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Nonlinear Analysis: Modelling and Control, 2009, Vol. 14, No.

3, 397415
Unsteady Oscillatory Flow and Heat Transfer in a
Horizontal Composite Porous Medium Channel
J. C. Umavathi
1
, A. J. Chamkha
2
, A. Mateen
1
, A. Al-Mudhaf
2
1
Department of Mathematics Gulbarga University
Gulbarga, 585 106, India
2
Manufacturing Engineering Department
The Public Authority for Applied Education and Training
Shuweikh, 70654, Kuwait
achamkha@yahoo.com
Received: 2009-01-27 Revised: 2009-07-04 Published online: 2009-09-11
Abstract. The problem of unsteady oscillatory ow and heat transfer in a horizontal
composite porous medium is performed. The ow is modeled using the Darcy-Brinkman
equation. The viscous and Darcian dissipation terms are also included in the energy
equation. The partial differential equations governing the ow and heat transfer are
solved analytically using two-term harmonic and non-harmonic functions in both regions
of the channel. Effect of the physical parameters such as the porous medium parameter,
ratio of viscosity, oscillation amplitude, conductivity ratio, Prandtl number and the Eckert
number on the velocity and/or temperature elds are shown graphically. It is observed
that both the velocity and temperature elds in the channel decrease as either of the porous
medium parameter or the viscosity ratio increases while they increase with increases in
the oscillation amplitude. Also, increasing the thermal conductivity ratio is found to
suppress the temperature in both regions of the channel. The effects of the Prandtl and
Eckert numbers are found to decrease the thermal state in the channel as well.
Keywords: unsteady, composite porous medium, horizontal channel.
Nomenclature
A real positive constant s permeability of porous matrix
C
p
specic heat at constant pressure T temperature
Ec Eckert number T
w
wall temperature
h channel half width t time
K thermal conductivity u, v velocity components of velocity along
k ratio of thermal conductivities and perpendicular to the plates, resp.
m ratio of viscosities u
l
average velocity
P non-dimensional pressure gradient v
0
scale of suction
p pressure x, y Cartesian coordinates
Pr Prandtl number
397
J. C. Umavathi, A. J. Chamkha, A. Mateen, A. Al-Mudhaf
Greek letters
coefcient of periodic parameter t periodic frequency parameter
Kronecker delta kinematic viscosity

0
uid density porous medium parameter
uid dynamic viscosity non-dimensional temperature
frequency parameter
Subscripts
1, 2 quantities for region I and region II, respectively
eff effective value for porous matrix
Superscripts
dimensionless quantity
1 Introduction
In recent years considerable interest has been evidenced in the study of ow past a
porous medium because of its natural occurrence and importance in both geophysical
and engineering environments. Research on thermal interaction between heat generating
porous bed and overlying uid layer was largely motivated by the nuclear reactor severe
accident problems. Another area of nuclear engineering applications is the design of
pebble bed reactor which requires a proper understanding of forced convection through
packed beds under normal operating conditions and of free convection either in the case
of loss of coolant or during cold shut down. The applications also include problems
involving porous bearings [16], porous rollers [7], porous layer insulation consisting of
solid and porous media [8] and, in biomathematics. Composite uid and porous layers
also nd its application in porous journal bearings. Under high pressure conditions,
the lubricant is squeezed into the porous matrix which releases the uid as soon as the
pressure decreases thereby maintaining a liquid-lm between the shaft and in human
body hip and knee, etc., acts on a similar principle. The surfaces of the joint are articular
cartilage, a smooth rubbery material which is attached to the solid bone. The surface of the
articular cartilage is rough and porous, and hence, can trap the synovial uid. It has been
suggested that because of the porous nature of the articular cartilage, other lubricating
material is squeezed into the joint when it is under stress. One theory is that pressure
causes lubricating threads to squeeze out of the cartilage into the joint; one end of each
lubricating threads remains in the cartilage and as the pressure reduces, the threads are
pulled back into the holes. Zaturaska et al. [9] reported on the ow of viscous uid driven
along a channel by suction at porous walls. More recently, King and Cox [10] performed
an asymptotic analysis of the steady-state and time-dependent laminar porous channel
ows.
Problems involving multiphase ow and heat transfer and multi-component mass
transfer arise in a number of scientic and engineering disciplines and are important in the
petroleum extraction and transport. For example, the reservoir rock of an oil eld always
398
Unsteady Oscillatory Flow and Heat Transfer in a Horizontal Composite Porous Medium Channel
contains several immiscible uids in its pores. Part of the pore volume is occupied either
by oil or gas or both. Crude oils often contain dissolved gases which may be released
into the reservoir rock when the pressure decreases. There has been some theoretical
and experimental work on stratied laminar ow of two immiscible uids in a horizontal
pipe [1114]. Chamkha [15] reported analytical solutions for ow of two-immiscible
uids in porous and non-porous parallel-plates. Later on, MHD two-uid convective ow
and heat transfer in composite porous mediumwas analyzed by Malashetty et al. [1618].
All of the above studies pertain to steady ow. However, a signicant number of
problems of practical interest are unsteady. The ow unsteadiness may be caused by a
change in the free stream velocity or in the surface temperature or in both. When there is
an impulsive change in the velocity eld, the inviscid ow is developed instantaneously,
but the ow in the viscous layer near the wall is developed slowly which becomes fully
developed steady ow after sometime. Raptis and Kafousias [19] studied the inuence
of a magnetic eld on the steady free convection ow through a porous medium bounded
by an innite vertical isothermal plate with a constant suction velocity. Umavathi [20]
studied oscillatory ow of unsteady convective uid in a innite vertical stratum.
The objective of this paper is to consider unsteady owand heat transfer in a horizon-
tal composite channel consisting of two parallel permeable plates with half of the distance
between them lled by a uid-saturated porous layer and the other half by a clear viscous
uid.
2 Mathematical formulation
Consider unsteady, fully developed, laminar ow of an incompressible viscous uid
through a an innitely-long composite channel (see Fig. 1).
Fig. 1. Physical conguration.
The region h < y < 0 (region I) is lled with a porous matrix and the region
0 < y < h (region II) is occupied by a clear viscous uid. The two walls of the channel
are held at constant different temperatures T
w1
and T
w2
with T
w1
< T
w2
and the innite
399
J. C. Umavathi, A. J. Chamkha, A. Mateen, A. Al-Mudhaf
plates are placed horizontally. It should be noted here that since the plates of the channel
are assumed to be innite, all of the physical dependent variables except pressure will
only depend on y and t. The thermo-physical properties of the uid and the effective
properties of the porous medium are assumed constant. In region I, both the uid and the
porous matrix are assumed to be in local thermal equilibrium. Further, the ow in both
regions of the channel is assumed to be driven by a common pressure gradient (
P
x
) and
temperature gradient T = T
w1
T
w2
.
With the assumptions mentioned above, the governing equations of motion and
energy are:
v
i
y
= 0, (1)

