output current.02 ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 398 ⍀ 0.01 ϩ 0.118 ϩ 9.098 V This variation in V0 is the ripple voltage.8 Ϫ 9.098 V 9.118 . the ripple voltage and the average dc voltage across the load.Electrical and electronic systems The voltage stabilizing circuit in Figure 5.96) Is ϭ I0 ϩ Iz ϭ 0.02 ϭ 0.8 mA V0 ϭ 0.02 average load voltage. R.

where they are attracted to the positive terminal of the battery. Sometimes several signals have to be added together.098 V ripple is satisfactory for many applications. be able to calculate the average dc output voltage and ripple voltage from a smoothed supply.7 V ripple from the smoothed half wave rectifier and the 28.60(c) shows this circuit redrawn using the conventional symbol for a transistor. resistors and capacitors but most are manufactured using ‘micro-chips’ called operational amplifiers. It can be seen from these diagrams that: I E ϭ I B ϩ IC 360 . for example to convert the output from an accelerometer into a velocity. which comprise several transistors. Bipolar transistor The npn bipolar transistor has a very thin slice of p-type silicon about 25 m thick. This section begins by examining how one of the most common forms of transistor. understand the principles of operation of a voltage stabilizer. The 2–3 per cent of electrons that do not cross the base flow out of the base terminal to form the base current. know how a zener diode works. Simple amplifiers may be constructed using discrete transistors.2 and illustrated in Figure 5. As the electrons are negatively charged.Where this is the case a voltage regulator should be used. resistors and capacitors on a single chip. The signals from measuring devices are often small and require amplification.28 V variation in the output of the unsmoothed half wave rectifier. the bipolar transistor.8 Amplifiers The control of large machines needs continual monitoring.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 The ripple voltage is significantly lower than the 0. Figure 5. it is conventional to show the currents flowing in the opposite direction. works. Learning summary You have now completed the section on semiconductor rectifiers and should: ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ know how a junction diode works. 5. but may still be too large for some electronic systems. sandwiched between two larger slices of n-type silicon known as the emitter and the collector.60(a) the junction between the base and the emitter is forward biased encouraging electrons to move from the emitter to the base. recognize the output waveforms for each of these rectifiers. as explained in Section 5. be able to calculate the average dc output voltage for these rectifiers. called the base. When direct voltage supplies are connected to the transistor as in Figure 5. be able to calculate the average dc output voltage from a stabilized supply. Around 97–8 per cent of the electrons pass straight through the thin base and reach the collector. understand the principles of voltage smoothing. 0. other times a signal may have to be integrated.60(b). be able to distinguish between half and full wave rectifiers and controlled and uncontrolled rectifiers. Amplifiers are used for this.

5 IC(mA) RB IB b IB VBE a RC IC c VCE e VS 4 3 2 1 0 0 b B Q A 2 4 8 6 VCE(V) 10 IB= 100A 75A 50A 25A 0A 12 Figure 5.61 Transistor amplifier These characteristics are used to design simple amplifiers such as that shown in Figure 5.62(a).61 shows a typical characteristic for a small transistor. VRC ϭ ICRC.03IE 0. IB .60 With between 2 and 3 per cent of the electrons from the emitter flowing out through the base to form the base current and the remainder going on to the collector to form the collector current 0.98IE thus 33IB Ͻ IE Ͻ 50IB and 32IB Ͻ IC Ͻ 49IB By regulating the base current it is possible to control the far larger current flowing between the collector and emitter. IC versus collector-emitter voltage.Electrical and electronic systems Collector VCE Electron movement n-type VCB IC C VCB IC Base p-type VCE B IB VBE E c IB VBE IE IE VCE VBE n-type Emitter a b Figure 5. Here the voltage across RC. For collector-emitter voltages greater than 0. The graph shows the collector current. Figure 5.02IE Ͻ IB Ͻ 0.62 361 .97IE Ͻ IC Ͻ 0. VCE for various values of base current.7 V the collector current is virtually constant for any given value of base current and in this case is approximately 40 times larger than the base current IC(mA) 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 2 4 8 6 VCE(V) 10 IB= 100A 75A 50A 25A 0A 12 Figure 5.

The graph intersects the collector current. RC. When an input signal is applied.9 k⍀ RC ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ IC 4.2 ϫ 10Ϫ3 The transistor will operate at a point along the load line defined by the base current. known as the load line. To find the ideal value for the collector resistance. VCE axis at VS. the operating point moves along the load line.63(a).62(b) shows that when IB ϭ 50 A the collector current. in this case 100 A.97). crosses the vertical IC axis. the voltage across the collector resistor. this point should be in 1 the middle of the transistor characteristic. As the signal current varies.7 ϭ 226 k⍀ RB ϭ ᎏᎏ 50 ϫ 10Ϫ6 Figure 5. making Q the best operating point. The required value for RC is then calculated from where the line. the slope of Ϫ1 VS the graph equals ᎏᎏ .With a positive signal current. a straight line is drawn on the transistor characteristic that passes through the supply voltage VS on the VCE axis and through the ‘knee’ of the curve for the largest base current. the base current should equal ᎏ2ᎏIBmax.7 V. VRC ϭ VS Ϫ VCE VS Ϫ VCE IC ϭ ᎏ ᎏ RC rearranging Ϫ1 VS IC ϭ ᎏᎏ VCE ϩ ᎏᎏ RC RC (5. IC axis at ᎏᎏ and crosses the RC RC collector–emitter voltage. which in this example is 50 A. RB must be set at 12 Ϫ 0.62(b).e. VBE ϭ 0. VS Ϫ 0. In this case. when VCE ϭ 0 VS IC ϭ ᎏᎏ . additional currents flow as shown in Figure 5. The signal current iB combines with IB flowing through RB making the base current equal to (IB ϩ iB). To amplify signals which normally have positive and negative fluctuations. as illustrated in Figure 5. Ideally. RC VS 12 ϭ 2. By Kirchhoff ’s Voltage Law VS ϭ IBRB ϩ VBE VS Ϫ VBE I B ϭ ᎏᎏ RB The base current is dependent on VBE and RB.7 RB ϭ ᎏ ᎏ IB For IB to equal ᎏ2ᎏIBmax .97) This equation is of the form y ϭ mx ϩC which defines a straight line.0 mA and the collector emitter voltage VCE is 6.. In this example. IC equals 2.2 V. the base 362 1 .An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 By Kirchhoff ’s Voltage Law. this is 4. From equation (5.2 mA.7 V across the junction i. VS Ϫ VBE RB ϭ ᎏᎏ IB When the transistor is conducting the base emitter junction is forward biased with 0. It is the total base current that determines the operating point at any instant.

Figure 5.0 mA to 3.2 V to 0. moving the operating point down towards A.) rises to 100 A.7 V. increasing the collector current and reducing the collector-emitter voltage. the total base current is reduced. simultaneously increasing the collector current from 2. reducing the collector current and increasing the collector–emitter voltage. t Figure 5.63 363 .9 mA and reducing the collectoremitter voltage from 6.Electrical and electronic systems t RB IB ib Input signal a RC IC+ic (IB+ib) VCE+vce VBE ib 5 4 B 3 2 1 0 0 2 IB= 100A 75A 50A 5A A2 0A VS IC(mA) ib t Q 4 6 8 VCE(V) 10 12 vce b t t ib IC(mA)5 ic c Transistor saturates t Transistor cuts off 5 4 B 3 2 1 0 0 2 IB= 100A 75A 50A 5A A2 0A Q 4 6 8 VCE(V) 10 12 vce current increases and the operating point moves up the load line towards point B.63(b) shows the changes in collector current and collector–emitter voltage when a sinusoidal signal current with a maximum of 50 A is applied. the total base current (IB ϩ ib.When the signal is positive.With a negative signal.

63(c).64. Amplification is linear and there is no distortion in the output signal. This equivalent circuit replaces the transistor in the Figure 5. known as transistor-biasing currents. hfe ϭ ᎏᎏ 50 ϫ 10Ϫ6 If the peak signal current exceeds ᎏ2ᎏIBmax. As the signal current falls back to zero. vce ϭ collector-emitter voltage at Q – collector–emitter voltage at A ϭ 6.0 mA – 0. RB RC ic ib Input signal Figure 5. it is convenient to use a small signal equivalent circuit.9 mA Change in collector-emitter voltage.2 V – 11. ic ϭ collector current at point B – collector current at point Q ⌬ic ϭ 3. ic ϭ collector current at point Q – collector current at point A ϭ 2. the output voltage is the inverse of the input signal and the transistor is operating as an inverting amplifier. reducing the collector current and increasing the collector-emitter voltage.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Change in collector current.5 V These changes are the same for both halves. It is generally in the range 800 ⍀ to 2000 ⍀.9 mA – 2.5 V The minus sign indicates that a rise in input signal produces a fall in output voltage.7 V – 6.66(a). hie is the transistor input resistance. where the collector current is 0. as shown in Figure 5. that is the resistance of the base region and of the junction between the base and emitter. change in collector current The ratio of ᎏᎏᎏ is called the current change in base current gain. To prevent interference between the small signal currents and the dc currents. as demonstrated in Figure 5. 364 Emitter .9 ϫ 10Ϫ3 ϭ 38 in this case current gain. capacitors are included in a practical circuit.64 1 c b e vce VS Analysing a transistor amplifier To analyse a transistor amplifier.7 V ϭ -5.1 mA ϭ 1. vce ϭ collector-emitter voltage at B – collector–emitter voltage at Q ⌬vce ϭ 0.2 V ϭ –5. the operating point moves back to Q. Change in collector current. These capacitors are chosen to have low reactance at the signal frequency to allow the alternating signal to pass from the input source to the base and from the collector to the output while blocking the direct bias currents from flowing to the signal source and to the load where they may cause signal distortion.65. the operating point falls to A.e.64) as shown in Figure 5. i.65 practical circuit (Figure 5.0 mA ϭ 1. The transistor will saturate on the positive peaks when the total base current exceeds the maximum and will cut off on the negative peaks when the total base current falls below zero.When the signal current reaches –50 A. The most simple equivalent circuit for a bipolar transistor is shown in Figure 5. Base ib Collector hie hfeib ib is the small signal component of the base current and vce the corresponding change in collector-emitter voltage. the output voltage signal becomes distorted. (hfe ib) is a current generator that produces a current equal to the base current ib multiplied by the current gain hfe. which is usually given the symbol hfe 1.9 mA Change in collector–emitter voltage.7 V.1 mA and collectoremitter voltage is 11.

9 ϫ 103 ϭ Ϫ5. Although the actual circuit is quite complex.66(b). Using a typical value for hie of 1200 ⍀ and peak input current of 50 A the peak base current. they must be divided by ͙2 ෆ. Operational amplifiers Today. R0 . the 741 can be represented by the equivalent circuit shown in Figure 5. hence. for example music and speech. amplifiers usually comprise a large number of transistors. ᎏᎏ v where v ϭ potential of the inverting input Ϫ potential of the non-inverting input is called voltage gain of the amplifier. is 38. vce ϭ (hfe ib) Rc ϭ Ϫ 1. to achieve the desired amplification it may be necessary to connect a number of transistors in cascade. ib can be calculated. (hfe ib) ϭ 38 ϫ 49. The large variation of gain with frequency is unacceptable for most applications. Peak base current ib ϭ 50 ϫ 10Ϫ6 226 ϫ 103 ϫ ᎏᎏᎏ ϭ 49. connecting a resistor between the output terminal and inverting input. hfe.63(b). The amplifier has a high resistance. One of the most common is the 741 which contains 20 transistors.7 A ϭ 1. It shows that the amplification is high at low frequencies but falls away as the frequency is increased.66 These values are the same as those found when the signal waveform was superimposed on the transistor characteristic and load line. peak current produced by current generator. Ri connected between the input terminals. 365 . which is usually taken to be zero. In practice.5 V b ib b RB hie e c hfeib RC v ce Figure 5.67(a).9 ϫ 10Ϫ3 ϫ 2. 11 resistors and one capacitor in one small package known as an operational amplifier or op-amp for short. It is customary to draw this graph with logarithmic scales on both axes. it is necessary to amplify all frequencies uniformly. a non-inverting input shown with a ϩ and an output terminal. To prevent distortion of the signal. This is often assumed to be infinite. The controlled voltage generator has an output equal to A multiplied by v and is connected to the output terminal via a low resistance. V0 The ratio of output voltage.9 mA and peak collector-emitter voltage. It has an inverting input identified by a – sign. calculated previously.67(b) shows the graph of voltage gain versus frequency. A. or the open loop gain. Figure 5. These circuits can be analysed using the principles described above. To convert peak currents and voltages to rms quantities. resistors and capacitors all on a single chip or integrated circuit. Most signals are made up of a wide range of frequencies.Electrical and electronic systems The capacitors have a low reactance at the signal frequency and the dc sources offer negligible impedance to alternating signals so both may be replaced by short circuits allowing the circuit to be simplified to Figure 5. Figure 5.7 A (226 ϫ 103 ϩ 1200) a RB ib hie b c RC hfeib vce e VS The current gain. This is achieved by using negative feedback.

V0 G ϭ ᎏᎏ input voltage. the feedback resistor Rf and input resistor R1. The overall voltage gain of the amplifier with feedback is called the closed loop gain.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 – RI v Ro 106 105 104 Gain VO 103 102 A.68(a) has two external resistors. G and is defined as output voltage. open loop gain + Av a 10 10 b 102 103 104 Frequency 105 106 106 105 104 Gain 103 102 G. open loop gain 10 Figure 5. shown in Figure 5.67(c). closed loop gain 10 A. Here are some common examples of practical circuits. Vi The magnitude of G depends on the feedback and must be calculated for each case but is always equal to or less than that of A.67 c 102 103 104 Frequency 105 106 Negative feedback extends the range of frequencies over which the gain remains constant at the cost of reducing the gain at low frequencies as illustrated in Figure 5. Inverting amplifier The inverting amplifier. Assuming that there is an infinite resistance between the inverting and non-inverting inputs to the op-amp i ϭ 0 and i1 ϭ Ϫ if using Kirchhoff ’s Voltage Law Vi ϭ i1R1 Ϫ v Vo ϭ if R f Ϫ v 366 .

Using the graph for the open loop gain.68 The controlled voltage generator output voltage ϭ Av with zero op-amp output resistance V0 ϭ Av V0 v ϭ ᎏᎏ A V0 V o ϭ if R f Ϫ ᎏ ᎏ A V0 1 i f ϭ ᎏᎏ 1 ϩ ᎏᎏ ϭ Ϫi1 Rf A V0 Vi ϭ i1R1 Ϫ ᎏᎏ A V0R1 V0 1 Vi ϭ Ϫ ᎏ 1 ϩ ᎏᎏ Ϫ ᎏ ᎏ Rf A A ΄ ΅ ΄ ΅ V0 [R1 (A ϩ 1) ϩ Rf ] Vi ϭ Ϫ ᎏᎏᎏ Rf A Closed loop gain. A in Figure 5. 367 . gain of the amplifier with feedback) V0 ϭ ᎏᎏ Vi V0 ϪRf A G ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ Vi [ R1 ( A ϩ 1) ϩ Rf ] (5. G.68(b) shows the closed loop gain when R1 ϭ 100 k⍀ and Rf ϭ 1 M⍀.e. (i. Figure 5.Electrical and electronic systems 10 Rf 5 i1 i v Vi + V– V+=0V a Gain Av Vo 0 Volts b R1 if – 3 2 1. V0 Rf G ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ Ϫᎏᎏ Vi R1 To operate at frequencies higher than 1 kHz it would be necessary to replace the 741 by an op-amp with a wider frequency range to achieve this overall gain.5 10 102 103 104 Frequency 105 106 Figure 5.98) The negative sign indicates that the output voltage is inverted. From this it may be concluded that this amplifier is only suitable for the reproduction of low frequency signals when A is much greater than 1 in which case equation (5.67(b) G may be calculated for any combination of R1 and Rf .98) may be simplified to: overall gain. the closed loop gain is reasonably constant up to 1 kHz but falls beyond this frequency. In this case.

With this type of amplifier the input is connected to the non-inverting input of the op-amp and a fraction of the output voltage is fed back to the inverting input of the op-amp. such as in control systems.70(a) is used.69 has three inputs.69 ΄ ΅ (5. V3 V2 V1 i3 i2 i1 R3 R2 R1 Rf if v – + Av Vo 0 Volts Using Kirchhoff ’s Voltage Law V1 ϭ i1R1 Ϫ v V2 ϭ i2R2 Ϫ v V3 ϭ i3R3 Ϫ v Vo ϭ if R f Ϫ v Vo If the op-amp output resistance is zero Av ϭ V0 and v ϭ ᎏᎏ A As A is very large v tends to zero and the four voltage equations may be simplified V1 ϭ i1R1 V2 ϭ i2R2 V3 ϭ i3R3 V o ϭ if R f As with the inverting amplifier. output voltage ϭ Ϫ⌺(input voltages) The output signal is the inverse of all the input signals added together. The example in Figure 5.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Summing amplifier There are many mechanical engineering applications.99) Non-inverting amplifier There are many situations where the output signal must not be inverted. In these situations a multiple input version of the inverting amplifier. 368 . called the summing amplifier is used.e. if the op-amp input resistance is infinite the current into the inverting input iϭ0 and i 1 ϩ i2 ϩ i3 ϭ Ϫ i f hence V1 V2 V3 V0 ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ ϭ Ϫᎏᎏ R1 R2 R3 R0 V1 V2 V3 V0 ϭ ϪRf ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ R1 R2 R3 If Rf ϭ R1 ϭ R2 ϭ R3 then V0 ϭ Ϫ[V1 ϩ V2 ϩ V3] i. In such cases a noninverting amplifier like that shown in Figure 5. Figure 5. where it is necessary to add two or more signals.

Using the open loop gain. In such cases an integrating amplifier.70 Output voltage. making it unsuitable for operation at high frequencies. This is similar to the inverting amplifier but with the feedback resistor replaced by a capacitor. the closed loop gain. Figure 5. A is high. 369 . for example to derive the velocity from the output of an accelerometer.Electrical and electronic systems 10 + v – Vi R1 10 a 5 Av Gain Vo ix R2 3 2 1. G may be calculated for any combination of R1 and R2. A versus frequency characteristic for the 741. Like the previous examples. The overall gain of the amplifier falls at frequencies above 1 kHz. V0 ϭ ix (R2 ϩ R1) With infinite op-amp input resistance the current entering the inverting input is zero and the potential of the inverting input. such as that shown in Figure 5. Vi ϭ VϪ ϩ v But V0 ϭ Av V0 v ϭ ᎏᎏ A V0 V0R1 Vi ϭ ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ A (R2 ϩ R1) R1 1 ϭ V0 ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ R2 ϩ R1 A Vo (R2 ϩ R1)A G ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏ ᎏ Vi R1(A ϩ 1) ϩ R2 G is positive and the output voltage is not inverted.5 102 0 Volts b 103 104 Frequency 105 106 Figure 5. To operate at higher frequencies the 741 would have to be replaced by an op-amp with a wider frequency range. ΄ ΅ (5. the fall is due to the limited frequency range of the 741.70(b) shows the closed loop gain when R1 ϭ 100 k⍀ and R2 ϭ 900 k⍀.100) Integrating amplifier There are situations where it is necessary to integrate a signal. Like the inverting amplifier.67(b). VϪ is given by: V0R1 VϪ ϭ ix R1 ϭ ᎏ ᎏ (R2 ϩ R1) By Kirchhoff ’s Voltage Law Input voltage. has to be used.71. this amplifier must be operated at low frequencies where the open loop gain. Figure 5.

102) ͵ ͵ (5.104) in (5.102).104) (5. Av ϭ V0 V0 v ϭ ᎏᎏ A V o V0 ϭ VC Ϫ v ϭ VC Ϫ ᎏᎏ A V0 Vi ϭ i1R1 Ϫ v ϭ i1R1 Ϫ ᎏᎏ A when Aӷ1 V0 ᎏᎏ tends to zero.41) dVC if ϭ C ᎏᎏ dt 1 VC ϭ ᎏᎏ if dt C ͵ (5.105) 1 The amplifier output voltage is minus the integral of the input voltage multiplied by ᎏᎏ CR1 370 .101) .103) and (5.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Vc R1 i1 v if C – + Vi Av Vo 0 Volts Figure 5.71 Using equation (5. 1 t Vi V0 ϭ Ϫᎏᎏ ᎏᎏ dt C 0 R1 1 t V0 ϭ Ϫᎏᎏ Vi dt CR1 0 (5. so that A V0 ϭ VC and V i ϭ i1 R 1 Vi i1 ϭ ᎏᎏ R1 the op-amp has infinite resistance between its input terminals. Hence.101) output from the voltage controlled generator. so if ϭ Ϫi1 substituting (5. (5.103) (5.

Figure 5. on and off. a non-inverting amplifier.Electrical and electronic systems Learning summary You have completed the section on amplifiers and should be able to analyse and design: ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ a simple transistor amplifier. This is a memory cell and the rudimentary component in any computer and microprocessor. The two conditions are mutually exclusive. The basic element in sequential logic is the bistable.72a shows a battery supplying a lamp via a switch. The lamp is only illuminated when the switch is closed. 5. Switch A A Switches B V Lamp Q V Lamp Q b a Switches A B V Lamp Q c Figure 5.9 Digital electronics Digital electronics are used in computers. an integrating amplifier. Logic devices are divided into two categories – combinational logic and sequential logic. In analogue systems currents and voltages continually vary but in digital electronics only two states exist. Combinational logic The easiest way to understand how combinational logic systems work is to look at a number of simple lighting circuits. a summing amplifier. These differ from analogue systems in one important aspect. This is known as two-state binary logic. an inverting amplifier.72 This may be summarized in the form of a truth table: Switch A open closed Lamp Q off on 371 . Combinational logic gates are used to construct control circuits. the light is off when the switch is open. microprocessors and control systems.

which may be expressed in Boolean algebra as: QϭA.4 When the switches are connected in parallel as in Figure 5. This is an example of OR logic for which the Boolean expression is: QϭAϩB In Boolean algebra the ϩ sign is used to represent OR.72(c) the lamp is illuminated when either one or both switches are closed. This case. this is an example of AND logic.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 If 0 is used to represent open or off and 1 used to represent closed or on. The logic symbol for the OR gate is shown in Table 5.Writing this in a truth table: A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 Q 0 1 1 1 The output is 1 when either A or B or both are 1. The lamp is only lit when both switches are closed.72(b). AND is represented by a dot (not as one might expect by a plus sign). then the operation of the circuit may be described thus: Switch A 0 1 Lamp Q 0 1 Any system in which the state of all points must be either 0 or 1 is known as a binary system. 372 . where the state of Q is always equal to the state of A.B Boolean algebra has its own collection of symbols. It is called Boolean algebra.4. This may be summarized: Switch A open open closed closed Switch B open closed open closed Lamp Q Off Off Off On and rewritten in binary form using only 1s and 0s thus: A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 Q 0 0 0 1 As the lamp is only lit when switch A and switch B are both closed. A special type of algebra is used to analyse such systems. is expressed in Boolean algebra as: QϭA Consider now what happens when two switches are connected in series as in Figure 5. The logic symbol for the AND gate is shown in Table 5.

4 Other common types of logic gate are: NOT (the output is the inverse of the input) NOT AND (or NAND as it is more usually called) NOT OR (or NOR) and Exclusive OR (XOR for short). the output is 0. These are all listed in Table 5. The XOR differs from the OR in that it only produces a 1 at the output when one input is 1. 373 . Similarly the NOR produces the opposite outputs to the OR for the same inputs.e. Boolean expression and truth table. i.e.Electrical and electronic systems Type of gate NOT Truth table A B 0 1 1 0 A 0 0 1 1 A 0 0 1 1 A 0 0 1 1 A 0 0 1 1 A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 B 0 1 0 1 B 0 1 0 1 B 0 1 0 1 B 0 1 0 1 Q 0 0 0 1 Q 1 1 1 0 Q 0 1 1 1 Q 1 0 0 0 Q 0 1 1 0 Boolean expression QϭA ෆ Logic symbol A Q AND Q ϭ A.B A B Q OR QϭAϩB A B Q NOR (not OR) QϭAϩB A B Q XOR (exclusive OR) QϭAB A B Q Table 5. where an AND would produce a 1 a NAND will produce a 0 and vice versa.B A B Q NAND (not AND) Q ϭ A.When both inputs are 1. equals NOT A. The bar over the A in the Boolean expression for the NOT gate indicates inversion.4 with their logic symbol. For the same inputs as the AND gate the NAND produces the opposite outputs i.

Q which goes high to sound an alarm when either security network is breached. A 0 0 1 1 A A B A B C=A.When B equals 0 NOT B (which is identified by ෆ B) will be 1. Construction of a combinational logic circuit To demonstrate how combinational logic is used in the construction of electronic circuits. ϭ0) but goes high (ϭ1) when an intruder is detected. The outputs from the detection systems are fed to a control box.4.6 374 .B ෆ A and not B 0 0 1 0 DϭA ෆ.4 when one input is 0 and the other is 1. also shown in Table 5.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Derive the truth table for a logic circuit To derive the truth table for a logic circuit comprising a number of devices the first step is to identify the inputs and outputs for each device with a unique label and to write these on the circuit diagram as shown in the example in Figure 5. A ϭ 0 and B ϭ 1. A: An infrared detector: this is used to identify when an intruder is present. To solve this problem. shown in Table 5. is used The first row in Table 5.B ෆϩA ෆ.e. 0 or 1.B+A. To determine the outputs of the AND gates C and D the truth table for an AND gate.B D=A. so with C ϭ 0 and D ϭ 0 the OR gate output Q will be 0. C and D form the inputs to the OR gate. Infra red detector A No intruders detected A ϭ 0 intact Q ϭ 0 Intruder detected A ϭ 1 is breached Q ϭ 1 Doors and windows detector B Door or window open B ϭ 0 All doors and windows are closed B ϭ 1 Control box Q Both detection circuits are intact Q ϭ O Either detection circuit network is breached Q ϭ 1 Table 5.4. is used. This circuit produces a high output when all the doors and windows are closed but goes low when any door or window is open. Using the truth table for an AND gate in Table 5. the output is 0 so C will equal 0.73.B B Figure 5. It normally produces a low output (i.5 At any instant every point in the circuit will be in one of two states.B Q=C+D =A. To find the output of the OR gate. Similarly for AND gate D ෆ A ϭ 1 and B ϭ 0 so the output D will also be 0. B: Switches fitted to all the doors and windows and connected in series with a battery. A ϭ 1 and B ϭ 0 and both equal to 1. the first step is to summarize this information (Table 5.6) in a format from which the truth table can be extracted.B C or D 0 1 1 0 Table 5. which has two detection circuits A and B. Q the truth table for an OR gate.5.With two inputs A and B there will be four combinations of input states – both equal to 0.5 shows the situation when inputs A and B are both 0. From the OR gate truth table in Table 5.73 B 0 1 0 1 A ෆ not A 1 1 0 0 B ෆ not B 1 0 1 0 C ϭ A. The inputs to the AND gate C are A and ෆ B.4 when both inputs are 0 the output is 0. as shown in Table 5.B not A and B 0 1 0 0 Q ϭ A. consider the example of a simple burglar alarm. The truth table is constructed with a column for every device input and output and a row for every combination of circuit input states.

This is expressed in Boolean algebra as QϭAϩB ෆ Using this expression the control circuit may be designed as shown in Figure 5. In the case of the burglar alarm the Karnaugh map has 0 in the cell corresponding to A ϭ 0 B ϭ 1 and 1s in the other three cells.74(a). door or window open) (intruder detected) (door or window open) Table 5. The following example demonstrates how the logic circuit is devised. Figure 5. that will perform the same function as Figure 5. The two 1s in the right column depend only on A being equal to 1. Table 5. the Boolean expression for Q may be found by selecting the cells in the Karnaugh Map containing 0s.7.74(b). which correspond to Q ෆ. The two 1s in the top row indicate that Q ϭ 1 when B ϭ 0 irrespective of the state of A.74(a). and inverting the result.Electrical and electronic systems The results are then tabulated in the form of a truth table with a row for every combination of states for A and B.B Figure 5. Putting these conditions together Q will equal 1 when A ϭ 1 or B ϭ 0 (and therefore B ෆ ϭ 1). 375 . as shown in Table 5. This is then combined with A in an OR gate to form Q.8(a): B A B 0 a 0 1 0 1 1 b A B 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 A 1 1 Table 5. In this case there is a 0 in the cell A ϭ 0 and B ϭ 1 so ෆ AB Qϭෆ hence Qϭෆ AB ෆB ϭ A ϩ ෆ B A It is therefore possible to construct an alternative circuit.8 The Boolean expression for Q is found by grouping together in rows and columns (but not diagonals) all the cells containing 1s. Combinational logic is used is in ticketing and vending machines where the customer has options. This may be done by trial and error but a more systematic way is to draw a Karnaugh map. as illustrated in Table 5. A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 Q 1 0 1 1 (intruder detected. Karnaugh Map The Karnaugh Map is a matrix with a cell for every combination of the input states and populated with the output states (Q) identified in the truth table.7 The next stage is to determine the Boolean expression for Q. First the input B must be inverted to produce ෆ B.74 Alternatively.8(b). a A B Q=A+B B b A B A Q=A.

C B.B B C C. The output from each sensor is fed to a controller which normally produces a low output.75 376 . The sensors normally produce a low output but go high when they are in contact with a coin.C. as illustrated in Figure 5. to illuminate a light to show that the machine is out of order.B. Q2 is derived. Coins are inserted into the machine through the coin slot and roll down the chute to the coin-sorting platform where the £1 and £2 coins are separated into different columns. Coin slot Chute Coin sorting platform Sensors a A B £2 coin column £1 coin column A C Sensors D A A B B C B B A. Q1 but goes high to issue a ticket when a minimum of £4 has been paid. Sensors detect when coins are in the columns. Should a fault occur in the machine a second output.D D C C D D C A D A A. Sensor B indicates that the first £2 coin has been entered. Sensor D shows that at least two £1 coins have been put in and sensor C indicates that four £1 coins have been entered.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Motorists using a car park must purchase a £4 ticket from a machine that accepts only £1 and £2 coins and does not give change.D b Q1 A. This is normally low but goes high when a fault is detected. Sensor A responds when a second £2 coin has been inserted.D Q2 D Figure 5.75(a).