0
_
u
i
t
+v
i
u
i
y
_
=

2
u
i
y
2

p
x

s
u
i
, (2)

0
C
p
_
T
i
t
+v
i
Y
i
y
_
=
K

2
T
i
y
2

_
u
i
y
_
2
+

s
u
2
i
, (3)
where i = 1, 2 gives equations for regions I and II, respectively, u is the x-component of
uid velocity, v is the y-component of uid velocity and T is temperature of the uid.
0
,
and C
p
are the uid density, dynamic viscosity and specic heat at constant pressure,
respectively. The parameter s is the porous medium permeability. The other coefcients
appearing in equations (2) and (3) are such that

=
eff
for porous matrix region,

= for clear uid region,


= 1 for porous matrix region,
= 0 for clear uid region,

K
= K
eff
for porous matrix region,

K
= K for clear uid region.
The boundary conditions on velocity are the no-slip boundary conditions which
require that the x-component of velocity must vanish at the wall. The boundary conditions
on temperature are the isothermal conditions. It is also assumed that the velocity, shear
stress, temperature and heat ux at the interfaces are continuous.
The boundary and interface conditions on velocity for the two uids can then be
written as
u
1
(h) = 0, u
2
(h) = 0,
u
1
(0) = u
2
(0),

eff
u
1
y
=
u
2
y
at y = 0.
(4)
400
Unsteady Oscillatory Flow and Heat Transfer in a Horizontal Composite Porous Medium Channel
The thermal boundary and interface conditions for both uids are given by
T
1
(h) = T
w1
, T
2
(h) = T
w2
,
T
1
(0) = T
2
(0),
K
eff
T
1
y
= K
T
2
y
at y = 0.
(5)
The continuity equations of both uids (equation (1)) imply that, v
1
and v
2
are
independent of y, they can be utmost a function of time alone. Hence, we can write
(assuming v
1
= v
2
= v)
v = v
0
_
1 +Ae
it
_
, (6)
where A is real positive constant, is the frequency parameter and is small such that
A 1. Here, it is assumed that the transpiration velocity varies periodically with time
about a non-zero constant mean v
0
. When A = 0, the case of constant transpiration
velocity is recovered. By use of the following non-dimensional quantities
u
i
= u
1
u

i
, y =

v
0
y

, t =

v
2
0
t

, v = v
0
v

,
2
=

2
sv
2
0
,
P =

2
v
2
0
U
0
_
P
x
_
, =
T T
w2
T
w1
T
w2
, Ec =
U
2
0
C
p
T
.
(7)
Equations (2) and (3) are placed in dimensionless form as
u
i
t
+v
u
i
y
= A
i

2
u
i
y
2

2
u
i
P, (8)

i
t
+v

i
y
= B
i

i
y
2
+A
i
Ec
_
u
i
y
_
2
+
2
Ec u
2
i
, (9)
where i = 1, 2 gives equations for regions I and II and
A
1
= m, A
2
= 1, B
1
=
k
Pr
, B
2
=
1
Pr
.
Pr =
0Cp
K
, m =

eff

is the ratio of viscosities and k =


K
eff
K
is the ratio of thermal
conductivities.
The non-dimensional form of the hydrodynamic and thermal boundary and interface
conditions reduce to
u
1
(1) = 0, u
2
(1) = 0,
u
1
(0) = u
2
(0),
m
u
1
y
=
u
2
y
at y = 0;
(10)
401
J. C. Umavathi, A. J. Chamkha, A. Mateen, A. Al-Mudhaf

1
(1) = 1,
2
(1) = 0,

1
(0) =
2
(0),
k

1
y
=

2
y
at y = 0.
(11)
(The asterisks have been dropped for simplicity.)
3 Closed-form solutions
The governing momentum and energy equations (8) and (9) are solved subject to the
boundary and interface conditions (10) and (11) for the velocity and temperature distribu-
tions in both regions. These equations are coupled partial differential equations that can
not be solved in closed form. However, they can be reduced to set of ordinary differential
equations that can be solved analytically. This can be done by representing the velocity
and temperature as
u
i
(y, t) = u
i0
(y) +e
it
u
i1
(y) +O
_

2
_
+. . . , i = 1, 2, (12)

i
(y, t) =
i0
(y) +e
it

i1
(y) +O
_

2
_
+. . . , i = 1, 2. (13)
This is a valid assumption because of the choice of v as dened in equation (6) that the
amplitude A 1.
By substituting equations (12) and (13) into equations (8) to (9), equating the har-
monic and non-harmonic terms and neglecting the higher order terms of O(
2
), one
obtains the following pairs of equations for (u
i0
,
i0
) and (u
i1
,
i1
).
Non-periodic coefcients O(
0
)
A
i
d
2
u
i0
dy
2
+
du
i0
dy

2
u
i0
= P, (14)
B
i
d
2

i0
dy
2
+
d
i0
dy
= A
i
Ec
_
du
i0
dy
_
2

2
Ec u
2
i0
. (15)
Periodic coefcients O(
1
)
A
i
d
2
u
i1
dy
2
+
du
i1
dy

_

2
+i
_
u
i1
= A
du
i0
dy
, (16)
B
i
d
2

i1
dy
2
+
d
i1
dy
i
i1
= A
du
i0
dy
2Ec A
i
du
i0
dy
du
i1
dy
2
2
Ec u
i0
u
i1
. (17)
Using equations (12) and (13), the boundary and interface conditions may be writ-
ten as:
u
1i
(1) = 0, u
2i
(1) = 0,
u
1i
(0) = u
2i
(0),
m
u
1i
y
=
u
2i
y
at y = 0;
(18)
402
Unsteady Oscillatory Flow and Heat Transfer in a Horizontal Composite Porous Medium Channel

1i
(1) = 1
1i
,
2i
(1) = 0,

1i
(0) =
2i
(0),
k

1i
y
=

2i
y
at y = 0,
(19)
where i = 0, 1 gives the boundary and interface conditions for non-periodic (O(
0
)) and
periodic (O(
1
)) coefcients, respectively and
1i
is the Kronecker delta.
Without going into detail, solution of the equations (14) to (17) using the boundary
and interface conditions (18) and (19) can be written as
u
10
=C
1
e
m1y
+C
2
e
m2y

2
, (20)
u
20
=C
3
+C
4
e
y
+Py, (21)

10
=C
5
+C
6
e
m4y
+k
8
y +k
10
e
m1y
+k
11
e
m2y
+k
12
e
2m1y
+k
13
e
2m2y
+k
14
e
m5y
, (22)

20
= C
7
+C
8
e
Pr y
+k
15
e
2y
+k
16
e
y
+k
17
y, (23)
u
11
=e
e1y
(XC
9
cos F
1
y +XC
10
sin F
1
y) +E
2
e
m1y
+E
3
e
m2y
+i
_
e
e1y
(Y C
9
cos F
1
y +Y C
10
sin F
1
y) +F
2
e
m1y
+F
3
e
m2y

, (24)
u
21
=e
e4y
(XC
11
cos F
4
y +XC
12
sin F
4
y)
+i
_
e
e4y
(Y C
11
cos F
4
y +Y C
12
sin F
4
y) +
A

(C
4
e
y
+P)
_
, (25)

11
=e
e5y
(XC
13
cos F
5
y+XC
14
sin F
5
y)+P
23
e
2m1y
+P
24
e
2m2y
+E
7
e
m4y
+P
25
e
m5y
+P
26
e
m1y
+P
27
e
m2y
+e
m6y
(P
28
cos F
1
y+P
29
sin F
1
y)
+e
m7y
(P
30
cos F
1
y+P
31
sin F
1
y)+e
e1y
(P
32
cos F
1
y+P
33
sin F
1
y)
+i
_
e
e5y
(Y C
13
cos F
5
y+Y C
14
sinF
5
y)+Q
23
e
2m1y
+Q
24
e
2m2y
+F
7
e
m4y
+Q
25
e
m5y
+Q
26
e
m1y
+Q
27
e
m2y
+e
m6y
(Q
28
cos F
1
y+Q
29
sin F
1
y)
+e
m7y
(Q
30
cos F
1
y+Q
31
sin F
1
y)
+e
e1y
(Q
32
cos F
1
y+Q
33
sin F
1
y)+K
18

, (26)

21
=e
e27y
(XC
15
cos F
27
y+XC
16
sin F
27
y)+P
44
e
2y
+P
45
e
y
+e
m8y
(P
46
cos F
4
y+P
47
sin F
4
y)+e
E4y
(P
48
cos F
4
y+P
49
sinF
4
y)
+i
_
e
e27y
(XC
15
cos F
27
y+XC
16
sin F
27
y)+P
44
e
2y
+P
45
e
y
+k
28
e
Pr y
+e
m8y
(P
46
cos F
4
y+P
47
sinF
4
y)
+e
e4y
(P
48
cos F
4
y+P
49
sin F
4
y)+k
29