B.D ϩ A. 377 .9 that certain combinations are impossible.C ϩ A.D Q1 ϭ B. Q1. This corresponds to B. The next step is to draw the Karnaugh map for the controller output.D 11 1 1 1 0 10 0 0 B.10a. Should these situations occur. A Two x £2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 B One x £2 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 C Four x £1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 D Two x £1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Q1 Issue ticket 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 Comments Nothing paid Only £2 paid Impossible OK £4 paid Only £2 paid OK £4 paid Impossible £6 paid Impossible Impossible Impossible Impossible OK £4 paid £6 paid Impossible £8 paid Q2 Machine out of order 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 Table 5.D in Boolean algebra. as A cannot equal 1 (two £2 coins inserted) when B. Q1 for all combinations of the four sensor outputs. the machine has a fault and the ‘out of order’ light should be illuminated.Electrical and electronic systems The first step is to establish the truth table for the controller output. Table 5.C. The four 1s which form a square in the centre indicate that Q1 ϭ 1 when B ϭ 1 and D ϭ 1 irrespective of the values of A and C. but this will be dealt with later. is 0.D Q2 ϭ A.C. Similarly C cannot equal 1 (four £1 coins inserted) when D.B.B 00 01 00 01 A. Table 5.9 It can be seen from Table 5.D Table 5. CD AB 00 0 0 1 0 01 0 1 1 0 A. which goes high to identify that the first two £1 coins have been entered.D 11 10 0 0 11 10 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 A.C.10 The 1s in the Karnaugh Map are combined into the largest groups possible. which should go high when the first £2 coin is entered. ϩ C.C CD AB 00 0 0 01 0 0 11 0 0 10 1 1 A.B.9. is 0.

378 .9.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Similarly there is a column of two 1s corresponding to the Boolean expression A. the second four tens and the last. The required value for Q 2 for each input combination is shown in the far right column of the truth table. For example. as shown in Table 5. the output will remain unchanged until the device is reset.B.75(b). the corresponding Boolean expression found and the additional logic circuitry devised. with the highest on the left and the lowest on the right. in the number 749 the first digit represents seven hundreds.D.C From this equation the most basic logic circuit for output Q1 to issue a ticket can be devised as shown in black in Figure 5. Expressing this mathematically. This is the simplest form of memory cell.B.C ෆ and a row of two 1s corresponding to A ෆ. Calculate the decimal equivalent of of the binary number 1011102 1 ϫ 25 ϩ 0 ϫ 24 ϩ 1 ϫ 23 ϩ 1 ϫ 22 ϩ 1 ϫ 21 ϩ 0 ϫ 20 ϭ 4610 Sequential logic The basic element in a sequential logic circuit is the bistable or flip-flop.D ϩ A. For example. The bistable has two stable output states 0 and 1 and once set. These three expressions are then combined to give the Boolean expression for Q1 which covers all the cases when Q1 equals 1: ෆϩෆ A. Should an ‘impossible’ state arise the second output Q 2 should go high to illuminate the ‘out of order’ to warn other motorists not to use the machine. we have 7 ϫ 100 ϩ 4 ϫ 10 ϩ 9 ϫ 1 ϭ 749 which may be rewritten: 7 ϫ 102 ϩ 4 ϫ 101 ϩ 9 ϫ 100 ϭ 749 Binary is very similar but uses only 0s and 1s. the second by 21 and the last by 20. Numbers larger than 1 are represented by a series of 0s and 1s. or bit as they are usually called. 11002 ϭ 1210. One of the most common forms of bistable is the JK.C.C. 1 ϫ 22 ϩ 0 ϫ 21 ϩ 1 ϫ 20 ϭ 5 4ϩ0ϩ1 ϭ5 To distinguish binary numbers from decimal the former are usually followed by the suffix 2 and decimal numbers by the suffix 10. The extra wiring required is shown in red in Figure 5. It has two data inputs J and K. the largest groups of 1s identified.76. Binary notation It is important to have a thorough understanding of binary notation. Using this column the Karnaugh map for Q 2 is drawn. If there are x bits in the series then the first bit has a weighting of 2xϪ1 . a clock input (marked Ͼ). to find the value of the 3-bit chain 101.10(b). nine units. the second 2xϪ2 . down to the last which has a weighting of 20 .75(b). the first bit is multiplied by 22 . For example. a clear (CLR) input and two complementary outputs Q and Q ෆ. Table 5. where each digit. See Figure 5.D Q1 ϭ B. Everyone is familiar with decimal notation where numbers are represented by a series of digits from 0 to 9 with each digit in the series having a different weighting. in the chain has a different weighting.

e.e.77 Asynchronous binary counter JK bistables may be cascaded as shown in Figure 5. To demonstrate this examine the timing diagram in Figure 5.78(a) to form an asynchronous binary counter. there is no change at the output after the second clock pulse.Electrical and electronic systems The outputs will only change when either (a) a reset pulse is received at the clear input when the output Q is set to 1 and ෆ goes to 0. Table 5. The third clock pulse will see Qa rise again and Qb remain unchanged.76 J 0 0 1 1 K 0 1 0 1 Qn ϩ 1 Qn 0 1 Qn Table 5. Qn is the state of output Q before the clock pulse arrives and Qnϩ1 is its state after the clock pulse. Table 5. when Q resets to 0. The fourth clock pulse will cause Qa and hence Qb to fall to 0.With both outputs low.11.78 QA Log ic 1 Ja Ka SET QB Jb SET Qa Qa _ Qb Qb _ CLR Kb 1 QA output 0 1 QB output 0 CLR With the J and K inputs of both bistables permanently connected to logic 1 (i. Assuming that the outputs have been cleared at the start Qa will rise to ϩ after the first clock pulse and Qb will remain unchanged. Before the second clock pulse J falls to 0 but the output remains high (ϭ1). Q rises to 1.77. bistables only change after a clock pulse. After the second clock pulse to bistable A Qa will drop to 0 triggering Qb to rise to 1.10. Unlike gates where outputs respond instantaneously to changes at the inputs. As a result the second bistable will only change when the output of the first bistable Qa falls to 0. as defined in the state table. This particular example has two bistables and is known as a 2-bit counter. K ϭ 0 and Q ϭ 0. It has been assumed that initially J ϭ 1. or output Q (b) a clock pulse is received. The reader is left to check the outcomes after the next five clock pulses. In the second case the output states depend on the states of the inputs J and K immediately before the clock pulse is received as described in the state table. b Clock 1 0 a Logic 1 Clock input Logic 0 to reset counter Figure 5. The output remains low (i.78(b). 379 . Clock J Clock input SET Q CLK _ K Q CLR Log ic 0 to reset counter Figure 5.11 J K Q J=1 K=0 set Q J=0 K=0 Q=1 J=0 K=1 J=1 K=1 J=1 K=0 J=1 K=1 J=0 K=1 J=0 K=0 no chg reset Q change set Q change reset Q no chg Q=1 Q=0 Q=1 Q=1 Q=0 Q=0 Q=0 Figure 5. kept high) the outputs will change after a pulse at their clock input. equal to 0) until the end of the first clock pulse when the output. The timing diagram is shown in Figure 5. Before the third clock pulse K rises to 1 but Q stays high until after the clock pulse is complete.

For example. the count in binary is 10. when the MSB is 1 and LSB is 0. it takes a finite time for the output of the first bistable to change and to clock the second bistable. First a CLR (clear) pulse resets both the bistable Q outputs to 0. Jb and Kb are derived from the output of the AND gate for which the Boolean expression equals (1. The count after each clock pulse can then be found by multiplying the state of Q for each bistable by their respective weighting and adding the results. Number of clock pulses received 0 1 2 3 4 Qa LSB 0 1 0 1 0 Qa multiplied by weighting of A ϭ 2° ϭ 1 0 1 0 1 0 Qb MSB 0 0 1 1 0 Qb multiplied by weighting of B ϭ 21 ϭ 2 0 0 2 2 0 Total count (ϭ column 2 ϩ column 4) 0 1 2 3 0 Table 5. This can cause problems when there is a large number of bistables in cascade and is a major disadvantage with this type of counter. The state table is shown in Table 5.13 Unfortunately.79 where the bistables are clocked simultaneously.13. the second (B) 21 ϭ 2. After the fourth clock pulse. The inputs to bistable A. Synchronous binary counter The problem is overcome in the synchronous binary counter. Ja and Ka are permanently connected to logic1 but the inputs to bistable B. as demonstrated in Table 5. as in the third row of the table. see the AND gate in Table 5. etc. as shown in Table 5.4. both outputs fall to 0 resetting the counter to 0. As a result both Jb and Kb will be 0.79 Ka CLR Kb CLR Qb . In this case Qa is the LSB and Qb the MSB. Initially Qa ϭ 0 and the gate output will be 0.12 The count can be displayed directly in binary by rearranging the table to display the output columns in the order of the bistable weightings with the highest weighted (MSB) column on the left descending to the lowest weighted (LSB) column on the right. which corresponds to 2 in decimal. This data is recorded in the first row of the state table.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 The output from each bistable represents one digit in a binary number and has the effective weighting of 2xϪ1 where x is its position in the chain. Qa). The output from the bistable with the lowest weighting is called the least significant bit (LSB) and the output from the bistable with highest weighting is called the most significant bit (MSB).12. shown in Figure 5.14. 380 Logic 1 SET SET Ja Qa Qa _ Jb Qa Qb Qb _ Logic 0 to reset counter Clock input Figure 5. MSB 0 0 1 1 0 LSB 0 1 0 1 0 Count in binary 00 01 10 11 00 Count in decimal 0 1 2 3 0 Table 5. As a result a ripple effect is created as each bistable operates in turn. The first bistable (A) has a weighting of 20 ϭ 1.

80 shows a 3-bit synchronous counter. The Q outputs for all the bistables are initially reset to 0. Derive the state table with the columns arranged to display the binary count directly. The number of clock pulses required for the sequence to repeat is called the counter modulo.Qa 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 Ja state ؍1 Both bistable Q outputs reset Calculate bistable inputs Q outputs after 1st clock pulse Recalculate bistable inputs Q outputs after 2nd clock pulse 0 Recalculate bistable inputs Q outputs after 3rd clock pulse Recalculate bistable inputs Q outputs after 4th clock pulse Cycle repeats modulo ؍4 Recalculate bistable inputs Q outputs after 5th clock pulse Recalculate bistable inputs Q outputs after 6th clock pulse Recalculate bistable inputs Qb MSB 0 Table 5. Clock pulses Logic 1 Ja Ka SET Qa Qa _ Jb SET Qb Qb _ Jc SET Qc Qc _ CLR Kb Logic 1 CLR Kc CLR Reset Figure 5. Table 5. Ja and Ka stay at 1. Weighting → Clock pulse ↓ 0 1 2 3 4 5 Qb 21 ؍2 MSB 0 0 1 1 0 0 Qa 2 0 ؍1 LSB 0 1 0 1 0 1 Count in decimal 0 1 2 3 0 1 Comments Sequence repeats after 4 clock pulses Table 5. Jb ϭ Kb ϭ 0 so Qb will remain unchanged at 0. as recorded in the second row of the state table.15 Figure 5. the state table may be simplified as in Table 5. However. The process continues as shown in the completed state table. These data are then used to recalculate the bistable inputs.15. re-ordered with the most significant bit on the left.14 The input data is then used to calculate the bistable outputs after the first clock pulse. With the inputs to both bistables set at 1 the outputs will change after the second clock pulse. both inputs to the AND gate are 1 making its output equal 1 and causing Jb and Kb to both rise to 1. Qa will fall to 0 and Qb will rise to 1. Listing only the bistable outputs. The sequence repeats after clock 4 pulses.With Ja ϭ Ka ϭ 1 Qa will change after the clock pulse rising to 1.14. but with Qa now at 1. Hence find the counter modulo.Qa ؍1.Electrical and electronic systems 2-bit synchronous counter Ka Qa Jb Kb ؍1 LSB ؍1.80 381 .

17 Counter modulo ϭ number of clock pulses needed to make the count repeat ϭ 5 To transmit the binary output from the counter correctly to the next device in the network the output from each stage of the counter must be connected to the appropriate bit input of the following device. Clock pulse 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 outputs inputs outputs inputs outputs inputs outputs inputs outputs inputs outputs inputs outputs inputs Ja ؍ 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 Ka ؍1 1 Qa 0 Jb Kb ؍Qa ؍Qa 0 0 Qb 0 Jc Kc ؍Qa. 382 .81. first determine the bistable inputs before every clock pulse and then. The digital-toanalogue converter. using the JK bistable state table. The simplest form of digital to analogue converter is the weighted resistor D/A converter. calculate the bistable outputs.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Using the method described above. Digital-to-analogue converters There are many applications where an engineer wants to use a computer or microprocessor to control a piece of equipment and it is necessary to convert a binary signal into an analogue voltage. shown in Figure 5.16 Clock pulse 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 MSB Qc 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Qb 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 LSB Qa 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 Count in decimal 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 Table 5. described in the next section. with the MSB output being joined to the MSB input etc. It has a separate input lead for each bit.Qb ؍1 0 1 Qc 0 0 ෆc Q 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 Cycle repeats 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 Table 5. after the clock pulses. is an example of a device with a binary input.

A 4-bit digital to analogue (D/A) converter. This resistance is in series with a resistor R. making the total resistance to the right of node C2 equal to 2R. Consider the circuit to the right of node D2. shown in Figure 5. connected in parallel with an effective resistance of R. This resistance is in parallel with the ground resistor 2R. A is the most significant bit (MSB).e. Using equation (5. where there are two resistors. The reader is left to check that the effective resistances at nodes B2 and A2 are also equal R. 383 .81 This is basically a summing amplifier with a set of electronic switches that connect the input resistors to either logic 1 or logic 0. which uses only two resistance values R and 2R.99) the output voltage of the summing amplifier. shown in Figure 5. This is difficult to achieve in converters with a large number of bits and errors are inherent. giving an effective resistance at C2 of R.(equivalent to 13 in decimal) has been converted to Ϫ13 V.82. 1310) on the input leads switches A. has logic 1 set Rf 8 at 5 V and a resistor ratio ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ.Electrical and electronic systems +5V 1 0 A R Binar y number MSB LSB 1 0 1 0 1 0 B 2R Rf 4R – + C D 8R Vo Figure 5.e. 110). R–2R ladder digital-to-analogue converter The problem is avoided in the R–2R ladder. equivalent to 810 ) and D is the least significant bit (LSB) corresponding to 00012 (i. The 4-bit device shown has four input leads.81. corresponding to 10002 in binary (that is. depending on the binary number to be converted. both 2R. The current entering each node is divided equally with half going through the shunt resistor and the remainder passing to the next stage. Calculate the 5 analogue output voltage. R To convert 11012 (i. B and D must be connected to logic 1 and switch C to logic 0 (ground). The effective resistance of each stage of the ladder is R. The following worked example shows how a binary number is converted to an analogue voltage. The binary input is 11012. ΄ ΅ ΄ ΅ The major problem with this design is that for the D/A converter to function accurately. Vo is given by: VA VB VD 0 Vo ϭ ϪRf ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏ ᎏ ϩ ᎏ ᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ R 2R 4R 8R 8 5 5 ϭ Ϫᎏᎏ 5 ϩ ᎏᎏ ϩ 0 ϩ ᎏᎏ 5 2 8 Vo ϭ Ϫ13 V The binary input of 11012 . the resistor values must be exact.

82 LSB Vo Binary number The shunt resistors are connected to electronic switches. A 4-bit R-2R ladder D/A converter is shown in Figure 5.3125 mA 8 For an inverting amplifier Vout ϭ IfRf and hence. join the resistors to either the inverting input of the amplifier or to ground to produce an amplifier output voltage that is the analogue equivalent to the binary signal.82. The binary input is 10102. Calculate the analogue output voltage. This is demonstrated in the following worked example.83(a) shows a simple system called a counter-ramp A/D converter.3125 ϫ 10Ϫ3 ϫ 32 ϫ 103 Vout ϭ Ϫ10 V The binary data word 10102 (ϭ 1010) has been converted into an analogue voltage of 10 V. R is 10 k⍀ and the amplifier feedback resistance.5 mA R 10 ϫ 10Ϫ3 5 Iin ϭ ᎏᎏ I ϭ 0. Vout ϭ ϪIinRf ϭ Ϫ0. If ϭ ϪIin Analogue-to-digital converter Analogue to digital (A/D) converters are used to convert analogue voltages to a digital format. 384 . The effective resistance at each stage of the ladder. To convert the binary 10102 (ϭ 1010) only the first (corresponding to the most significant bit) and third switches are connected to the op-amp input. It has a reference voltage of ϩ5 V. producing an amplifier input current. which depending on the input binary number being converted. Rf is 32 k⍀. Iin which is given by: I 0 I 0 Iin ϭ ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ ϩ ᎏᎏ 2 4 8 16 5I ϭ ᎏᎏ 8 V 5 I ϭ ᎏref ᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 0. Figure 5.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 I Vref 2R I/2 MSB A1 A2 I/2 2R I/4 B1 R B2 I/4 2R I/8 C1 LSB R C2 I/8 2R I/16 D1 Rf – + R D2 I/16 2R MSB Figure 5.

nine steps will be needed.When the process starts. Its output is zero when the two input voltages are exactly equal.Electrical and electronic systems Analogue input (Vin) Digital to analogue converter (D-A) Binary output Counter a – + Comparator + Analogue 0 – input voltage (Vin) D-A converter output voltage Start convert Comparator output Counter stopped Clock and control log ic Start convert 0V Clock pulses Time Conversion time Figure 5. maximum analogue input voltage voltage step ϭ ᎏᎏᎏᎏ maximum binary count 15 ϭ ᎏᎏ 15 ϭ1V To convert an analogue voltage of 9 V. This is converted to an analogue voltage by the D/A converter which rises one voltage step. at which point the count stops and the binary equivalent of the analogue voltage is held at the digital output. The output voltage is negative when the voltage applied to the inverting input is greater than that applied to the non-inverting input and positive when the non-inverting input voltage is larger. the comparator output remains negative and the binary counter increments by one. making the output voltage from the D/A converter equal to 0 V and the comparator output negative. Calculate the time taken to convert an analogue voltage of 9 V. where: maximum analogue voltage that may be applied to the inverting input voltage step ϭ ᎏᎏᎏᎏᎏᎏᎏ maximum binary count If this is smaller than the analogue input voltage. which is an operational amplifier with a very high gain. making the D/A converter output rise another step. Eventually the count becomes sufficiently large that the output from the D/A converter exceeds the analogue voltage and the comparator output becomes positive. The whole process is illustrated in Figure 5.With four bits the maximum count is (24 Ϫ 1) ϭ 15. The first clock pulse increments the binary counter output to 00012. A 4-bit analogue to digital counter has a maximum analogue input voltage of 15 V and a clock frequency of 100 kHz. the count is set to zero. 1 1 time taken for one step ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 10 s clock frequency 100 ϫ 103 time for nine steps ϭ 9 ϫ 10 s ϭ 90 s 385 .83 The analogue voltage to be converted is connected to the inverting input of the comparator. A binary counter can count from 0 to (2x Ϫ 1) where x is the number of bits.83(b).

be able to derive the truth table. When an alternating voltage V1 is applied across the primary winding.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Learning summary You have completed the section on digital electronics and should: ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ be familiar with the operation of common combinational logic gates. They have no moving parts and consume little power. as illustrated in Figure 5. Karnaugh map and Boolean expression for the output of a combinational logic circuit. f is the frequency and t is time. medical apparatus and electrical power transmission and distribution. N1 Magnetising current V1 E1 Figure 5. N2 E2 V2 (5. be familiar with the operation of bistables. e1m = N1 2f m 386 Pr imar y. be able to derive the state table for a sequential logic circuit. 5. In this case the primary has N1 turns and the secondary N2 turns. understand binary notation. televisions. a small magnetizing current flows in that winding establishing an alternating flux in the core. be able to analyse the operation of a digital-to-analogue converter. They are used in a wide variety of applications including chargers and power supplies for small electronic equipment. Transformers may also be used for electrical isolation where there is a risk of personal injury. N1 and N2 may be equal in isolation transformers. each covered with insulation. such that: ϭ m sin(2ft ) where m is the maximum flux.106) . have an understanding of Boolean algebra.23)) this flux induces an emf e1 in the primary winding: d e1 ϭ N1ᎏᎏ dt substituting for d e1 ϭ N1 ᎏᎏ {m sin(2 ft )} dt ϭ N1 2f m cos(2 ft ) maximum induced emf.10 Transformers Transformers convert alternating voltage and current levels.84. This is called the primary winding. be able to design a combinational logic circuit.84 Secondar y. The other normally has a different number of turns and is known as the secondary. understand how an analogue-to-digital converter works. for example in the use of portable electric tools. In accordance with Faraday’s Law (equation (5. Turns ratio A single-phase transformer has a core of insulated steel laminations around which two separate coils of conducting wire are wound. One coil is connected to an alternating current (ac) supply.

N1 The ratio of ᎏᎏᎏ is called the secondary turns.Electrical and electronic systems from equation (5. so it may be assumed with reasonable accuracy that: E1 is the V1. applied voltage E2 is the V2.111) (5.107)).108) by (5.44 ϫ f N2ABm Dividing equation (5. as in Figure 5.112) Impedance connected to secondary winding When a load impedance is connected to the secondary winding. a very small fraction of flux will fail to link with both coils) but these effects are generally very small. 387 . In practice the windings will have a small finite resistance and there will be some leakage of flux (that is.108) (5. N2 ‘turns ratio’ or ‘transformation ratio’.44 ϫ fN1ABm where Bm is the maximum flux density in the core. As the flux is common to both coils. 2 f E1 ϭ ᎏᎏ N1m ͙ෆ 2 E1 ϭ 4.44 ϫ fN1m If A is the cross-sectional area of the core E1 ϭ 4. secondary terminal voltage Hence. This reduction in E1 increases the potential difference (V1 .110) E1 N1 ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ E2 N2 (5.85. a current I2 will flow in the secondary circuit.109) dt and E2 ϭ 4.110) (5.107) primary turns. This current will set up its own flux. raising the primary current I1 and with it the main flux.48) maximum voltage rms voltage ϭ ᎏᎏ ͙ෆ 2 thus rms induced emf. in a direction which opposes the main flux .E1) in the primary circuit. it also induces an emf e2 in the secondary winding such that d e2 ϭ N2 ᎏᎏ (5. tending to reduce the latter. . Any reduction in the main flux produces a corresponding fall in E1 (see equation (5. V1 N1 ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ V2 N2 (5.

114) A 200 V: 50 V . I1 N1 equals the mmf created in the secondary winding. N1 I1 V1 E1 Secondar y.85 b Equilibrium is achieved when the primary current has increased sufficiently to restore the flux to its original value.115) .239) V1 200 ϭ (0.7 50 50 I2 ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ᎏᎏ 10 ϩ j37.7 50 ϭ ᎏᎏ (10 Ϫ j37. Calculate the primary current.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 I1 Pr imary.319A Є–75.113) (5.329 Ϫ j1. Load reactance.239) A From equation (5.7 10 Ϫ j37. I1N1 ϭ I2N2 I1 N2 ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ I2 N1 (5.7) 1521 ϭ (0. I2 N2. at which point the magnetomotive force (mmf) produced in the primary winding.329 Ϫ j1. N2 I2 E2 V2 Z.114) I1 N2 ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ I2 N1 Comparing this with equation (5. load impedance Z equivalent impedance V1 a Figure 5. 60 Hz transformer supplies a load comprising a 10 ⍀ resistor in series with a 100 mH inductor.309)A ϭ 0.7 ⍀ Load impedance.112) I1 V2 ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ I2 V1 V1 ϭ 200 V and V2 ϭ 50 V V2 50 I1 ϭ I 2 ᎏ ᎏ = ᎏᎏ (0.10° 388 (5. Z ϭ R ϩ jXl ϭ (10 + j37.082 Ϫ j0.7 10 ϩ j37. jXl ϭ j2 ϫ 60 ϫ 100 ϫ 10Ϫ3 ϭ j37.7) ⍀ V2 I2 ϭ ᎏ ᎏ Z 10 Ϫ j37.

shown in Figure 5.Electrical and electronic systems Equivalent impedance Engineers use equivalent circuits to simplify circuit analysis. see Figure 5. This impedance is sometimes called the referred impedance.2 2 389 .7) ϫ ᎏᎏ 50 ϭ 160 ϩ j603. the equivalent impedance. Currents and voltages in the rest of the network must be unaffected by the use of an equivalent circuit.116) The transformer and load impedance may be represented by impedance Ze.1)) the secondary impedance.7) ⍀ N1 equivalent impedance. Ze ϭ ᎏ ᎏ V1 From equations (5. Calculate the equivalent impedance for the transformer and load and hence find the primary current. The following example demonstrates how it may used in calculations. multiplied by the turns ratio squared. will have an equivalent circuit which has a voltage V1 across its terminals and a current.114) for a transformer with a load impedance connected to its secondary winding V2N1 V1 ϭ ᎏ ᎏ N2 and I2N2 I1 ϭ ᎏ ᎏ N1 N1 V2ᎏ ᎏ N2 V1 Ze ϭ ᎏ ᎏ ϭ ᎏ N2 I1 I2ᎏ ᎏ N1 V2 N1 ϭ ᎏᎏ ϫ ᎏᎏ I2 N2 V2 Z ϭ ᎏᎏ I2 Hence. equal to the load impedance Z. From the previous worked example Load impedance. 60 Hz transformer supplies a load comprising a 10 ⍀ resistor in series with a 100 mH inductor. Equivalent circuits replicate the effect of the components they replace. The transformer with a load impedance connected to its secondary winding. I1 entering it. 2 (5. A 200 V: 50 V.85(a).85(b). N1 Ze ϭ Z ᎏ ᎏ N2 2 by Ohm’s Law (equation (5.112) and (5. Z ϭ R ϩ jXl ϭ (10 + j37. Ze ϭ Z ᎏ ᎏ N2 2 200 ϭ (10 ϩ j37. The voltage across the terminals of an equivalent circuit and the current entering it must be the same as those for the original components. V1 Effective impedance of the equivalent circuit.

The VA rating is defined as: VA rating. This is determined by the manufacturer and printed on the rating plate fixed to the device.2) ϭ ᎏᎏᎏ 389450 ϭ (0. 200 ϫ 103 S Primary current. For a transformer: VA rating of the primary. . I1 ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏ ᎏ V1 3. This is used to calculate the maximum current that the equipment can safely conduct.3 ϫ 103 ϭ 60. Also on the rating plate is the voltampere or VA rating.319A ЄϪ75. S1 ϭ V1 I1 fl and VA rating of the secondary.112) I1 V2 ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ I2 V1 V 1 I1 ϭ V 2 I2 VA rating of primary.6 A 200 ϫ 103 S Secondary current.3 A 390 .082 Ϫ j0.2) 200 ϫ (160 Ϫ j603.2) (160 Ϫ j603.10° Voltage and voltampere ratings The voltage rating of an electrical device is the maximum rms voltage at which it may be safely operated.117) A 3.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 V1 I1 ϭ ᎏ ᎏ Ze 200 ϭ ᎏᎏ (160 ϩ j603. Calculate the full load primary and secondary currents. S2 (5. S1 ϭ VA rating of secondary. I2 ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ 240 V2 ϭ 833.3 kV: 240 V single phase transformer has a voltampere rating of 200 kVA.309)A ϭ 0. which is called the full load current.2) (160 ϩ j603. S ϭ V Ifl where V is the voltage rating and Ifl is the full load current.2) 200 ϭ ᎏᎏ ϫ ᎏᎏ (160 Ϫ j603. S2 ϭ V2 I2 fl From equation (5.

Electrical and electronic systems Transformer losses There are two forms of power loss in a transformer.122) A 60 kVA 1200 V : 240 V single-phase transformer dissipates 1.121) (5. P11 ϭ I12R1 I 2R loss in secondary. each coated with an insulating varnish. P2 Efficiency. P1 input power. which have finite resistance. and cos2 is the power factor of the load. Power loss is also produced by the alternating flux in the steel core.118) (5. P1 ϭ P2 ϩ (P11 ϩ P12) ϩ Pc P2 P2 efficiency.120) input power. P12 ϭ I22R2 Total I2R losses ϭ P11 ϩ P12 ϭ I12R1 ϩ I22R2 Let the core loss = Pc ϭ constant substituting in (5. ϭ ᎏᎏ input power.04 ⍀. ϭ ᎏ ᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏᎏ P2 ϩ (P11 ϩ P12) ϩ Pc P1 V2I2 cos2 ϭ ᎏᎏᎏᎏ V2I2cos2 ϩ (I12R1 ϩ I22R2) ϩ Pc (5. P2 ϭ V2 I2 cos2 (5. The resistance of the primary (high-voltage) winding is 0. both produce internal heating. I1fl = ᎏᎏ V1 60 ϫ 103 ϭ ᎏᎏ 1200 ϭ 50 A 391 . If the primary and secondary winding resistances are R1 and R2 respectively I 2R loss in primary. P1 ϭ output power. P2 + losses for a transformer.119) where V2 is the secondary voltage. generate I2R losses in the coils. S Full load primary current. that is: output power.79) output power.8 power factor lagging. I2 is the secondary full load current.6 kW when the secondary is open-circuited. This loss is minimized by constructing the core of laminations of special low loss steel. Efficiency Efficiency is defined as the ratio of output power to input power.8 ⍀ and the resistance of secondary is 0. Core loss is independent of load current and may be considered constant. The currents flowing through the primary and secondary windings. input power ϭ output power + (I2R losses) + core losses from equation (5. Calculate the efficiency of the transformer when it supplies full load at 0. These losses are often called the ‘copper losses’.120) (5.

compressors and mills. P2 ϭ V2 I2 cos2 ϭ 240 ϫ 250 ϫ 0. be able to use the voltampere (VA) rating to find the full load primary and secondary currents. Three-phase motors are used to drive industrial pumps.000 W Input power. this section will concentrate on the operation of the three-phase induction motor. P2 Efficiency. know how to compute the equivalent impedance of a transformer with a load.8 ϭ 48. ϭ 88. be able to use the turns ratio to calculate the primary or secondary voltage. 392 . be able to compute the efficiency.000 ϩ (2000 ϩ 2500) ϩ 1600 ϭ 54. Pc ϭ 48. remember that the core losses are constant. know how to calculate the I2 R losses.11 AC induction motors The drives for many mechanical systems are provided by electric motors.7 per cent Learning summary You have completed the section on transformers and should now: ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ understand how transformers work. fans.118) output power. For clarity.000 ϭ ᎏᎏ 54. Pc = 1600 W Output power. food processors. ϭ ᎏᎏ input power.887 per unit It is usual to multiply this figure by 100 to quote efficiency as a percentage.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 S Full load secondary current.100 ϭ 0.100 W From equation (5. I2 fl ϭ ᎏᎏ V2 60 ϫ 103 ϭ ᎏᎏ 240 ϭ 250 A At full load: Primary I2R loss ϭ 502 ϫ 0. be able to use the mmf balance to find the primary or secondary current.8 ϭ 2000 W Secondary I2R loss ϭ 2502 ϫ 0. washing machines and refrigerators. P1 ϭ output power. that is: Efficiency. Single-phase motors are used in many household appliances such as lawn mowers. There are both single-phase and three-phase versions of this motor. The most common and most rugged motor is the ac induction motor. 5. P2 ϩ I2R losses ϩ core loss. be familiar with the concept of magnetomotive force (mmf) balance. P1 48.04 ϭ 2500 W Power dissipation on no load ϭ (constant) core loss.