. (27)
It should be noted that all of the constants appearing in the above solutions are dened in
Appendix section.
403
J. C. Umavathi, A. J. Chamkha, A. Mateen, A. Al-Mudhaf
4 Results and discussion
The problemof unsteady ow and heat transfer in a horizontal composite porous medium
channel is investigated analytically. The closed-formsolutions are reported for small such
that oscillation amplitude A 1. The solution of non-periodic and periodic coefcients
of e
it
is evaluated for various parametric conditions. The results are depicted graphically
in Figs. 2 to 10.
Figs. 2 and 3 display the effect of the porous medium parameter on the velocity
and temperature proles, respectively. As the porous medium parameter increases, the
velocity and temperature decrease in both regions of the channel. This is expected since
the porous matrix represents an obstacle to ow and therefore, reduces its velocity and
temperature. This result is also similar to the case of fully developed ow through a
porous medium as predicted by Rudraiah and Nagraj [21].
Fig. 2. Velocity proles for different values
of the porous medium parameter .
Fig. 3. Temperature proles for different
values of the porous medium parameter .
Fig. 4 depicts the effect of Prandtl number on the temperature proles. The Prandtl
number is the ratio of momentumdiffusion to heat diffusion. It is a measure of the relative
importance of viscosity and heat conduction in a ow eld. Thus, as the Prandtl number
increases, the viscous forces dominate over heat conduction and hence, the temperature
decreases. This is obvious from Fig. 4.
Fig. 5 presents the effect of the Eckert number on the temperature proles. Physically
speaking, the Eckert number represents the effects of the viscous and porous medium dis-
sipations. As the Eckert number increases, the temperature eld in the channel decreases.
The magnitude of reduction in the temperature eld in region II is larger compared to that
in region I.
The effect of the viscosity ratio m on the velocity and temperature proles is shown
in Figs. 6 and 7, respectively. As the viscosity ratio increases, both the velocity and
temperature proles are decreased. This is due to the fact that as the uid viscosity
404
Unsteady Oscillatory Flow and Heat Transfer in a Horizontal Composite Porous Medium Channel
increases, the uid in both regions of the channel becomes thicker and hence the ow
velocity is reduced causing the temperature distribution to reduce as well.
Fig. 4. Temperature proles for different
values of the Prandtl number Pr.
Fig. 5. Temperature proles for different
values of the Eckert number Ec.
Fig. 6. Velocity proles for different values
of the ratio of viscosities m.
Fig. 7. Temperature proles for different
values of the ratio of viscosities m.
Fig. 8 displays the inuence of the thermal conductivity ratio k on the temperature
proles. Increases in the thermal conductivity ratio have the tendency to cool down the
thermal state in the channel. This is depicted in the reduction in the uid temperatures as
k increases as shown in Fig. 8.
Figs. 9 and 10 illustrate the effect of the oscillation amplitude A on the velocity and
temperature elds, respectively. It should be reminded that the oscillation amplitude was
assumed to be small in evaluating the analytical solutions i.e. A 1. The condition of
A = 0 is for steady state solutions. It is clear from Figs. 9 and 10 that as the oscillation
amplitude increases, both the velocity and temperature proles increase in both regions
of the channel.
405
J. C. Umavathi, A. J. Chamkha, A. Mateen, A. Al-Mudhaf
Fig. 8. Temperature proles for different
values of the ratio of conductivities k.
Fig. 9. Velocity proles for different values
of the oscillation amplitude A.
Fig. 10. Temperature proles for different
values of the oscillation amplitude A.
5 Conclusions
The problem of unsteady ow of a viscous uid through a horizontal composite channel
whose half width is lled with a uniform layer of porous media in the presence of time-
dependent oscillatory wall transpiration velocity was investigated analytically. Both the
uid and the porous matrix were assumed to have constant physical properties. Separate
closed-form solutions for each region of the channel were obtained taking into conside-
ration suitable interface matching conditions. The closed-form results were numerically
evaluated and presented graphically for various values of the porous medium parameter,
viscosity and thermal conductivity ratios, oscillation amplitude and the Prandtl and Eckert
numbers.
It was predicted that both the velocity and temperature proles decreased as either
406
Unsteady Oscillatory Flow and Heat Transfer in a Horizontal Composite Porous Medium Channel
of the porous medium parameter or the viscosity ratio was increased. Furthermore, it
was concluded that the temperature eld decreased as either of the Prandtl number, the
Eckert number or the thermal conductivity ratio increased. However, both the velocity and
temperature elds in the channel increased as the oscillation amplitude was increased.
It can be concluded that the ow and heat transfer aspects in a horizontal composite
channel with permeable walls can be controlled by considering different combinations of
uids and porous media having different viscosities, conductivities and also by varying
the amplitude of the transpiration velocity at the boundary.
Appendix
B
1
= 2k
2
m
6
+ 1, B
2
= k
2
m
2
6
+m
6
k
2
F
2
1
, B
3
= B
2
2
+
2
B
2
1
F
2
1
,
B
4
= 2k
2
m
7
+ 1, B
5
= k
2
m
2
7
+m
7
k
2
F
2
1
, B
6
= B
2
5
+
2
B
2
4
F
2
1
,
B
7
= 2k
2
e
1
+ 1, B
8
= k
2
e
2
1
+e
1
k
2
F
2
1
, B
9
= B
2
8
+
2
B
2
7
F
2
1
,
B
10
= 2m
8
+Pr, B
11
= m
2
8
+Pr m
8
F
2
4
, B
12
= B
2
11
+
2
Pr
2
B
2
10
F
2
4
,
B
13
= 2e
4
+Pr, B
14
= e
2
4
+Pr e
4
F
2
4
, B
15
= B
2
14
+
2
Pr
2
B
2
13
F
2
4
;
C
1
=
(l
3
e
m2

2
+l
2
P)

2
(l
1
e
m2
l
2
e
m1
)
, C
2
=
(P C
1
e
m1

2
)

2
e
m2
,
C
3
= C
1
+C
2
C
4

2
, C
4
= P m(m
1
C
1
m
2
C
2
),
C
5
= C
6
e
m4
l
4
, C
6
=
l
9
l
4
e
m4
l
8
,
C
7
= C
5
+C
6
C
8
l
6
, C
8
=
(km
4
C
6
+l
7
)
Pr
;
D
1
= 2B
2
1
B
2
, D
2
= 2B
1
B
2
1
B
1
B
3
, D
3
= B
3
B
2
,
D
4
= 2B
1
B
2
, D
5
= 2B
2
4
B
5
, D
6
= 2B
4
B
2
5
B
4
B
6
,
D
7
= B
6
B
5
, D
8
= 2B
4
B
5
, D
9
= 2B
2
7
B
8
,
D
10
= 2B
7
B
2
8
B
7
B
9
, D
11
= B
9
B
8
, D
12
= 2B
7
B
8
,
D
13
= 2B
2
10
B
11
, D
14
= 2B
10
B
2
11
B
10
B
12
, D
15
= B
11
B
12
,
D
16
= 2PrB
10
B
11
, D
17
= 2B
2
13
B
14
, D
18
= 2B
13
B
2
14
B
13
B
15
,
D
19
= B
14
B
15
, D
20
= 2PrB
13
B
14
;
e
1
=
1 +

r
1
cos(
1
/2)
2m
, e
2
=
2Am
1
C
1
(mm
2
1
+m
1

2
)
(mm
2
1
+m
1

2
)
2
+
2
,
e
3
=
Am
2
C
2
(mm
2
2
+m
2

2
)
(mm
2
2
+m
2

2
)
2
+
2
, e
4
=
1 +

r
2
cos(
2
/2)
2
,
407
J. C. Umavathi, A. J. Chamkha, A. Mateen, A. Al-Mudhaf
e
5
=
1 +

r
3
cos(
3
/2)
2k
2
, e
5a
=
2Am
1
k
12
(4k
2
m
2
1
+ 2m
1
)
(4km
2
1
+ 2m
1
)
2
+
2
,
e
6
=
2Am
2
k
13
(4k
2
m
2
2
+ 2m
2
)
(4k
2
m
2
2
+ 2m
2
)
2
+
2
, e
7
=
Am
4
C
6
(k
2
m
2
4
+m
4
)
(k
2
m
2
4
+m
4
)
2
+
2
,
e
8
=
Am
5
k
14
(k
2
m
2
5
+m
5
)
(k
2
m
2
5
+m
5
)
2
+
2
, e
9
=
Am
1
k
10
(k
2
m
2
1
+m
1
)
(k
2
m
2
1
+m
1
)
2
+
2
,
e
10
=
2Am
2
k
11
(k
2
m
2
2
+m
2
)
(k
2
m
2
2
+m
2
)
2
+
2
, e
11
=
2Ec mm
2
1
C
1
e
2
(4k
2
m
2
1
+2m
1
)
(4k
2
m
2
1
+ 2m
1
)
2
+
2
,
e
12
=
2Ec mm
2
2
C
2
e
3
(4k
2
m
2
2
+2m
2
)
(4k
2
m
2
2
+ 2m
2
)
2
+
2
, e
13
=
2Ec mk
21
(k
2
m
2
5
+m
5
)
(k
2
m
2
5
+m
5
)
2
+
2
,
e
14
=
2Ec mm
2
1
C
1
F
2
(4k
2
m
2
1
+2m
1
)
(4k
2
m
2
1
+ 2m
1
)
2
+
2
, e
15
=
2Ec mm
2
2
C
2
F
3
(4k
2
m
2
2
+2m
2
)
(4k
2
m
2
2
+ 2m
2
)
2
+
2
,
e
16
=
2Ec mk
22
(k
2
m
2
5
+m
5
)
(k
2
m
2
5
+m
5
)
2
+
2
, e
17
=
2Ec
2
C
1
e
2
(4k
2
m
2
1
+ 2m
1
)
(4k
2
m
2
1
+ 2m
1
)
2
+
2
,
e
18
=
2Ec
2
C
2
e
3
(4k
2
m
2
2
+ 2m
2
)
(4k
2
m
2
2
+ 2m
2
)
2
+
2
, e
19
=
2Ec
2
k
26
(k
2
m
2
5
+m
5
)
(k
2
m
2
5
+m
5
)
2
+
2
,
e
20
=
2Ec Pe
2
(k
2
m
2
1
+m
1
)
(k
2
m
2
1
+m
1
)
2
+
2
, e
21
=
2Ec Pe
3
(k
2
m
2
2
+m
2
)
(k
2
m
2
2
+m
2
)
2
+
2
,
e
22
=
2Ec
2
C
1
F
2
(4k
2
m
2
1
+ 2m
1
)
(4k
2
m
2
1
+ 2m
1
)
2
+
2
, e
23
=
2Ec
2
C
2
F
3
(4k
2
m
2
2
+ 2m
2
)
(4k
2
m
2
2
+ 2m
2
)
2
+
2
,
e
24
=
2Ec
2
k
27
(k
2
m
2
5
+m
5
)
(k
2
m
2
5
+m
5
)
2
+
2
, e
25
=
2Ec PF
2
(k
2
m
2
1
+m
1
)
(k
2
m
2
1
+m
1
)
2
+
2
,
e
26
=
2Ec PF
3
(k
2
m
2
2
+m
2
)
(k
2
m
2
2
+m
2
)
2
+
2
, e
27
=
Pr +

r
4
cos(
4
/2)
2
,
e
28
=
2PrAk
15
(4 2Pr)
(4 2Pr)
2
+
2
Pr
2
, e
29
=
PrAPk
16
(1 Pr)
(1 Pr)
2
+
2
Pr
2
,
e
30
=
2Ec PrAC
2
4
(4 2Pr)
((4 2Pr)
2
+
2
Pr
2
)
, e
31
=
2Ec PrAC
4
(1 Pr)
((1 Pr)
2
+
2
Pr
2
)
;
F
1
=

r
1
sin(
1
/2)
2m
, F
2
=
Am
1
C
1

(mm
2
1
+m
1

2
)
2
+
2
,
F
3
=
Am
2
C
2

(mm
2
2
+m
2

2
)
2
+
2
, F
4
=

r
2
sin(
2
/2)
2
,
F
5
=

r
3
sin(
3
/2)
2k
2
, F
5a
=
2Am
1
k
12

(4k
2
m
2
1
+ 2m
1
)
2
+
2
,
408
Unsteady Oscillatory Flow and Heat Transfer in a Horizontal Composite Porous Medium Channel
F
6
=
2Am
2
k
13