It has the ends of the conductors welded to aluminium end rings. There are no electrical connections to the rotor. the field has rotated 120° from its original position. At time.86 Bars welded to aluminium end r ings Construction All induction motors have two parts. The red current falls. At this time. maintaining a constant magnitude. Each of these currents produces a magnetic field. At the same time the magnitude of the current in the yellow phase is half maximum but its polarity is negative. In these slots aluminium or copper conductors are fitted.88(c) shows the position after a one-third cycle (120 electrical degrees) when the yellow current has reached maximum magnitude with positive polarity and the currents in the red and blue phases are both at half maximum with negative polarity.86(b). The rotor has silicon steel laminations keyed to a central shaft. This shows the cross-section of a motor with a rudimentary stator that has three coils distributed around its circumference 120° apart. The simplest rotor is called the squirrel cage rotor. as shown in Figure 5. Slots are cut in the laminations at or close to the outer circumference. Y–YЈ represents the yellow phase coil and B–BЈ the blue coil.86(a). R Balanced 3-phase supply B IB B R' Y IR Y' Rotor Stator R B' The three current waveforms are shown in Figure 5. the magnitude of the current is half maximum current and the Figure 5. The polarity of the current is positive. With time.88(a). the yellow current becomes less negative eventually becoming positive and the blue current approaches a maximum with negative polarity. The resultant magnetic field resembles that associated with a two-pole bar magnet. Figure 5. In the slots of three-phase motors are wound three separate coils. Similarly. Conductors R and RЈ represent the coil in the red phase. the current distribution changes.Electrical and electronic systems Fabr icated or cast steel frame Punched silicon steel laminations Aluminium or copper bars in slots Castellations on end r ings act as a fan to cool rotor Distr ibuted three phase windings in slots in inner circumference of laminations Figure 5. so it will be assumed that current enters the winding through IY Y R and returns via RЈ. carrying the three phase currents. As these changes take place. N 393 . These interact to form a magnetic field that crosses the air gap and passes through the rotor core. see Figure 5. Operating principles Balanced three-phase currents are supplied to the stator windings with the object of producing a uniform magnetic field that rotates in the air gap between stator and rotor.87. As a consequence the machine is called a two-pole motor. the outer stationary frame called the stator and inner rotating section known as the rotor. The stator has a large number of circular silicon steel laminations with slots cut in the inner circumference mounted in a fabricated or cast steel frame as shown in Figure 5. To understand how this is achieved. so it enters via BЈ and leaves by B. t ϭ 0 maximum current flows in the red phase.87 polarity is negative.88b. for the blue phase. the magnetic field rotates clockwise. consider Figure 5. so current enters the winding through YЈ and leaves via Y. These are sometimes castellated to facilitate cooling during running.

Measured in revolutions per second it is equal to the frequency of the stator currents. IR at positive maximum R Y' Y' F B' Y R' Y c a t=2/3f. d After one complete cycle (Figure 5.123) Stator EMFs induced in rotor conductors Rotating magnetic field b Stator R Y' R Y' Rotor B' Rotor B' Rotor conductor Rotating magnetic field c Y B R' Y B R' d Rotor currents produce subsidiary fields which interact with the main field Stator R Y' R B' Rotor Figure 5.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 t=1/3f.89 394 Rotating magnetic field Y B R' Field is distorted exerting forces on the conductors creating a torque on the rotor Y' Rotor B' Y B R' . whatever angle the currents have moved through the field will have rotated through the same angle. the blue phase current is at maximum magnitude and F Y positive polarity. R' In one cycle (360 electr ical degrees) the field has moved through 360 mechanical degrees e The speed at which the field rotates is called the synchronous speed. (one cycle after start) IR at positive maximum again R Y' F B Y B' Figure 5. IB at positive maximum Field has moved a further 120° R B' Y' t=1/f.88 2 After ᎏ3ᎏrd cycle. (1/3rd of a cycle later) IY at positive maximum field has moved 120 degrees clockw R B' F Time 1/3f 2/3f 1/f B B R' b IR IY IB t=0. the red and yellow phase B currents are at half maximum with negative R' polarity and the field has moved a total of 240°. ns.88(d).88(e)) the currents have returned to their initial values and the field is back in its original position. ns ϭ f Rotor slip a (5. The field always moves in synchronism with the stator currents. f. in hertz (Hz). see Figure 5.

the rotating flux links with each rotor conductor once every cycle and induces in the conductor an emf of the same frequency as the stator currents. at a speed slightly slower than that of the rotating magnetic field. s ns Ϫ n n sϭᎏ ᎏ ϭ 1 Ϫ ᎏᎏ ns ns The small difference between the speed of the rotating field and that of the rotor is fundamental to the operation of the induction motor.89(c)) which interact with the rotating stator field distorting the latter to produce forces on the rotor conductors. when the rotor starts to move the relative speed between the field and rotor.23: emf induced in each conductor ϭ rate of change of flux linkages Figure 5. (ns Ϫ n) falls and the stator flux has to rotate more than one full revolution to complete a linkage cycle. the ends of which are connected to aluminium end rings. i.01 on no load (when the only torque required is to overcome friction at the bearings) and 0. conductor currents and subsidiary magnetic fields.126) 395 .89a has two conductors. slightly slower than the synchronous speed. These depend on emfs being induced in the conductors. the value of the slip varies between around 0. T. For most motors.With the magnetic field rotating at constant speed and the rotor initially stationary. These currents create their own subsidiary magnetic fields (Figure 5. equation 5. The rotor will continue to accelerate until the electrical torque produced exactly equals the mechanical load torque on the shaft.e. the emf induced in a rotor conductor 1 and hence the rotor current. lowering the relative speed between the rotating field and rotor conductors.125) fr ϭ (ns Ϫ n) Hz combining equations (5. there has to be some distortion of the resultant magnetic field and this will only happen when currents flow in the rotor conductors. Rotor frequency While the rotor is stationary. This reduces the magnitudes of the induced emfs.125) (ns Ϫ n) ϭ fr ϭ sns ϭ sf fr ϭ sf (5. ns. t ϭ 0. the emfs produce currents in the rotor conductors.Electrical and electronic systems The rotating magnetic field interacts with the rotor.89b shows the induced emfs at time. These forces create a torque on the rotor making it turn (Figure 5.With the rotor conductors short circuited by the end rings.124) For a torque to be developed. This lengthens the periodic time. The rotor starts to accelerate.89(d)).10 when the motor is driving full load. n. decreasing the forces on the conductors and the electrical torque on the rotor. (5. which in turn depend on there being a difference between the speed at which the conductors rotate and the speed of the rotating magnetic field. This torque is called the electrical or driving torque. emfs will be induced in the rotor conductors in accordance with Faraday’s Law. This difference in speed is expressed as a ratio and is known as the slip or per unit slip. of both the flux linkage. However. At this point the rotor will be running at a speed.124) and (5. The rotor shown in Figure 5. fr is T reduced to: (5. As frequency equals ᎏᎏ the frequency of the rotor currents.

108 and 5.130) (5. Equivalent circuit The equivalent circuit for one phase of a three-phase induction motor is shown in Figure 5.44 f N2m emf induced in rotor winding ϭ sE2 (5. E1 ϭ 4. i. mounted on a rotating drum.128) E2 equals the emf induced in the rotor winding when s ϭ 1.90(a) it can be deduced that (5. The emfs induced in both windings can be derived from equations 5. where the stator replaces the primary.90 Stator Rotor V1 E1 is the applied stator phase voltage is the emf induced in stator winding If the stator winding resistance and reactance are negligible.126) fr ϭ sf Rotor reactance per phase ϭ j 2sf L ϭ jsX2 where X2 ϭ 2 f L sE2 I2 ϭ ᎏᎏ R2 ϩ jsX2 396 From Figure 5.127) (5. E1 ϭ V1 N1 is the stator turns N2 is the effective rotor turns sE2 is the emf induced in rotor winding R2 is the rotor resistance per phase Rotor reactance per phase ϭ j 2 fr L where L2 is the rotor winding inductance per phase. a I1 R2 N1 N2 E1 sE2 jsX2 b I2 I1 R2/s N1 N2 E1 E2 jX2 I2 V1 Short circuit Rotor V1 Stator Figure 5.129) (5.131) (5. From equation (5.44 f N1m emf induced in rotor winding ϭ 4. when the rotor is stationary.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Rotor emf The induction motor may be considered to be a special type of transformer.126) emf induced in rotor winding ϭ 4.110. letting suffixes 1 and 2 represent stator and rotor respectively.44 s f N2m Defining E2 as: E2 ϭ 4. emf induced in stator winding.90(a). with its terminals short circuited.132) . The rotor forms the secondary winding.e.44 frN2m substituting for fr using equation (5.

136) in (5.135) R2 Έ I2 Έ2ᎏᎏ ϭ Έ I2 Έ2R2 ϩ Pm s 1 Pm ϭ Έ I2 Έ2R2 ᎏᎏ Ϫ 1 s (5.90(b)) to be drawn.133) the modulus of I2 is found to equal: E2 Έ I2 Έ ϭ ᎏᎏ R2 2 2 ᎏᎏ ϩ X2 s 2 E2 and Έ I2 Έ2 ϭ ᎏᎏ 2 R2 2 ᎏᎏ ϩ X2 s substituting in equation (5.137) Ί΄ ΅ ΄ ΅ (5. 5.e. This has R2 . Pm. P2. X2 and variable rotor resistance. fixed rotor reactance. The remainder is converted to mechanical output power. (5.138) 2 R2 (1 Ϫ s) E2 ᎏᎏ Pm ϭ ᎏᎏ s R2 2 2 ᎏᎏ ϩ X2 s Writing ΄ ΅ R2 a ϭ ᎏᎏ X2 i.Electrical and electronic systems Dividing the numerator and denominator by s I2 ϭ E2 R2 ᎏᎏ ϩ jX2 s (5.134) s Some of this power is dissipated as heat in the rotor winding.134) and (5.139) This is the mechanical output power per phase. 397 .133) Making this change enables a simpler equivalent circuit (Figure.136) (5. ᎏᎏ s Mechanical output power The power supplied via the stator to each phase of the rotor. It is measured in watts (W).137) (1 Ϫ s) Pm ϭ Έ I2 Έ2R2ᎏᎏ s From equation (5. R2 ϭ aX2 2 aX2 (1 Ϫ s) E2 Pm ϭ ᎏᎏ ᎏᎏ 2 a s 2 ᎏ ᎏ ϩ 12 X2 s ΄ ΅ 2as E2 Pm ϭ ᎏ ᎏ (1 Ϫ s) 2 X2(a ϩ s2) (5. P1 is given by R2 P1 ϭ Έ I2 Έ2ᎏᎏ (5. P2 ϭ Έ I2 Έ2R2 substituting equations (5. a fixed transformation ratio E1:E2.135) P 1 ϭ P2 ϩ Pm Power dissipated in the rotor winding as heat.

123) ns ϭ f ϭ ᎏᎏ 2 Pm Tp ϭ ᎏᎏ (1 Ϫ s) substituting in equation (5.140) Torque produced by a two-pole motor The torque developed per phase. Tp is given by: Pm T p ϭ ᎏᎏ 2n from equation (5.75 ⍀ per phase. It is measured in Newton metres (Nm).0333 398 . Pmech is three times larger. ns ϭ f n s ϭ 1 Ϫ ᎏᎏ ns 2900 s ϭ 1 Ϫ ᎏᎏ 60 50 ϭ 0. total torque.e. 2as 3E2 Pmech ϭ 3Pm ϭ ᎏ ᎏ (1 Ϫ s) 2 X2(a ϩ s2) (5.124) n ϭ ns(1 Ϫ s) Pm Tp ϭ ᎏᎏ 2ns(1 Ϫ s) using equation (5. T is given by: (5.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 The same mechanical power is produced in each phase so the total mechanical output power developed by the motor.15 ⍀ per phase and rotor standstill reactance 0. The motor runs at 2900 rpm؊1.139) 1 E22as Tp ϭ ᎏᎏ ϫ ᎏ ᎏ X2(a2 ϩ s2) The total torque developed in three phases is equal to three times that produced in one phase: i.142) T ϭ 3Tp 2as 3 E2 Tp ϭ ᎏᎏ ϫ ᎏ ᎏ 2 X2(a ϩ s2) (5. A three-phase 415 V two-pole 50 Hz induction motor has an effective stator:rotor turns ratio of 2:1. Calculate (a) per unit slip (b) total torque (c) total mechanical output power.141) (5.143) This is the torque produced by a two pole motor. rotor resistance 0.