(4k
2
m
2
2
+ 2m
2
)
2
+
2
, F
7
=
Am
4
C
6

(k
2
m
2
4
+m
4
)
2
+
2
,
F
8
=
Am
5
k
14

(k
2
m
2
5
+m
2
)
2
+
2
, F
9
=
Am
1
k
10

(k
2
m
2
1
+m
1
)
2
+
2
,
F
10
=
Am
2
k
11

(k
2
m
2
2
+m
2
)
2
+
2
, F
11
=
2Ec mm
2
1
C
1
e
2

(4k
2
m
2
1
+ 2m
1
)
2
+
2
,
F
12
=
2Ec mm
2
2
C
2
e
3

(4k
2
m
2
2
+ 2m
2
)
2
+
2
, F
13
=
2Ec mk
21

(k
2
m
2
5
+m
5
)
2
+
2
,
F
14
=
2Ec mm
2
1
C
1
F
2

(4k
2
m
2
1
+ 2m
1
)
2
+
2
, F
15
=
2Ec mm
2
2
C
2
F
3

(4k
2
m
2
2
+ 2m
2
)
2
+
2
,
F
16
=
2Ec mk
22

(k
2
m
2
5
+m
5
)
2
+
2
, F
17
=
2Ec
2
C
1
e
2

(4k
2
m
2
1
+ 2m
1
)
2
+
2
,
F
18
=
2Ec
2
C
2
e
3

(4k
2
m
2
2
+ 2m
2
)
2
+
2
, F
19
=
2Ec
2
k
26

(k
2
m
2
5
+m
5
)
2
+
2
,
F
20
=
2Ec Pe
2

(k
2
m
2
1
+m
1
)
2
+
2
, F
21
=
2Ec Pe
2

(k
2
m
2
2
+m
2
)
2
+
2
,
F
22
=
2Ec
2
C
1
F
2

(4k
2
m
2
1
+ 2m
1
)
2
+
2
, F
23
=
2Ec
2
C
2
F
3

(4k
2
m
2
2
+ 2m
2
)
2
+
2
,
F
24
=
2Ec
2
k
27

(k
2
m
2
5
+m
5
)
2
+
2
, F
25
=
2Ec PF
2

(k
2
m
2
1
+m
1
)
2
+
2
,
F
26
=
2Ec PF
3

(k
2
m
2
2
+m
2
)
2
+
2
, F
27
=

r
4
sin(
4
/2)
2
,
F
28
=
2Pr
2
Ak
15

(4 2Pr)
2
+
2
Pr
2
, F
29
=
Pr
2
Ak
16

(1 Pr)
2
+
2
Pr
2
,
F
30
=
2Ec Pr
2
AC
2
4
(4 2Pr)
2
+
2
Pr
2
, F
29
=
2Ec Pr
2
AC
4
(1 Pr)
2
+
2
Pr
2
;
k
2
=
k
Pr
, k
3
=
mEc m
2
1
C
2
1
4m
2
1
k
2
+ 2m
1
, k
4
=
mEc m
2
2
C
2
2
4m
2
2
k
2
+ 2m
2
,
k
5
=
2mEc m
1
m
2
C
1
C
2
m
2
5
k
2
+ m
5
, k
6
=

2
Ec C
2
1
4m
2
1
k
2
+ 2m
1
, k
7
=

2
Ec C
2
2
4m
2
2
k
2
+ 2m
2
,
k
8
=
Ec P
2

2
, k
9
=
2
2
Ec C
1
C
2
m
2
5
k
2
+m
5
, k
10
=
2Ec C
1
P
m
2
1
k
2
+m
1
,
k
11
=
2Ec C
2
P
m
2
2
k
2
+m
2
, k
12
= k
3
+k
6
, k
13
= k
4
+k
7
,
k
14
= k
5
+k
9
, k
15
=
Ec PrC
2
4
4 2Pr
, k
16
=
2Ec Pr PC
4
1 Pr
,
409
J. C. Umavathi, A. J. Chamkha, A. Mateen, A. Al-Mudhaf
k
17
= Ec P
2
, k
18
=
Ak
8

, k
19
=
2Ec mm
1
C
1
4B
2
1
B
2
2
F
2
1
+B
2
3
,
k
20
=
2Ec mm
2
C
2
4B
2
4
B
2
5
F
2
1
+B
2
6
, k
21
=m
1
m
2
(C
1
e
3
+C
2
e
2
), k
22
=m
1
m
2
(C
1
F
3
+C
2
F
2
),
k
23
=
2Ec
2
C
1
4B
2
1
B
2
2
F
2
1
+B
2
3
, k
24
=
2Ec
2
C
2
4B
2
4
B
2
5
F
2
1
+B
2
6
, k
25
=
2Ec P

2
(4B
2
7
B
2
8
F
2
1
+B
2
9
)
,
k
26
= C
1
e
3
+C
2
e
2
, k
27
= C
1
F
3
+C
2
F
2
, k
28
=
PrAC
8

,
k
29
=
Ak
17

, k
30
=
2Ec PrC
4
4B
2
10
B
2
11
F
2
4
+B
2
12
, k
31
=
2Ec Pr P
4B
2
13
B
2
14
F
2
4
+B
2
15
)
;
l
1
= 1 (e
1
1)mm
1
, l
2
= 1 (e
1
1)mm
2
, l
3
= Pe
1

2
,
l
4
= k
8
+ k
10
e
m1
+k
11
e
m2
+k
12
e
2m1
+k
13
e
2m2
+k
14
e
m5
1,
l
5
= k
15
e
2
+k
16
e
1
+k
17
, l
6
= k
10
+k
11
+k
12
+k
13
+k
14
k
15
k
16
,
l
7
= k(k
8
+m
1
k
10
+m
2
k
11
+ 2m
1
k
12
+ 2m
2
k
13
+m
5
k
14
) + 2k
15
+k
16
k
17
,
l
8
= 1
km
4
(e
Pr
1)
Pr
, l
9
= l
5
+l
6

l
7
(e
Pr
1)
Pr
,
l
10
= e
e1
cos F
1
, l
11
= e
e1
sin F
1
,
l
12
= e
2
e
m1
+e
3
e
m2
, l
13
= F
2
e
m1
+F
3
e
m2
,
l
14
= e
e4
cos F
4
, l
15
= e
e4
sin F
4
,
l
16
=
A