E2 ϭ ᎏᎏ ϫ ᎏᎏ ϭ 119.130) by equation (5.82 ϫ 0. the starting torque must exceed the load torque.143) 2as 3 E2 total torque.140) total mechanical output power.0333 ᎏᎏᎏ Tϭᎏ ϫ 250 0.22 ϩ 0.2 ϫ 0.75 ϫ (0.Electrical and electronic systems 415 emf induced in each phase of stator winding ϭ E1 ϭ ᎏᎏ ͙3 ෆ Dividing equation (5.0333) ϭ 8991 W Starting torque produced by a two-pole motor When choosing a motor for a particular application.75 ϫ (0. 2a 3 E2 Tstart ϭ ᎏᎏ ϫ ᎏ ᎏ 2 X2(a ϩ 1) (5.143) Starting torque. On starting the rotor speed: n n ϭ 0 and slip.145) 399 .e. s ϭ 1 Ϫ ᎏᎏ ϭ 1 ns Substituting for s in equation (5.22 ϩ 0.8 V 2 ͙3 ෆ using equation (5. T ϭ ᎏᎏ ϫ ᎏ ᎏ 2 X2(a ϩ s2) where R2 0. i. 2 dT a(a2 Ϫ s2) 3 E2 ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϫ ᎏᎏ ϫᎏ ᎏϭ0 ds X2 (a2 ϩ s2)2 a ϭs Maximum torque occurs when a ϭ s substituting this in equation (5.03332) ϭ 29.143).0333 ϭ ᎏᎏᎏ 0. E1 N1 415 1 emf induced in each phase of rotor winding at standstill. the maximum torque is found to be: 2 3 E2 Tm ϭ ᎏᎏ ϫ ᎏᎏ Nm 2 X2 (5.6 Nm using equation (5.143) by s and setting it to zero.2 a ϭ ᎏᎏ X2 0.2 ϫ 0. To achieve this.75 3 119. the user must ensure that the motor will start with the mechanical load connected.82 ϫ 0.144) Maximum torque produced by a two-pole motor The condition for maximum torque is found by differentiating equation (5.127) E2 N2 ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ.15 ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 0.03332) (1 Ϫ 0. 2as 3E2 ᎏ (1 Ϫ s) Pmech ϭ ᎏ 2 X2(a ϩ s2) 3 ϫ 119.

82 3 Tm ϭ ᎏᎏ ϫ ᎏᎏ ϫ ᎏᎏ 2 250 0.91(a) shows the torque versus slip curves for motors with different values of R2 . calculate the starting torque and maximum torque.e. A steady speed is achieved when the driving torque matches the load torque on the rotor shaft.5ns 0. If the motor is operated outside this region.75 0.5 0.0 Combined torque Torque/max torque 1. To highlight the shapes of the characteristics. 119.0 0.5 1. Further increases in speed produce a fall in driving torque.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 For the motor described in the previous worked example. The graphs show that motors with a low ratio of rotor resistance to rotor standstill reactance (i. the torque axis has T been normalized (graphs showing ᎏᎏ rather than absolute values of T).5 Slip 0.25ns 0. It is therefore necessary to select a motor that has a characteristic that falls between the two extremes with sufficient starting torque for the motor to start.75 Standstill b 0.6 Nm.25 0. excessive currents will be drawn from the supply and power wasted as heat. It is customary to draw the slip along the horizontal axis rather than the rotor speed.2 3 Tstart ϭ ᎏᎏ ϫ ᎏᎏ 250 0.4 Nor mal operating range 1.6 0.0 0 Standstill a Torque/max torque 1.4 Nm Torque–slip characteristics a= 1 a= 1/2 a= 1/4 a= 1/8 0.0 Torque produced by rotor winding with a = 1/2 1.25 Torque produced by rotor winding with a = 1/8 0. The graphs show Tm that when a is less than 1 the driving torque increases with speed.2 0.5 Slip 0.5ns rotor speed 0.91 Figure 5. reaching a maximum when a ϭ s.e.0 0.0 ns Synchronous speed 0. large values of a) have good starting torques but suffer the disadvantage that their normal operating speed is dependent on the load torque.75 ϫ (0.0 0. This should be in the normal operating range shown on the graph.0 Synchronous speed Figure 5. a ϭ ᎏᎏ X2 although both are shown here. so the motor will start.1 Nm This is greater than the load torque of 29.82 ϫ 0. at close to the synchronous speed. 1 119.8 0. Motors with a high ratio (i. 400 .22 ϩ 1) Tstart ϭ 35. small values of a) have low starting torques but will run at virtually constant speed over the normal operating range.75 Tm ϭ 91.

Although the currents have moved through 360 electrical degrees. (one cycle after start) IR at positive maximum again Y R' B Figure 5. t=1/3f. the magnetic field has only rotated through 180 mechanical degrees. For example. IR at positive maximum Rc Y B' B Y' t=1/f.01).91(b). Multi-pole motors It was shown in equation (5. The total driving torque is the sum of the torques produced by the individual windings giving a torque–slip characteristic similar to that shown in Figure 5. There are.92(c) shows the B R' field after a one-third cycle.92 B' Figures 5. Figure 5. To reduce the operating speed of a motor significantly. conductor R on the right of the stator and conductor RЈ at the bottom form the first coil.123) that for a two-pole induction motor: synchronous speed.92 (b)–(e) show how the field F R R R rotates as the three phase currents (Figure Y' B' R 5.Electrical and electronic systems Double cage rotors Manufacturers have overcome these problems by fitting the rotors in some machines with two separate windings – one with a large value of a to create a high starting torque and the other with a low value of a to achieve the best running conditions.92 shows the cross-section of a fourpole motor. This is achieved by manufacturers winding the stator coils in a way that increases the number of poles in the rotating magnetic field.1) and 49. slightly below the synchronous speed. Conductor R on the left and RЈ at the top make the second coil. ns (in rev sϪ1) ϭ frequency. In each phase two coils are connected in series.92(d) In one cycle (360 degrees electrical) Field has moved through a demonstrates the situation after a two-thirds field has moved through 180 further 60 degrees mechanical degrees cycle and Figure 5. Figure 5.92(a)) progress through one cycle. however many applications for which these speeds are too high.92(e) illustrates the d c position at the end of the cycle. halving the synchronous speed and producing a commensurate reduction in rotor speed. f (in Hz) As all induction motors should be run at speeds in the normal operating range. it is necessary to reduce the synchronous speed. Figure B' 5.92(b) shows the magnetic field at the start Y' B Y Y R' of the current cycle. IR at positive maximum Y R' B B' Y R' B Y' IR IY IB F B' R Y' R Y' R Y' B R' Y B' R Time 1/3f 2/3f 1/f F B Y B' R' Field has moved clockwise through 60 mechanical degrees c b a t=2/3f. 401 F Y' .5 rev sϪ1 (s ϭ 0. Figure 5. (1/3rd of cycle later) IY at positive maximum t=0. in the red phase. this means that a two-pole motor connected to a 50 Hz supply should run at a steady state speed somewhere between 45 rev sϪ1(when s ϭ 0.

142) Pmech 3Pm 3 Pm ᎏ ϭ ᎏ ᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ Total torque. 402 (5.67 12.5 50 ᎏᎏ p Synchronous speed in rev sϪ1 when f ϭ 60 Hz 60 30 20 15 60 ᎏᎏ p 2 4 6 8 2p 1 2 3 4 p Table 5. T ϭ ᎏ 2n 2n 2ns (1 Ϫ s) f for a motor with p pairs of poles. will produce an increase in torque delivered to the shaft.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Further increases in the number of stator coils in each phase increases the number of poles and reduces the synchronous speed even more. ns as a fraction of frequency.124) . ns ϭ ᎏᎏ p Tϭ 3 (5.148) and from equation (5.18.144) 2a 3p E2 Tstart ϭ ᎏᎏ ϫ ᎏ ᎏ 2 X2(a ϩ 1) Starting torque.146) 3p Pm Pm ϫ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϫ ᎏᎏ (1 Ϫ s) (1 Ϫ s) f 2 ᎏ ᎏ p Substituting for Pm using equation (5.149) .147) Similarly from equation (5.139) 2as 3p E2 T ϭ ᎏᎏ ϫ ᎏ ᎏ 2 X2(a ϩ s2) Torque. (5.141) and (5. From equations (5. and hence rotor speed.18 Torque produced in multi-pole motor For the same mechanical output power this reduction in synchronous speed.145) 2 3p E2 Tm ϭ ᎏᎏ ϫ ᎏᎏ 2 X2 Maximum torque. Number of poles Pairs of poles Synchronous speed. as demonstrated in Table 5. (5. (5. f ns ϭ f f ns ϭ ᎏᎏ 2 f ns ϭ ᎏᎏ 3 f ns ϭ ᎏᎏ 4 f ns ϭ ᎏᎏ p Synchronous speed in rev sϪ1 when f ϭ 50 Hz 50 25 16.

4 ϫ (0. 2as 3p E2 T ϭ ᎏᎏ ϫ ᎏ ᎏ 2 X2(a ϩ s2) p ϭ3 ϭ 250 E1N1 ᎏ E2 ϭ ᎏ N2 415 1 ϭ ᎏᎏ ϫ ᎏᎏ ϭ 79. comprehend the concept of slip and how it relates to rotor speed.4 at slip.04 3 ϫ 3 79. 403 . it runs with a slip of 0.252 ϫ 0. s ϭ 0. calculate the mechanical output power.4 ⍀ per pahse.04 T ϭ ᎏᎏ ϫ ᎏᎏᎏ ϭ 71.25 ϫ 0. When the motor delivers full load. rotor resistance 0. Calculate the torque produced and the total mechanical output power. calculate the driving torque.Electrical and electronic systems A three-phase 415 V six-pole 50 Hz inductor motor has effective stator:rotor turns ratio of 3:1. understand how the ratio of rotor resistance to rotor standstill reactance affects the torque-slip characteristics.3 Nm 250 0.042) Pmech ϭ T 2n ϭ T 2ns(1 Ϫ s) f ϭ T 2 ᎏᎏ (1 Ϫ s) p 50 ϭ 71.86 V 3 ͙3 ෆ R2 0.1 ⍀ per phase and rotor standstill reactance 0.25 a ϭ ᎏᎏ X2 0. understand how the number of magnetic poles affects the synchronous speed and rotor speed.862 ϫ 0. compute the starting torque.04.96 3 Pmech ϭ 7168 W Learning summary You have now completed the section on ac induction motors and should: ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ understand how three-phase induction motors work.1 ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 0. comprehend how the torque-slip characteristic may be modified by fitting two rotor windings.3 ϫ 2 ϫ ᎏᎏ ϫ 0.

This page intentionally left blank .

This chapter is intended for first and second-year students studying for a mechanical engineering degree at university. The subject of dynamics involves two distinct studies: i) the geometric properties of motion. known as kinetics.1 Introduction Mechanical engineers apply their scientific knowledge to solve problems and design machines that help us to enjoy a better lifestyle. who already have a sound understanding of mathematics and physics to Advanced (A) level standard or equivalent. Machines consist of rigid bodies connected together in such a way that some components are fixed while others are moving. impact and momentum 6. and (ii) the relationship between the applied forces and the resulting motion. Dynamics provides the Mechanical Engineer with the basic tools necessary to analyse machines. A key element of this education is the need to develop a sound understanding of the physical principles that govern the behaviour of machines. known as kinematics. Acquiring the skills necessary to design and analyse machines is a fundamental part of the education required to become a mechanical engineer. Throughout the chapter attention is given 405 . and involves studying the motion of rigid bodies.Machine dynamics Unit 6 Machine dynamics Stewart McWilliam UNIT OVERVIEW ■ Introduction ■ Basic mechanics ■ Kinematics of a particle in a plane ■ Kinetics of a particle in a plane ■ Kinematics of rigid bodies in a plane ■ Kinematics of linkage mechanisms in a plane ■ Mass properties of rigid bodies ■ Kinetics of a rigid body in a plane ■ Balancing of rotating masses ■ Geared systems ■ Work and energy ■ Impulse.

This is often written as (units) 406 F ϭ ma (N) (kg) (msϪ2) (vector equation) .9 and 6. Vector quantities Vector quantities possess both magnitude and direction. c b Newton’s laws Newton’s laws form the basis for much of engineering dynamics analysis.11 and 6.3 and 6. a aϩbϩc resultant factor Figure 6. Sections 6. and the results developed are used to perform flywheel design calculations. while Section 6.12 use some of the ideas discussed in Sections 6. In other words. and is in the same direction as the resultant force.10 use some of the concepts developed in earlier sections to analyse practical engineering applications.11 introduces the topics of work and energy.1 Vector addition Newton’s second law The acceleration of a particle is proportional to the resultant applied force acting on it.3 to 6. friction.8 analyses the kinetics of rigid bodies moving in a plane.10 considers the basic analysis tools needed to perform design calculations for geared systems. and should be studied in order. and can be studied in any order. Sections 6. When adding vectors together. acceleration and impulse. Section 6. The order in which the vectors are added does not change the resultant vector. Examples include force. and rotational motion. Section 6.4 consider the kinematics and kinetics of particles moving in a plane. as shown in Figure 6.3 to 6.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 to developing an understanding of the basic principles of dynamics and their application to mechanical engineering machines. It is expected that the reader has some understanding of these concepts prior to studying later sections. A vector is represented by an arrow in a particular direction. Sections 6. Sections 6.12 introduces the topics of impulse and momentum. Section 6. The topics introduced include: vectors. Section 6.5 and 6. and the length represents the magnitude of the vector. motion in a straight line. displacement.7 defines the mass properties of rigid bodies – centre of mass and mass moment of inertia.6 consider the kinematics of individual and connected rigid bodies (including linkage systems) moving in a plane. 6. it is often convenient to construct the resultant vector diagrammatically.9 considers the process of balancing rotating machinery. Newton’s laws of motion.2 Basic mechanics Introduction This section introduces the basic concepts that are used throughout this chapter. Section 6. Sections 6.8 build-up the tools required to analyse rigid bodies in a systematic way. As applied to a particle of constant mass they can be expressed as follows: Newton’s first law A particle will maintain its state of rest or of uniform motion (at constant speed) along a straight line unless acted upon by some force to change that state.1. Section 6.8 to develop related concepts. velocity. a particle has no acceleration if there is no resultant force acting on it. The head of the arrow indicates the sense of the vector. and can be studied independently of each other.2 provides a review of the basic concepts of dynamics.

2) where FX is the X component of the resultant applied force.2 Static equilibrium of a planar rigid body X where ri is the perpendicular distance from P to the line of action of Fi.2) the arrows indicate that a particular sign convention must be adhered to when applying Newton’s second law. Section 6.4 reconsiders equations (6. Moments are vector quantities and have both magnitude and direction – direction here refers to the sense of the rotation (clockwise or anticlockwise) about an axis through P.1) and (6.1) and (6. then the second particle exerts a numerically equal and oppositely directed force on the first particle. Static equilibrium of a body in a plane Consider the planar rigid body shown in Figure 6. aX is the X component of the resulting acceleration. it is convenient to express it in components. F ϭ ΑFi i Y F1 P r1 r2 r3 F2 Each externally applied force produces a moment about P. i.e. and aY is the Y component of the resulting acceleration. Newton’s third law Forces acting between two particles in contact are equal and opposite. F3.Machine dynamics where F is the applied force (vector). i. In equations (6. The moment MPi of the force Fi about P is given by MPi ϭ riFi F3 Figure 6.2) in more detail. and a is the acceleration (vector). Equation (6.2. This sign convention ensures that the resultant acceleration is in the same direction as the resultant force. F2. … are externally applied forces. Newton’s second law can be expressed in terms of the rate of change of linear momentum as F ϭ d(mV)/dt. where V is the velocity) When applying Newton’s second law. m is the mass of the particle.1) states that the resultant applied force (FX) on the left-hand side is assumed to be positive in the left to right direction. The resultant externally applied force F is the vector sum of the applied forces (see ’Vector quantities’).e. for example ϩ ϩ FX ϭ maX FY ϭ maY (6. where P is an arbitrary point and F1. FY is the Y component of the resultant applied force. The resultant externally applied moment MP is the vector sum of the applied moments about P. In other words. MP ϭ ΑMPi i The conditions for static equilibrium of the body are that for an arbitrary point P in the body: (i) the resultant applied force acting on P in the X-direction is zero FX ϭ 0 (ii) the resultant applied force acting on P in the Y-direction is zero FY ϭ 0 (iii) the resultant applied moment about P is zero MP ϭ 0 407 . while the resulting acceleration aX on the right-hand side is also assumed to be positive in the left to right direction.1) (6. More generally. if a particle exerts a force on a second particle.

4(b) this friction force F is shown to act in the left 408 . a normal reaction force acts upwards on the body to counteract the weight Mg.3 Schematic and free body diagram parallel to the contact surface.3b).4(a). while condition (iii) ensures that the body does not rotate. resulting in a friction force that acts in the anticlockwise sense (direction).3(a). To determine the direction of the friction force it is convenient to consider the no contact situation first.e. provided that the contact is not frictionless.e. the contact force between the surfaces will have normal and tangential components. The friction force F acting on the body opposes any motion of a body lying on a horizontal surface arising from the applied force P (when there is no contact) and acts in the right to left direction. when the wheel is acted on by an applied torque T. Two practical cases involving friction when a wheel makes contact with a horizontal surface are considered below. the surface experiences an ‘equal and opposite’ friction force F acting in the left to right direction. and always satisfies F р N where is the coefficient of friction and N is the normal reaction force.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Conditions (i) and (ii) are a special case of equations (6. Using Newton’s third law.When a No contact Contact b the body is in contact with the horizontal surface. where the accelerations are zero. i. Coulomb (dry) friction between two surfaces When two surfaces are in contact. In Figure 6. Section 6. Using Newton’s third law. friction forces act Figure 6. limiting friction). see Figure 6. see Figure 6. see Figure 6. such that F ϭ N The friction force between two bodies after sliding occurs is referred to as kinetic friction. see Figure 6.4(a). Direction of motion P Mg P F N When there is no contact with the surface. an ‘equal and opposite’ normal reaction force N acts downwards on the surface. the centre of the wheel is stationary and the applied torque causes the wheel to rotate in the clockwise direction.8 considers the dynamics of rigid bodies and derives equations that generalize equations (i) to (iii) to rigid bodies that are both translating and rotating. Driven wheel in contact with a horizontal surface This situation can be used to analyse the driven wheels of a car. When there is no contact with the surface. The coefficient of friction is independent of the normal force and the area of contact. The normal force corresponds to the reaction force.1) and (6. while the tangential force corresponds to the friction force and acts in a direction that always opposes the motion that would occur when there is no contact. if P Ͼ N When sliding occurs the friction force takes its maximum value (i. the friction force F acting on the wheel opposes the rotation of the wheel (when there was no contact).When the wheel is in contact with the horizontal surface.2). the applied force P causes F the body to move in the left to right direction. Sliding motion will occur if the applied force P is greater than the maximum possible friction force.3(a). In these cases it is important to understand the direction of the friction forces. When the body is in contact with the horizontal surface. see Figure 6. The Coulomb friction force F is the friction force resisting motion. Consider a body of mass M lying on a horizontal surface that is subjected to a horizontal applied force P.

To determine the direction of the friction force it is convenient to consider the no contact situation first. S O Consider the situation when the body changes its position from Figure 6. Mathematically this is written as ⌬s ds v ϭ lim ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ dt ⌬t ➝ 0 ⌬t 409 .When the F wheel makes contact with the horizontal surface. Direction of motion P Direction of motion Direction of rotation Mg P F N When there is no contact. see Figure 6.6 Position of a particle on a line s to s ϩ ⌬s in the time interval t and t ϩ ⌬t. as shown in Figure 6. resulting in a driven wheel making contact with a horizontal surface friction force that acts in the right to left direction at the under the action of a horizontal force point of contact. The position of the particle at any time is expressed in terms of the distance s from a fixed origin (starting point) along the straight line.5(a). the surface experiences an ‘equal and opposite’ friction force F acting in the left to right direction.4 Schematic and free body diagram of a driven wheel making contact with a horizontal surface to right direction at the point of contact. the b a No contact Contact friction force F acting on the wheel opposes the motion of Figure 6.Machine dynamics Direction of motion Direction of rotation Direction of rotation T T Mg F N F a No contact b Contact Figure 6. The average velocity vav of the ⌬s body during this time interval is ᎏᎏ. Variable (non-constant) acceleration Consider the situation when a body is moving in a straight line with variable (non-constant) acceleration a. Using Newton’s third law.5(a). and causes the wheel to rotate in a clockwise direction. Using Newton’s third law. see Figure 6.5(b). the (non-rotating) wheel moves in the left to right direction.6. the surface experiences an ‘equal and opposite’ friction force F acting in the right to left direction. and negative if it lies to the left of O. The distance s is positive if the body lies to the right of O. Non-driven wheel subjected to a horizontal applied force in contact with a horizontal surface This situation can be used to analyse the freely rotating (non-driven) wheels of a car. This friction force F is indicated in Figure 6. when the wheel is acted on by a horizontal applied force P.5 Schematic and free body diagram of a nonthe wheel (when there was no contact). and causes the wheel to move to the right. Mathematically this is written as ⌬t ⌬s vav ϭ ᎏᎏ ⌬t The instantaneous velocity v at time t is the limit of the average velocity as the increment of time ⌬t approaches zero.

g. as shown in Figure 6.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 The velocity is positive if the body is moving from left to right. It can also be shown that d2s dv ds dv ϭ ᎏᎏ ᎏᎏ ϭ v ᎏᎏ a ϭ ᎏᎏ dt2 ds dt ds The acceleration is often written as a ϭ s ¨. ϭ lim ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ dt ␦ ➝ 0 ␦t The units of angular velocity are rad sϪ1. the body is assumed to have an initial velocity u. At time t ϩ ␦t the angle will have increased to ϩ ␦. velocity v and distance travelled s can be plotted against time t as shown in Figure 6. Mathematically this is written as ⌬v dv a ϭ lim ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ dt ⌬t ➝ 0 ⌬t The acceleration is positive if the velocity is increasing. vertical motion under gravity with negligible air resistance). the angle in radians (rad) is used to define the angular position at time t. For the case shown.7. The distance s travelled from the starting point. In this case the acceleration a. and the velocity v at any time t can be written as follows s ϭ ut ϩ ᎏ2ᎏat2. (e. v2 ϭ u2 ϩ 2as 1 Angular (rotational) motion The angular position of a straight line can be defined by the angle made between the line and some reference direction (e. velocity and distance travelled under constant acceleration At time t ϭ 0. acceleration a v velocity s distance u t t t Figure 6. and negative if the velocity is decreasing. v ϭ u ϩ at. The velocity is often written as v ϭ s . 410 Y ϩ ␦ X Figure 6.g. such that ␦ d .8. where the double overdot represents double differentiation with respect to time. where is defined to be positive in the anticlockwise direction (from OX). where the overdot represents differentiation with respect to time. Similarly the instantaneous acceleration a at time t is the limit of the average acceleration as the increment of time ⌬t approaches zero. ¨ O ␣ ϭ lim ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ϭ dt ␦t ➝ 0 ␦t The units of angular acceleration are rad sϪ2.8 Defining the angular position of a straight line . Constant acceleration Consider the special case when a body is moving in a straight line with constant acceleration a. the OX axis). A similar argument can be used to determine the instantaneous angular acceleration ␣ of the line. and negative if it moves from . right to left.7 Acceleration. and the instantaneous angular velocity of the line is defined as ␦ d .

θ Figure 6... . θ. The only difference is that that section refers to motion in a straight line. . the angular velocity and angular acceleration are positive in the anticlockwise direction.9 shows an example in which a cable that has one end wrapped around a drum is used to raise a load mass. where Drum . θ O r θ Arc length Load mass x Figure 6.9. In accordance with rotations being considered to be positive in the anticlockwise direction. x θ Figure 6.10 Particle on an incline example Determine an expression for the acceleration of the particle x ¨. while here rotational (angular) quantities are considered. . x ϭ rϭ r . Relating rotation about a fixed axis to translational motion In some mechanical systems it is necessary to relate the rotational motion of a circular drum. The velocity of the load mass is obtained by differentiating the above equation with respect to time to give . and calculate the distance travelled in 4 s from a standing start when ϭ 30°. x R mg 411 . Provided that the cable does not slip.11 Free body diagram of a particle on an inclined surface . Anti-clockwise rotation of the drum through an angle about an axis through O raises the load mass through a distance x..81 m sϪ2. The free body diagram of the particle showing both applied forces and accelerations is shown in Figure 6. the distance x is equal to the arc length indicated in Figure 6. the sign of the angular quantities is sufficient to indicate its direction.9 Drum-cable system used to raise a load mass Acceleration of a particle down an inclined surface Figure 6.Machine dynamics The equations presented here are analogous to those for variable acceleration discussed in ‘Variable (non-constant) acceleration’. pulley or gear about a fixed axis to the motion of a cable or chain.11. and the relationship between x and is given by x ϭ r where r is the (constant) radius of the drum. where is the angular velocity of the drum (see the previous section). The acceleration of the load mass x ¨ is obtained by differentiating the above velocity equation with respect to time to give ¨ ϭ r␣ x ¨ ϭ r ¨ is the angular acceleration of the drum (see previous section).10 shows a particle of mass m sliding down a frictionless inclined surface. Assume that the acceleration due to gravity is 9. As in that section. Figure 6.

1 Simple crane Figure 6. such that u ϭ 0.24 m.13. As the drum is rotated in an anticlockwise direction the particle is raised. The crane drum is rotated so that the particle has constant acceleration a. The contact force only has a normal reaction force component R because the surface is frictionless.81 m sϪ2.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 The applied forces are the weight mg of the particle and the contact force (see ‘Coulomb (dry) friction between two surfaces’) between the particle and the inclined surface. Assuming that there is no slip between the drum and the cable. v Figure 6. The applied forces are the weight mg of the particle and the tension T in the cable. An expression involving the acceleration x ¨ can be obtained by applying Newton’s second law parallel to the surface (see ‘Newton’s laws’) F ϭ ma ϩ mg sin ϭ mx ¨ x ¨ ϭ g sin Rearranging this equation. and t ϭ 4 s into this expression. a. The distance travelled in time t is given by 1 s ϭ ut ϩ ᎏ2ᎏat 2 where u is the initial velocity and a is the acceleration.12 Simple crane drum example The tension in the cable is obtained by considering the applied forces and acceleration of the particle. and if ϭ 90°. meaning that the results in ‘Constant acceleration’ can be used to analyse the distance travelled in a given time. In this case the acceleration is constant.12 shows a crane drum of constant radius r rotating about a fixed axis through O. Using the obtained acceleration expression a ϭ x ¨ ϭ g sin and noting that the particle moves from a standing start. It can be seen that the acceleration is independent of the mass of the particle. The free body diagram of the particle showing both applied forces and acceleration is shown in Figure 6. gives s ϭ ᎏ2ᎏ gt 2 sin Substituting g ϭ 9. the acceleration is given by as required. the distance travelled in 4 s from a standing start is 39. w O r m a. the particle will have acceleration g. determine expressions for the tension in the cable and the angular velocity of the drum 2 s after being switched on. A cable with a particle of mass m attached at one end is wrapped around the drum. as required. The particle slides down the incline. 412 .

Y Cartesian coordinates Consider the motion of a particle along a curved path (denoted by the dashed line) in the OXY plane as shown in Figure 6. The OXY axes are our reference axes and are fixed so that they do not move.14 Motion of a particle along a curved path (Cartesian coordinates) 413 .14. In this section expressions are derived for the velocity and acceleration of a particle moving in a plane using both of these coordinate systems. At time t ϩ ␦t. the tension in the cable is given by T ϭ m(g ϩ a) as required. the velocity v after 2 s is 2a m sϪ1. i. u ϭ 0. mg Figure 6. and when analysing linkage mechanisms (Section 6. the upwards velocity is given by v ϭ at Substituting t ϭ 2 s into this expression. as r required.4) and rigid bodies (Section 6.8). Some examples are presented to demonstrate how the kinematic expressions are applied. the upwards velocity v of the particle at time t can be obtained using the results presented in ‘Constant acceleration’. The angular velocity (see ‘Angular (rotational) motion’) of the drum is related to the vertical velocity of the particle by (see ‘Relating rotation about a fixed axis to translational motion’) v ϭ ᎏᎏ r 2a Using the expression for v and setting t ϭ 2 s. the Cartesian coordinates of the particle P relative to the reference axes are X in the X-direction and Y in the Y-direction. particularly when applying Newton’s laws of motion to particles (Section 6. X ϩ ␦X X P Y O PЈ Y ϩ ␦Y X Figure 6. the particle has moved to PЈ and its new coordinates are X ϩ ␦X in the X-direction and Y ϩ ␦Y in the Y-direction. Noting that the acceleration a is constant. the angular velocity is ᎏᎏ rad sϪ1 after 2 s.13 Free body diagram of the particle 6.Machine dynamics An expression involving the tension T can be obtained by applying Newton’s second law vertically (see ‘Newton’s laws’) F ϭ ma ϩ T T Ϫ mg ϭ ma a Rearranging this equation.3 Kinematics of a particle in a plane Introduction Many practical dynamics problems consider bodies moving in a plane and these are analysed using either Cartesian or polar coordinate systems. These kinematic expressions will be used extensively in later sections.e. Assuming that the initial velocity v (before being switched on) is zero. v ϭ u ϩ at where u is the initial velocity and a is the acceleration. At time t.6).

. At time t. the velocity approaches the instantaneous velocity of the particle (see ‘Variable (non-constant) acceleration’). Y .15. At time t ϩ ␦t. ... but this time use polar coordinates to identify the position of the particle.. As the time interval approaches zero. ␦X dX VX ϭ lim ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ X ␦ t d t ␦t ➝ 0 where the overdot represents differentiation with respect to time. Similarly. ␣a ϭ tanϪ1 (Y/X) . and relative to the horizontal. the particle has moved to PЈ and its new polar coordinates are r ϩ ␦r in the direction from O to PЈ.. the instantaneous velocity components in the X and Y-directions can be used to calculate the magnitude and direction of the velocity of the particle. and ϩ ␦ relative to the horizontal.17 Motion of a particle along a curved path (polar coordinates) P ϩ ␦ . together with the magnitude and direction of the acceleration.17. V ϭ X2 ϩ Y2 ..16 Acceleration of a particle in Cartesian coordinates X tangential Polar coordinates Consider the motion of the particle shown in Figure 6. . The instantaneous velocity in the X-direction is . a ϭ X2 ϩ Y2 P . ␣V ϭ tanϪ1 (Y/X) . Here O is our fixed reference point.16 shows the acceleration components in Cartesian coordinates. the polar coordinates of the particle P are r in the direction from O to P. Y . In this figure a is the magnitude of the acceleration and its direction is indicated by angle ␣a relative to OX. Note that the resultant acceleration vector a does not necessarily act in a direction that is tangential to the curved path. In this figure V is the magnitude of the velocity and its direction is indicated by angle ␣V relative to OX. X O Figure 6.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 Velocity components The instantaneous velocity of the particle in the X. see Figure 6.14 along the same curved path.15 Velocity of a particle in Cartesian coordinates Y . . X X P O Acceleration components Using similar arguments to those used for the velocity components it can be shown that the instantaneous acceleration in the X and Y-directions are ¨. Y . as shown in Figure 6. .and Y-directions can be determined by noting that during the time interval ␦t the average velocity of the particle is the displacement moved divided by the time interval. ␦Y d Y VY ϭ lim ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ Y dt ␦t ➝ 0 ␦t Noting that velocity is a vector. Figure 6. 414 PЈ radial r ϩ ␦r r O Figure 6. the instantaneous velocity in the Y-direction is . This is because the acceleration depends on the rate of change of the velocity. Figure 6. In these equations the double overdot represents double differentiation with respect to time.When stating the direction of a vector quantity it is important to state the angle relative to a reference direction. aY ϭ Y ¨ aX ϭ X respectively.