_
C
4
e
1
+P
_
, l
17
= e
2
+e
3
,
l
18
= F
2
+F
3

(C
4
+P), l
19
= m(m
1
e
2
+m
2
e
3
),
l
20
= m(m
1
F
2
+m
2
F
3
) +
AC
4

, l
21
=
F
4
l
14
l
15
e
4
;
l
22
=
F
4
l
16
l
15
+L
20
, l
23
= me
1
+l
21
, l
24
= l
21
l
17
+l
19
,
l
25
= l
21
l
18
+l
22
, l
26
= e
e5
cos F
5
, l
27
= e
e5
sin F
5
,
l
28
= P
23
e
2m1
+P
24
e
2m2
+e
7
e
m4
+P
25
e
m5
+P
26
e
m1
+P
27
e
m2
+e
m6
(P
28
cos F
1
P
29
sin F
1
) +e
m7
(P
30
cos F
1
P
31
sin F
1
)
+e
e1
(P
32
cos F
1
P
33
sin F
1
),
l
29
= Q
23
e
2m1
+Q
24
e
2m2
+F
7
e
m4
+Q
25
e
m5
+Q
26
e
m1
+Q
27
e
m2
+e
m6
(Q
28
cos F
1
Q
29
sin F
1
) +e
m7
(Q
30
cos F
1
Q
31
sin F
1
)
+e
e1
(Q
32
cos F
1
Q
33
sinF
1
) +k
18
,
l
30
= e
e27
cos F
27
, l
31
= e
e27
sin F
27
,
410
Unsteady Oscillatory Flow and Heat Transfer in a Horizontal Composite Porous Medium Channel
l
32
= P
44
e
2
+P
45
e
1
+e
m8
(P
46
cos F
4
P
47
sinF
4
)
+e
e4
(P
48
cos F
4
+P
49
sin F
4
),
l
33
= Q
44
e
2
+ Q
45
e
1
+e
m8
(Q
46
cos F
4
+Q
47
sin F
4
)
+e
e4
(Q
48
cos F
4
+Q
49
sin F
4
) +k
28
e
Pr
+k
29
,
l
34
= P
23
+P
24
+e
7
+P
25
+P
26
+P
27
+P
28
+P
30
+P
32
P
44
P
45
P
46
P
48
,
l
35
= Q
23
+Q
24
+F
7
+Q
25
+Q
26
+Q
27
+Q
28
+Q
30
+Q
32
Q
44
Q
45
Q
46
Q
48
k
28
k
29
,
l
36
= k(2m
1
P
23
+ 2m
2
P
24
+m
4
e
7
+m
5
P
25
+m
1
P
26
+m
2
P
27
+m
6
P
28
+F
1
P
29
+m
7
P
30
+F
1
P
31
+e
1
P
32
+F
1
P
33
)
+ 2P
44
+P
45
m
8
P
46
F
4
P
47
e
4
P
48
F
4
P
49
,
l
37
= k(2m
1
Q
23
+ 2m
2
Q
24
+m
4
F
7
+m
5
Q
25
+m
1
Q
26
+m
2
Q
27
+m
6
Q
28
+F
1
Q
29
+m
7
Q
30
+F
1
Q
31
+e
1
Q
32
+F
1
Q
33
)
+ 2Q
44
+Q
45
m
8
Q
46
F
4
Q
47
e
4
Q
48
F
4
Q
49
+Prk
28
,
l
38
=
F
27
l
30
l
31
e
27
, l
39
=
F
27
l
32
l
31
+l
36
, l
40
=
F
27
l
33
l
31
+l
37
,
l
41
= ke
5
+l
38
, l
42
= l
38
l
34
+l
39
, l
43
= l
38
l
35
+l
40
;
m
1
=
1 +sqrt1 + 4
m
2m
, m
2
=
1 sqrt1 + 4
m
2m
,
m
4
=
1
k
2
, m
5
= m
1
+m
2
;
P
1
= e
1
XC
9
+F
1
XC
10
, P
2
= e
1
XC
10
F
1
XC
9
,
P
3
= D
1
F
2
1
P
1
+D
2
F
1
P
2
+D
3
P
1
, P
4
= D
1
F
2
1
P
2
D
2
F
1
P
1
+D
3
P
2
,
P
5
= D
5
F
2
1
P
1
+D
5
F
1
P
2
+D
7
P
1
, P
6
= D
5
F
2
1
P
2
D
6
F
1
P
1
+D
7
P
2
,
P
7
= D
1
F
2
1
Q
1
+D
2
F
1
P
2
+D
3
P
1
, P
8
= D
1
F
2
1
Q
2
D
2
F
1
Q
1
+D
3
Q
2
,
P
9
= D
5
F
2
1
Q
1
+D
5
F
1
Q
2
+D
7
Q
1
, P
10
= D
5
F
2
1
Q
2
D
6
F
1
Q
1
+D
7
Q
2
,
P
11
= D
1
F
2
1
XC
9
+D
2
F
1
XC
10
+D
3
XC
9
,
P
12
= D
1
F
2
1
XC
10
D
2
F
1
XC
9
+D
3
XC
10
,
P
13
= D
5
F
2
1
XC
9
+D
6
F
1
XC
10
+D
7
XC
9
,
P
14
= D
5
F
2
1
XC
10
D
6
F
1
XC
9
+D
7
XC
10
,
P
15
= D
9
F
2
1
XC
9
+D
10
F
1
XC
10
+D
11
XC
9
,
P
16
= D
9
F
2
1
XC
10
D
10
F
1
XC
9
+D
11
XC
10
,
P
17
= D
1
F
2
1
Y C
9
+D
2
F
1
Y C
10
+D
3
Y C
9
,
P
18
= D
1
F
2
1
Y C
10
D
2
F
1
Y C
9
+D
3
Y C
10
,
411
J. C. Umavathi, A. J. Chamkha, A. Mateen, A. Al-Mudhaf
P
19
= D
5
F
2
1
Y C
9
+D
6
F
1
Y C
10
+D
7
Y C
9
,
P
20
= D
5
F
2
1
Y C
10
D
6
F
1
Y C
9
+D
7
Y C
10
,
P
21
= D
9
F
2
1
Y C
9
+D
10
F
1
Y C
10
+D
11
Y C
9
,
P
22
= D
9
F
2
1
Y C
10
D
10
F
1
Y C
9
+D
11
Y C
10
,
P
23
= e
5a
+e
11
F
14
+e
17
F
22
, P
24
= e
6
+e
12
F
15
+e
18
F
23
,
P
25
= e
8
+e
13
F
16
+e
19
F
24
, P
26
= e
9
+e
20
F
25
,
P
27
= e
10
+e
21
F
26
, P
28
= k
19
(P
3
Q
7
)+k
23
(P
11
Q
17
),
P
29
= k
19
(P
4
Q
8
)+k
23
(P
12
Q
18
), P
30
= k
20
(P
5
Q
9
)+k
24
(P
13
Q
19
),
P
31
= k
20
(P
6
Q
10
)+k
24
(P
14
Q
20
), P
32
= k
25
(P
15
Q
21
),
P
33
= k
25
(P
16
Q
22
), P
34
= e
4
XC
11
+F
4
XC
12
,
P
35
= e
4
XC
12
F
4
XC
11
, P
36
=D
13
F
2
4
P
34
+D
14
F
4
P
35
+D
15
P
34
,
P
37
= D
13
F
2
4
P
35
D
14
F
4
P
34
+D
15
P
35
,
P
38
= D
17
F
2
4
P
34
+D
18
F
4
P
35
+D
19
P
34
,
P
39
= D
17
F
2
4
P
35
D
18
F
4
P
34
+D
19
P
35
,
P
40
= D
13
F
2
4
Q
34
+D
14
F
4
Q
35
+D
15
Q
34
,
P
41
= D
13
F
2
4
Q
35
D
14
F
4
Q
34
+D
15
Q
35
,
P
42
= D
17
F
2
4
Q
34
+D
18
F
4
Q
35
+D
19
Q
34
,
P
43
= D
17
F
2
4
Q
35
D
18
F
4
Q
34
+D
19
Q
35
,
P
44
= e
28
F
30
, P
45
= e
29
F
31
, P
46
= k
30
(P
36
Q
40
),
P
47
= k
30
(P
37
Q
41
), P
48
= k
31
(P
38
Q
42
), P
49
= k
31
(P
39
Q
43
);
Q
1
= e
1
Y C
9
+F
1
Y C
10
, Q
2
= e
1
Y C
10
F
1
Y C
9
,
Q
3
= D
4
F
1
P
2
B
3
P
1
, Q
4
= D
4
F
1
P
1
B
3
P
2
,
Q
5
= D
8
F
1
P
2
B
6
P
1
, Q
6
= D
8
F
1
P
1
B
6
P
2
,
Q
7
= D
4
F
1
Q
2
B
3
Q
1
, Q
8
= D
4
F
1
Q
1
B
3
Q
2
,
Q
9
= D
8
F
1
Q
2
B
6
Q
1
, Q
10
= D
8
F
1
Q
1
B
6
Q
2
,
Q
11
= D
4
F
1
XC
10
B
3
XC
9
, Q
12
= D
4
F
1
XC
9
B
3
XC
10
,
Q
13
= D
8
F
1
XC
10
B
6
XC
9
, Q
14
= D
8
F
1
XC
9
B
6
XC
10
,
Q
15
= D
12
F
1
XC
10
B
9
XC
9
, Q
16
= D
12
F
1
XC
9
B
9
XC
10
,
Q
17
= D
4
F
1
Y C
10
B
3
Y C
9
, Q
18
= D
4
F
1
Y C
9
B
3
Y C
10
,
Q
19
= D
8
F
1
Y C
10
B
6
Y C
9
, Q
20
= D
8
F
1
Y C
9
B
6
Y C
10
,
Q
21
= D
12
F
1
Y C
10
B
9
Y C
9
, Q
22
= D
12
F
1
Y C
9
B
9
Y C
10
,
Q
23
= F
5a
+F
11
+e
14
+F
17
+e
22
, Q
24
= F
6
+F
12
+e
15
+F
18
+e
23
,
Q
25
= F
8
+F
13
+e
16
+F
19
+e
24
, Q
26
= F
9
+F
20
+e
25
,
412
Unsteady Oscillatory Flow and Heat Transfer in a Horizontal Composite Porous Medium Channel
Q
27
= F
10
+F
21
+e
26
, Q
28
= k
19
(Q
3
+P
7
)+k
23
(Q
11
+P
17
),
Q
29
= k
19
(Q
4
+P
8
)+k
23
(Q
12
+P
18
), Q
30
= k
20
(Q
5
+P
9
)+k
24
(Q
13
+P
19
),
Q
31
= k
20
(Q
6
+P
10
)+k
24
(Q
14
+P
20
), Q
32
= k
25
(Q
15
+P
21
),
Q
33
= k
25
(Q
16
+P
22
), Q
34
= e
4
Y C
11
+F
4
Y C
12
,
Q
35
= e
4
Y C
12
F
4
Y C
11
, Q
36
= D
16
F
4
P
35
PrB
12
Q
34
,
Q
37
= D
16
F
4
P
34
PrB
12
P
35
, Q
38
= D
20
F
4
P
35
PrB
15
Q
34
,
Q
39
= D
20
F
4
P
34
PrB
15
P
35
, Q
40
= D
16
F
4
Q
35
PrB
12
Q
34
,
Q
41
= D
16
F
4
Q
34
PrB
12
Q
35
, Q
42
= D
20
F
4
Q
35
PrB
15
Q
34
,
Q
43
= D
20
F
4
Q
34
PrB
15
Q
35
, Q
44
= F
28
+e
30
, Q
45
= F
29
+e
31
,
Q
46
= k
30
(Q
36
+P
40
), Q
47
= k
30
(Q
37
+P
41
),
Q
48
= k
31
(Q
38
+P
42
), Q
49
= k
31
(Q
39
+P
43
);
XC
9
=
l
11
l
24
m
1
F
1
l
12
mF
1
l
10
l
11
l
23
, XC
10
=
(l
10
XC
9
+l
12
)
l
11
,
XC
11
= XC
9
+l
17
, XC
12
=
l
14
XC
11
l
15
,
XC
13
=
l
27
l
42
kF
5
l
28
kF
5
l
26
l
27
l
41
, XC
14
=
(l
26
XC
13
+ l
28
)
l
27
,
XC
15
= XC
13
+l
34
, XC
16
=
(l
30
XC
15
+ l
32
)
l
31
,
Y C
9
=
l
11
l
25
m
1
F
1
l
13
mF
1
l
10
l
11
l
23
, Y C
10
=
(l
10
Y C
9
+l
13
)
l
11
,
Y C
11
= Y C
9
+l
18
, Y C
12
=
l
14
Y C
11
+l
16
l
15
,
Y C
13
=
l
27
l
43
kF
5
l
29
kF
5
l
26
l
27
l
41
, Y C
14
=
(l
26
Y C
13
+l
29
)
l
27
,
Y C
15
= Y C
13
+l
35
, Y C
16
=
(l
30
Y C
15
+l
33
)
l
31
;
r
1
=
_
(1 +m
2
)
2
+ (4m)
2
, r
2
=
_
1 + 16
2
,
r
3
=
_
1 + 16
2
k
2
2
, r
4
=
_
Pr
2
+ (4Pr)
2
,

1
= tan
1
4m
1 +m
2
,
2
= tan
1
(4),

3
= tan
1
(4k
2
),
4
= tan
1
4
Pr
.
413
J. C. Umavathi, A. J. Chamkha, A. Mateen, A. Al-Mudhaf
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