Following a similar procedure to that for the velocity components. ␦(r )␦ Ϸ 0. . V ϭ r 2 ϩ (r ) 2 . the instantaneous radial velocity VR is given by ␦r dr . and ␦r␦ Ϸ 0. . the changes in radial and tangential displacement are radial tangential (r ϩ ␦r)cos(␦) Ϫ r Ϸ ␦r (r ϩ ␦r)sin(␦) Ϸ r␦ These approximations are valid. . . VR ϭ lim ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ r dt ␦t ➝ 0 ␦t and the instantaneous tangential velocity (or transverse velocity) VT is given by .17) can be determined by noting that during the time interval ␦t the position of the particle relative to the radial and tangential directions changes. Using these results. cos(␦) Ϸ 1. .18 Velocity of a particle in polar coordinates The magnitude and direction of the resultant velocity V is identical to that obtained in Figure 6. since. and that as the time interval approaches zero the velocity approaches the instantaneous velocity. ␦ d VT ϭ lim r ᎏᎏ ϭ r ᎏᎏ ϭ r dt ␦t ➝ 0 ␦t . tangential (r ϩ ␦(r ))cos(␦) ϩ (r ϩ ␦r )sin(␦) Ϫ r Ϸ ␦(r ) ϩ r ␦ These approximations are valid. radial (r ϩ ␦r )cos(␦) Ϫ (r ϩ ␦(r ))sin(␦) Ϫ r Ϸ ␦r Ϫ r ␦ . Y tangential velocity . . . . is the velocity arising from a change in the distance . ␦r ␦ Ϸ 0. r P ϩ ␦ . Note: the angular velocity is often denoted by the symbol (see ‘Angular (rotational) motion’). sin(␦) Ϸ ␦.18. see Figure 6. In these equations the radial velocity r . of P from O.19. the changes in the velocities in the radial and tangential directions in the small time interval ␦t are . . r . Noting that the average velocity of the particle is the displacement moved divided by the time interval. . . r P O X . sin(␦) Ϸ ␦. . Assuming that the time interval is small and that ␦r and ␦ are small. cos(␦) Ϸ 1. . The radial and tangential components of velocity are shown in Figure 6. .15 to show the positions and velocity components of the particle at times t and t ϩ ␦t. since . (␦r Ϫ r ␦) aR ϭ lim ᎏᎏ ϭ r ¨ Ϫ r 2 ␦t ␦t ➝ 0 .Machine dynamics Velocity components The velocity of the particle at P in the radial and the tangential directions (see Figure 6. while the tangential velocity r depends on the radius r and the angular velocity . r ϩ ␦(r ) tangential PЈ . the instantaneous radial acceleration aR is given by . . . Acceleration components To determine the acceleration components it is necessary to redraw Figure 6. r radial velocity Figure 6. r ϩ ␦r radial Figure 6. .15. .19 Motion of a particle along a curved path (polar coordinates) 415 .

.. . Summary of velocity and acceleration components for motion in a plane Figure 6. In polar coordinates. . Note that the angular acceleration is often denoted by the symbol ␣ (see ‘Constant acceleration’). Similarly. Note the sign conventions used in these figures. . aT ϭr ϩ 2r a ϭ a R2 ϩ a T 2 . r r . r Ϫ r 2 r . ␦(r ) ϩ r ␦ ¨ ϩ 2r.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 In this equation (i) r ¨ is due to the distance of P from O changing and is independent of angle . Y Velocity .. X tangential velocity .. velocity and acceleration are assumed to be positive in the left to right or upwards directions. and (ii) 2r.. aR ϭr Ϫ r 2 radial acceleration P O X Figure 6. . acceleration is the so-called Coriolis acceleration. .20 Acceleration of a particle in polar coordinates The magnitude and direction of the resultant acceleration a is identical to that obtained in Figure 6. r ϩ 2r radial velocity .16. . velocity and acceleration components in Cartesian and polar coordinates 416 . Figure 6.21 Summary of position (displacement). . velocity and acceleration are all assumed to be positive in the anticlockwise direction. it can be shown that the instantaneous tangential acceleration (or transverse acceleration) aT is given by . . ¨ and is independent of any change in radius r.20. and dictate the direction of the positive tangential components. X radial acceleration . tangential acceleration . aT ϭ lim ᎏᎏ ϭ r ␦t ␦t ➝ 0 ¨ is the product of the radius r and the angular In this equation: (i) r . and (ii) r 2 is the centripetal acceleration which acts towards the centre of rotation and is independent of rate of change of radius r. .. The radial tangential components of acceleration are shown in Figure 6. all components of displacement. ... the angular rotation. Cartesian Polar Position X Y r . Y . r Acceleration .21 summarizes the velocity and acceleration results obtained in Cartesian coordinates and polar coordinates. Y tangential acceleration . . In Cartesian coordinates.

it is clear .22 indicates . Figure 6.r . the particle is shown to have a centripetal acceleration R2 towards the centre of rotation.23 indicates the acceleration of the particle at two instances in time. θ=ω the velocity of the particle at two O instances in time. In both cases. while the tangential Rω velocity VT is R. Rω P Noting that r ϭ R (constant).23 Acceleration of a particle moving at constant speed in a circular motion Velocity and acceleration in polar coordinates Find the velocity and acceleration (both magnitude and direction (relative to the rod)) of the collar C which is sliding outwards along the rod which rotates about O as shown in Figure 6. it is found that. r velocity is constant. The collar (at the instant shown) is located 0.24. P R Rω 2 O Rω2 . ¨ ϭ 0. ¨ and the Similarly. ¨ ϭ 0. The radial velocity ‘r ’ of that r ϭ r R the particle P is zero. The only non-zero term is the centripetal acceleration R2. P needs to move (accelerate) towards the centre of rotation O. the particle is shown to move tangential to the circular motion with velocity R. Noting that the angular since r ϭ. This is despite the angular motion being constant and comes about because the direction of the velocity vector changes as the particle moves. The direction of the tangential velocity of P at any instant indicates that P does not want to follow a circular path. and that it is effectively trying to ‘escape’ from its circular motion. Determine expressions for the radial and tangential components of velocity and acceleration of the particle. acceleration ‘r 2’ term which always acts towards the centre of rotation.Machine dynamics Circular motion of a particle A particle moves on a circular path of constant radius R about a fixed point O with constant angular velocity . . Figure 6. the motion is Figure 6. The radial acceleration acts in a direction towards the centre of rotation O as shown. A heuristic explanation of this follows. In both cases. This is taken into account by the centripetal . The velocity and acceleration are obtained using the results summarized in Figure 6.22 Velocity of a particle moving at ¨ ‘steady’ and the tangential acceleration r constant speed in a circular motion is zero. θ=ω Figure 6. Coriolis acceleration 2r are both zero .5 m from the pivot and is sliding at constant velocity 1 m s؊1 relative to the rod which is rotating at constant angular velocity 10 rad s؊1.21. In order for P to remain on the prescribed circular path. 417 .

“r θ2” (note O direction) β = tan–10.1 m sϪ1 and is in a direction 78. Particular attention is given to understanding the differences between applying Newton’s second law and using d’Alembert’s Principle..3) O F2 F3 X This is a vector equation and requires the magnitude and direction of the forces acting to be taken into account. θ =10 rad/s Figure 6. Motion of a particle in a plane Consider a particle of mass m in a plane.4 Kinetics of a particle in a plane Introduction In this section the equations of motion governing the dynamics of a particle moving in a plane are reconsidered.5m r = 1m/s . The application of forces Fi to the particle cause the mass to move with acceleration a in the direction shown. = 10rad/s θ = 0rad/s2 a Using the results summarized in Figure 6. For the purposes of performing calculations. “r θ” 53.1m/s magnitude 1m/s radial . = 0.9m/s2 magnitude 20m/s2 tangential . “2r θ” O α = tan–15 = 78.4 = 21.5 m 1m/s r .9 m sϪ2 and is in a direction relative to the rod as indicated.25.26. Some examples are presented that are solved using Newton’s second law and d’Alembert’s Principle. the velocity has a magnitude of 5. diagrams indicating the velocity and acceleration can be drawn as shown in Figure 6.26 Motion of a particle ¨ ΑFXi ϭ mX i ϩ ¨ ΑFYi ϭ mY i 418 . (b) acceleration diagram At the instant shown.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 C 0. This is the simplest possible rigid body and requires only two coordinates (say X. 6. Newton’s second law is used to determine the relationship between externally applied forces and the motion (acceleration) of the particle. = 0m/s2 θ .7° 50m/s2 radial ..7° relative to the rod as shown. C “r ” b O .25: (a) velocity diagram. r.. 5.Y) to define its position. it is convenient to write this equation in components ϩ Figure 6. The acceleration has a magnitude of 53.21. see Figure 6.8° Figure 6.24 Rod and collar example 5 m/s tangential . Applying Newton’s second law to the particle gives Y F1 m a ΑFi ϭ ma i (vector equation) (6.

the ‘Ϫ ma’ term is considered to be an imaginary inertia force.4) is simply a rearranged version of equation (6. radial acceleration (dashed line) R T aR = Rω2 P 419 .4) from equation (6. equation (6. having magnitude ma acting in a direction opposite to that of the acceleration of the particle.9).Although most students will have met d’Alemberts Principle in the past.4) It is important to distinguish equation (6. There it was found that the particle experienced a centripetal acceleration acting towards the centre of rotation. By doing this all of the terms on the left-hand side can be considered to be applied forces and because these forces sum to zero. Equation (6.3).23. The only force acting on the particle is the tension force T.27. In other cases the direction of the forces O .3). In this case it is clear that the tension in the string acts towards O the centre of rotation. In d’Alemberts Principle.3)) can be rewritten as follows ΑFi Ϫ ma ϭ 0 i (vector equation) (6. Newton’s second law (equation (6. it is important to understand its origins and how it relates to Newton’s second law. Determine an expression for the tension in the string. Conversely. In contrast.Machine dynamics ¨ and Y ¨ are where FXi and FYi are the X and Y-components of the ith force respectively. as indicated in Figure 6. D’Alemberts Principle allows a dynamics problem to be analysed as a statics problem. Even though d’Alembert’s Principle will tend not be used in later sections (except Section 6. In this Chapter.3) arises from considering the applied forces and the resulting acceleration of a particle. θ=ω Figure 6.27 Free body diagram of a particle in circular motion-tension force (solid line). if the magnitude and direction of the acceleration are known from kinematic considerations. and X the X and Y-components of the acceleration respectively (see ‘Newton’s laws’). unless there is no acceleration. These equations can be used to determine how a particle accelerates under the action of forces of known magnitude and direction. ‘Circular motion of a particle’ considered a similar situation and determined an expression for the acceleration (magnitude and direction) of the particle using kinematic considerations. D’Alemberts Principle Newton’s second law relates the applied force to the resultant acceleration and is not a static force balance equation. The free body diagram of the particle showing both applied forces and accelerations is shown in Figure 6. the direct application of Newton’s second law is preferred to d’Alembert’s Principle because it clearly distinguishes applied forces from the resulting acceleration. the particle can be considered to be in static equilibrium. Circular motion of a particle A particle of mass m is attached via an inextensible string of length R to a fixed point O and moves on a horizontal circular path with constant angular velocity . This issue is one of the main sources of error when solving dynamics problems. then the magnitude and direction of the resultant force acting on the particle can be determined. few have a clear understanding of its application.

28 Free body diagram of a particle in circular motion using d’Alemberts Principle T Ϫ mR2 ϭ 0 This equation defines the tension force T ϭ mR2. In contrast. The tension force is obtained by considering the particle to be in static equilibrium. Determine an expression for the tension in the cord.30. 420 B R A O R Ω Figure 6. This force is in the opposite direction to the actual acceleration of the particle. ϩ R T P maR imaginary inertia force O . In these cases it is worth noting that if the actual force is in the opposite direction to that indicated on the free body diagram. Applying Newton’s second law to the particle along the string gives ϩ T ϭ m(R2) This equation defines the tension in the string. as shown in Figure 6.An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 1 may not be so clear. As the disc rotates. Point mass in a slot A particle A of mass m fits loosely in a smooth slot with vertical sidewalls cut into a disc mounted in the horizontal plane. The disc is rotating at constant angular speed ⍀ about its fixed centre O as shown. i. θ=ω Figure 6. the calculation will yield a negative value. as required.28. the direction of the acceleration here is specified from kinematic considerations. in which the free body diagram is redrawn as shown in Figure 6. where aR ϭ R2. as required. To determine the tension in the inextensible cord. The free body diagram for the particle is shown in Figure 6.29.e. The particle is held in position by an inextensible cord having one end secured at B.29 Schematic of particle in a slot . it is necessary to consider the forces that act on the particle to make it move. and must be positive towards the centre of rotation (see ‘Circular motion of a particle’). In this figure an imaginary inertia force of magnitude maR has been included. the particle remains at A and as a consequence rotates at a constant radius R about O. This problem can also be solved using d’Alemberts Principle.

as the sign of the calculated value will indicate their true directions. i. as required. Applying Newton’s second law to the particle in the directions indicated gives ϩ ϩ Tcos45° ϩ S cos45° ϭ m(R⍀2) Tsin45° Ϫ S sin45° ϭ 0 The above equation implies that T ϭ S.30 because the disc is horizontal.e. As in the previous example the directions of these forces are not important. This force is in the opposite direction to the actual acceleration of the particle.. mR⍀2 T ϭ ᎏᎏ ͙2 ෆ It is interesting to note that the direction of rotation does not affect the answer because the direction of the centripetal acceleration is independent of the direction of rotation. in which the free body diagram is redrawn as shown in Figure 6. and the reaction force S acts normal to the slot in the direction shown. In this figure an imaginary inertia force of magnitude mR⍀2 has been applied to the particle. accelerations (dashed lines) The components of acceleration are summarized in Figure 6. The tension force is obtained by considering the particle to be in static equilibrium.e. ϩ B T 45° O R S A mRΩ 2 R Ω T Ϫ mR2cos45° ϭ 0 Figure 6. an acceleration RΩ 2 towards O) B T 45° R S R Ω O Figure 6.30 Free body diagram of particle in a slot: forces (solid lines). reflecting the fact that the particle is being pushed inwards by the outer side of the slot. In this case it is clea